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📦 | Japan-US "XNUMX + XNUMX" to be held online The Prime Minister's willingness to visit the United States is also "quite strict"


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Japan-US "XNUMX + XNUMX" to be held online The Prime Minister's willingness to visit the United States is also "quite strict"

 
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However, Foreign Minister Hayashi is making adjustments to the last minute to attend the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty = NPT Review Conference to be held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from the 4th of next month.
 

The Foreign Affairs and Defense Ministerial Meeting "XNUMX + XNUMX" scheduled to be held in the United States on the XNUMXth of next month will be on due to the spread of the Omicron strain. → Continue reading

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Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons(Kakuheiki no Fukuku-san, English:Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Abbreviation:NPT[1]) Is for the purpose of nuclear disarmamentThe United States of America-People's Republic of China-United Kingdom-France-Russian FederationOther than 5 countriesnuclear weaponsProhibit possession ofTreatyIs. Abbreviation isNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty(Kakukaku Sanboushijoyaku) orNuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyIt is also called (Kakufuku Sanjoyaku).

Overview

This treaty was enacted by the government advocating the abolition of nuclear weapons and the nuclear weapons abolition movement group for the purpose of abolishing nuclear weapons.In addition to reducing nuclear weapons, nuclear-weapon states aim to curb the increase in nuclear-weapon states, that is, the proliferation of nuclear weapons, including the speculation of maintaining their military superiority over non-nuclear-weapon states.1963/ToUnited NationsAdopted in.After negotiations and discussions by related countries1968/Signed by the first 62 countries in1970/It came into effect in March.Commonly known asNPT systemAlso called. Since it was introduced with a 25-year deadline, it is the 25th year since it came into effect.1995/An NPT review / extension meeting was held in Japan, and it was decided to extend the treaty unconditionally and indefinitely.The number of treaty member countries has increased even after the adoption and entry into force, and as of February 2015, 2 countries have signed the treaty.[1].

Contents of the treaty

All member states in the treaty1967/1/1At the time ofnuclear weaponsCountry (=)1966/12/31By then, he had possessed nuclear weapons and was allowed to possess them.Nuclear powers)The United States of America-Russian Federation-United Kingdom,1992/RatifiedFranceとPeople's Republic of China5 countries[Annotation 1]And other member states (not held and not allowed)Non-nuclear possession country) (Article 9, Paragraph 3).OldSoviet Union(Nuclear possession country)Republics of the Soviet UnionMetベ ラ ル ー シ-ウクライナ-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euMoved nuclear weapons to Russia and joined as a non-nuclear-weapon state[1]..Not in a nuclear-weapon state, but possessed nuclear weapons[Annotation 2]Republic of South AfricaAbandoned nuclear weapons before joining the treaty and joined as a non-nuclear-weapon state in 1991.[1].

Regarding nuclear-weapon states, the transfer of nuclear weapons to other countries is prohibited (Article 1), and "duty to conduct nuclear disarmament negotiations in good faith" is stipulated for nuclear disarmament (Article 6).[1]..However, the United States and the Soviet Union have significantly increased their possession of nuclear weapons rather than fulfilling their "duty to conduct nuclear disarmament negotiations in good faith" due to the nuclear development competition.

Prohibiting the manufacture and acquisition of nuclear weapons for non-nuclear-weapon states (Article 2),International Atomic Energy AgencyMandatory to accept safeguards by the (IAEA),Nuclear power for peaceIt stipulates that the rights of the countries that have signed the treaty should be recognized (Article 4).It also stipulates that a meeting be held every five years to examine the operational status of the treaty (Article 5, Paragraph 8).

Review meeting

A meeting is held once every five years to confirm that member states are implementing the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation set by the NPT.

In 2000, the final document containing the "clear promise of nuclear abolition" was adopted, and in 2010, the final document containing the action plan including concrete measures for the abolition of nuclear weapons was adopted, while in 1980. The final document could not be adopted in 1990, 1995 and 2005.

In 1995, the 25-year treaty was extended indefinitely, and it was decided to hold an operational meeting every five years, with the abolition of nuclear weapons as the "ultimate goal" and the creation of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East. The resolution was adopted, and in 5 it could not show concrete measures against the alleged nuclear development of Iran and North Korea, and in 2005 there was disagreement over the Middle East nuclear-free zone concept.

The 2020 review meeting was scheduled for April 4-May 27 in New York, USA,New coronavirusDecided to postpone the review meeting for one year on March 2020, 3 due to the spread of the infection.[2]..However, the infection situation did not improve after that, and it was decided to postpone it for the fourth time at the end of 2021, and it is being considered to hold it in August 4.[3]

Nuclear-weapon states or suspected countries other than the "nuclear-weapon states" under this Convention

Member countries

Member states(I.e.Was suspected of developing nuclear weapons by the international community and occurred in 1991.Gulf WarDefeated by, and peace on the condition that weapons of mass destruction including nuclear weapons are destroyed and will not be developed in the future.UN Security Council Resolution 687Was accepted.However, in addition to the existence of a nuclear weapons development plan, there are problems such as the inability to confirm the disposal of biological and chemical weapons.[4].

It has also been a member of the NPT since 1970.(I.e.Is also believed to be developing nuclear weapons.

Non-member countries

Non-member countriesIndia-Pakistan-Israel-南 ス ー ダ ダThere are four countries.India and Pakistan have refused to ratify the treaty, claiming that it is an unequal treaty that grants the privilege of possession only to the five nuclear powers at the time of enactment and prohibits possession by other countries.

The Israeli government has neither affirmed nor denied possession of nuclear weapons, and remains silent on allegations.2010/9/3To the IAEAAmano YuyaThe Secretary-General said in a report that he had joined the treaty and asked Israel to undergo an IAEA inspection of all nuclear facilities.Israel has rejected this request.

South Sudan2011/It is a new nation that has just been established in Japan, and the system is not in place.

Withdrawal country

DPR KoreaIs a member country (especiallyThe United States of America) And the IAEA pointed out allegations of nuclear weapons development and opposed inspection requests1993/3/12Announced withdrawal[5]The following year, in 1994, he announced his withdrawal from the IAEA.United Nations Security CouncilIs now considering sanctions on North Korea.After that, the US and North Korea agreed that North Korea would stay at the NPT, and with the signature of Japan, the US and South Korea.KEDOWas launched.However, KEDO stopped supplying heavy oil because North Korea did not implement the agreement.In response, North Korea announced in January 2003 that it would withdraw from the NPT again.[6].

Obligation to negotiate nuclear disarmament

Article 6 requires States parties to "negotiate nuclear disarmament in good faith."However, the nuclear disarmament negotiations, implementation and achievements of five of the Contracting Parties were signed in 5, and then destroyed and expired by the United States in February 1987.Mid-range nuclear force abolition treaty(Confirmed the completion of disposal in 1991), signed in 1991First Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyLimited to (confirmed the completion of disposal in 2001), the total abolition of nuclear weapons has not been realized until now.

The purpose of nuclear powers is to reduce costs and possess nuclear weapons.oligopolySince the purpose is to perpetuate the fixed number of nuclear weapons, we are proceeding with the reduction of the quantity of nuclear weapons and the replacement of nuclear tests with computer simulations.

Reaching Critical Will's representative, Ray Atchison, violates Article 6's obligation to modernize and end investment in nuclear weapons, and all nuclear-weapon states will modernize their nuclear weapons and related facilities in the coming decades. Initiate or claim to have such a plan.He also said that the stance of nuclear-weapon states to strengthen their nuclear weapons while trying to curb nuclear proliferation is a double standard, betraying their promise to pursue a "world without nuclear weapons."[7].

またRyohei Murata(1930 --2010 Former Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs) also said, "Inequality treatyIs claimed. "[8].

January 2014マ ー シ ャ ル 諸島 共和国Has nine nuclear-weapon states for violating the Nuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyInternational Court of JusticeFiled a complaint with[9]..The five member countries (United States, People's Republic of China, United Kingdom, France, and Russian Federation) have not fulfilled their obligations to negotiate nuclear disarmament, and have announced that they will withdraw from the treaty with the three non-member countries (India, Pakistan, and Israel). It is the Marshall Islands' claim that North Korea, which has done so, should have the same obligation under customary international law, but does not fulfill it.[10].. In June, it was decided to enter into trials in the United Kingdom and India, which are accepting the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.[11].

Japan

Japan The1970/NPT in FebruarysignatureThen,1976/In 6 monthApprovedid. Positioning the NPT as the most important foundation for achieving international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, and the IAEA safeguards (""Nuclear power for peace"Agreement for realization)Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban TreatyIs the main pillar that supports the NPT system.[12].signatureIn doing so, the government notes that Article 10 of the treaty has the right to withdraw when it finds it to jeopardize its own interests. As long as it is a thing, during this timeUS-Japan Security TreatyIs a prerequisite for Japan's accession to the treaty. ”“ If Japan's security is jeopardized, such as when the Japan-US Security Treaty is abolished, it is natural that Japan can withdraw under Article XNUMX of the treaty. ” Was[13].

There are various processes leading up to ratification of the NPT.conflictOn November 1974, 11Yasuhiro NakasoneMinister of International Trade and Industry(At that time) is in JapanUnited States Secretary of StateHenry KissingerOn the other hand, in relation to the self-control of the United States and the Soviet Union,The US and the Soviet Union use nuclear weapons in non-nuclear countries,nuclear weaponsCan you promise not to threaten me withWhen asked[14]Kissinger said, "The Soviet Union has more troops than European countries, and China has more troops than its neighbors. Without nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union can overrun Europe with conventional troops, as does China." While showing, he rejected Nakasone's request, expressing concern that if the United States abandoned its use of nuclear weapons in non-nuclear nations, it would not be available to its Soviet Union's Eastern European allies.[14][Annotation 3].

2009/5/5,United Nations Headquarters BuildingTo the preparatory committee of the NPT Review Conference held inTadashi AkibaHiroshima MayorとTomihisa TagamiMayor of NagasakiAttend.Mayor Akiba urged the abolition of nuclear weapons by 2020 and called on governments to take immediate action to abolish nuclear weapons.[15]..Mayor Taue is from the United States.Barack ObamaAdvocated by the presidentWorld Nuclear Security SummitRequested to open in Nagasaki[16](But this wish was not fulfilled).

2022/Russia's invasion of Ukraine triggered the LDP's invasionHiroshige Seko"We should discuss nuclear sharing, and if we do not share nuclear weapons, we should discuss other means of dealing with the harsh surroundings."Japan Restoration PartyAlso tuned in.[17].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ These five countriesUnited Nations Security Council Permanent Member States.
  2. ^ It means that he has possessed nuclear weapons since January 1967, 1.
  3. ^ The content of this meeting was in 2008 (Heisei 20), a visiting professor at Waseda University.Haruo Mikio FordIt is recorded in the record confirmed by the Presidential Library[14].

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e Overview of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)Ministry of Foreign Affairs June 2015
  2. ^ “NPT meeting postponed for up to one year” Nuclear disarmament debate at the United Nations “Sorry”. Asahi Shimbun digital(July 2020, 3). https://www.asahi.com/articles/DA3S14421459.html? 
  3. ^ "NPT Review Conference, postponed for the fourth time to consider holding in August 22”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 12). 2022/1/29Browse.
  4. ^ Weapons of mass destruction in Iraq (reference)Ministry of Foreign Affairs June 2003
  5. ^ Today's history (February 3) Union News 2009/03/12
  6. ^ Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO)Ministry of Foreign Affairs June 2006
  7. ^ Double standard for nuclear powersNuclear Abolition News and Analysis. Translated by NPO Interpress Service Japan
  8. ^ "Ryohei Murata Recollection Vol. 2008" Minerva Shobo, 212, p. XNUMX
  9. ^ Asahi Shimbun, April 2014, 4, morning edition, "Disarmament, Nine Nuclear Powers Sued Marshall Islands" (Electronic version).
  10. ^ "Shimbun Akahata" Sunday edition, August 2014, 8, "The island was a nuclear test site. A nuclear-weapon state is sued. Ambassador to Japan Tom Kijiner talks."
  11. ^ "Mainichi Shimbun" morning edition dated June 2014, 6 "Marshall Islands: Nuclear disarmament proceedings, international judiciary to enter trial, order to submit documents to Britain and India".
  12. ^ Japanese disarmament and non-proliferation diplomacy(Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  13. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs investigation report on documents, etc. taken up in the "Japan seeking" nuclear "" report Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  14. ^ a b c "Explore'advanced use of nuclear weapons': Former Prime Minister Sato proposed, US rejected" (Asahi Shimbun, March 2016, 3 Issue 14/1)
  15. ^ "Nuclear weapons can be eliminated" Obama statement supported by the majority Mayor Akiba and others appeal at the NPT Preparatory CommitteeChugoku Shimbun Hiroshima Peace Media Center May 2009, 5
  16. ^ Tomihisa Taue, Mayor of Nagasaki's Speech NPT Review Conference (PDF) Nagasaki
  17. ^ Liberal Democratic Party, Nuclear Sharing "Needs Discussion" Restoration Conformity, Ritsu and Kyo Opposite Newsletter May 2022, 3

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