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Japanese movie(Japanese) is generallyJapandomesticMovie theaterAssuming that it will be published onJapanese nationalityOr those who haveJapanese domestic lawbased onCorporation Investment(Production)doingmoviesHowever, the detailed definition isExpertDepends oncountrypaintingAlso called (better).Also, movies are different depending on the times.Activity photo,Kinema, Also called cinema.
Thomas edisonBy1891 Invented inKinetoscopeIs the origin of the world-famous film, but it was the first to be screened in Japan.1896 November is the year when the film, which was at the forefront of Western technology at the time, arrived.As a movie shoot by Japanese1898 OfShiro AsanoBegins with the short films "Ghost Jizo" and "Revival of the Dead". From here to the present day, Japanese films have been strongly influenced by Japanese culture, have achieved their own development, and have been positioned as one of Japan's leading popular entertainment.
Japanese moviesGenreIt is difficult to clearly define asJapanesedirected byBy JapaneseAn actorIn JapanphotographAnd in JapanReleaseToJapaneseUnder the condition of "movies", those that meet some of them are generally called Japanese movies... For this reason,"Honoka Aboy] Etc.LocationMovies andFrance OfcapitalBased onAkira Kurosawa,Oshima NagisaFilmed byYoichi Sai,LeeSuch asKoreans in JapanSome films, such as those directed by the director, are recognized as Japanese films even if they do not meet all the conditions.
Foreign movies (Western painting) Has a name in the sense of a Japanese movie,Market OfBorderlessProduction, production, etc.distributionIn today's world, where multinationalization is becoming more common, the strict definition of a genre is becoming almost meaningless.
JapanNaturally in the background that the movie could be a Japanese movieJapanese cultureThe influence of is present.Japan is rare in the world when movies arrive in JapanLiteracy rateProud of, from popular reading materialNews (Chinese),Children's bookAnd so onbook Common peopleWas familiar to me.It also has a much longer history than movieskabuki,Ningyo JoruriThe influence of traditional plays such as these on Japanese films is immeasurable. This can be seen from the fact that movie theaters are still called theaters today.
Also earlySilent movieIn the era, at the screeningBentoThere was an explainer of the film called, but the system of enjoying the sound separated from the video, and the sophisticated narrative technique called oral dance, have already started with Ningyo Joruri.theaterIt is said that it has been established in Japan and has been easily accepted by Japanese people and has achieved its own development. For the common people, who acts as a benshi is also an important criterion for watching a movie, and movies played by a flower-shaped benshi have become popular as a whole. Silent movies refer to movies with only voiceless images, but it can be said that there was no true silent movie in Japanese movies..
While trying to sublimate Japanese culture into movies and give it a Japanese-style feel, many Japanese movies have been born in which foreign cultures and materials are chewed and mixed in a Japanese style.Jack fedeeof"Mimosa buildingInspired bySadao Yamanakaof"Humanity and paper balloons] OrWilliam Shakespeareof"Lear KingIs based on Akira Kurosawa's "Remorse] Etc. correspond to it.
The first movie screening in Japan was due to being a gun merchant1896 January,KobeIt started at the Shinko Club. this isThomas edison OfKinetoscopeIt is due to.Lumiere brothers OfCinematographScreen screening by1897 In 1 monthKatsutaro InabataByKyoto lightThe head office of the corporation at that time (currentFormer Rissei Elementary SchoolIt was held for the first time in the courtyard of the site). continue1897 In February, the first "paid screening" was held in Osaka by Katsutaro Inabata.In March of the same year, the kinetoscope was improved in Tokyo.VitascopeWas released and gained popularity.Junichiro TanizakiIn his book "Childhood," he describes it as "a film that connects both ends of a volume of film so that the same scene can be projected over and over again."
after thatShiro AsanoSeveral short films were made by the film, and in 1898, the first film was made in Japan.
In 1898, the previously mentioned "Ghost Jizo" and "Revival of the Dead" were released the following.1899 "Geisha's Hand Dance" (TokyoKabukiza) Has been released. This is the Konica Main Store (later Konica Roku Photo Industry, nowKonica Minolta) Shiro AsanoGormonTurf with a camera made by the companyMomijikanTake a live-action shot withYoshihiro KomadaIt was opened to the public by "" led by. In the same year, the first 1-foot feature film in Japan, "Pistol robber Sadayoshi ShimizuWas filmed by Koyō Komada as Japan's first movie actorNew school OfYokoyama UnheiWas appointed. Unlike the Shinpa who actively tried to come into contact with the movie, Kabuki and others despised the movie as a "mud play" and hesitated to provide the original work and actors... The oldest surviving Japanese movie is Momijigari, which was shot in the same year.
1903 ToYoshizawa store AsakusaJapan's first movie museum "Electric buildingWas installed. Next time1904 ToRusso-Japanese WarWhen the movie broke out, a live-action filming team was dispatched to the local mainland China, and the film was screened as a documentary film, gaining popularity.
1908 Was announced inHonnoji BattleIs the first full-scale feature film,Yokota ShokaiI took this work at the request ofShozo MakinoHas left his name as Japan's first film director.京都ToJoruriMakino, who owned a hut and was active as a Kyogen artist, memorized Joruri used in the original work in the sky, so it is said that he shot without using a script. In the next yearkabukiActor'sMatsunosuke Onoe"Matsunosuke Onoe" starring was a big hit, and Japan's first star was born as "Matsunosuke Onoe". Since then, Onoe has starred in over a thousand movies in his 14-year career as an actor. Above all1910 Taken in "Chushingura』Continued to Joruri and Kabuki, and continued to be popular with the general public as an indispensable subject in subsequent Japanese films. Later, Makino was praised for his achievements and was an American film director.D.W.GriffithHas been given the title of Griffith Makino by.
1912 , Yokota Shokai, Yoshizawa Shoten,M. Pathe Shokai-Fukuhodo4 movie companiesTrust joint, Nikkatsu Photo Co., Ltd., abbreviationNikkatsuWas launched. Nikkatsu became Japan's first full-scale movie company, which set it apart from the conventional small-scale production of cottage industries. TokyoMukaijima OfMukojima Studio,KyotoNijo CastleUnder the west turretKansai studioIn Tokyo, Shinpa (later contemporary drama) and in Kyoto, old drama (later)Historical drama) Was produced.
Many of the films so far have only reproduced theatrical productions, and it was not until the late 1910s that unique techniques were tried as films.Masao Inoue 1917 Made toCaptain's daughter] InClose-upAndCut backTechniques such as have been introduced. Around this time, the name gradually changed from "activity photography" to "movie", and by around 1922, the word "movie" had become deeply ingrained in the general public.
On the other hand, in film criticism, Yoshizawa Shoten1909 There was already the first movie magazine "Activity Photography World" announced in1917 ToKiyoshi YamazakiPublished a theory book entitled "Creation and Photography of Activity Photography"1918 Is a Japanese movie modernization movement "Pure Film Movement"Happens.Film Arts AssociationIn the same book, Kiyama, who presided over, explained that the movie should not be an imitation of theater, and named the stage script as a scenario, the onnagata as an actress, and the benshi as subtitles. Japan's first actress in the work of returning to the mountainKayanagi HarumiUsing "Raw radiance』, Japan's first femaleNude sceneThere is "" which was taken.
In the background, the end of World War I,HollywoodThe influence of the movie companies gradually expanding into Japan cannot be denied. To match these movementsNational activity,Great activityMovie companies such as were established one after another,1920 Had Kabuki as its main businessShochiku Shochiku Kinema Partnership CompanyWas established and started production. Especially the actor training center built by Shochiku is in HollywoodStar systemAdopted, "Souls on the road"ofYurikoAnd "Gubijinso"ofKurishima SumikoAnd produced many actresses. Also, an active Hollywood cameraman called by Shochiku,Henry KotaniHas a great influence. He isReflectorThe episode of filming with brilliant use symbolized the ideal way of film as a new art and media as a product, going one step further from the stage where Japan simply projected the film.
This Pure Film Movement1923 OfGreat Kanto EarthquakeThen, all the studios in Tokyo that were producing contemporary drama films were destroyed, and the situation was such that only filming was done in Kyoto, the center of the old drama, and the sudden end was reached.1926 Upon entering, the contemporary drama by Shochiku began in earnest.Kiyohiko Ushihara"He and Tokyo" (1928), "King of the Land" (1928), and other urban-style contemporary dramas that portray ordinary ordinary people in life size. Also,Gosho Hiranosuke"Village Bride" (1928) and "Dancer of Izu(1933), pastoral and lyrical works set in the countryside have also appeared.Ernst RubichWas strongly influenced byYasujiro OzuIs "I'm out of college(1929), "I Flunked, But" (1930), and many other works packed with views of life with the common people as the main characters.
Nikkatsu, who was behind the movement of Shochiku, finally made the transition from a female figure to an actress after the closure of the Mukojima studio due to the 1923 earthquake. The following year, the suburbs of KyotoToei Kyoto"Nikkatsu Uzumasa Studio"(AfterDaiei Kyoto Studio) Is opened. Also known as the representative of Nikkatsu contemporary dramaKenji MizoguchiMade full use of the photography techniques he learned in Hollywood, and tried various genres such as "" (1923), "" (1923), and "" (1926), laying the foundation.
On the other hand,Ministry of InteriorSecurity bureauActivity photo bycensorshipEtc. are also done,Kinugasa Sadanosukeof"Sunflower』(1925), etc., the intervention of the authorities entered the work, and it was forced to be extensively edited, and it was released after being revised and renamed, and there are many works that failed in the box office due to the influence of censorship. However, Kinugasa continued to work energetically after that, becoming Japan's first avant-garde movie "A page of madness(1926) and received high praise in Europe "crossroads(1928), the purpose and goals of the "Pure Film Movement" have been achieved.
If you turn your attention to the historical drama, the 1925-piece commemorative work "Araki Mataemon" (XNUMX) starring Onoe will be taken up, but it will be faster than the traditional style of slashing people by saying a relaxed speech. FierceSwordWas being sought after. We were the first to establish this styleBando TsuzumasaburoIsOro Blood』(1925) gained popularity. othersDenjiro Okochiby"Tange Sazen],Utaemon Ichikawaof"Hatamoto bored man],Hirotoro ArashiMany new historical dramas such as "Kurama Tengu" have appeared.
Golden age before the war
Attempts to add audio to the video were made almost at the same time as the movie was introduced, by synchronizing the rotation of the record with the rotation of the film in 1902.TalkieI am conducting an experiment. It was in 1927 that these attempts were in the commercial limelight. America'sLee de ForestThis is due to the purchase of the rights to talkie technology from.
Using Mina TorquayKaoru Oyamauchi"Dawn" by Japan was not released due to technical problems, and Japan's first talkie movie1929 of"Captain's daughter"Met. In the same year, I researched to adopt Eastphone Torquay, which is a different method from Mina Torquay, but in the end, it was my own.Disc type talkieでMakino MasahiroSupervised byReturn bridgeWas released.. Eastphone did not generally penetrate. After that, Kenji Mizoguchi wrote "Oldness(1930), but the so-called format that uses both subtitles and audio is common, and it first appeared as a complete talkie movie.Gosho Hiranosukeof"Madame and wife(1931).
Large, well-capitalized companies actively transitioned from silent films to talkie films during this era, with some exceptions.Yasujiro OzuSome people were skeptical of Torquay, like.. A complete transition was achieved in 1935, but financially difficult independent production companies continued to make silent films until around 1938. As a result, small studios are being absorbed by major movie companies one after another.
In addition, even after the silent film era ended, Benshi, who was supposed to survive as a commentary translation for overseas films, also wrote in 1931.モロッコWas adopted for the first time inSubtitles superWith the advent of, it became an unnecessary existence. Benshi, who tried to protect his vested interests, went out to obstruct the invasion of Torquay, but it was no longer possible to go against the times, and his existence was forgotten.
The emergence of these talkies has led to the emergence of new actors and the establishment of new genres. People who live in narrative arts such as rakugo and vocal cord copying began to appear on the screen.Kenichi Enomoto,Furukawa MidoriComedian actors such as, etc. have come to emerge. Also,"Aizen wig』, A movie that gained popularity through the popularity of the theme song has also appeared.
The advent of talkie films has led to the phenomenon of prolonged shooting periods. This triggered Nikkatsu in 1934.TamagawaShochiku in 1936Big shipThe studios were relocated and expanded to. As a characteristic of each, Nikkatsu was good at a heavy and muddy style, and Shochiku was good at a sophisticated urban style. As directors representing Nikkatsu, "" (1936) and "" (1939)Uchida Tomu,Solitude(1937),Abe clan』(1938)Hisatora KumagaiAs a director representing Shochiku,Our Neighbor Miss Yae』(1934)Yasujiro Shimazu,Aizen wig(1938),Only son』(1936)Nomura Hiromasa,Thank you(1936), "" (1937)Hiroshi ShimizuAnd so on. Kenji Mizoguchi, who questioned this series of styles, wrote in "Osaka Elegy" (1936), "Gion sisters(1936) and other dialect-based works, breaking down the existing concept of "movies must be Tokyo dialect."
Established in 1930PCLAnnounced its entry into the filmmaking industry since 1933.Akira Kurosawa,Honda Inoshiro,Shuzo Takiguchi,Well deepIt became the first company in Japan to adopt a producer system by gathering a large number of staff. InitiallySotoji Kimuraof"Kawamukai's youth(1933),Brother』(1936) and transferred from ShochikuNaruse Mikioof"Wife, Be Like a Rose(1935),Tamizo Ishida"Flowers Have Fallen" (1938) and others became popular. In particular, Naruse's "Wife! Be Like a Rose" has expanded overseas and became the first Japanese movie to be released to the public in New York. Initially, PCL did not own a distribution hall, which forced it to struggle in the box office.1937 ,Kobayashi Ichizo"Photochemical Research Institute" by the work of京都 OfOsawa ShokaiMovie studio "JO Studio"HankyuDistribution company by capital "Toho movie distribution, Etc.Toho movieAs a result, it became a major movie company following Nikkatsu and Shochiku.
1937, Japan and thenNazi GermanyA national film was produced with. Germany, which specializes in mountain moviesArnold FunkとItami MansakuProduced by the co-director of "Fresh soil]. Although he failed in the box office performance in Japan, he played Mitsuko Yamato, a typical Japanese woman as a leading actress.Setsuko HaraWas acclaimed for his appearance and acting, and became an indispensable actress in Japanese movies during the war.
Second World War(Pacific War) Has had a tremendous impact on the movie industry as well. In 1941 (Showa 16), it was the second largest production in the world after the United States at that time.[Source required]Japan, which produced more than 500 movies a year, produced only 1945 movies in 20 (Showa 26), and the influence can be seen.[By whom?].. In addition, it was established in 1939 (Showa 14).Movie lawAs a result, production and distribution will be permitted, directors and actors will be registered, and the works produced will also be registered.scriptAt the stagecensorshipEntered.
さ ら にABCD siege networkbyEconomic sanctionsWhen the film was activated, film imports from the United States ceased, domestic films were regarded as munitions, strict usage restrictions were imposed, and it became a life-and-death problem for the movie industry. Toho found a way out by actively engaging with the military in order to overcome these situations, but Nikkatsu found a way out in 1942 (Showa 17).Masakazu NagataLed bymergerGet caught up inDainippon MovieThen, the name of Nikkatsu disappeared. Many independent studios that existed before the war were closed and merged repeatedly, and the scale of the movie industry shrank rapidly, leaving only three companies, Toho, Shochiku, and Daiei.
Naturally, movies about war were mainly produced,Tomotaka TasakaIsFive scouts』(1938), took a work on the theme of trust on the battlefield,Venice International Film FestivalI won a prize.Emperor 2600CommemorativeYutaka Abeof"Burning sky』(1940)Live actionAs an aeronautical movie with an emphasis onArmy Aviation HeadquartersThe real thing under the supervision ofFighter,BomberWas used for shooting[Annotation 1].Kozaburo Yoshimura"" (1942) produced byA movie that appeals to the fighting spiritContinuesspyIt was a rare movie that appealed to the public. Also,Yoshimoto Yamamotoof"The War at Sea from Hawaii and Murray』(1942)Attack on Pearl HarborWas reproducedSpecial effectsResponsibleEiji TsuburayaElaborate byミ ニ チ ュ アCalled a topic,War godTateo KatoとFlight 64th SquadronWas drawnKato Hayabusa Squadron』(1944), with the full cooperation of the Army, the real thingFighterAnd bombers andAllied forces OfCatchingMany machines appeared, Tsuburaya's special effects and advancedSynthesisIt became a powerful work with technology.
Dodge strict censorship,Anti-warAs a director who produced a work that appeals toFumio KameiCan be mentioned. In "" (1937) and "" (1938), while ostensibly singing as a war-raising movie, the Japanese armyMarchIntentional images were shown, such as the facial expressions of the people staring at them and the exhausted soldiers on film. Subsequent work "Fighting Soldiers(1938) was banned from screening, and Kamei was arrested after being stripped of his license.
Also, for works that do not have the theme of war, works for absurd entertainment are uniformly prohibited.Hiroshi Inagakiof"Musashi MiyamotoAnd Kenji Mizoguchi's "Genroku Chushingura], Etc., a solemn epic work was produced.1940 eraAppeared in the first halfAkira KurosawaIsSanshiro』(1943) made its appearance. In 1945 (Showa 20)final battleThe production was being considered to call forJeanne d'Arc"Arahime-sama" based on the same yearJapan's defeatByEnter the warehouseHas become[Annotation 2].
In August 1937, one title such as "National Unity Government" and "Protect the Home Front" was inserted at the beginning of the movie... On December 1944, 12, ration sentenced 7 movie theaters (about 731%) to suspend distribution due to lack of raw film..
Japanese movies in foreign countries
Foreign landThe movie in Japan was regarded as an effective means for Japanifying the acquired land, and was actively screened.Taiwan,Korea,Manchuria,IndonesiaThe history of movies in each region is briefly described below.
Sino-Japanese warThe first movie screening was done in Taiwan, which was acquired by1901 Is. The first production was made in Taiwan1921 So, it was a food hygiene enlightenment movie called "Cholera". Also, in 1925, "Who no Kou" was produced by Taiwanese.
In the "Pure Film Movement" that started in Japan, the "frontier land" of Taiwan became a good subject.Masayoshi Edaof"Sorrowful song(1919),Tomotaka Tasaka"" (1927), "Blood stains" (1929),Taro AndoVarious works set in Taiwan, such as "" (1932), have been shot.
However, filmmaking by locals was not so active, and when the Taiwan Film Association was established in 1941 and management controls became stricter, that tendency continued until the end of the war.
1910 The movie in Korea that was annexed to1919 The "in-law debate" of Kintoyama, which was produced in Japan, was the starting point. The style strongly influenced by the Japanese Shinpa continued even after independence, and even after the expulsion of Japaneseism by government policy was called out, the influence of the Shinpa has not been dispelled and continues to the present day. Initially, the Japanese governmentYoon Baek-NanAs in Taiwan, he tried to educate and enlighten the movie, such as the movie "Oath of the Moon" (1923), but he had a strong desire to make a movie by himself, and was established by the Japanese after 1924.Korean KinemaIndependent studios were set up as if to compete with.
1926 ToNa Woon-gyuProduced byArirangPlayed an important role in the uplifting of nationalism. "Re-evaluation of the movie" Arirang "" (1997, Zhao Heiwen), etc.Shuichi TsumoriThere is also a theory that[Source required].. In addition,Golden yasha, Which was produced by Lee Gyu-Hwan's "Changgu Yume" (1926) and Lee Gyu-Hwan.Anti-Japan"The main ferry" (1932), which has a specific content, attracted a lot of attention. Also, the first talkie movie produced by Lee Myeong Woo,HarukadenIs1935 It has been remade many times since it first appeared in Korea, and has developed into one of the national films in Korea.
As Japan leaned toward militarism, strict censorship began to lay down and film production in Korea declined.1940 The movie law was enforced in Japan as in Japan.1942 All movie companies were closed inGovernor-General of KoreaWas established by. In this era, the main style was that Japanese directors used local staff to make movies.Eitaro Hinatsu"" (1941),Shiro Toyoda"" (1943),Tadashi Imai"" (1943) etc. was released.
1945 With the end of colonial rule, domestic filmmaking resumed, and the rush continued, starting with Choi In-Gyu's "Viva Freedom!" (1946). After that, in Korea1998 Until then, no Japanese films were officially shown.
Japan was founded in 1932ManchuriaThen in 1936Manchukuo Film Association(Manchukuo) was established and film production was carried out. At Manchukuo, movies aimed at enlightening Japanese culture and general feature films were produced, and some were brought to Japan. In 1940China night]Li Kalan(Yoshiko Yamaguchi) became a star because of her beauty, singing ability, and acting ability.
From around 1942, seeking free filmmaking,Sotoji Kimura,Uchida TomuJapanese movie directors are coming to Japan one after another. The whole storyRussianConsisted ofYasujiro Shimazuof"My 鶯(1943) and other free-spirited films were planned and produced.
When Manchuria collapsed in 1945, the facilities in ManchukuoSoviet UnionThe Manchukuo staff were scattered to Japan, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. in JapanKanichi Negishi,Makino MitsuoSuch a full-length withdrawal person was welcomed by such as, and laterToeiFormed the foundation of.
Kawakita merged a movie company in Shanghai in 1939.China FilmWas established. His works include "Manse Ryuho" (1943) starring Lee Kaoran, which was produced in collaboration with Manchukuo.
In 1945, most of the Chinese directors who made films with Japanese in Shanghai after Japan's defeatHong KongHe went into exile and later became the cornerstone of the development of the film industry in Hong Kong.
IndonesiaFilming by locals was banned, and enlightenment films by the Japanese military were mainly produced. In addition, several fake documentary films were produced to cover up the abuse of prisoners of war by the Japanese army.
The famous one was Eitaro Nikka in 1944.JakartaThere is "Calling Australia" made inAustraliaIt was sent to the Allied Forces as a video taken by a POW. Australia later gathered prisoners of war to produce a documentary accusating the falsehood of Calling Australia..
GHQ Occupation Era
In 1945, when Japan was defeated in World War II,GHQ (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers)Japan's indirect rule by Japan was started.Movies produced in Japan are a subordinate organization of GHQCIE (Civil Information and Educational Section)Will be managed by. This management system continued until 1952, and it was the first time in the Japanese film industry that management and control by foreign institutions were implemented. It was translated into English at the planning and scripting stages, and only those approved by CIE were produced. For exampleAkira Kurosawaof"Akatsuki no Destroy(1950) was originallyYoshiko Yamaguchi(Manchukuo Lee Kaoran) The work was about a Korean comfort woman starring, but due to dozens of censorships by the CIE, it has become a work that does not retain its original form... The finished filmCCD (Civil Censorship Depot)Was censored for the second time. This censorship was also carried out retroactively to past movie works..
Also, as part of the occupation policy, the issue of war responsibility spread to the film industry, and when wartime filmmaking began to call for the expulsion of war cooperators,Nagamasa Kawakita,Kanichi Negishi,Shiro KidoIn 1947, a person who was involved in a war-raising movie was banished from the movie world.However, as in the pursuit of other genres, the responsibility for war has been vaguely dealt with in the film industry, and the above measures were lifted in 1950.
Nationalism, patriotism, suicide and vengeance, and brutal violent films were banned from the production ban list promulgated by the CIE in 1945, making historical drama virtually impossible to produce. Due to this influence, actors who lived in historical drama will appear in contemporary drama.Chiezo Kataoka"Bannai Tarao",Bando Tsuzumasaburo"Ripped Taiko",Hiroshi Inagaki"Children holding hands, etc."Daisuke Ito"Ohsho" and so on.
Also recommended by GHQDemocracy praise workMany propaganda movies were produced as. inside thatAkira Kurosawaof"No regrets for my youth(1946),Kozaburo Yoshimuraof"A Ball at the Anjo Family(1947),Tadashi Imaiof"Blue mountains』And appeared inSetsuko HaraHas gained national popularity as a star symbolizing the dawn of a new Western era.Yasushi SasakiIn "Hatachi no Seishun" (1946), the first Japanese movie kiss scene was shot.
On November 1945, 11, the GHQ issued a "Memorandum of Understanding on the Directive on the Elimination of Non-Democratic Films." On November 16, 11 movies with transnational, militaristic, and feudal ideas were banned and incinerated..
On January 1946, 1, GHQ issued a "Memorandum of Understanding on Film Censorship" and began censorship by the Civil Censorship Division. August 28th, notice of ban on screening of documentary film "Japanese Tragedy".
Second golden age
1951 ToSan Francisco Peace TreatyWill be abolished the following year from GHQ movie censorship.As a result, the historical drama that had been banned from screening was revived, and a large number of movies were produced.Japanese film works such as Akira Kurosawa and Kenji Mizoguchi won awards one after another at the International Film Festival, and worked to restore Japan's cultural pride.In 1958, the movie population exceeded 11 billion.The film has become an immovable hall of fame for entertainment, and the second golden age in the film industry has arrived.
War movies restricted by GHQ began to be producedHideo Sekigawaof"Kike, the voice of Wadatsumi(1950), Tadashi Imai's "Himeyuri Monument(1953),Keisuke Kinoshitaof"Twenty-four eyes(1954),Ko Ichikawaof"Burmese lyre』(1956), not works that regarded war as a simple evil, but works aimed at the tragic and sentimental retrospective of the war experience appeared one after another, and became a social influence. In addition, "Battleship Yamato(1953) andPacific eagle(1953) and other nostalgic movies were also mass-produced. Under these circumstancesHirotoro Arashi Emperor MeijiPlayed "Emperor Meiji and the Great Russo-Japanese War』(1957) even appeared. It was a situation that was unthinkable before the war, the commercialization of the emperor, who was sacred and should not be invaded.
The international reputation of the movie has also risen, and in 1951 Akira Kurosawa wrote "Rashomon"soVenice International Film FestivalStarting with winning the Grand Prix, Kenji Mizoguchi wrote in 1952, "Nishitsuru first woman, 1953 "Rain moon story, 1954 "Daisho Sansho], Awarded for the third consecutive year. In 3, Kurosawa's "Seven SamuraiAlso won the Silver Lion Award at the Venice International Film Festival,Cannes International Film FestivalInKinugasa Sadanosukeof"Hell gateWon the Grand Prix, and the world was amazed at the film delivered from the countries of the Far East.
In addition to Toho, Shochiku, Nikkatsu, and Daiei, the mass production system for such movies was led by Toei, which showed rapid development. The trends of each company are as follows.
In order to force a mass production system for two new works, a short story in a serial drama format for children will be shown in a long film.Nakamura Kinnosuke,Chiyono HigashiAppearance of "New Country Story Fuebuki DojiSeries (1954, trilogy), "New Country Story Red Peacock』Series (1954-1955, pentalogy) is overwhelmingly received by children. Also,Utaemon Ichikawa,Chiezo Kataoka,Ryunosuke Tsukigata,Taro OtomoThe historical drama for adults that appeared is also activated. Kinnosuke Nakamura,Okawahashi warehouseAlong with the starring work, Toei establishes itself as a historical drama kingdom. Even in modern dramaToei New FaceFromHitomi Nakahara,Ken Takakura,Joh Mizuki,Ryoko Sakuma,Umemiya Tatsuo,Shinichi ChibaSuch asstarringス タ ーProduced.Tadashi Imaidirected by"Rice(1957),Pure love story』(Same as above) and other excellent and hit works of contemporary drama. Also in October 1958, Japan's first feature-length colorAnime movie"White snakeThe role as the ancestor of Japanese animated films, and the role of inviting the wide era of Japanese films with the introduction of Toei CinemaScope are also noteworthy.
Hisaya MorishigeAppearance of "Third-class executive], The salaryman series, Frankie Sakai appearancePresident series,Ekimae SeriesIs a big hit. It supported Toho's management.Tadashi Imaidirected by"until we meet again(1950), won the Grand Prix at the Venice International Film FestivalHiroshi Inagakidirected by"The life of lawless pine(1958),Naruse Mikiodirected by"Floating clouds(1955),Kihachi Okamotodirected by"Independent reliance(1959),Toho disputeWas temporarily away from TohoAkira KurosawaIs "live(1952), "Seven Samurai(1954),Hidden Fortress』(1958) was a big hit. Kurosawa started Kurosawa Productions in 1959 due to the huge production cost, but the partnership with Toho continued. In 1954, when "Seven Samurai" was also released, "GodzillaWas a great success,SeriesIt became a dollar box series that continued until 1975. Or later,Motoyoshi OdaDirector +Eiji TsuburayaSpecial effects director "Invisible Man(1954),Honda InoshiroDirector + Eiji Tsuburaya Special effects director "Beastman Yukio』(1955), and other special effects works to make a hit. The commemorative work of 1000 Toho movies is a special effects movie, directed by Hiroshi Inagaki + Eiji Tsuburaya special effects director "Birth of Japan(1959).
Director Hideo Ohba's "Your name is(1953-1954),Tadashi Imaidirected by"Cloudy(1953),Kiku and Isamu』(1959) and other literary works are big hits.Masaki Kobayashidirected by"Human condition(1959-1962) won the Prix de Saint-Georges and Pasinetti at the Venice International Film Festival. Furthermore, director Seiichi FukudaJunsaburo BanComedy works that Shochiku is good at, such as the appearance "", were also hit.Keisuke KinoshitaThe director says "Return to Carmen Hometown(1951),Japanese tragedy(1953),Twenty-four eyes"The Garden of Women" (1954), "You are like Nogiku(1955),Sun and roses(1956),Years of joy and sadness(1957),Narayama Setsu(1958), etc.Yasujiro OzuThe director also saidWheat autumn(1951),Early spring(1956),cluster amaryllis(1958),Tokyo Story』(1953) and so on.
Since the resumption of production in 1953Ko Ichikawadirected by"Burmese lyre』(1956) and other Bungei works. Because we cannot pull out stars from other companies due to the Five-Company AgreementYujiro Ishihara,Asahi Kobayashi,Ruriko Asaoka,Keiichiro Akagi,Shishido lock,Hideaki Futani,Tamio Kawachi,Kyosuke Machida,Koji WadaCreate your own star, such as for young peopleYouth movieAnd statelessnessAction movieWas produced and distributed. Among them, director Takumi Furukawa "Sun season(1956),Nakahira Yasushidirected by"Crazy fruit(1956),Umeji Inouedirected by"The man who calls the storm(1957),Tomotaka Tasakadirected by"Sunny slope],Kurahara Koreyoshidirected by"Wind speed 40 US』(1958) and other works starring Yujiro Ishihara prevail in the world.Yuzo Kawashimadirected byFrankie SakaiStarring "Bakumatsu sun legend』(1957) and other historic works.
As an actor from the 1950s to the early 1960sKazuo Hasegawa,Raizo Ichikawa, In the actressKyoko Machiko,Yamamoto Fujiko,Fumiko WakaoAnd more, exclusive to other companies and freeHideko Takamine,Koji Tsuruta,Keiko KishiAlso appeared,Kenji Mizoguchidirected by"Chikamatsu story(1954),Kozaburo YoshimuraHe has produced many masterpieces such as the director "River of the Night" (1956). Among them, the starring work by Ichikawa became popular.Issei Moridirected by"Hakuoki(1959),Daisuke Itodirected by"Benten Kozo』(1959) and other historical dramasKo Ichikawadirected by"Burning] And other Bungei works were also hit.
other than this,Kento Shindodirected by"Atomic bomb child(1952),Satsuo Yamamotodirected by"Vacuum zone(1953),Tadashi Imaidirected by"Midday darkness』(1956) and other independent films are also actively produced and released. In 1957Hiroshi Teshigawara,Susumu HaniYoung filmmakers such as the group formed the group "Cinema 57" to produce experimental films.
1960 In Japan, 547 films, the highest number in the history of Japanese cinema, were produced and reached their peak. Most of them are from 6 major companiesProgram pictureSo, after this year, the movie industry began to show and hide.The number of spectators mobilized to a maximum of more than 1958 billion in 11, then dropped sharply, and in 1963 it was less than half, more than 5 million..
In this background1953 More appearedtv setThere is a rapid spread of..Television became widespread in the wake of the 1959 Crown Prince marriage.1964 OfTokyo OlympicsAnd that momentum is accelerating..Also at this timeFuji Television Network, IncWas enrolled inGosha HeroWas seconded to Shochiku and said, "Three samuraiDebuted as a movie director. It will be an opportunity for human resources from the television field who have no experience in the movie industry to advance into major movie works. In 1961ShintohoWas suspended, Nikkatsu sold the studio in 1969, and production was suspended in 1971.
at the same time,Nakahira Yasushi,Kiyojun Suzuki,Masumura Hozo,Kurahara Koreyoshi,Teruo Ishii,Kihachi Okamoto,Shohei Imamura,Toshio Matsumoto,Oshima Nagisa,Osamu Takahashi,Yoji Yamada,Yoshishige Yoshida,Masahiro Shinoda,Yamashita cultivation,Gosha Hero,Kinji Fukasaku,Kenji Misumi,Eiichi Kudo,Urayama Kiriro,Kei Kumai,Hiroshi Teshigawara,Koji WakamatsuIt was also an era when a wide variety of young directors were active.
Became No. 1 in mobilizing spectatorsToeiIn 1960, the second Toei (one year laterNew ToeiEstablished (renamed) and doubled the number of productions, aiming for a 50% share of sales in the Japanese film industry, but it did not work and it was dissolved in two years. From the 2s to the early 1960s when the movie recession beganKoji Tsuruta,Ken Takakura,Junko FujiWe made a boom with them. The founder of this genreTadashi Sawashimaof"Life theater』(1963), It was a content that kept self-sacrifice while being caught between in-law and humanity.Or later,"Philosopher], [Nihon Kyokakuden], [Abashiri extra land], [Showa Zankeiden], [Hibotan BakutoThe series such as ”has gained popularity, Produced until around 1972,Makoto Naitoof"Bad guardSeries ”was also a hit. On the other hand1969 ToAll-star castof"Japan assassination secret』(starring : Shinichi Chiba-directed by : Nakajima Sadao) Will be released and releasedTodai conflict-Security struggleIt reflects the noisy world at that time..
In TohoPresident seriesFollowed byKengo FurusawabyPlanting treesStarringIrresponsible series,The best man series in JapanAnd became popular as a hilarious musical comedy.. Also,Yuzo KayamaStarringWakadaishō seriesThen, he showed a hit to steal the stock of sportsman college students who were good at Shochiku.
On the other hand, Akira Kurosawa and monster movies also maintain their popularity., Kurosawa will continue to co-produce with Toho with Kurosawa Productions,Bouncer(1961),Sanjuro Tsubaki(1962),Heaven and Hell(1963),Red beard』(1965) and other works were announced. American in 196920th Century FoxCompany war movie "Tora Tora Tora!Kurosawa, who was asked to write and direct the movie, opposes the Hollywood system, which the director does not have the final editing rights. Shooting did not proceed easily, and he was dismissed after intense effort, causing a suicide attempt. Also, in 1970, the first color movie "How are you] Is being produced.
Kihachi Okamotoby"Independent reliance』(1959) also advanced to war things and appealed various genres. Okamoto later said, "The longest day in Japan(1967), he said that he was different from Toho over the production claim, and at his own expense, he said, "Meat bullet』(1968) is produced.
Toho was around 1961Los AngelesLong-established movie theater "La BlairWas purchased and the screening of its own work started, and the museum functioned as a showcase for Japanese movies in the United States... Similarly in the 60sニ ュ ー ヨ ー クAlso owned a specialty building in Times Square.
In 1960, Shochiku's specialty melodrama line, which was said to be "Ofuna-style," could not generate profits.Shiro KidoThe president resigns. Hiroshi Otani, Audit & Supervisory Board Member, became president.Shochiku Nouvelle VagueA group of assistant directors called debuted one after another,Oshima Nagisadirected by"Youth cruel story(1960),Japanese night and fog(1960),Yoshishige YoshidaDirector "" (1960), "Akitsu Onsen(1962),Masahiro Shinodadirected by"One-way ticket for love(1960),assassination』(1964) and other innovative works,US-Japan SecurityDirector Nagisa Oshima's "Night and Fog in Japan", which deals with the revision issue, will be discontinued by Shochiku four days after its release. Nagisa Oshima, who quit Shochiku, started an independent production company, and the directors of Shochiku Nouvelle Vague later left Shochiku.Yoshitaro NomuraIsEmperor Dear Sirs』(1963) and other humanity comedies,Control 55Directed the leading movie.Yoji YamadaThe director is "Downtown sun(1963),Idiot Marudashi(1964),Fog flag”(1965), and since 1969,“Man is hard seriesTo start. The masterpiece isYasujiro Ozudirected by"Akihiwa(1960),Autumn saury taste(1962),Keisuke Kinoshitadirected by"Fuefuki River(1960),Eternal person(1961),Ikuharuaki who walked together(1962),Legend of Death Fight(1963),Incense(1964),Minoru Shibuyadirected by"Mozuru(1961),Masaki Kobayashidirected by"Accused"" (1962),Zenzo MatsuyamaDirector "" (1962),Susumu Hanidirected by"Filled life(1962),Noboru Nakamuradirected by"Ancient capital(1963),Kinokawa"Warm Spring" (1966), "Chieko Extract''Xichun(1967), "" (1969),Kozaburo YoshimuraDirector'sSleeping Beauty(1968),Kurahara KoreyoshiDirector's5000 km to glory』(1969) and so on. "Girara the Great Universe(1967),Vampire Goke Midoro』(1968) and other monster movies were also released, but did not reach a hit.
Continuing from the 1960s, a Japanese western drama called a stateless movie (Asahi KobayashiThe Rambler series, the drifter series, etc.) are big hits, but in addition to the arrival of the full-scale television era and the sloping sun of the Japanese movie industry as a whole, action movies have become a rut, lack of planning, etc.Yujiro IshiharaAnd Kobayashi's popularity declined, the presidentHisaku HoriThe business performance deteriorated sharply from the mid-1960s due to the overtrading that came from the one-man constitution of the company. In the 1960sSayuri Yoshinaga,Mitsuo Hamada,Hideki Takahashi,Tetsuya Watari,Yoko Yamamoto,Masako Izumi,Chieko Matsubara,Tatsuya Fuji,Meiko Kaji,Ryotaro SugiThey were produced, but the ebb tide could not be stopped. on the other hand,Shohei ImamuraBut"Pig and warship(1961),Japanese insects(1963),Red murder(1964),Kiyojun SuzukiBut"Tokyo Drifter], [Quarrel(1966), etc.Branded to Kill』(1967) is dismissed from the dissatisfied moat. In addition, in the directorKei Kumai,Urayama KiriroAnd others.
In the 1960sKatsu Shintaro-Jiro TamiyaStands out,Kazuo Hasegawa-Ye ShunziRetirement (1963),Masakazu NagataBy the presidentFive company agreementHung onYamamoto Fujiko(1963)Jiro Tamiya(1968) leaving the company,Raizo IchikawaIn 1969, the number of spectators fell sharply, and Nagata's one-man operation caused his business performance to deteriorate. Japan's first 70mm movie "Buddha(1961) andQin Shi Huang』(1962) and other major movie lines ended with a few works. Of this ageDaieiIn the masterpiece ofKo IchikawaDirector'sYounger brother''Bonchi(1960),Ten Black Women(1961),I am XNUMX years old''Breaking(1962),Yukinojo change(1963),Masumura HozoDirector's "" (1960), "Wife confesses(1961), "" (1965), "Hanaoka's wife(1967),Kenji MisumiDirector'skill(1962),sword(1964), "" (1965),Kozaburo YoshimuraDirector'sI will never forget that night(1962),Echizen bamboo doll(1963),Yuzo KawashimaDirector'sTemple of the Wild Geese(1962),Gentle beast(1963),Satsuo YamamotoDirector'sMountain river full of scratches(1964),White tower''freezing point(1966),Issei MoriDirector'sA killer(1967) and so on.GameraSeries (1965-1971),Great GenieSeries (all 1966, 3 works) "Youkai Great War』(1968) and other special effects movies for children, and among them, the Gamera series has become a popular series that has developed into a double signboard of a monster movie along with the Godzilla series of Toho.The main popular series are as follows.
- Infamous series(1961-1969)Katsu Shintaro,Jiro TamiyaStarring.
- Zatoichi Story Series(1962-1968) Starring Shintaro Katsu
- Heitai Yakuza Series(1965-1968) Shintaro Katsu,Takahiro Tamurastarring
- Shinobi no Mono Series(1962-1966)Raizo Ichikawastarring
- Nemuri Shiro Series(1963-1969) Starring Raizo Ichikawa
- Army Nakano School Series(1966-1968) Starring Raizo Ichikawa
Despite the influence of major companiesNinjin ClubHas produced and published multiple works,1966 JapanTaiwanCollaboration movie "Kamikaze bastard midday』, StarringShinichi ChibaAnd the directorKinji Fukasaku ToeiIt is a work that I participated in while I was registered in. On the other hand, with the declining trend of the movie industry, it has become possible to see directors leaving large companies and producing independently as professionals.Kento Shindoof"Bare island(1960),hag(1964),Naked nineteen years old(1970),Hiroshi TeshigawaraとAbe Koboby"Pitfall(1962),Woman in the sand(1964),The face of another person』(1966), a work full of black humor appeared.
In 1961,Japan Art Theater Guild (ATG) Established (-1992). Produced and distributed non-commercial works of art. The first distribution work isJerzy KawalerowichDirector "" (April 1962). The first Japanese movie workHiroshi TeshigawaraDirector "Otoshiana" (July 1962). After that, in 7, it started producing 1968 million movies.Kento Shindo,Susumu HaniIn addition to independent directors such asMishima Yukio(Writer),Akio Jisoji(TV director),Shuji Terayama(theater),Soichiro Tahara(journalist),Kunio ShimizuDirectors from different industries such as (theatre),Kazuo Kuroki,Toshio MatsumotoThe door was opened to many graduates and styles, such as newcomers. Also from the pink movie in the late 1960sKoji WakamatsuAnd so on, and quit the movie of the five major companiesOshima Nagisa,Shohei Imamura,Yoshishige Yoshida,Masahiro Shinoda,Kihachi Okamoto,Kei Kumai,Masumura Hozo,Koichi SaitoOr freeKo IchikawaIt is also a great achievement to give a place for production and presentation. Many worksKinema JunpoIt received high praise such as being selected as the best ten, and it became a big trend not only in the 70s but also in the latter half of the 80s.
Even in the 1970s, the ability to attract customers to Japanese movies did not stop, and in terms of breakdown, the ratio of the five major companies to about 1971% of the 367 movies released in 5 dropped sharply.Of these, Daiei went bankrupt, Later in 1974Tokuma bookstoreWas acquired by. On the contrary, pink movies that can be produced on a low budget and movies by independent professionals are making great strides. Nikkatsu, which fell into financial difficulty, was rebuilt mainly by the labor union, and since 1971.Nikkatsu romantic pornAs a romantic porno line..In addition, due to the collapse of the star system, actors have switched from belonging to production companies to contracts for each work.The directors who were active in the previous era, such as Kurosawa and Oshima who sought capital overseas, and Imamura who transferred to documentary, gradually disappeared.This is the end of the so-called Five-Company Agreement.
1950 eraから1960 eraIf you make 10 movies, 6 moviesSurplusWas, In the latter half of the 1970s, the number of hits was about 10 out of 2...The movie population is also one-seventh of the peak..It was said at the time that there was no other country in the world where movies had declined so much...From the movie industry to the country for the first time in declineGrantThere was a lot of voice saying, but in June 1978Japan Filmmakers FederationBecame chairman ofShigeru OkadaHowever, "If you give money, you can make a mouth, and after all, it's like strangling yourself at that obedience. You have to put your strength into each and every one of them and regenerate yourself. It's Toei, Shochiku It's not an era when we are glaring at each other with a strong corporate culture. We have to think about this countermeasure against the sun in the industry as a whole. ".
On the other hand, in 1976Kadokawa HarukiAdvances into movie production, with abundant budget productionMedia mixDevelop strategic advertising by. The released work continued to be a big hit in quick succession, breaking through the stagnation of the Japanese movie world, which was being pushed by Western movies and TV.Kadokawa movieMomentum continued until the mid-1980s..The fields of animation and documentary have evolved and laid the foundation for the future. "" Distributed by Toei in 1977Space Battleship Yamato], The all-nighter group, which is said to be the first in a Japanese movie, appeared. In 1979,Galaxy Express 999(Toei production and distribution) was released, and became the first Japanese movie distribution in 1979, making it the first feat in the history of anime movies.Anime movie was not evaluatedGet an exceptional reputation in the times.
With the decline of the student activism, Toei's appointed film has come to be described as a faded movie.Toshiya Itoof"Female prisoner scorpion seriesIn 1973, after the release ofReal record routeof"Battle without righteousnessSeries and the fighting movie "Body guard fangs] Series was a big hit, and since then it has been serialized one after another, and the actual record and fighting line have become the two pillars that support management. EspeciallyShinichi ChibaFighting movieWestern-Southeast AsiaBut it was a big hit.. First in Japan in 1975Panic movieIsShinkansen blastWas released, but although it was not a hit in Japan, it was highly evaluated overseas and became a big hit. In the same year, he competed with Shochiku's "Otoko wa Tsuraiyo" series.Truck bastardWas made into a series because it exceeded the box office revenue in Japan from "Shinkansen Bombing".Bunta Sugawara TheYakuza movieIt was an opportunity to break away from. In 1978, "Conspiracy of the Yagyu clanIs a big hit,The Fall of Ako Castle] And other works were produced one after another with the aim of reviving the historical drama. Kadokawa movies from the late 1970sOffice academySuch asIndependent professionalWas actively taken in.
Started in 1969 in ShochikuYoji Yamadaby"The man is painful』It was decided to win the national popularity by serializing. This series has been produced for nearly 30 years and 48 movies have been produced. In 1983, it was designated as "the longest movie series in the world".Guinness World RecordsRegistered in.
Kadokawa movie (70s)
1976'sInugamike no Ichizoku], Aiming for combined effects with publishing and TV dramas, etc.Media mixDevelop marketing, "Human proof], [Proof of wildness],1979 of"Sengoku Self-Defense Force』And made a big hit in a row.. In "The Inugami Family", the production was Toho, the distribution was Toei, etc., and in the subsequent works, only the strengths of each movie company were adopted, and the original movie production that broke the conventional frame of the movie world was promoted..
Nikkatsu Roman Porno (70's)
The transition of Nikkatsu meant a separation from the big actors and directors to whom he had belonged.Asahi Kobayashi,Tetsuya WatariTo Toei,Shishido lockIs looking for a place to play an active part in television. On the contrary, new directors and actors who had no chance until now appeared one after another, and it became the only place for human resource development during the stagnation period of the industry.Nikkatsu romantic pornWas produced at a pace of two per week until 1988,Kamidai Tatsumi,Noboru Tanaka,Onuma Masaru,Toru Murakawa,Toshiharu Ikeda,Nakahara Shun,Naosuke Kurosawa,Shusuke KanekoIt has produced a large number of human resources.
Traditional in 1980Studio systemCollapsed, and the system in which major movies were released simultaneously at exclusive theaters nationwide was no longer valid.
Nikkatsu changed the company name to "Nikkatsu" in 1978 and "Ropponica" in 1988 to try to break away from the romantic pornography line, but it could not stand up well.
From the perspective of a new directorIt was Nikkatsu that made a great contribution.Takashi Ishii,Hiroyuki Nasu,Kitaro NegishiThe director has left Nikkatsu[Source required]. Also,From a personally made movieYoshimitsu Morita,Kazuo Hara,Go TakamineIt was around this time that unique directors such as[Source required].
1984 years,Itami XIII(Son of movie director Mansaku Itami) at the age of 51, "funeral』Debuted as a movie director, at the beginning it was in a state of low name so that the screening was refused by the movie theater, such as" The name of the movie is not good ", but at first it started from the screening in a small movie theater and gradually The screening hall expanded in response to high praise, and finally it has won more than 30 movie awards, including the Japan Academy Award and the New Artist Award. (The following 1985, "DandelionIs also evaluated as an honorable mention) 1987Marsa's WomanIs a work that covers the same era and skillfully incorporates it, and it has become a social phenomenon and the world has become a hot topic about this movie.Itami introduced Itami's unique sense, new perspectives, new methods (in production), etc. to Japanese films.[Annotation 3].
In the late 80s, there was a series of movements to bring celebrities to film directors, and directors of all genres such as musicians and actors, writers, and painters appeared, but the second megaphone was taken.Takeshi Kitano,Tamasaburo Bando,Naoto TakenakaIt was very few.
On the other hand, there are also works of the masters who have been silent in the 1970s, and Akira Kurosawa's "Shadow warrior(1980),Remorse(1985),夢(1990)Kiyojun Suzukiof"Tsigoinel Weizen(1980),Haze(1981),Yumeji(1991)Yoshishige Yoshidaof"Human promise(1986),Toshio Matsumotoof"Dogura Magura(1988) and so on.
Cinema complexIn the 1990s, when the movie theaters settled in Japan, the number of movie theaters, which had been declining for a long time, finally switched to an increasing trend in 1994, despite the long-term recession. From 1960 to 30 years, it can be said that the movie industry, which had been declining in all figures, began to see signs of recovery, albeit slightly.Media mixMovement becomes active,Game,Comic,AnimeThe number of movie works linked with such as has increased.Production Committee MethodThe risk diversification method is becoming more common, and the number of TV production companies entering the movie business is increasing. It became the foundation for the revival of Japanese films in the 2000s.
In addition, some topics of the international film festival that had been away since 1950 appeared, and in 1997,Shohei Imamuraof"eelIs the Grand Prix of the Cannes Film FestivalNaomi Kawaseof"Moe's Suzaku』Won the Caméra d'Or. At the Venice Film FestivalTakeshi Kitanoof"HANA-BIWon the Golden Lion Award, and even the slogan "Renaissance of Japanese movies" was born in the mass media. Also on the box officeSuo Masayukiof"Shall we dance?] Etc. were successful in the United States and other countries. In Japan, in 1997, Hayao Miyazaki's "Princess Mononoke] Became a record hit, and bright topics continued.
In recent years, as we enter the multi-channel era, the video expression unique to Japan has been reviewed due to the evaluation of overseas film directors. In particular, it is also called Japanese horrorhorror filmIs in the limelight overseas,Grudge] Etc. in HollywoodRemakeWill be done. At the same time, there is a movement to support the sluggish Japanese movies. Was there a result?2006 For the first time in 21 years, the box office revenue of Japanese films exceeded the box office revenue of Western films (Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan). However, this is also due to the slump in the box office revenue of Western films. In 2014,Movie box officeMost of the top 20 are Japanese moviesAmerican moviesIs only 5.
In addition,TV stationOf the movie funded byCMIt is said that the independence of the movie is diminishing due to the increase in the number of TV stations in proportion to the fact that it is being broadcast in large numbers on its own station and is being fueled by information programs..However, these trends have continued since the slump in the 1980s, and there is a view that such media development does not necessarily promise an increase in box office revenue.[Source required].
Also, regarding the on-the-spot use due to topicality such as talents and trendy single-shot entertainers, unlike in Europe and the United States, the individuality of the performers is burned into the mind because the talents are appearing from commercials to laughter, dramas and movies. Some people say that it cannot be seen as a "movie".[Source required].
Under the Broadcast Law, TV stations advertise products other than programs.自由There is a rule that you should not make it because you can do it, but there is no problem because commercials of movies to be played on your own station in the future do not violate the broadcasting law, so the excessive promotion mentioned above isMoralIs a problem.
On the other hand, there are more works that shoot locations in local cities than in big cities such as Tokyo. Some of the hit works are set in local cities, and in some cases, the number of tourists visiting locations has increased. The aspect that movies play a role in regional revitalization has also grown rapidly since this era. Therefore, "from attracting to shooting schedule adjustment etc."Film commission"Is established in various places.
Currently, the number of Japanese movies produced is increasing, the total number of released works in 2006 was 821 (the highest since 1955), and the number of screens was 3062 (up 136 from the previous year. It has exceeded 3000 since 1970. ), The total number of visitors was more than 1 million (Japan Filmmakers' Federation).However, at the same time, there are many feature films that are not expected to be released and works that are not made into DVDs, and it is said that there are more than 100 such works a year and one in three, and they are also called "bad debt movies". Being[Source required].
As a cultural thing in Japan, it is basically polite for the audience to watch in a quiet manner, which is different from the culture that responds with applause and cheering in North America and India.[Source required].. In the 2000s, "Support screening”(Cheering screenings) and other screenings are held, which allow the audience to cheer and liven up as the movie progresses.
Movement of movie support by the government
2001 May 11,Basic Arts and Culture ActWas submitted to the House of Representatives and passed by the House of Representatives on the 30th of the same month. The law was promulgated and enforced in the same yearMay 12..In the item of promotion of media arts (Article 9) of this law, it is stipulated that necessary measures will be taken to support the production and screening of media arts including movies, and Article 35 in conjunction with this. soLocal governmentBackup by is also specified.
In response to thisAgency for Cultural AffairsHas announced that it will subsidize film production linked to regional development, and eachLocal government TheFilm commissionEstablished and operated such as, and started to attract movie production through the organization.
In addition, "Sleeping Man" (Gunma) Or “When you get off the boat, her island』(Ehime), Etc., by local governments ("Subsidy"Or"DonationDirectly to the movie (rather thanInvestmentThere are also examples of this.
Recent developments in Japanese movies
- 2000 (Heisei12) February-Established "Film Commission Establishment Study Group".
- May 8 --Held a general meeting to establish the "National FC Liaison Council". The establishment general meeting of the National FC (Film Commission) Liaison Council was held at Pacifico Yokohama. Of the 46 regular member organizations, 11 are film commission organizations.
- May 12 --Enforcement of "Culture and Arts Promotion Basic Law". The subject of this law also includes movies as media arts (Article XNUMX).
- May 4 --To the "National FC Liaison Council", 47 member organizations. The number of FCs (Film Commissions) affiliated with the National Film Commission Liaison Council has reached 47.
- May 4 --Proposed that payment of public movies is obligatory.Agency for Cultural AffairsThe round-table conference is about the released Japanese moviesTokyo National Museum of Modern Art Film CenterIn the final report, we have summarized 12 policy proposals to promote Japanese films, such as obliging them to be delivered to.
Movie box office
(XNUMX million yen)
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Export to overseas
Export of Japanese movies to Taiwan
Exporting Japanese movies to Taiwan1969 Because the import of Japanese films puts pressure on the production of Taiwanese films, Virtually import bans taken,Japan regains diplomatic relations with China1972 Since then, the road to business has been closed.,1973 Totally banned from.Shigeru OkadaMotion Picture Producers AssociationMany years of efforts by the leaders of each movie company, including the chairman, have been fruitful.,Taiwan Executive Yuan Newspaper OfficeFrom Motion Picture Producers Association1980 OfGold Horse AwardThere is a request to sell Japanese movies, 1980, one from each of the four Eiren member companies at that time,Shochiku"Sand bowl],Toho"Sandakan Hachibankan Nozomi],Toei"Two hundred and three highlands],Nikkatsu"Teacher's Tsushinbo』4 booksGold Horse AwardWas screened as an invited work of..Since then, there are concerns about Japan-China relations.Is it to suppress the Japanese color that is too dark?, Taiwanese producers and somejournalistThere were voices against the lifting of the ban,,1982 When Chairman Eiren Okada visited Taiwan, he requested the director of the Song Administration Office Newspaper Bureau to "specially lift the ban on imports of only the four works exhibited at the (1980) Golden Horse Awards."..Taiwanese sideForeign currencyCircumstances,Improvement of feelings toward JapanThere is also a background such as, This is recognized1983 March 12Tokyo KaikanAt a press conference in Taiwan, Okada announced that "Taiwan has opened the door to import Japanese films for the first time in 15 years.", In August 1984, it was reported by the Taiwan Government Information Office that the ban on Japanese movie imports would be officially lifted...Celebrate this1985 In 2 monthShinjuku Toho Hall 1The first Taiwan Film Festival was held in Japan..In 1985, the first year of the revival, only Toei released "XNUMX Hill".Makai Reincarnation』Replaced with, The other three companies have the same work exhibited at the 1980 Golden Horse AwardsTaipei,KaohsiungOpen to the public at the movie theater, Japanese movie exports revived..Taiwan's lifting of the ban will ban Japanese films from showing in major countries South KoreaBecame only..These became very popular, and local vendors flocked to make a lot of noise...The following year, in 1986, the number of slots increased from 4 in the previous year to 6, There is a lottery at the four Eiren member companies, and Toei and Shochiku who won the lottery will be two each.,Kadokawa movieWas not a member of the Motion Picture Producers Association at that time,Satomi HakkendenIs put in this Toei increase frame, Released in Taiwan on September 1986, 9 and became a big hit.Record ChinaLists "Satomi Hakkenden" as one of the big hit Japanese movies[Annotation 4]..According to the release,Yakushimaru Hiroko,Keiko Matsuzaka,Mifune Toshiro, Shigeru Okada, President of Toei Company, Chairman of Motion Picture Producers Association, etc. visited Taiwan, Yakushimaru, which is very popular in Taiwan, was enthusiastically welcomed and became a big uproar...At that time, companion coffee shops where you can watch the latest Japanese and American videos were all the rage in Taiwan, and Taiwanese young people were familiar with international performing arts...Okada coordinated import arrangements with Taiwanese filmmakers.. 『Cape No. XNUMX You think, south of the border』DirectorWei Te Sheng(Wei Te Sheng) Says, "'Satomi Hakkenden' was the first work I saw by buying a ticket twice. I still vividly remember the story and the characters.".
From 19861994 Until OctoberExecutive institute newspaperAnnounced the number of import quotas 6 times and allowed a total of 201 import quotas, but of Japanese moviesCopyrightThe price jumped, and the number of Japanese movies actually imported was 52 during this period... Since October 1994, the import of Japanese movies has been completely lifted...It is said that the long-standing efforts of Chairman Shigeru Okada have made great efforts to liberalize the import of Japanese films... During negotiations between Okada and Taiwanese filmmakers in 1986, The Taiwanese side complained, "I export Japanese movies, but Taiwanese movies will not be done in Japan."In a hurry, from February 1987, 2 at Toei, "Detective detectiveWas scheduled to be released in parallel withHong Kong movies"Shushan" ("The sword of the heavens』) Move back, There was a request from the Taiwanese side "Kung Fu Kids / Kung Fu KidsWas put in this frame and released in Toei Western-style painting..This work is from JapanMajor movie companyThis is the first Taiwanese movie to get on the track..Also in April 1995, Taiwan's firstCATV,Party managementof"Hashin Multi-mediaAt the request of the company's president, Xiangxiong Liao, who became acquainted with Okada in these negotiations when (PHTV) opened., Toeidai (Toei Channel) Is the Disney stand (Disney channel) Etc. were selected as one of the four channels..Taiwanrental video,CATVThe spread of media such as was faster than in Japan..Because Taiwan banned Japanese movies from the 1960s and 1970s,TaiwaneseToToei Yakuza movieWas fresh and popular..Toeidai has a three-year supply contract, and the number of Toei's past movies and TV dramas has reached 850...The first Japanese movie / drama aired on Taiwan's CATV was Toei's work.Toei took this opportunity to strengthen its Asian strategy, The old work business with secondary and tertiary use in Japan was released in Japan in the summer of 1996 in an attempt to expand it in Asia.DistributionDid not shake at 4 million yen"That's Cheat! The greatest strategy ever?』StarringNamie AmuroEstablished a concert in Asia in 1997 and became popular, so the film was screened in Hong Kong., At that time in AsiaSatellite broadcastingIn JapanTrendy dramaIs broadcast one after another, ""Eiji Toyokawa,Honami SuzukiRagaRecognitionThe film has been screened in Taiwan and Hong Kong prior to its release in Japan..
- ^ John WayneAn American uplifting movie starring "Flying tigerFlying Tigers(1942), a part of the film of "Burning Sky" was colored and then diverted (XNUMX).Plagiarism) Has been.
- ^ Produced in 1945 and released on August 8, the same year, "Three people in the northIs said to be the only feature film that was finally completed in Japan during the war and was screened in Japan at the time of the defeat on August 8 of the same year.
- ^ Itami continued to say, "Marusa's Woman 2(1988),Give up(1990),Minbo Woman(1992),Daibyonin(1993),Quiet life(1995),Super woman(1996),Marutai Woman(1997), and in the latter half of the 90's, he continued to release solid works and produced a total of ten movies. At the scene of "A Taxing Woman"Suo MasayukiSuo later said that the unique technique of Itami that he learned at the scene was very useful when he made a movie by himself, and Itami contributed to Japanese movies in that sense as well.
- ^ [Quote Note] The "April 2016, 4," at the beginning of the source seems to be a typographical error. Four films were exhibited at the 1 film festival instead of two.
- ^ Inuhiko Yomota"100 Years of Japanese Film History" (Shueisha) ISBN-978 4087200256) Pp.14-16
- ^ Junichiro Tanaka "History of Japanese Movie Development"[Page number required]
- ^ Kikuo Yamamoto, "The Impact of Foreign Films on Japanese Movies," Waseda University Press, 1983.ISBN 4-657-83008-2.pp.600-603
- ^ Kikuo Yamamoto, "The Impact of Foreign Films on Japanese Movies," Waseda University Press, 1983.ISBN 4-657-83008-2.[Page number required]
- ^ "100 Years of Japanese Film History" p.44
- ^ "100 Years of Japanese Film History" p.48
- ^ "Movie Tosei Ten no Maki-Masahiro Makino Autobiography",Masahiro Makino,平凡 社, 1977, p.141-142.
- ^ "100 Years of Japanese Film History" p.80
- ^ Japanese movie development history Junichiro Tanaka[Page number required]
- ^ Japanese movie development history Junichiro Tanaka[Page number required]
- ^ "100 Years of Japanese Film History" p.123
- ^ "100 Years of Japanese Film History" p.134
- ^ "100 Years of Japanese Film History" p.129
- ^ Japan Management Law Study Japan Management Law Study Group[Detailed information for identifying documents]
- ^ Asahi Shimbun[Detailed information for identifying documents]
- ^ Japan Management Law Study Japan Management Law Study Group[Detailed information for identifying documents]
- ^ Movie history Akira Iwasaki[Detailed information for identifying documents]
- ^ a b c d e f Toho Champion Festival Perfection 2014, pp. 122–123, "Project Toho Champion Festival Festival Music is Far"
- ^ "Ninkyo Eiga-Kotobank". Asahi Shimbun. 2021/2/27Browse.
- ^ a b History｜Toei Co., Ltd.(Internet Archive)Aesthetics of Destruction The World of Nintendo Films-Cinema Vera Shibuya,Column ｜ Toei Kyosho / ally talk ② | Joint communication onlineShun Hayami (October 2021, 1). “The reason why Toei's success cannot be talked about without "Yakuza movie" Shigeru Okada's eyes that brought out "Battle without Honor and Justice"". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン. Toyo Keizai Inc..As of August 2021, 1オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/2/27Browse.Biweekly Toei Movie Masterpiece DVD Collection Special Page,U-NEXT Toei Showa movie masterpiece selection
- ^ JJ Sunny Chiba"Chiba Style Road to Samurai"Bunkasha, 2010, pp. 28-36.ISBN 4821142694.
- ^ Last Picture Show in Little Tokyo: Film: An era ends for the country's only remaining Japanese-language movie houseThe Los Angels Times, October 31, 1990
- ^ Toho La Brea TheaterCinema Treasures
- ^ a b Toho Champion Festival Perfection 2014, pp. 124–125, "Project Toho Champion Festival Festival Music is Far"
- ^ a b c d e Masashi Nishizawa (June 1978, 6). “<Human Appearance> Mr. Shigeru Okada, who became the chairman of the Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan”. Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun): pp. 5
- ^ a b Textbook 2016, pp. 224–230.
- ^ Nobuyuki Tsugata "The Power of Japanese Animation Two Axis Throughs 85 Years of History" NTT Publishing,2004 [Page number required].
- ^ Variety,1974 May 12付[Page number required].
- ^ "OriginatorBruce LeeSurpassShinichi Chiba' Hochi Shimbun,Year 1974May 12付Morning newspaper.
- ^ "SPORTS CITY" Vol. 1, No. 2, Kamakura Shobo, August 1981, p. 8.
- ^ Nakamura Katabuzu "Kyokushin Gaiden ~Extreme vacuum handAnother Fight ~ ”Pipurusha, 1999, pp. 172-186.ISBN 4893741373.
- ^ "Teruhiko Saigo and Kinji Fukasaku tremble with Yorozuya Kinnosuke"Asahi +],Tokuma bookstore, June 2012, 12,2013/1/1Browse.
- ^ Chronicle Toei 2 1991, p. 65.
- ^ Toei Trail 2016, pp. 258–259, 272–273.
- ^ Activist life 2012, pp. 102–135.
- ^ Textbook 2016, pp. 226–235.
- ^ NBonline Premium: [Shigeru Okada, Toei Advisor](Archive),asahi.com (Asahi Shimbun): Was Yamato a "literary thing"?,Haruki Kadokawa reminisces about "one era is over" ... Shigeru Okada dies(Archive)
- ^ Textbook 2016, pp. 241–243.
- ^ Ikuya Takamori (August 2015, 8). "The success or failure of Netflix's entry into Japan, the US media sees this". Newsweek 2015/8/22Browse.
- ^ a b 2006 10 month number"Nikkei Entertainment!"(Nikkei BP) Serialization "Tv securities"Than[Page number required]
- ^ a b Patrick Frater (January 2011, 1). “Japanese box office climbs 7% in 2010". . 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ Patrick Frater (January 2012, 1). “Japanese BO plunges by 18%". . 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ a b Jason Gray (January 2013, 1). “Japanese box office up 7.7%". . 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ Mark Schilling (January 2013, 1). “Japanese BO rises 7.7% to $ 2.14 bil". . 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ Kevin Ma (January 2014, 1). “Japan BO down 0.5% in 2013". .As of August 2016, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/1/30Browse.
- ^ Gavin J. Blair (January 2014, 1). “Japan Box Office Drops Slightly in 2013". The Hollywood Reporter. 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ Gavin J. Blair (January 2015, 1). “Japan's Box Office Up 6.6 Percent to $ 1.75 billion in 2014". The Hollywood Reporter. 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ Mark Schilling (January 2015, 1). “Japan Box Office in 2014 is Third Biggest of 21st Century". . 2015/4/12Browse.
- ^ "Statistics of Film Industry in Japan”. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. 2019/5/7Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Japanese movie, Taiwan import license-4 works will be released from next month.". Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (Nihon Keizai Shimbun): p. 12. (March 1984, 8)
- ^ a b c d e f g "Four films, including" Castle of Sand "and" The Battle of Port Arthur ", which will be exported to Taiwan for the first time in 15 years," "Movie Time Report," January 4, Movie Time Report, p. 1984.
- ^ a b c d e f g “Step-up Taiwanese companies on the road to de-NIES (4) Hakushin multi-media (media business)”. Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (Nihon Keizai Shimbun): p. 2. (March 1995, 7)
- ^ a b c d Hideji Baba and Sumiko Fukatsu (June 1995, 6). “Shaking Regulations (Asia Silver Screen New Circumstances Movie 27 Years: 100)”. Asahi ShimbunEvening paper (Asahi Shimbun): p. 11
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Takuhiko Wakita, Yasuo Kawabata, Akira Saito,Kazuo Kuroi"Movies, Topics, Journals Taiwanese movie blockbusters will appear on Toei's general line next year. The export quota for Japanese movies has been increased, and the rise of both countries is becoming more and more active."Kinema Junpo』Early June 1986 issue,Kinema Junposha, 1986, pp. 166-167.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Takuhiko Wakita, Yasuo Kawabata, Akira Saito, Kazuo Kuroi "Movies, Topics, Journals Exported to Taiwan 6 bottles a year in recognition of long-term efforts and achievements last year" "Kinema Junpo" Early July 1986 issue, Kinema Junpo, Inc. 7 pages.
- ^ a b c d LoHuei-Wen "Penetration of Japanese-made video software and Taiwan's national policy"Survey and Research," No. 26, Kyoto University Economic Society, April 2003, pp. 4-41, two:10.14989/44553, ISSN 09175393, NOT 120000899309.
- ^ a b c d Kozo Kimura (March 1988, 3). “[Japanesque New Century] Part 2 (15) Cross-culture of love and hate (serialization)”. Yomiuri ShimbunEvening paper (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 5
- ^ a b c "The album talks about the'small delegation'sentenceJapan Filmmakers Federation・ Advisor Susumu Suzuki, AV Journal, January 1996, Bunka Tsushinsha, p. 1.
- ^ "Motion Picture Producers Association, September Regular Board of Directors", Kinema Junpo, early November 9, Kinema Junpo, p. 1982.
- ^ "Important Diary of the Film Industry", "Movie Yearbook 1986 (sponsored by the Federation of Film Industry Associations)", published on December 1985, 12, Jiji Film Communications Co., Ltd., p. 1.
- ^ a b "Movie World Important Diary" "Movie Yearbook 1984 Edition (Federation of Film Industry Associations(Sponsored) ”published December 1984, 12, Jiji Movie News Agency, p. 1.
- ^ Sanshio Imamura (January 1984, 1). “Weekly stippling at the beginning of the year, various meetings were successful. Weekly movie news (National Movie Theater Newspaper): p. 1
- ^ "Important Diary of the Film World", "Movie Yearbook 1984 (sponsored by the Federation of Film Industry Associations)", published on December 1985, 12, Jiji Film Communications Co., Ltd., pp. 1, 4.
- ^ Sanshio Imamura (January 1984, 1). “Weekly stippling at the beginning of the year, various meetings were successful and prosperous in all industries”. Weekly movie news (National Movie Theater Newspaper): p. 1
- ^ "Unforgivable Japanese movies to be lifted," Satomi Hakkenden "Hiroko Yakushimaru's visit to Taiwan is a big fever". Record China(July 2016, 4) 2016/4/2Browse.
- ^ Taiwanese movie "Cape No. XNUMX / Kimi Omoide, South of the Border" Press Conference-Asian Entertainment Information
- ^ a b c Shigeru Endo (December 1997, 12). “Screen for expanding movie business (above)“ Princess Mononoke ”2 billion yen-Japanese film, set in the world.”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nihon Keizai Shimbun): p. 13
- ^ a b c d e f "Japanese films released in Hong Kong and Taiwan, Toei, ahead of Japan-strengthening Asian strategy". Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (Nikkei Inc.): p. 3. (January 1997, 7)
- "Lecture Japanese Film"Iwanami Shoten
- Shohei Imamura "The Birth of Japanese Film" (1985,ISBN 9784000102513）
- Shohei Imamura "Completion of Silent Movie" (1986,ISBN 9784000102520）
- Shohei Imamura et al. "The Age of Talkies" (1986,ISBN 9784000102537）
- Shohei Imamura et al. "War and Japanese Movies" (1986,ISBN 9784000102544）
- Shohei Imamura et al. "Development of Postwar Movies" (1987,ISBN 9784000102551）
- Shohei Imamura et al. "Searching for Japanese Movies" (1987, XNUMX)ISBN 9784000102568）
- Shohei Imamura et al. "The Present of Japanese Movies" (1988,ISBN 9784000102575）
- Shohei Imamura et al. "Prospects of Japanese Film" (1988,ISBN 9784000102582）
- Junichiro Tanaka "History of Japanese Film Development" (Chuokoronsha, 1975,ISBN 9784122002852）
- "The influence of foreign films on Japanese films" (Waseda UniversityPublishing Department, 1983, ASIN B000J7FJYG)
- Shigeru Okada"Chronicle Toei 1947-1991" 2,Toei, 1992.
- "Empire of the Silver Screen" (Nagoya UniversityPublishing, 1995,ISBN 9784815802639）
- "Kissing with the Emperor Japanese Film Censorship under American Occupation" (Kusosha, 1998,ISBN 9784794207760）
- Takeshi Yamaguchi "Phantom Kinema Manchukuo" (平凡 社, 2006,ISBN 9784582765885）
- Bunka News AgencyHen "Don of the movie world Shigeru OkadaActivity shop life "Yamaha Music Media, 2012.ISBN 978-4-636-88519-4.
- "Godzilla Toho Champion Festival Perfection"Dengeki Hobby MagazineEditorial department,KADOKAWA(ASCII Media Works) <DENGEKI HOBBY BOOKS>, November 2014, 11.ISBN 978-4-04-866999-3.
- "Toei no Kiseki" Toei Co., Ltd.Toei, 2016.
- "Textbook for learning about movies 1912-1979"文藝 春秋, 2016.ISBN 978-4-8003-0698-2.
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