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🌐 | [Breaking News] Ibaraki Prefectural Police arrested three men suspected of illegally uploading Gundam movies to the Internet

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[Breaking news] Ibaraki Prefectural Police arrested three men suspected of illegally uploading Gundam movies to the Internet

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The alleged arrest was from June 6th to 14th, connecting a computer with the work information of the anime movie "Mobile Suit Gundam: Hathaway of the Flash" copyrighted by "Sunrise" (Tokyo) to the net. , Launched file sharing software, made the movie publicly available to an unspecified number of users, and suspected of infringing the company's copyright.

Ibaraki Prefectural Police Hitachinaka Station, Hitachi Station, Furukawa Station and Prefectural Police Cyber ​​... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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broadcast(Hoso,British: broadcasting) Isradio,televisionUsingprogram,情报To convey[1].

voice-Image-TextInformation expressed by etc. and programs composed by it,Electromagnetic waveby媒体(Media) Etc.One-to-manyIn the formSENDIt is to be. Broadcasting is face-to-facecommunicationNot because it’s communication between remote areas,communicationIncluded in (Telecommunications). Telecommunication is "one-to-one" when classified by focusing on the number (as is communication in general).Point to point) And "one-to-many", but broadcasting can be classified into the latter "one-to-many" telecommunications, and is particularly unspecified because it deals with a large number of people (the mass mass in English).Mass communicationIs. In addition, communication is sometimes classified into “two-way communication” and “one-way communication”, but in that sense, broadcasting is basically the latter “one-way communication”.[Note 1]

Together with the broadcasting entity and its equipmentBroadcasterIt is called (hosokyo).

Broadcasting businessNational broadcasting,Public broadcasting,Private broadcastingare categorized. In the UKBritish Broadcasting Corporation(BBC) is public broadcasting. Although there is no national broadcast in Japan,US Army in JapanBy the operation ofAFNThere is. For public broadcastingJapan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) andOUJ AcademyIs equivalent to

The views of NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute[2]According to the report, "broadcasting" may refer to television broadcasting or a movie broadcasting, and the range is not clear, and in most cases, it can be expressed by the term "broadcast on television". Therefore, in principle, "broadcast" is used in broadcasting and "broadcasting" is not used.



World War IIs over in AmericarecordBecame popular and was used by the militarywirelessRestrictions have been lifted, and radio manufacturers and record manufacturers are planning to broadcast[3].PennsylvaniaIn PittsburghWestinghouseTechnician of an electric manufacturing companyFrank ConradExperimental station of 8XK became the mother,1920 May 11, The world's first commercial broadcasting station KDKAWarren HardingReported the election of the president[3].. However, in realityAmateur radioHad already had a small broadcast run by[3].

The American broadcast business isRadio broadcastBy the receiverSales, And the music played on the broadcastrecordWas run by the sales of[3].. However, when the broadcast started, the record had only about 3 minutes of recording time, and it became a style that commercial advertisements entered at the timing of exchanging records.[3].

After that, in the United StatesBroadcasterWas established, and it was connected to form a commercial network.[3].

United Kingdom

When a large number of broadcasting stations are established in the United States, there is concern that cheap receivers due to mass production will flow from the United States within the British government, and as many as in the United States in the small country of the United Kingdom, there are concerns. It was thought that it would be preferable to have a license system led by the government, because it was expected that business difficulties would fall if the broadcasting stations of[4].

1922 ,etcBritish GovernmentIn response toBritish Broadcasting Corporation(with the BBC), and the British government has patented a collection fee for the BBC to stabilize the business.[4].

United States broadcast

British broadcast

British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC)2034 AimTransmission lineIs considering moving to the Internet and returning (stopping) terrestrial broadcasting radio waves.[5] .

For the time being, see below.

French broadcast

For the time being, see below.



In Japan, there was "" as the regulation that regulated the broadcasting business. Instead of the same rules,1950 (Showa 25)Broadcasting lawWas newly established and promulgated.

Definition by law

According to the broadcasting law,publicTelecommunication transmission intended to be received directly by" (Broadcasting Law, Article 2). (By the way, "Telecommunications"Is a concept that does not apply in the English-speaking world, and is an administrative term in Japan (and some countries in Asia). )

Broadcast according to law

Classification by law

GroundslawAre classified as follows. Generally speaking, when we say "broadcast",Broadcasting law(Hereinafter, abbreviated as "law.") Refers to broadcasting based on.

Classification by broadcasting law
  • Broadcast-intended to be received directly by the publicTelecommunicationsSending (Act Article 2 Item 1)
    • Core broadcasting - Radio ActBroadcast according to regulationsRadio stationBe assigned exclusively or preferentially tofrequency OfRadio waveBroadcast using (Article 2 No. 2 of the Act)
      • Satellite backbone broadcasting- Artificial satellite OfBroadcasterBasic broadcasting performed by using (Article 2 No. 13 of the Act)
      • Terrestrial basic broadcasting for mobile reception-Basic broadcasting intended to be received by a receiving facility for use by being installed in a vehicle or other moving thing on land or being carried, other than satellite basic broadcasting. Things (Law Article 2, Item 14)
      • Terrestrial backbone broadcasting-backbone broadcasting other than satellite backbone broadcasting and terrestrial backbone broadcasting for mobile reception (Law Article 2, Item 15)
    • General broadcasting-Broadcasts other than backbone broadcasting (Law Article 2, item 3)
      • Satellite general broadcasting- Satellite station,Satellite backbone broadcasting test station, And basic satellite broadcastingPractical testing stationGeneral broadcasting (Broadcast Law Enforcement Regulations(Hereafter, abbreviated as "Enforcement Regulations".) Article 2, item 3)
      • Wired general broadcasting-general broadcasting that is performed using wired telecommunications (Enforcement Regulations Article 2 No. 4)
        • Cable television broadcasting-Cable general broadcasting by television (Enforcement Regulations Article 2 No. 5)
        • (Cable general broadcasting other than cable television broadcasting-no definition provided)
      • General terrestrial broadcasting-General broadcasting other than satellite general broadcasting and wired general broadcasting (Enforcement Regulations Article 2 No. 4-2)
Copyright lawClassification by
  • Broadcast- Public transmissionOf these, the transmission of wireless communication for the purpose of receiving the same transmissions by the public at the same time (Act Article 2, Item 8)
  • Wired broadcasting-Among public transmissions, transmission of wired telecommunications for the purpose of receiving the same transmission by the public at the same time (Act Article 2 No. 9-2)

ConsonantIsOriginal mama

Broadcast status

News (Chinese)-magazineOther such asMediaCompared with, broadcasting is given a special position. One of the reasons is that "the finiteness of radio waves (the frequency band of radio waves that can be used is limited)." In addition, broadcasting is a medium that conveys information by audio (including video if it is a television),Live broadcast-Since it can be broadcast live, it has immediate effect. Therefore, broadcasting is considered to have a particularly strong influence on the public's ideas, public opinion, and personality formation, compared to other media. Therefore, considering the neutrality of broadcasting and the healthy development of young people,Public welfareIt is said that it is necessary to utilize this for. Therefore, the broadcasting business is regulated by the broadcasting law,Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications(BeforeMinistry of Post) Assigns frequencylicenseIt was a business (permitting matter), and it was said that the broadcasting business should not be carried out without permission.However,2010 The Broadcasting Law was amended by the 22 Law No. 22 (enforced on June 65, 23) of (6), and a person who has a license of a broadcasting station runs a broadcasting business by himself / herself.Core broadcaster, Below#Broadcasts not covered by broadcasting lawsIn addition, the authorized backbone broadcaster is certified by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications.[6],General broadcasterIs the registration of the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications[7]Or notification to the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications or the prefectural governor[8]It became possible to carry out broadcasting services.

IncidentallyAmericaThen it is a notification system[Source required].

Broadcast system

Broadcasting system refers to a group of broadcasting stations that can simultaneously broadcast the same broadcasting program (Article 2-2, paragraph 2, item 3 of the Act).

Broadcast target area

A certain area where it is considered that it is possible to receive the basic broadcast of the same broadcast program at the same time (Act Article 91, paragraph 2, item 2).Core broadcasting diffusion planByBroadcast systemIt is set for each.

Broadcasters who do not cover part of the broadcast area

Broadcastbusiness personTheBroadcasterSay. Among them, in Article 92 of the Broadcasting Act, "Specified backbone broadcasters, andCore broadcasting station providerShall endeavor to receive all the broadcasts in the broadcast target area related to the core broadcasts performed using the core broadcast station. "The main broadcasters who have not achieved this regulation due to flying land, terrain restrictions, physical restrictions, etc. are as follows († isHeisei New Bureau).

Most of the Heisei New Bureaus have not achieved the regulations.In addition, due to lack of funds, the Heisei new station could not be installed so many due to the development of relay stations for terrestrial digital broadcasting after 2006, and CS retransmission and CS retransmissionIP broadcastThere was a broadcasting station to consider leaving it to, but with the support of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications and local municipalities (subsiding a part of the construction cost), it will be installed in the same number as the starting station including the analog undeveloped area. It is being advanced. On the contrary, radio waves may be flying outside the broadcast area (Spilloverphenomenon. In case of IP broadcasting, there is a possibility that it will be possible to receive from all over the country according to the method). Depending on the electric field strength of digital broadcasting, there is a possibility that digital reception will be possible clearly even in a difficult-to-view state in analog. Regarding radio (AM/FM/short wave) broadcasting, even in FM stations other than the above, many remote areas such as mountains are often deaf or inaudible. In the case of AM, the transmission tower itself becomes high due to the wavelength due to the installation of the transmitting station/relay station, and it is vast due to the installation of wires to support the high tower.landHowever, because of the need for a large number of relay stations, it is often the case that the entire broadcasting target area cannot be covered, especially for commercial broadcasts, while existing spillover stations, mainly high-power stations, are experiencing spillover. Since there are many relay stations, the existing parent station/relay station has the problem of further expanding spillover, so there are few cases in which it can be implemented.

Broadcast area

Areas related to the broadcasting of the primary broadcasting station. Generally speaking, it is an area (strong/medium electric field area) where it is expected that standard reception equipment can receive broadcasting well.Electric field strengthIs determined mechanically by. These are Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications ordersFundamental criteria for opening a core broadcasting stationIt is prescribed in Article 2, Paragraph 1, Item 15. Broadcast target areaBroadcast systemThe broadcast area is determined for each wireless station (transmission station), while the broadcast area is determined for each wireless station. For exampleTerrestrial analog television broadcastingIn the case of, the area where the electric field strength is 3 mV/m (70 dBµ) or more,Terrestrial digital television broadcastingIn the case of, the area where the ground wave electric field strength is 1 mV/m (60 dBµ) or more is the broadcasting area. For UHF TV broadcasting, analog broadcasting has a height of 4 m above the ground, and digital broadcasting has a height of 10 m above the ground, with UHF of 14 to 20 elements.Yagi/Uda AntennaThis corresponds to the range that can be received when is installed. On mobile terminals1-segment broadcastingIn the case of reception, it will be received at a height of less than 10 m above the ground, so reception is not possible even within the broadcasting area if the electric field strength is weak during reception. On the contrary, it is often easy to receive outside the broadcasting area depending on the environment. In case of terrestrial FM broadcasting/TV broadcasting,Parastack antenna(There was a drawback that it was difficult to install and maintain the antenna due to its large size, but recently, to make it easier to install and maintain, a small antenna that can receive long distances (Mass production"LS14TMH",DX antenna"UBL-62DA",Yagi antenna"US-LD14CR" etc.) has been released. The analog broadcasting is more than 4m above the ground, and the digital broadcasting is 10m above the ground by being installed at a height outside the broadcasting area (weak electric field area). In some cases between the antenna and the receiverReceive boosterAttach.

Foreign capital restrictions on broadcasters

Considering that broadcasting is a powerful media,Core broadcaster,CertificationBroadcasting holding companyAndCore broadcasting station providerToForeign capital regulationIs provided.

  • Specific terrestrial backbone broadcaster - ForeignerExecute the businessBoard MemberRestricted from assuming office and having one-fifth or more voting rights (Article 5 Clause 1 of the Radio Law).
  • Certified backbone broadcaster -Restrict foreigners from assuming office as executive officers. In addition, authorized terrestrial backbone broadcasters are restricted from holding more than one-fifth voting rights (Article 5, Paragraph 1, Item 93 of the Act).
  • Certified Broadcasting Holding Company-Restricting foreigners from assuming office as executive officers and holding one-fifth or more voting rights (Article 5, Paragraph 1, Item 159 of the Act)
  • Core broadcasting station providers-Restricting foreigners from becoming representatives, occupying more than one-third of officers, and holding one-third or more voting rights (Article 3 of the Radio Law) (Section 1, the same regulations as ordinary radio stations).

The Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications will give an order for improvement or cancellation of the radio station license under Article 75, Paragraph 1 of the Radio Act to the specified ground-based backbone broadcasters or backbone broadcaster providers that conflict with this.Must be disposed of.. However, during the remaining period of the wireless station license, consider the situation and license the license.Can not be canceled(Article 75, Paragraph 2 of the Radio Law) Therefore, even if it conflicts, it is not always canceled (of course, the license cannot be renewed under the circumstances).

Similarly, the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications will approve authorized core broadcasters and authorized broadcast holding companies that have conflicted with this.Can be canceled(Act Article 104, Article 166 Paragraph 1, Item 1).

As a defensive measure to prevent these,stockIs allowed to refuse the transfer request (Article 116, Article 125, Article 161 of the Act).

Still moreGeneral broadcasterThere is no such provision, and unless you are also concurrently operating a core broadcasting business or you have a wireless station license, you will be subject to cancellation of business registration or suspension of business due to foreign capital control. There is no.

Broadcasts not covered by broadcasting laws


Speakers installed in buildings, offices, etc. are used for contacting and calling by broadcasting all at once by using wired or in some cases wireless communication equipment. These are also included in the definition of general broadcasting under the Broadcast Law,Reception obstacle measures relay broadcast,Weak power wireless communication equipment(wireless microphoneEtc.), self-employed wired telecommunications equipment that is completed on a single campus (premise broadcasting) and similar wired telecommunications equipment in vehicles, ships and aircraft (In-car broadcastingEtc.), Wired general broadcasting performed by wired telecommunications equipment with 50 or less service terminals (all of which are simultaneous rebroadcasting or joint listening services, and other similar types, which are otherwise announced by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications. ) Etc. are exempt from the broadcasting law in principle, and registration/notification procedures under the broadcasting law are not required.[11].

However, pay broadcasting services andObligation to conclude an association broadcasting contractFor example, if there is an “exclusion of exclusion” clause in the Broadcasting Act or government ordinance or technical standards based on it,Wired Telecommunications ActWired telecommunication equipment in,Fire Service ActIt should be noted that there are cases where regulations or standards are set by other laws such as emergency broadcasting facilities in. Also,Reception obstacle measures relay broadcastFor, in addition to requiring a radio station license based on the Radio Law,Core broadcasting diffusion planSubject to some provisions of broadcasting law such as[12].

In addition, the radio broadcast (AFN) by the US Army in Japan is based onUS-Japan Status AgreementAccording to the provisions in.

School broadcast

primary school,Junior high school,high schoolSuch asDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularIs equipped with broadcasting facilities for the school. This is used by children, students and teachers to contact all students at the school. This is called school broadcasting. For convenience, it may also be used to call or contact specific students using the facility. Generally as a child, student committee activityBroadcasting CommitteeAnd organizations similar to it are established to help children and students who belong to these organizations.Broadcast CommitteeSay. The broadcasting committee prepares broadcasting facilities for all school morning assemblies, so-called lunchtime broadcasts during lunch breaks, broadcasts that inform the school leaving time, and broadcasts of school events such as athletic meet. In a well-equipped school, it may be possible to do something like a TV broadcast (video distribution to each classroom in the school) inside the school. Based on these in-school broadcasting, as a place for practicing media literacy for junior and senior high school students, compete for announcements, readings, radio and TV program technologies, etc.NHK Cup National High School Broadcasting ContestAndNHK Cup National Junior High School Broadcasting ContestIs being held.

Related item


Broadcast system, etc.

Disaster related


Ubiquitous network

Wired system

Mass communication and broadcast ethics

Production related



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It is too unidirectional, lacks interactivity, and is far from mutual understanding, so as to make up for the major drawback/weakness of being "unidirectional" (one-sided, viewers cannot make equal calls). For example, on the radio we have been introducing "letters from listeners" for a long time, by connecting the studio and the listener by telephone and broadcasting the conversation in real time, on television we invite the viewers to the studio and appear. Then, efforts are being made (partly) to send tweets from Twitter to the bottom of the TV screen (almost in real time by TV station staff). Nevertheless, broadcasting is basically classified as "one-way communication" when it is classified academically.


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute»NHK Online, October 2000, 10
  3. ^ a b c d e f Mariko Hara, Tetsuya Shibayama, "Public Broadcast BBC Research"Minerva Shobo, 2011, page 38
  4. ^ a b Mariko Hara, Tetsuya Shibayama, "Public Broadcast BBC Research"Minerva Shobo, 2011, page 39
  5. ^ Yasushi Uchida (November 2019, 11). “Delay is no longer the same as terrestrial digital broadcasting, and behind the discussion of "NHK simultaneous distribution, BBC radio wave return", rapid evolution of video distribution (paid article)". Nikkei Cross Tech. 2021/8/26Browse.
  6. ^ Broadcasting Law, Article 93, Paragraph 1.
  7. ^ Broadcasting Law, Article 126, Paragraph 1.
  8. ^ Broadcasting Law, Article 133, Paragraph 1.
  9. ^ 7 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 52 Broadcasting area of ​​broadcasting stations performing foreign language broadcasting among ultra-high frequency broadcasting conducted by general broadcasting companies(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Homepage Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Law)
  10. ^ Basic Broadcasting Promotion Plan (Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 63)(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications radio wave homepage)
  11. ^ Broadcasting Law, Article 176, Paragraph 1, Broadcasting Law Enforcement Regulation, Article 214, Paragraph 1.
  12. ^ Broadcasting Law, Article 176, Paragraphs 2 and 3.
  13. ^ "Ura of Nippon that doctor does not know] 30 "Super Genius Dr. Tomitochi Hideto's "Brainwash" Secret: Tomotochi Hideto"

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