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🙋 | "Fukui Railway 200" started crowdfunding to bring back the appearance of the active era 


Photo Fukui Railway 200 type "203" taken in October 2016 (taken by Tsurugi 10)

"Fukui Railway 200" started crowdfunding to bring back the appearance of the active era 

 
If you write the contents roughly
Vehicles that adopted the "Shonan type" front style and the "WN drive system" train drive system became popular with railroad fans.
 

From Thursday, October 2021, 10, Echizen City, Fukui Prefecture, has revived the Fukui Railway 21 type train "No. 200" in its active era ... → Continue reading

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WN drive system

WN drive system(WN ​​Kudohoshiki, WN Drive)Electric trainIt is a kind of drive system.

Overview

As a train drive system suitable for high-speed drivingAmericaIs a major electric appliance manufacturerWestinghouse Electric(WH) and Natal Co. Ltd, a machine and gear manufacturer under its umbrella1925 Since then, joint development has been carried out and put into practical use. "WN" is named after the acronyms (Westinghouse --Natur) of both companies involved in the development.However, in the United States today, it is often referred to simply as "gear coupling."

The entire drive systemMain motorIs fixed to the bogie frame parallel to the axle, and the output shaft of the motor and the drive gear are connected via a "WN joint" that allows small deviations.In general, an axle-free drive system for trains in which all the loads of the traction motor are elastically supported by springs.Cardan drive systemTherefore, it is a kind of "parallel axis cardan drive" using "WN joint".

The mechanism of the "WN joint" itself consists of two sets of playful slide splines.Unlike gears, slide splines have all teeth meshed with each other, so even small ones can transmit large forces and are highly reliable.HowevertoleranceThe tolerance for angle changes using is only within 5 degrees.

History

A high-speed motor and reduction gears are required to exert driving force while reducing the size and weight of the traction motor.

Used in electric railways in the pastHanging drive systemPuts the main gear attached to the traction motor and the large gear attached to the axle that transmits power in an integrated gearbox, which supports about half the weight of the traction motor, and the other half is a spring. It was a drive system with a simple structure that was elastically supported by the trolley frame.

Rigid drive also had drawbacks due to its simplicity.

  • Due to the structure in which about half of the weight of the traction motor is applied to the axle and the unsprung weight is large, the load on the track is heavy, the track and wheels are poorly trackable, and the ride quality is poor.
  • Rail seams andTurnoutSince the impact applied to the axle is directly transmitted to the traction motor via the gearbox, there is a burden of damaging the bearings and motor case.Commutator motorIs the weakness ofFlashoverConsidering this, it will be difficult to raise the motor speed, etc.[1]However, the performance improvement for further speeding up has reached a plateau.

As a way to overcome this problem1920 eraIsSwitzerlandEtcBuchli drive systemBut in America and EuropeQuill drive systemHas been put into practical use.However, because they are all largeElectric locomotiveIt was for use, and was not popular for trains.

In this way, in order to improve the performance of trains, WH, which was one of the leading railroad motor manufacturers in the United States at that time, started working with Natal, a subsidiary of the company, to introduce a small axle-free drive system and low-voltage, high-speed motors. developed.

After the reliability and performance of the parallel axis WN drive have been confirmed after a long-term practical test of 10 years or more,1941 ToChicago North Shore and Milwaukee Road(North Shore Line)ElectrolinerIt was successfully adopted in a lightweight 4-body articulated vehicle called, and further1948 ToNew York City SubwayAdopted in large numbers for R12 type trains for use, and since then with the United StatesAsiaPopularized in.

Case study

Japan

Due to the characteristics of joints that structurally withstand high output, it has been around for a long time.subway,Private railwayIt has been used by various companies.Also perform high-speed operationShinkansenHowever, it has been used as a standard drive system for a long time since its opening, but there are exceptions for some 700 series and N700 series green cars (described later).

WN drive in Japan1953 Completed in SeptemberKeihan Electric Railway1800 type1802[2][3][4]Based on the technical information from the United States installed inSumitomo Metal Industries(Current:Nippon Steel) Originally developed WN joint[5]Was the first practical example, and a joint similar to this was used.Tokyo Toden5500 type5502[6]In addition, it is equipped with a drive unit based on the license of WH.Marunouchi Line30 cars were manufactured at once in preparation for opening300 series[7], And so on.

1,435, which is equivalent to US railways, including the Marunouchi Line mmGauge (Standard gauge) Is adopted ()Corporation subway(Current:Tokyo Metro)ofGinza Line-Marunouchi Line,Kinki Nippon Railway OfNara Line-Osaka LineStandard gauge, such as Keihanshin Express Railway (currently:Hankyu Corporation)ofShinpo LineIn), the WN drive, which has high joint durability and is advantageous for increasing output, was introduced from an early stage.

on the other hand,Gauge1,067 mmNarrow gaugeSince the width of the equipment becomes wider on the route, it was necessary to reduce the size of the main motor as well as the joints or devise the shape of the outer frame to introduce the WN drive.In this process, in addition to shortening the axial length of the traction motor and downsizing the WN joint, the diameter of the traction motor is increased to compensate for this.1956 Fuji Electric Railway (currently:Fuji Express)3100 typeAnd the 1-hour rated output of the traction motor is 55 kWAlthough the output was low, the first narrow gauge WN joint was put into practical use, and then appeared the following year.Nagano Electric Railway Series 2000Couplings for 75 kW class motors have been put into practical use.[8].

But already at that timeRight angle cardanThen 110 kW (Tokyu 5000 series),Hollow shaft parallel cardanThen 100 kW (JNR 101 series), Which made it possible to operate in an economical organization that incorporates ancillary vehicles by realizing support for higher output traction motors.For this reason, the narrow gauge private railway that adopted this method has a total length of 15-18. mMost of the businesses operated small vehicles of the class.In this respect, each company that operates the same 20 m class car as the Japanese National Railways has a bottleneck that it must be an all-electric car system in order to secure the required performance with this system in which the output of each motor is limited.[9]..For this reason, the full-scale spread of WN drive in Japan is1960 eraIt was after it became possible to manufacture high-power motors with a rated output exceeding 100 kW even for narrow gauges.Nankai Electric Railway(Vehicles equipped with Mitsubishi Electric traction motors),Odakyu Electric RailwayYou can see an example in.

Since the hollow shaft cardan has been standardized on the conventional trains of the Japanese National Railways, there is no record of using WN drive.[10]However, the electric locomotive adopted a one-bogie, one-motor, two-axis drive system, and there were virtually no restrictions on the joint dimensions.EF30 typeHas been adopted in.After the division and privatization, in JR West, high durability of the drive system was required to use a high-output high-speed rotation type motor, so it is easy to secure a margin because there is no commutator.VVVF inverter control OfAlternating currentCage three-phase induction motorUse207 seriesWith some exceptions, on subsequent conventional trains[11]WN joints are used as standard, especially223 series-225 seriesIt is effective for high-speed operation of new trains such as special rapid trains.It is also the only container freight train in Japan.Japan Freight Railway(JR Freight)M250 series trainBut WN drive is adopted.Body mount cardan drive systemMakes up the majorityUltra low floor tram(100 %(Ultra low floor)Kagoshima City Transportation Bureau Of7500 series(Little dancerType X)Toyo Denki SeizoThe newly designed WN joint is adopted.

The WN joint is basically a constant velocity joint, and the rotational angular velocity does not fluctuate even if it is rotated with displacement.However, it is not as smooth as "deflection plate type joints" and "TD joints".

The current number of domestic production is due to the background of the technical tie-up with Westinghouse and restrictions on metal processing technology.Mitsubishi ElectricWith the traction motorNippon Steel(PredecessorSumitomo Metal Industries(Including) The combination of joints accounts for more than half[12][13].

Overseas

OverseasQuill drive systemIt is the most commonly used drive system along withAsia,North AmericaIt became mainstream.Spain[14]except forEuropeThe quill drive system is the mainstream, but in recent years the WN drive system is also increasing.

problem

Noise during coasting

(JR West 223 series 2000 series) The sound of each vehicle is slightly different depending on the conditions such as the dolly and the manufacturing time.

If you can't watch this audio or video well,Help: Playing audio/video

In WN joints, when coasting when no force is applied to the joint, structurally, the internal gearstoleranceWill generate noise.For this reason, in the speed range above a certain level, it is very slight during coasting.Regenerative brakeA vehicle that controls to suppress noise by applying a load to the joint.[15]Also exists.Also, in recent vehicles, the gear design is low.BacklashAlthough efforts are being made to reduce noise by reducing the tolerance of the internal gears as much as possible during manufacturing, the noise gradually increases due to aging deterioration of the gears, so a fundamental solution has not been reached.In the case of this method, the internal teeth are merely straight internal gears, but the external teeth need to be provided with a very large size in order to allow misalignment, and an external tooth gear having such a very large crowning is used. Even with the current technology, a polishing machine has not been developed, and only the process of gear cutting → quenching → grinding can be taken, and it is difficult to reduce backlash by improving the precision of gears, and currently the module is reduced. It is difficult to reduce the backlash, which is done by the miniaturization of the tooth mold, because it increases the possibility of seizure.

Tokaido-Sanyo ShinkansenThen,700 seriesIncluding JR Tokai affiliation organization (C organization) C19 organization and later and JR West affiliation organizationN700 series Z / N formation OfGreen carOnly inTD jointHas been changed to adopt, and noise is suppressed.[16].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Suspended motors generally have a rated speed of 800 -1,300 XNUMX rpmIn the new drive system represented by WN drive, high-speed motors of 1,500-2,000 rpm or more are often used.
  2. ^ 1953 May 7Completion.Commercial operation is nextMay 7Started from.
  3. ^ "Keihan Vehicle Completion Drawing Collection (Postwar Part ~ S40)", Railroad, 1990, pp.63-66.
  4. ^ Tadashi Okinaka "Keihan Limited Express Story -Viewing, Riding, 50 Years of Keihan Limited Express-" "Railway Pictorial No.695 December 2000 Special Issue", Denkisha Kenkyukai, 12, p.2000.
  5. ^ Shunichi Fukuhara "Japanese Train Story Old Performance Train Edition From Founding to Early High Performance Train",JTB publishing, 2007, pp.128 ・ 153 --154
  6. ^ 1953 May 11Completion.
  7. ^ 1953 Completed in October. Except for 101954 May 1Completion.
  8. ^ In the case of Mitsubishi Electric's 75 kW traction motor and the corresponding WN joint set, the axial length of the narrow gauge set for Nagano Electric Railway is reduced to 300 mm by about 958 mm reduction compared to the standard gauge of the same class output. (On the other hand, the traction motor diameter has increased by 55 mm).It was also determined that the WN joint for standard gauge of WH prototype has a considerable margin in the allowable shaft deviation and driving force transmission capacity of the joint, and the structural margin is cut down to reduce the deviation tolerance within the range where there is no problem in practical use. It was designed for miniaturization.In 1955, Mitsubishi Electric engineers said that with the development of trolley technology, the axle spring rigidity of new train trolleys became relatively large, which reduced the displacement of the axles, which also made it appropriate for WN drive. (Yuji Manabe, "Development Process of WN Drive in Japan," "Railway History," No. 14 Railway History SocietyDecember 1995 p.12-p.41).
  9. ^ If it is an all-electric vehicle, there are problems such as an increase in vehicle manufacturing cost and an excessive load on the substation.
  10. ^ All vehicles of the JNR era (207 series 900 seriesWas equipped with a DC series commutator motor, so the space allocated to the joint was limited.
  11. ^ For conventional line commercial vehicles, the 223 series 5000 series is applicable.
  12. ^ However, some businesses (Hankyu Electric Railway, Keio Electric Railway, etc.) that do not have transactions with Mitsubishi Electric and materials are procured through open bidding.Osaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit(OldOsaka City Transportation Bureau) Etc.Hitachi, Ltd.,ToshibaMotors manufactured by domestic electric manufacturers other than Mitsubishi Electric are used in combination with WN fittings.
  13. ^ Ryuichi Ishimoto "Private Railway Vehicle Tour 150 Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau" "Railway Pictorial No.585 Special Issue in December 1993", Denkisha Kenkyukai, 12, pp.1993 --165.
  14. ^ This is because Mitsubishi Electric of Japan provided electrical equipment and produced licenses.
  15. ^ JR West 223 Series 1000 seriesetc.
  16. ^ All 700 Series B trains belonging to JR West use WN joints, including green cars.again,Kyushu ShinkansenFor800 seriesFor direct communication to Sanyo and KyushuN700 series 7000 series(S organization belonging to JR West) andN700 series 8000 series(R formation belonging to JR Kyushu) also uses WN joints for all cars.

Related item

外部 リンク

Railway fan

(Tetsudo fan) is in JapanTrain, Or events related to thisHobbies(Railway hobby) Is the person who has.

Railroad hobby field

The following are examples of hobbies that are considered to be railway hobbies. Fans who are enthusiastic about each field are sometimes called by nicknames and slang as shown in parentheses.

Vehicle research

  • vehicleResearch (Vehicle Iron) -Forms a core fan base, and there are many articles targeting this base in railway hobby magazines.

Railway photo

Recording / acoustic research

Railway model

コ レ ク シ ョ ン

Travel / Ride

  • Train travel(Riding iron)
    • Of the railway lineCrush
    • Fog-Enjoy the front view behind the driver's seat
      • (Enjoy the front view with the video taken from the driver's seat)
  • TochugeshaJourney, (getting off)
  • EkibenExploration and collection of hanging paper (ekiben iron)

Timetable / station research

  • Timetablecollection·diagramAnalysis (timetable iron)
    • stationStructural study of
    • Station name research
    • Station tour / conquer all stations
    • Station name markphotograph
    • Based on the time on the timetable, find out where you are driving and delusion of the car window.

Facility equipment / operation business research

Research on railway-related laws and regulations

Other

The subject of railwaysComic-Novel-essayEtc. production.鉄道研究会の会誌や個人のThe journal of the Railway Study Group and the individualDoujinshiThen research results (Non-Fiction) Will be announced.
TrainA painting(Drawing iron) --Draw paintings of vehicles and station buildings.絵画の技量が必要なこともあり少数派だというIt is said that it is a minority because it requires painting skills[1].
Fictitious Railroads-Create imaginary railroad lines, timetables, and vehicles.
Railway companyTostock investment ――The main purpose is to obtain shareholder coupons and limited goods, but there are also people who support it.

Japanese School Railway Research Institute / Study Group

There are railway research departments and study groups as one of the school's club activities and club activities.

There are few federations of schools and circles nationwide in Japan other than athletics.神奈川県には、神奈川県高等学校文化連盟の一組織として、神奈川県高等学校鉄道研究部連盟(神奈川県高鉄連)がありIn Kanagawa Prefecture, there is the Kanagawa Prefectural High School Railway Research Department Federation (Kanagawa Prefectural High School Iron and Steel Federation) as an organization of the Kanagawa Prefectural High School Cultural Federation.[2], High school railway research department in Kanagawa prefecture is a member.In addition, a railway research presentation is held at the Kanagawa Prefectural High School Comprehensive Cultural Festival held every year.

For university students, the "Kansai Student Railway Study Group Federation (Kansai Gakutetsuren)" exists.This kind of organization used to be all over Japan.Since the number of people in each circle itself is very small, the circle itself may be abolished and the federation may be effectively dissolved. 2010年12月には、千葉県にある5大学が加盟する「ちば学生鉄道研究会連合」が新たに発足し、2013年には関東学生鉄道研究会連盟(関東学鉄連)が再起したIn December XNUMX, the "Chiba Student Railway Study Group Association" was newly established, which is a member of five universities in Chiba Prefecture, and in XNUMX, the Kanto Student Railway Study Group Federation (Kanto Gakutetsuren) was revived.[3].

The activities of the Railway Technical Research Institute are different for each school, but they are generally as follows.

  • Regular meeting
  • Department magazine production and coverage activities for that
  • Training camp / travel (this travelogue may be placed in the center of the magazine)
  • Exhibits and research presentations at school festivals and school festivals

Some school-level magazines are sold at the railroad corner of general bookstores. Most of the magazines are printed in black and white in single color, but some are printed in color. Research presentation activities are based on the results of interviews (photographs, data, etc.) and the exhibition of model railroads.

Some railway research departments, which have a particularly long history and a great track record of activities, are requested to write articles by railway hobby magazines.

General railway circle

There is not only a school railway study group consisting of students from a certain school, but also a railway circle that generally recruits applicants for membership and is active.代表的なものでIn a typical oneRailroad Friends AssociationAnd Railway Material Exchange (RSEC), Rail-On (JR EastOfficialFan club・ Dissolved in 2008) etc.

The purpose of these activities is to realize activities that are impossible for individuals, such as large-scale social gatherings that tailored chartered trains, model railroad driving events, and preservation and maintenance of valuable historical railroad cars. There are many.

Railway High School (Railway School)

School to learn about railways (Railroad school).TokyoToShowa Railway High School,Iwakura High SchoolHave a railway-related departmenthigh schoolExists.高校の授業として鉄道が学べることや、在学中にJR・私鉄駅での実習やYou can learn about railways as a high school class, and you can practice at JR / private railway stations while you are still in school.Part-time jobThere are many students who are railroad fans because they can do it (only for private railways) and the employment rate at each railway-related company station is high.Some students take the entrance examination from a region far away from the suburbs of Tokyo.However, just because you can enroll in these schools does not necessarily mean that you will get a job at a railway operator (or your wishes do not come true, or conversely, if you wish), and after graduation you will get a job in a field other than railways.University-Junior college-Vocational schoolsMany go on to higher education.

Tools used by railroad fans

Timetable

For railroad fansTimetableIs more than just a tool for checking the time, it is used in various ways.The main ones are as follows.

  • Look at the timetable and make a fictitious travel plan (desk trip) --46 excluding Okinawa PrefecturePrefectures(Okinawa city monorailOpened in 2003aircraft(Some people put in and do everything including here)Prefectural office locationHow fast to go around, how to go around the southernmost part of JRWest Mt. Ooyama StationFrom the northernmostWakkanai StationThere is something to go to.
  • Look at the timetable,diagramGuess-the train crossing, overtaking, and turning backOperationAnd so on.
  • Look at the old timetable and check the train situation at that time --- Because the timetable is a "material" to know the railway at that timeMeijiFrom the timesShowaUntil the times, "reprinted timetables" that reprinted some old timetables may be sold, mainly when there was a major timetable revision.However,National railwayHas a detailed record,Private railwayIs only roughly listed at the end of the book.そのため、各社から個別の時刻表が発売されたり、が発行されるなど利用客向けの広報体制が整う時代(大まかにFor this reason, an era in which a public relations system for users is in place (roughly speaking), such as individual timetables being released or issued by each company.1980 eraIt is often difficult to investigate the diamonds before (around).Of course, past timetables include timetables for routes and trains that are now abolished, so you can enjoy fantasizing about railroad trips that are currently impossible.

More and more people are bringing mobile timetables because it is bulky to bring large timetables when traveling, but there are still people who bring large timetables.The reason is that railroad fans who make complicated travel plans need a large timetable with a lot of information in order to rebuild the itinerary in the unlikely event that the timetable is disturbed during the trip, and also on the train and meeting time. In his spare time, he can kill time by looking at a large timetable with a lot of information.Some people tear off only the necessary parts of the large format timetable,CopySome people do.

The publisher of the large timetable isKotsu ShimbunとJTB publishingNow that they have been consolidated into two companies, their tastes are largely divided.The former "JR timetable" is the official timetable after the conversion to JR.Honor trainIs easy to understand because it is displayed in red, there is a lot of information such as arrival time and departure line, and the latter "JTB timetable" has a long history as the official timetable "Timetable of the National Railways Supervised Transportation Corporation" in the JNR era. , The page layout is almost the same as in the JNR era, the page of the detailed map near the big city is easy to see by company color, and the reader's post such as "Good luck"ColumnIs listed as an advantage.

Of a travel writerShunzo MiyawakiIs his own bookTimetable 2km], All the lines of my national railwayComplete rideIs described as "getting on the timetable" instead of "getting on the train".

Nowadays[When?]"" Issued by the Japan Freight Railway CompanyFreight timetable"Butfreight trainIt is becoming a must-have item for railroad fans who shoot.

カメラ

Railroad hobbies, especiallyRailway photoInカメラIs an indispensable tool. Because various types of lenses are required from telephoto to wide-angleSingle lens reflexIs preferred. In particular, there are cases where multiple cameras are prepared at the same time like a professional for shooting that can not be missed in a single game, such as a special train with only one train. Small and lightweight and easy to carry in case you witness a sudden change in vehicle or unusual operation while commutingcompact cameraThere are also railroad fans who carry it without fail. However, with the spread of camera-equipped mobile phones and tablet computers, the number of cases where this is used as a substitute is increasing, and in recent yearsSmartphoneThere are also people who take full-scale photographs with their smartphones due to the high performance of their cameras.

Besides that, with a stepladdertripodIt can also be useful to use, and at famous shooting points and at the tip of the platform, fans with tripods may gather and engage in fierce battles for location. However, it is considered bad manners to set up a tripod on a crowded or narrow platform, and some stations are prohibited from bringing it in. For this reason, railway operators are increasingly demanding that they refrain from using tripods and stepladders at stations. Using a stepladder on a busy road along a railroad track, even if it is not a station, is both annoying and dangerous.

Fans who enjoy railroad photography are good "customers" of camera makers. Therefore, camera makers may support railroad fans. For exampleFuji Photo FilmWas sponsoring the "Good Trip Challenge 2km"CanonSince 1977, the magazine "Railway fan』Co-sponsoring the contest. Camera makers still often place advertisements in railroad hobby magazines.

Railroad fan overview

Composition and characteristics of Japanese railroad fans

The age group ranges from adolescents to the elderly.

There is an example in which a child becomes a railroad fan due to the influence of his parents when a railroad fan becomes a father / mother. On the other hand, people who are not so interested in railways until they have children may become railway fans by enjoying railway hobbies with their children. There is a genre called "Mama Tetsu" that is a mother and child and a railroad fan.

Use a lot of timetable tricksKyotaro NishimuraSaid that the editor in charge requested that one mistake be made in each work because the work that had a mistake that attracted the interest of railroad fans was sold by word of mouth.[4].

About the name in Japan

The names for "railroad fans" in Japan are not uniform, and are divided according to the times and contexts. The origins and changes in the times of each name will be described below.

"Railway fan"
The most common and safe name.As will be described later, until around 30, "railroad enthusiast" was the usual name.[Source required], The word "mania" became increasingly disliked and was widely used instead.
Even in English, railroad hobbyists are "railfan", And even in Japanese,"RailfanIs sometimes used.
In addition, "railroad fan"Magazine of the same nameIssueFriendship company Trademark registrationHowever, since the name is registered only in the genre of "magazines and newspapers", there is no problem in general use or commercial use in genres other than "magazines and newspapers".
"Tetsu-chan" "Tetsuchin"
Because it takes the nickname "... chan", it is widely used from familiar to discriminatory contexts, and fans themselves sometimes call themselves as nicknames. The time of occurrence is not clear, but it seems to be around 40, and it is said that it was originally a derogatory name. On the other hand, in the case of women, it is called "Micchan". This originated from the "road" of the "railroad"[Annotation 1].. In recent years, it is also called "Tetsuko" (described later).
"iron"
A word that has been widely used as a neutral name since the 2000s. It may be written in kana as "Tetsu" or "Tetsu". In most cases, the accent is placed on "te", which is distinguished from "iron" as a substance (same pronunciation as "iron" as a substance in Kansai).
Because it is simple, it is highly coined, and people who have a hobby of getting on a train (so-called exploring around the station)Traveling along the wayMay include)Riding iron", For those who have a hobby of shooting trainsShooting ironThere is also a name that distinguishes the genre of fans by supplementing the types of railway hobbies.
As a derivative wordThe degree of passion for railways is "ironExpressed as[Source required], For those who are not railroad fansNon-ferrous"Sometimes railroad fans call it. Also, the manga "Tetsuko's JourneyUnder the influence of "", female railroad fansTetsukoSometimes called[Annotation 2][Annotation 3].
"Railway hobbyist" "Railway enthusiast" "Railway enthusiast"
A name that should be called a Japanese translation of "railroad fan". Used in someJapaneseIt is rarely used in fields targeting railroad fans and railroad fans, probably because of its poor installation.
"Iron Kichi"
"RailwayLittle guyAbbreviation for. There is also a synonym such as "train kitchi". Although it is seen as discriminatory in modern times, it is not always used with a clear sense of discrimination in the context (in fact, "Train Kichi Showa History". 50 years of Japan seen from the car window(By Kaoru Nakamura,1987 There is a railway book called). The term "○○ kichi (karkichi, fishing kichi, etc.)" was widely used around 40, but it is now obsolete, including iron kichi.
"Railway mania"
Until around 30, it was commonly used as a name for railroad fans, and in many cases the fans themselves used it as a normal term. As mentioned earlier, it was a more general term than "railroad fan" at least at that time. However, due to the deterioration of the quality of fans as described later, the discrimination of the word "mania" was highlighted, and it was gradually recognized as a derogatory one.
Even now, many people use this word without discrimination against others, and it is not always a "contempt", but it is also true that there are many examples of its use in negative contexts. For this reason, many railroad fans do not like to be called this way.
The English word "Railway Mania"" Does not mean "railroad enthusiast" in Japanese, but railway construction during the early days of railways.Railway companyToSpeculationEnthusiastic about "Railway madnessIt has nothing to do with railway hobbies.
"Railway nerd" "Railway nerd"
Of the stigma and derogatory names, those that have been widely used recently.
"GeekIt happened with the spread of the word "otaku", and was created by confusing the nature of the railway hobby, which is a "deep world that ordinary people do not understand," with the so-called "otaku".[Annotation 4].
The above is further abbreviated as "Iron Ota""Iron nerdThere is also the name. Generally, it is treated as a more vulgar word.

Interest in railways outside Japan

Many Japanese railroad fans target only railroads within Japan, and not many hobbies target railroads outside Japan.

The reasons for this are as follows.

  • (Generally speaking) Japanese railways are "quite advanced among the railways in the world", so they are often satisfied in Japan.
  • For fans who enjoy riding trains, railroad hobbies also have the aspect of enjoying "Japanese travel", and foreign railways cannot enjoy this "Japanese travel" (Japanese territorial era). Railroad was built and developed by JapanTaiwan,Karafuto(Sakhalin), Japanese fans sometimes enjoy discovering the Japaneseness left in these areas.)
  • Japan is an island country, and in many ways there are few opportunities to come into contact with foreign railways, and the railway itself has no physical contact with other countries.
  • Postwar (especiallyHigh economic growth period(Since then) Japanese railways have developed uniquely (for example) different from the world's railways.Power distribution methodBy achieving this, in terms of technology and operation, from railways around the world,Galapagos"are doing[Annotation 5]
  • The so-called "language barrier", that is, the problem of language ability

In the past, it was said that there was a way to get information on railways outside Japan other than railway magazines, but now it is said.インターネットWith the development of, the amount of information and immediacy have been dramatically improved compared to before. By doing so (although there is a language problem), it can be said that the reason for "lack of information" is alleviated compared to before.

Japanese railroad fans are more likely not to be interested in railroads outside of Japan (although they are qualitative, not quantitative data). It can be seen from the fact that it is said that sales will drop and that articles outside Japan are not always popular.[Annotation 6].

Even if Japanese railroad fans target railroads outside Japan as a hobby, the target isEurope(EspeciallyFrance,Germany), Or Taiwan, which has a history of Japanese rule and is geographically adjacent South Korea, Sakhalin, etc., tend to be biased towards a very small number of countries / regions. Furthermore, there are many cases where the hobby is only railways that are highly noticed and exposed in Japanese student social studies (geography, etc.) textbooks, televisions, magazines, etc., such as high-speed railways and tourist railways.

In such a situation2000 eraAfter entering, I lost interest in the current Japanese railways, although it is a very small number, due to the modernization and rationalization of Japanese railways and the shrinking of local lines. There are also railroad fans who are newly interested in railroads other than Japan. In addition, vehicles that were once operated in Japan are now being transferred to overseas railway operators, and the spread of cheap airline tickets has made it difficult to feel the hurdles for traveling outside Japan. The hurdles for shooting and boarding foreign railroads are lower. The retired people, who have been fans of railways for many years, have a financial margin, so there is a phenomenon that they travel to see not only Japanese railways but also overseas railways. Travel products targeting these groups have also been prepared, and the phenomenon of attracting a large number of participants has begun to occur despite the fact that it is more expensive than general tourism.

Railroad fans in each country

In Europe and AmericaHeritage railwayThere are railroad fans who are engaged in volunteer activities and financial support for the operation and maintenance of preserved rolling stock.Heritage railwayIt is,United Kingdom,FranceIt is especially popular in such places.AmericaThen there is a group that repairs scrapped vehicles, displays them, and drives them. In addition, there are temperature differences in fan activities depending on the country or region, and they are included in the following former communist blocs.Eastern EuropeIn some countries, the law restricts photography of railway facilities.

Among the so-called "emerging economies" and countries in the former communal sphere, there are many countries where there are restrictions on railway hobbies due to "national defense reasons", and in other "developing countries" they are called "railroad hobbies". Not to mention the concept, there are many countries where there is no railroad that operates on a regular basis.

It also means "railroad nerd" and "railroad enthusiast" in Europe and the United States.wordExists.英語圏では、一般的にGenerally in the English-speaking worldRailfanIs a word that refers to railroad fans, but it means "mania"Geek,Nerd, Used in usaFoamer, Used in EnglandTrainspotter,Anorak,Crank,Grizzer,Gricer, Used in australiaGunzelな どSlangWords also exist.There are a number of words in these that have derogatory meanings, all of which are overly enthusiastic about railroads, indiscriminately runaway, and even annoying, and lack social adaptability. It is a word that ridicules railroad fans (corresponding to "nuisance iron" or "denchacha nerd", "scrap iron", etc. in Japan).

2001 May 9 OfSimultaneous terrorist attacksSince then, railroad fans for train photography have been in the United States.Police officerfromSuspicious cross-examinationThere are also cases of receiving[Annotation 7].

How to enjoy in each country

  • Fans from countries and regions other than Japan enjoy traveling, photography, models, collections, etc., just like Japan.
  • In Europe and the United States, with the cooperation of railway operatorsHeritage railwayChartered trains with or preserved cars may be operated on a large scale.
Europe
EuropeAs a unique hobby of, there is a hobby of "seeing a vehicle (train spotting)".Record the vehicle number of the train that goes back and forth at the end of the platform such as a station in a notebook, or read out the vehicle number while looking at the vehicle and record it.This is because in the continuous Europe, vehicles from multiple countries / regions are often connected to one train, which tickles the hearts of fans.ただし「トレイン・スポッティングをする人」を意味するHowever, it means "train spotting person"TrainspotterHas an insulting meaning as described above.
In addition, dynamic preservation on actual business routessteam locomotiveThere are also groups and organizations that run trains and trains as special group trains and event trains, and railways where you can actually experience train driving, and there are various ways to enjoy them.
The United States of America-Canada
Since the country is vast and the railway is mainly freight trains, the train schedule is not fixed, so when shooting a train, carry a radio.Train radioI often hear the current position of the train.Some fans simply record the number of the locomotive they witnessed.
There are also very wealthy fans, who sometimes rent trains on their own.また、線路上を走行可能なように整備されたIn addition, it was maintained so that it could run on the railroad tracks.SleeperOr on a luxurious sofaconference room,kitchenIncludes elements that make moving even more enjoyablePrivate carExists and those vehiclesAmtrakIt may be combined with regular passenger trains such as.
A collection of equipment from the heyday of passenger transport is thriving.なかでも、「レイルウェイ・チャイナ」と呼ばれる食堂車で使われた高級Among them, the luxury used in the dining car called "Railway China"TablewareCollection is rarely seen in other areas.また、鉄道会社の発行するAlso issued by a railway companyStock certificateSince there are often illustrations showing the characteristics of each railway company, there are fans who collect stock certificates, and there are collector shops that buy and sell stock certificates of the disappeared railway companies.
A large model railroad in my yardGarden railwayThere are also fans who lay.
Central america-South America
In Latin American countries, railroads are driven by large Western companiesPlantation(Agriculture:) AndmineMany routes have been laid to transport crops generated from development, and the routes themselves are "suspended", let alone passenger transportation, due to the influence of price trends and output of the crops to be transported, and the development of road traffic as an alternative means. There are many cases where it is.In many countries, the situation is unstable, and it may not be possible to take pictures of trains due to "safety issues".As a result, there are not many people who can be called railroad fans in the entire Latin American region.
However, in Latin America, the railway network is said to be the most developed in addition to the economy.BrazilとSouthern Cone(Argentine-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-チリ) Then, the railroad vehicle[6][7]And model railroad[8][9]Is manufactured, many homepages and enthusiast organizations about railways[10][11][12]Has been created, especially in Brazil and Argentina, several railway magazines[13][14][15][16]Is issued regularly,Brazilian Heritage Railway Association(ABPF) and(Spanish version)[17]Railway hobbies are pervasive, such as the existence of many railway preservation groups such as.Rioplatense Spanish,SpanishIn the Chilean dialect, there is even the word "Ferroaficionado" (amateur railroad person), which refers to railroad fans.[18][19]..It is popular as an important foot of the Argentine capitalBuenos Aires SubwayJapanese used subway cars are used in Japan, and there are also railroad fans heading to the site to take pictures and board from Japan.
Communist sphere
In the communist sphere, many railroads and related facilities are treated as military facilities, so there is a tendency for more restrictions on railroad photography than in the capitalist sphere, but mainly for inbound visitors. In some cases, railway operators carry out hands-on driving of steam locomotives.
Taiwan
In Taiwan1987 UntilMartial lawWas enforced, so there were restrictions on shooting railway facilities and rolling stock, but the number of fans has gradually increased in recent years.特にIn particularTaipei MRT-Taiwan High Speed ​​RailAfter the opening of, the increase is accelerating.Similar to Japan, some universities have a railway study group.1995 "Railway Culture Association" (Railway Culture Association), an organization of railway enthusiastsTetsudo Cultural Association) Was formed, a railway hobby magazineRail newsHas been issued.
South Korea
In South Korea, which is under the quasi-wartime regime, railways occupy an important military position, and there are restrictions on shooting railway facilities and rolling stock.Since few people have a hobby of railways, most of the information is sent by inbound visitors who live in or visit Korea.In recent years, shooting regulations have tended to be relaxed more than before.But in South Korea, the railway is "Aversion facilityThe concept is strong,Donghaenambu Line,Gyeongui Line-Gyooe Lineでsteam locomotiveSightseeing trains have been run by, but none of them have been long-lasting ("MugunghwaRefer to the item).一方で豪華On the other hand luxuriousSleeper train"Herang"No.Sea train,Good lineUtilized the traces of abandoned railways such asRail bikeThere are also attempts to increase railroad fans, such as the operation of the railway.
Indonesia
It has existed since the colonial era of the Netherlands, and the Indonesian word edan, which means madman, and the Dutch word, edan, which means railway, are collectively called edan sepur.It is also called railfan in English style. The Indonesian Edance Pole Club was established in 2009 and sells goods at the railway specialty store "Prasasti".
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
In Mongolia, restrictions on photography for railway facilities and vehicles have been relaxed after democratization.また、NHKの番組「行くぞ!最果て!秘境×鉄道」では、同国に3人しかいないという「撮り鉄」が紹介されたAlso, in the NHK program "Go! The End! Unexplored Area x Railroad", "Taketetsu" was introduced, which says that there are only three people in the country.[20]There is also a railway museum in Ulaanbaatar.
Chugoku
China is very strict about shooting etiquette, and there are cases where there are restrictions on the entrance time to the station and there are cases where you are detained trying to shoot.In recent years, railway hobbies have become widespread, and some universities also have railway study groups.
Russia
During the Soviet era, railroad cars and facilities were regarded as military information, and photography was basically prohibited.Nowadays, it is basically possible to take pictures, and many railroad photographs are posted on the site (trainpix.org) and Instagram where railroad fans exchange information.

In addition,Myanmar Railways,State Railway of Thailand·Indonesia(KRL Jabotabeck) Operates railroad cars transferred from Japanese operators, so some Japanese railroad fans travel to those countries for the purpose of boarding and photographing vehicles that have already retired in Japan.

Annoying and criminal acts by railroad fans

In activities related to railway hobbies, I do not understand mannersAnnoyingSome people repeat.In addition to acts that cause trouble to other users, such as trying to recklessly shoot and record in the train or inside the station, and the confrontation with station staff and security guards, the property of the railway companystealTo saycrimeEven acts have occurred.There are many troubles with general passengers and neighbors along the railway line due to the behavior of these malicious fans.In addition, some railway companies have a tendency to reduce or not plan fan services (special operation of dynamic preservation vehicles, open to the public of depots, etc.) in consideration of these annoying acts. ..

It was in the 1970s that such annoying acts increased in Japan.steam locomotiveWith the total abolition "SL boomThe fans spread remarkably with "", followed by "Blue trainIt is believed that the cause was the influx of young people at that time due to the "boom."In this era, train photography became popular, and at the same time, taking place at shooting spots, trespassing, rushing into dangerous areas, etc.theft-Vandalism・ Illegal acts such as train obstruction and overheated railroad fans wandering along the railway line at midnight to shoot night trains became a problem.[Annotation 8].

Railroad fansCar fanUnlike, it is extremely difficult to directly own a hobby object.There are cases where equipment for vehicles dismantled at railway-related events is sold, but the vehicles themselves are transferred or donated (Shigeta SaitoIn some cases, appropriate financial strength and connection are required.[Annotation 9]..Perhaps because of this background, preserved vehicles and equipment on the railroad premises may be stolen.[Annotation 10]..When fans gather for driving event trains, forwarding scrapped cars, opening or abolishing routes, etc., the current situation is that the public's reputation for railroad fans is declining due to the inconvenience of those who lack manners as described above.

The following is an example of annoying acts.

  • Crime / legal violation
    • Railroad vehicles, parts and equipment of related facilities, etc.theft-Destruction / removal[21][22][23][24][25][26].
    • Unauthorized entry into railway sites that are off limits[27][28]
    • For railway sitesDrone(Multicopter)
    • Unauthorized felling and removal of vegetation and structures along the line (for the purpose of photography)
    • The act of forcibly breaking through a railroad crossing that is blocked at a type 1 railroad crossing, or the act of approaching a passing train at a type 3 and type 4 railroad crossing and taking a picture.
    • Dumping garbage to the shooting location
    • The act of stealing the uniform of a railroad worker[29]
    • Driver's cabInvasion (punished by Article 33 of the Railway Business Law)[30]
  • Annoying acts / violations of manners (other than crimes / violations of laws and regulations. Depending on the degree, punishment such as murder, assault, injury, obstruction of power business, obstruction of official duties, danger of traffic may be applied)
    • Take a photo at a position outside the white line of the home (see the photo at the beginning)
    • Shooting with equipment protruding into the track site
    • Shooting invading the track[31]
    • Flash photography toward a running train (dangerous because it may impair the driver's field of vision or adversely affect signal confirmation, etc.)
    • Obstruction of the passage of other general passengers by using stepladders and tripods on platforms and aisles in cars (so-called hinadan)
    • Acts such as reaching out from the window of a running train or raising printed matter
    • Unreasonable demands on railway companies, such as opposition to scrapping railway vehicles, preservation and transfer. In particular, there are many people who make only requests for preservation and are reluctant to spend expenses for preservation and maintenance, so-called "speaking but not paying" attitude.[32].
    • Because they absolutely take the policy of a particular railroad operator for railcars and services, or do not suit their personal tastes.[33]Acts that criticize or slander railway companies.Such criticisms are seen not only by general fans but also by some railway magazines and specialized books, and often occur because of the author's prejudice or the publisher's failure to verify the facts.[34].
    • Acts of swearing at other railroad fans, general users, residents along the railway line, etc. for reasons such as "entering the frame at the time of shooting" (so-called swearing competition)[35]
    • Station staff, security guards, and guards who pay attention to and stop hobby activitiesRailroad policeConflict with such.
    • Without the consent of the person, the railway-related employees are photographed without permission, and the images are published on the net.
    • To go to the shooting locationKissel ridedo.

Market size and future of railway hobbies in Japan

Nomura Research Institute"Otaku Market Research" by the Otaku Market Forecasting Team (Toyo Keizai Inc.), It is estimated that there are about 3 to 5 railroad fans and the market size is 40 billion yen. The amount of money spent varies depending on the field of hobbies, but it is analyzed that the amount of spending will be large in the fields of models and collections.

In 2007, the drama "Limited Express Tanaka 3",Anime"Tetsuko's Journey", TV programs featuring railway hobbies are now being broadcast, andBaby boom generationIn some cases, such as those who become railroad fans after retirement, they are expecting the market to expand.

However, according to the report of the Institute, railway hobbies are analyzed as hobbies that are in a "stable / declining period" due to "a slowdown in product supply due to a decrease in the number of sales and users" and "a decrease in new users". , Analyzing that the market size will shrink in the future and will be flat at best[36].

History of railroad hobbies

History of railway hobbies outside Japan

Taiwan

1891 (17th year of Guangxu), the first generationTaiwan patrolLiu MeidenDuring his termQing Dynasty Taiwan Railway OfKeelung Station - Oinaga Station(First generationTaipei Station) After openingJapanese ruleAfter expanding the route network of, it became established as a means of mass transportation.

after thatZhongshan HighwayTaking the opportunity of all of the (1978)motorizationWith the development ofTaiwan Railway Management Bureau(Taiwan Railways)Taiwan Sugar RailwaysHas been discontinued one after another,Taiwan High Speed ​​RailAnd each cityMRTIntroducing next-generation vehicles and aiming to improve the competitiveness of Taiwan Railways with the opening ofTourist trainOperation, Japanese National Railways "Aikoku StationとHappiness stationAuspicious ticket that is said to have been influenced byYongkang StationとSecurity station"Yasuyasu Eiho" is the most famous. If you read 4 letters clockwise from eternity, it will be an auspicious sentence "Keep a peaceful life and a healthy body forever") (For detailszh: auspicious train ticket), The number of cases such as the operation of revival trains, which are conscious of added value, including hobby fields, rather than simply railways as a means of transportation, is increasing.

As mentioned above1987 Until then, due to martial law, there were many restrictions on shooting and publishing.1988 May 6(Railway section: In TaiwanTrain day)National Transportation UniversityIn the circle "Kodai Railway Study GroupWas launched. The following year, as a newsletter of the Iron Research Institute of the University of TransportationRail news(Later made into a regular magazine) was launched.1990 ToNational Taiwan UniversityButHong Fu WenEstablished the circle "Tetsudo Kasha Kenkyusha"1992 Is the first privately-owned railway hobby book in Taiwan, "Taiwan Railways AdministrationTaitan Railway Denki) ”Was published. This series of movements triggered the generalization of railway hobbies among young civilians. Students and graduates mainly from Taiwan University and Jiao Tong University1995 ToRepublic of China Railway Culture AssociationBy recording, preserving, and publishing in the Taiwan Railways industry, which was undergoing a transformation, activities for the preservation and succession of railway culture beyond the framework of hobbies became socially significant. With the rise of railroad hobbiesインターネットThe age group of people who are considered to be heavyweights in the railroad fan world is younger than in Japan today, and many of them have official personal websites and official blogs.Taiwan Railways AdministrationFan forums represented by (TRC, now out of service),PTT (Critical 踢),KomicaSuch as majorElectronic bulletin boardHowever, online activities are more active than the population, such as the space dedicated to railways, and in recent yearsSocial Media,In particularFacebookThe specific gravity has shifted to.

Railway modelAt first, it was a flower of Takamine who liked imported products from Japan, the United States and Europe, mainly among the wealthy.2003 Was founded inTouch-Rail ModelsIn recent years, domestic train models have been commercialized and mass-produced one after another.

Due to its geographical and historical background, Japan has a high weight not only overseas but also in the railway field in Taiwan. AlsoHaji tribeRepresented byGeek cultureDue to the influence of (Otaku tribe culture), railroad fans are usually called "Rail fan" (English is Rail fan), but due to the diversification of fan genres in recent years, one of the representative railroad researchers and scholars. ofZhaoxu SuIs ""Fan Railway Man" (English: Rail devotee)(Meaning "railroad carer" and "railroad enthusiast" respectively)[37].

From Japansub cultureDigestion is quick,Kaohsiung Girl,Taiwan Railways GirlRepresented byRailway personificationHas achieved its own evolution. AlsoTakehiko InoueCartoon workSLAM DUNKUnder the influence ofTaitungSouthlink lineTaimali StationA scene around the nearby Taimali railroad crossing appears in the workKamakurakoukoumae StationIt became a hot topic that it was similar to the one at the No. 1 railroad crossing, and non-railroad fans also visited.Pilgrimage to sacred placesIt has become a spot[38].

On the other hand, annoying acts in Japan are also spreading, and entry into the railroad tracks and entry into private land at the time of shooting has become a problem.[39][40].

Czech Republic

OnceAustrian EmpireInCzech royal territory,Margrave of Morava, It was the upper and lower Czech SilesiaCzech RepublicSince the 19th century, the railway network has been laid all over the country, and at the beginning of the 20th century, the main lines leading to the present were almost open. 19世紀には既に鉄道趣味が見られ、19世紀後半に活躍した作曲家A composer who had a hobby of railways in the XNUMXth century and was active in the latter half of the XNUMXth century.Antonin DvorakIs said to have been an avid railroad fan.

History of railroad hobbies in Japan

Dawn-prewar

The history of the act of targeting railways as a hobby is old, and it is said that it began with the history of railways.poet OfWakayama MakimizuThere were many writers who liked rail travel and wrote down their experiences.However, it seems that it took some time before a clear "railroad hobbyist" appeared.poets-fairy taleWriter'sKenji MiyazawaIs interested in railways, and although there are many descriptions using railways in his own work, it is a little different from "mania" in the modern sense.

A person who clearly says "exploring railways at a level different from occupation"1902 から1907 I took pictures of railways all over the countryTeruya Iwasaki It is said that (1887 --1956) and (1880 --1921) are the beginnings.この2人が写真家のThese two are photographersKazuma OgawaThe enormous number of photographs taken by requesting the "Iwasaki / Watanabe Collection"Railway museumIt is owned by.

Although the names were not widely known like these two names, it has been pointed out that there may be other people who have shown an interest in railways and personally explored them, for example, running a liquor store in Yokohama. It is said that Sadaji Tajima (1889-1957), who had been doing this, observed the steam locomotive that had been running between Keihin since the 30's of the Meiji era in detail and left his testimony in his later years.[41].

"Railway enthusiasts" from the early days of railways are centered on economically wealthy people.岩崎輝彌はTeruya IwasakiMitsubishi ZaibatsuFounderIwasaki familyShiro Watanabe is a member ofWatanabe BankA family of founders.Also,TaishoI was already comparing locomotives and first-class cars as a hobby in those daysUchida HyakkenIs an army and navy schoolUniversityTeach a language at教授was.

Considering the standard of living of ordinary people at that time, it is modern, including railway hobbies.HobbiesI couldn't afford to do it.Railroad hobbies will not become widespread among the general public until the time goes down (generally after the 1970s).

ShowaInitially "Train"(1929 ) "Railway hobby"(1933 ) "Camera and locomotive"(1938 ), Magazines and books specializing in railway hobbies have also been published.However, these were not sold on the distribution system, and the circulation and readership were extremely small.As a railroad hobbyist who has been active since this time,Kichitaro Takamatsu,,,Kinjiro Miyamatsu, Eiji Kineya and others.They have also become masters of railroad photography, and their vast collection of photographs is still fully utilized.

However, in the 10s of the Showa era, the domestic market gradually becameMilitarismAs we leaned toward, the military aspect of the railway became more important, and for reasons of military secrecy, photography from high places was prohibited, and restrictions on railway hobbies became stricter.In addition, due to the advancement of paper control due to the wartime system, "railroad" and "railroad hobby" were forced to be discontinued one after another from 1937 to 1938.After that, a hobbyist doujinshi was set up in Kanto and Kansai.1940 "" In Kanto, "" in KansaiClassic locoA membership-based douujinshi was published, but these are also the next1941 The publication ended in, and after thatPacific WarUntil the end of the railway hobby activity was virtually impossible.

However, some railroad hobbyists continued their hobby activities, evading strict guards and taking tearful efforts and risks.公共機関の輸送力は軍事機密であったため、駅構内などで鉄道車両に直接カメラを向けたり、車両番号をノートに書き留めたりする行為は完全に禁止(不可能)となったSince the transportation capacity of public institutions was a military secret, it was completely prohibited (impossible) to point the camera directly at a railroad vehicle or write down the vehicle number in a notebook inside a station.[42]..If found,spyA harsh interrogation on suspicion awaited.The photos that I finally took with the permission of the authoritiescensorshipIt was a dark age of railroad hobby, such as being mercilessly buried by a railroad, but it is well known that the vehicle number was written down between the lines of a math textbook in order to disguise the surrounding eyes.

In addition, the effects of the war are not limited to these hobby activities, but records such as photographs accumulated and collected by hobbyists before the war and various materials are available.Air raidBurned down by[Annotation 11], Immediately after the end of the warForeign landfromSalvageMany have been lost due to being abandoned at the time.

After the war

Although the domestic situation was confused after the end of the war, many hobbyists took pictures of railways even shortly after the war because the restrictions on railway photography were reduced.Also,TroopsIt was around this time that some of the color film brought in by the company flowed to the Japanese market, and railroad hobbyists began to record railroads with color photographs.Color films at that time were expensive, poor in quality and performance, had low sensitivity, were prone to light leakage, and were prone to fading over time, so there are few high-quality color photographs, but in recent years, advances in computer-based image correction technology Due to its widespread use, there are many cases in which the poor photographs of those days are seen as a valuable record.

1946 Around that time, hobbyist doujinshi associations were set up mainly in the Kanto and Kansai regions, and douujinshi began to be published.

1947 As the first railway hobby magazine after the warRailway model hobbyHas been launched. This is originallyRailway modelAlthough it is a specialized magazine of, there was also an article about a real railroad car.1951 , The first railroad hobby magazine on the general distribution organization "Railway pictorialWas launched. Also,Uchida Hyakken 1950 Announced fromAbo trainThe series is said to be a pioneer of railway travel literature.

1953 Is Japan's first nationwide railway enthusiast groupRailroad Friends AssociationWas established. Also oldEthnic familyでEmperor ShowaPrincessTakamiyaMarried toTakashi Hei-dori(Known as a vehicle connoisseur)Transportation MuseumBecame the director of.The place where railroad enthusiasts gather because the Transportation Museum was opened in Kanda near AkihabaraAkihabaraBecame a base and had a considerable influence on other enthusiasts of different genres as well. Even now, it is often said that Akihabara is the information transmission base for railway hobbies.

1960 era

1960 eraEntering, in the midst of high economic growthTokaido ShinkansenThe opening of the railway and the renewal of railway vehicles and equipment are progressing rapidly, and excellent vehicles are introduced one after another. However, at the same time, it was two sides of the same coin with the elimination of old vehicles. Also in this era, the maintenance of the road networkbusDue to the expansion of routes, local private railways all over the country were forced out of business. Against this background of the times, railway hobbies were mainly railway vehicles and trains and the accompanying railway photography. There was also ticket collection, but it was a minority.

As a railroad hobby magazine, following "Railway Pictorial"1961 IsRailway fan"1967 IsRailway journalWas launched. The center of these articles was also railroad cars and trains.1962 From "Railway Pictorial" magazineWaste lineAn article about this was also published, and it became the beginning of a hobby of abandoned railway tracks.

1970 era

1970 ,Discover Japan'CampaignHas begun.1970 eraWhen you entersteam locomotiveThe decline in steam locomotives has become a social concern, and many people have begun to see and photograph steam locomotives. So-called"SL boom". In the form of multiplying this1972 New railway hobby magazine "SL Diamond Information" (1976 "Railroad timetable informationThe title was changed to "") was launched. In the same yearJapanese railway openingJapan's first steam locomotive to commemorate the 100th anniversaryDynamic preservationFacility "Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum"But,Kyoto CityIt was opened using the roundhouse of the Umekoji locomotive district in Japan, and 16 modern Japanese steam locomotives of 17 types were housed in the same building.

When the steam locomotive was completely abolished in 1976,Passenger car sleeper limited express train(Blue train) Has increased. So-called"Blue train boom"Met. Due to the SL boom and the Blue Train boom, the number of railroad fans has increased rapidly, especially among the younger generation, but on the other hand, there are voices who are concerned about the deterioration of the quality of railroad fans. ButBaby boomersUnlike the SL boom, which was the center of hobbies, the Blue Train boom is the center of hobbies.<span>Grade 1-2</span>-Middle school studentsProbably because it was, there were moral problems such as shooting at the station at midnight on holidays and the day before the holidays,Etiquette The problem did not appear so much. furtherTimetable revision in November 1978When the head mark with a picture was adopted on the limited express train of the Japanese National Railways, it also gained popularity and many limited expresses arrived and departed.Ueno StationOn holidays, the home was crowded with many boy fans who visited for shooting.

1980 era

1978 ToShunzo Miyawaki National railwayWhole lineComplete rideAchieved and spelled out the processTimetable 2km"announced. Furthermore, the Japanese National Railways saidGood trip challenge 20,000kmIn addition to the campaign and MiyawakiNaoki TanemuraBecause of the writing activity ofTrain travelHas become established as a field of railway hobby.

Also at that timePrivatization of the national railway divisionThat is, a huge business that was unprecedented in the world at that time was underway,Reizo KawashimaDue to the influence of writing activities such as, the number of railroad fans who build their own theory has increased.

1990 era

Books on railways have come to be published from various perspectives,Information technology(IT) has become widespreadNifty ServeRailroad forums andNet news Offj.rec.railAs information has become easier to disseminate and browse, new types of hobbies have been created one after another, and railway hobbies have diversified.1995 From aroundWindows95With the release ofIndividualAbout railroad hobbiesWebsite,Electronic bulletin boardThe number of enthusiasts who open the site has also increased.

As a feature of this eraShinkansenHas become a major railway hobby.This is because new routes have been opened one after another, and JR companies have introduced new and modified cars one after another according to their uses, and the variety of cars has become richer at once.

Since the 2000s

インターネットWith the further spread of the system, personal homepages and electronic bulletin boards have been opened by hobbyists since the latter half of the 1990s.In addition, advances in image and audio digitization technology,Video posting siteHas emerged, and the railroad photographedimageAnd recorded railroadvoiceHas become popular for publication and posting.さらには鉄道趣味専門のFurthermore, specializing in railway hobbiesPortal siteAnd some people run electronic bulletin board sites.Social MediaSince the spread of railways, an environment has been created in which information can be immediately exchanged and shared between railway fans, and railway information can be obtained more quickly. It was also around this time that a large number of fans gathered and annoying acts became noticeable.

In addition,103 series,113 series,485 series,24 seriesThe number of fans of these JNR-type rolling stock is increasing due to the successive scrapping of JNR-type rolling stock, which is especially popular with railroad fans.

Railroad magazine

Many magazines for railroad fans have also been published.日本国外でもEven outside JapanRailroad magazineHas been issued.Many magazines are published in some countries, and it is a characteristic of Japanese foreign magazines that many magazines specialize in specific fields such as "urban railways", "trams", and "garden railways".

Japan
  • Railway pictorial(Electric Vehicle Study Group)… First published in 1951.Japan's oldest railroad hobby magazine for real railroads, not models.Its strength lies in its detailed dissertation articles based on in-depth research.
  • Railway fan(Friendship company)… First published in 1961.Handles all railway hobbies.大手カメラメーカーであるA major camera makerCanonHas strengths in photography, such as holding a photo contest from readers with the cooperation of.
  • Railway journal(Railway Journal → Seibido Shuppan)… First published in 1967. We advocate "specialized information magazine that thinks about the future of railways".
  • Railroad timetable information(Kotsu Shimbun)… First published in 1972. "JR timetableAs a publisher, we have strengths in timetable information.
  • Rail magazine (Cat publishing)… First published in 1983.It has strengths in topics such as minor vehicles, vehicles that are about to retire or are scrapped, and discontinued lines.
  • Railway model hobby(Machinery publisher)… It is a magazine that basically deals with model railroads.
  • Torein(Elie)
  • RM MODELS(Neko Publishing) ... A magazine that focuses on model railroads.
United Kingdom
  • The Railway Magazine: A historic railway magazine first published in 1897.
  • Modern Railways
  • Railways Illustrated
  • Tramways & Urban Transit: A railroad magazine specializing in trams.
  • Railway Gazette International: It is not a so-called hobby magazine, but an "industry magazine" in Japan, but you can get the latest information on railways around the world.
  • International Railway Journal (IRJ): Like the Railway Gazette International above, it's an "industry magazine", but you can also get the latest information on railways around the world.
France
  • Revue Generale des Chemins de Fer
  • La Vie du Rail
  • Rail & Public Transport
Germany
  • Eisenbahn Kurier: In the German railway magazine, it is the best of the two, along with the Eisenbahn Journal.
  • Eisenbahn Journal: Like the Eisenbahn Kurier above, it is the most famous railway magazine in Germany.
  • Eisenbahn Magazin
Netherlands
  • Op de rail
America
  • Trains: America's most famous railroad magazine.CanadaBut it is on sale and features a variety of content.
  • Railway Age: A railway magazine first published in 1876.
  • Railfan and Railroad
Taiwan
  • Rail news: A railway magazine first published in 1989.
South Korea
  • Railers: A railroad magazine first published in 2009. It is also a magazine that symbolizes the spread of railway hobbies in the country, where the railway itself was regarded as a "disgusting facility" for military reasons.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The accent of both "Tecchan" and "Micchan" is in the place of "Cha". The word "Tetsu-chan" is a railway driving game that has become popular with general game players.GO by train!It is also used as the name of the navigation character.
  2. ^ Incidentally,Yoshinobu YamaguchiCartoon ofSpecialty! Tabitetsu Tomo no KaiSince the word "Tetsuko" can already be seen on the page introducing letters from readers in the book, "Tetsuko" was already seen in the 1990s.TetsukoIt can be seen that there was a word.
  3. ^ 2007 OctoberFrom the same yearOctoberUntilTBSThe TV drama "Limited Express Tanaka 3”Mainly used the nickname of“ Tetsu ”.
  4. ^ The word "railroad nerd" is used in TV programs dealing with otaku culture (most of the content has nothing to do with railroads), as if all railroad hobbyists were "nerds" (although not really). It is a representative of otaku culture for railroad fans and that it is explained.Two dimensions,Moe AnimeThe fact that many people like this is also a factor in spreading the word.
  5. ^ "People who are interested in" Galapagos-ized Japanese railways "itself" and "People who feel that there are many similarities between Japanese railways compared to overseas railways and that it is easier to pursue in the form of plus alpha" There is a pattern.
  6. ^ For example, "Railway journalIn the March 1997 issue, a special feature on European railways was featured over about 3 pages, but in the popularity poll of the readers of that month, articles in Japan were all ranked high, and articles outside Japan were not. There is a case that it was popular.
  7. ^ Not for railroad fans, but on the TV show "From the world car windowIn the location after the terrorist incidentニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク-Pennsylvania StationThere was a case of being "cross-examined twice" when shooting at, and "caught three times" when shooting a train along the railway line.Susquehanna RiverWhen the camera was installed for shooting on the bridgefreight train OfDriverIt was reported to the police by the police, he wrote in the shooting diary.[5]
  8. ^ Because I escalated too much1976 In (51), an accident in which an elementary school student invaded the railroad track for photography and was run over by a train and died (Keihan 100th Anniversary Accident) Occurs, making it virtually impossible to preserve and operate steam locomotives in the vicinity of large cities (because it costs too much to guard along the lines to prevent accidents), resulting in a disadvantage for the fans themselves. There is also.
  9. ^ Vehicles themselves are often transferred free of charge (because the dismantling costs that are originally required for railway companies are not incurred), but enormous costs are required for land preparation, transportation, and repair for storage and storage.
  10. ^ These acts are popularShooting ironOverStealing ironIt is ridiculed as such.
  11. ^ Eiji Kineya has also lost her collection due to the war damage.

Source

  1. ^ <City of Trees Charen> Connecting people with people through pictures "Drawing iron" to support railway reconstruction - Kahoku Shimpo
  2. ^ Kanagawa Prefecture Takatetsuren
  3. ^ Kanto Gakutetsuren Official BlogThan
  4. ^ What is your favorite timetable? The secret of the creation of "Kyotaro Nishimura" - Oriental economyOnline
  5. ^ TV Asahi-Telecom staff. "America Edition Shooting Diary". 2018/8/11Browse.
  6. ^ MATERFER
  7. ^ BOM SINAL
  8. ^ Frateschi
  9. ^ MINITRENES FERROMODELISMO ARGENTINO
  10. ^ amigosdeltren.cl
  11. ^ CazaTrenes
  12. ^ Centro-Oeste. Brasil
  13. ^ REVISTA FERROVIÁRIA
  14. ^ Todo Trenes
  15. ^ REVISTA RDI
  16. ^ Tren Rodante
  17. ^ Ferroclub Argentino CDP Escalada
  18. ^ Ferroaficionados argentinos
  19. ^ Grupo Ferroaficionados Uruguay
  20. ^ let's go! The end! Unexplored region x railway "Mongolia superb view train" --NHK, Viewed on December 2020, 5
  21. ^ "Wal iron" dark leap? A series of thefts on the Miki Railway, which is about to be discontinued[Broken link] Sankei Shimbun March 2008, 3
  22. ^ JR Tsubojiri Station (Miyoshi), which is popular for its "unexplored region" where 9 notebooks are lost[Broken link] Tokushima Shimbun April 2009, 4
  23. ^ Unexplored station stamp again suffered stolen from Tsubojiri station? Will disappear in late AugustTokushima Shimbun February 2018, 12
  24. ^ Equipment for in-car broadcasting is stolen from the train JR North "Undelivered person" Asahi Shimbun November 2016, 5
  25. ^ Expulsion inspection of a man suspected of stealing XNUMX points such as the head mark of a limited express Asahi Shimbun November 2016, 6
  26. ^ Is it an obstacle to SL shooting? Yamaguchi loses railroad sign, suspected theft investigation Asahi Shimbun November 2017, 8
  27. ^ Delayed by JR due to "Taketetsu" invasion Tripod on the side of the Kansai line - Kyodo News・ Nihon Keizai Shimbun May 2010, 5
  28. ^ Shooting "Hikyo Station", sending documents to office workers who entered the railroad track Yomiuri Shimbun May 2012, 2
  29. ^ Fraud case: A woman who likes railroads called Tetsuko, suspected of stealing JR West uniform Mainichi Newspaper March 2013, 2
  30. ^ Tobu 6050 series,Tobu 10000 seriesThis is always stated on the gangway door in the car in the form of operation that involves the addition and disassembly of such items.
  31. ^ "Take iron" on the railroad track hurriedly escaped ... The train stopped urgentlyANN July 2021, 3
  32. ^ "Railway fanNovember 1986, p11
  33. ^ "Railway Fan" June 1994 issue, P6
  34. ^ Shigeki Sakagami “More than a question about Takagi steam locomotive technical theory”(
  35. ^ "Come on, go down! Go down!" A person concerned (3/7) who is wary of the approaching "X-Day" and "funeral iron" runaway Sankei Digital iza January 2015, 1
  36. ^ "NRI Newsletter Vol.38 Data Trend: 172 million Yen, 4110 Billion Yen" Otaku "Market" --October 2005, 10, Public Relations Department, Nomura Research Institute, Ltd. (PDF)
  37. ^ (Traditional Chinese)Affiliated and enthusiastic loveZhaoxu Su Asahi Roshi-like global railway visual field disqualification
  38. ^ (Traditional Chinese)[1]August 2015, 11,Union News
  39. ^ (Traditional Chinese)Railroad stray "Keikyu 700" 闖淨 區 3 Komekon near-beat train suddenlyAugust 2016, 12,ETNEWS
  40. ^ (Traditional Chinese)Direct orbit, forbidden ya hard sword! Railroad Stray Beating Flower Act Super 脫 OrderOctober 2016, 10, ETNEWS
  41. ^ Ichiro Ito "Ayumi of Railroad Hobby" "Railway journal』October 1972 issue, P10
  42. ^ "Ministerial Ordinance No. 17 National Railways Military Resource Secret Protection Regulations" "Government Bulletin" September 1939, 9(National Diet Library Digital Collection)

References

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