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🏥 | "One Health", which is more important in Corona, learns from the knowledge of experts about the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems.


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"One health" that is even more important in the corona disaster-one of the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems is learned from the knowledge of experts

 
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Juichi Yamagiwa, Professor Emeritus of Kyoto University, explained this by taking Ebola hemorrhagic fever infected with wild gorillas in Africa as an example.
 

At the same time as the beginning of 2022, the sixth wave of Omicron strains rapidly gained momentum in Japan for the new coronavirus infection ... → Continue reading

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Ebola

Ebola(Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola hemorrhagic fever[† 1][† 2]EHF), orEbola disease(Ebola virus disease; EVD)FiloviridaeEbola virus Ofウ イ ル スThePathogenAcute viralInfection.Marburg disease,Lassa fever,South American hemorrhagic fever,Crimean Congo hemorrhagic feverAlong with viralHemorrhagic feverHowever, since infected people do not always have bleeding symptoms, the international name is changing from Ebola hemorrhagic fever to Ebola virus disease.[1][2].

Human capitalWhen the start of treatment is delayed due to infection withLethalityIs up to 80-90% (depending on the virus)[3]..Also, even if it could save lives, it would be serious.SequelaeMay leave,Risk groupIt is one of the level 4 viruses.On the other hand, it has not reached a pandemic because it is so toxic and lethal that patients die before they have the opportunity to travel (which is mild because of its relatively low case fatality rate). Easy for patients to go outPandemicCausedHXNUMXNXNUMX influenza,New coronavirus infectionIs the difference with).

2019/January,WHO TheEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAbout the pandemic inPublic Health Emergency of International Concerns (PHEIC)Specified in[3].

Overview

Ebola virus is 80-800 in size nmElongatedRNA virus.StringShape, U-shaped,springThe shape such as the shape is not fixed, and there are various types.Unlike many other virusesImmune systemDisturbdecoyIt has the characteristic of almost completely slipping through the defense mechanism of the living body.This leads to high infectivity.It is also a component of somatic cells during viral replication.proteinBy decomposing, it damages all tissues and exerts the strongest toxicity.In addition, the virusImmune systemIs the center ofWhite blood cellDestroyed in large quantities,Cytokine stormAwakeBlood vesselInjured,thrombusMakeliverThe whole body includingOrganAffect.These multiple attacks will surely kill the affected person.Ebola virus is not only the most virulent, but also can be infected with about 5 viruses.whoIt is designated as a pathogen of risk group 4 of (WHO) and is handled in laboratories and research facilities.Biosafety levelIs required to have a maximum of 4[4].

The virus was first discovered in June 1976.スーダンSouthwest (now:南 ス ー ダ ダ)ofWestern EquatoriaAfter being hospitalized in a town in Nzara, where a man working as a sokoban suddenly felt a high fever of 39 degrees and pain in his head and abdomen.Digestive organ,noseHe bleeds violently and died.After that, two people who were near the man also developed the same disease, and it started from that.bloodThe infection spread through medical devices and medical devices.Ultimately, the damage in Nuzara was 284 infected and 151 dead.

And at that time, near the birthplace of this first manZaire(Current:Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu)ofEbola river(Buddha: Ebola / Ébola) FromEbola virusWas named[5]..IllnessEbolaWas named[5]..After that, Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred 10 times in the African continent suddenly and spread, and if the early detection and treatment start of the patient are delayed, the case fatality rate rises to 80-90%.[3].

otherUnited KingdomHowever, infected patients have been confirmed,UKSuburbsCanterburyA 34-year-old female was allegedly taken to a hospital as an infected person.[6].

Source of infection

Central Africa (Sudan,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ガボン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu),West Africa(コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル(Aibori Coast, Ivory Coast. 1 import),(I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,シエラレオネ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu),South AfricaIt develops in (1 case imported from Gabon).alsoフィリピンSo I got infectedCynomolgus monkeyとDream PorkHas been found (monkeysThe United States of AmericaとItalyExported to, the virus was found. ).

Natural host

Natural hostAlthough not yet identified, multiple speciesFlying foxesIs considered to be influential[7][1].monkeyAlthough there are cases of infection fromCareersnotHuman capitalSame asDoomsday hostIs.Also, in the field, monkeysSmokedIt seems that there are rumors that this is the cause of the habit of eating[8].

The English scientific journal "Nature』In GabonFrancevilleAccording to a survey by teams such as the International Medical Research Center, the flying fox familyHammer-headed bat,(English edition),(English edition)Etc. are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus, and the localEdible batInfection from is published in a research paper[9].

Transmission route

Patient's blood, secretions,Excrement,salivaSuch asSplash infectionIs the main transmission route.Patient and itsbody fluidClose contact with the body is a problem and can also be transmitted from contact with the body of a deceased patient.Although the infectivity of Ebola virus is strong,AirborneOf infected peoplebody fluidIf you don't touch the blood or blood, you won't get infected.[10]..The spread of infection that has been seen so far is also in patients who have died.FuneralMany of them were caused by contact with the patient's blood or body fluids due to lack of medical equipment (syringes, gloves, etc.), and there was no airborne infection.[11]..patient'sisolationIf the measures are taken sufficiently, it will not be infected.

Presence or absence of airborne infection
The United States of AmericaReston"Ebola Reston strain" (currently for humans) whose terminal host is the monkey identified by the epidemic of the infection, which became apparent during the commercial import of monkeys in Japan.PathogenicityNot[12]) Is known as an example that strongly embodies the possibility of airborne infection, but of Ebola.human bodyIt cannot be said to definitively define the possibility of airborne transmission between[13].
Smallest unit of infection
CanadaThe Ministry of Health has several Ebola viruses in the bodyaerosolIt is said that it will develop even if it invades[14].

However, there is no clear description of the Ebola virus infection method in the literature on which it is based.[Source required].

prevention

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareAs a preventive measure, "stop traveling to endemic areas," "do not touch animals and patients directly," and "do not enter caves."[3].

Wounds andMucosaIt is necessary to be careful not to let the virus get into.In particular, people tend to touch their eyes, mouth, and nose.[15]So you need to be careful not to touch them[16]..Also, since viruses easily adhere to doorknobs, switches, handles, etc. that people touch, clean them.disinfectionThere is a need to[16][15]..Hand石 鹸It is necessary to wash with, but if it is impossible,alcoholHand gel containing 60% or more of minutes can also be used[17].

cough,sneezeHas no symptoms of Ebola,[18]If coughing or sneezing is caused by another factor, it can be transmitted, and the risk of infection is moderate within 1 meter for a long period of time.[18][19][16][20]..Therefore, it is desirable to avoid crowds as much as possible and to refrain from approaching people who are likely to be ill within 1 meter.In addition, direct contact (handshake, etc.) and long-term indoor contact have a low risk of infection, but they are not eliminated.[20]Therefore, it is desirable to avoid it as much as possible.

Glasses and masks (N95The above is desirable), gloves, etc. are also used for prevention, but care must be taken not to touch the surface to which the virus is attached.

ReceptorHSPA5 (GRP78) has been identified as being used to infect Ebola virus[21], HSPA5 inhibitorEpigallocatechin gallate(Green TeaIncluded inCatechinOne of) may be effective in preventing Ebola infection.Drinking green tea is already said to be effective against influenza.[22]..However, infection from the nose cannot be prevented.

Infected vomit, blood, meat, saliva, mucus, excrement,Sweat,涙,Breastmilk,semenTo be infected from[18]You need to be careful of those strangers.Also, viruses usually survive in damp ground, so be careful not to touch the ground and disinfect where it touches the ground.[23][24].

You need to be careful about the toilet seats in hospitals and patients' homes[25].

米 国ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クThe city has similar initial symptomsinfluenzaTo make it easier to distinguish from the fluvaccinationIt is recommended to receive[26].

For American healthcare professionals, as of October 2014, 10,Center for Disease Control and PreventionBy (CDC)skinIt is recommended not to appear at all.Liquid protectivegown,apronA combination of a surgical hood that hides the neck area, a full face shield, a dust mask, double gloves, and a liquid-protected foot cover is recommended.[27].

JapanIn, if there is a possibility of infection such as contact with an infected person,Incubation periodRefrain from traveling by public transport or going out to places where people gather, such as restaurants, grocery stores, and movie theaters.[28], Measure the temperature twice in the morning and eveningQuarantine stationReport to[29]If you have a fever or symptoms, do not go to a local medical institution, but the nearest one.Health centerIt is said that you need to contact[30].

Part of AmericaState,US ArmyEven during the incubation periodisolationMeasures are being taken[31][32].

Although dogs do not develop Ebola hemorrhagic fever, the possibility of being infected with the Ebola virus cannot be ruled out, so the patient's pet dogEuthanasiaIs being done[33].

The epidemic cannot end unless the average infection rate per infected person is kept below one person.[33]..Contact tracing is being conducted to find out contacts from infected people in order to quickly find new infected people.[34].. CDC is a big hit with one overlooked contact (Outbreak) Is warned that it can cause[34].

vaccine

In 2009, for experimental animalsThe University of Tokyo Institute of Medical ScienceProfessor(Virology)ofYoshihiro KawaokaIs of the Ebola virusvaccineThemouseIt was announced in the electronic version of the American journal "Journal of Bylology" that a certain effect was confirmed when the inoculation was performed.In this experiment, all 10 unvaccinated mice died after 6 days, while the 15 vaccinated mice survived for more than two weeks, similar to the three healthy mice.Kawaoka will be in the futuremonkeyI want to experiment with and aim for early commercialization.[35].

2015/, Of a large vaccine in GuineaClinical trialIs done2016/May 12, World Health Organization announced that the efficacy of the Ebola vaccine under trial has been confirmed[36].2018/In the inland area of ​​the Democratic Republic of the CongoNorth KivuWhen the Ebola epidemic occurred in Japan, large-scale vaccination was carried out.2019/In February, the Ministry of Health said that vaccination was effective in preventing an increase in deaths, albeit at an uncertain stage.[37].2020/4WHO was planning to declare the end because it was almost suppressed, but it was postponed due to the appearance of one new infected person.[38].

2010s,GlaxoSmithKlineIs a worldwide EbolaPandemicWe have been developing vaccines with this in mind.However, it is one of the poorest countries that the epidemic was widespread at the final stage of clinical trials.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAbandoned the continuation of vaccine development because it is a region and the recovery of development funds cannot be expected.Vaccine candidates2019/Transferred to a non-profit organization in the United States by[39].


disinfection

disinfectantIsSodium hypochlorite,Dichlorisocianuric acidSodium granules are used[40]..For small metal itemsGlutaraldehydeEtc. are suitable[40].alcoholCan also be used[40].

In addition, in heat disinfection, heating at 60 ° C for 60 minutes with a safety margin is used.[41]..Even with boiling disinfection, 5 minutes are required.

Gamma rayIrradiation 12 ―― 12.7 kGy (1.2 --1.27 x 106 rad) AndUVIt can be disinfected by irradiation, but it cannot inactivate the Ebola virus incorporated in organic matter by irradiation with ultraviolet rays.[42][43].

Inspection

A test kit in Japan that can check for the presence of a virus even if there is no well-equipped facilityDenka SeikenDeveloped by the African Outbreak AreaJapan International Cooperation AgencyProvided through (JICA)[44].

A biosafety level 3 facility can also test the blood of patients with suspected Ebola.in JapanNational Institute of Infectious DiseasesBy sending the sample to the first room of the first part of the virusPCRIt is possible to test for Ebola hemorrhagic fever using Ebola, but it is not possible to confirm the mutation of Ebola virus, the effect of the therapeutic drug, or whether the patient can be discharged from the hospital.[45][46]..Even if it develops, it may take about 3 days to get a positive result.[47].

Medical institutions designated as Type XNUMX infectious diseases are obliged to set up a laboratory capable of microbiological testing, but it is unknown about testing for Ebola virus.Overseas hospitals dealing with EbolaisolationThe on-site laboratory in the ward can handle Ebola blood samples.[48].

In the United States, more than 300 medical institutions that have installed Biofire Defense's equipment are now able to detect the Ebola virus.[49].

Even if the virus is no longer detected in the blood after the critical conditionGermanyIn this case, the virus continues to be detected in urine and sweat, and then the virus continues to be detected in sweat even if it is no longer detected in urine.[50][51].

symptom

The incubation period is usually about 7 days (minimum 2 days, maximum 3 weeks or more)[52][† 3]). WHO andCDCAccording to the announcement, there is no infectivity during the incubation period, and infectivity develops after the onset of illness.[53][54][† 4].

The onset is suddenFever, General malaise,headache,muscle pain,Joint painAnd so onstomach ache,Vomiting,diarrhea,ConjunctivitisSymptoms such as continue[55].

Many patientsDehydration,Disseminated intravascular coagulationAccording to (DIC)Multiple organ failureDies due to.Case fatality rate after onset is 50-80%[55]..Case fatality rate has reached 90% in outbreaks[56]However, it depends on the type of virus.Zaire strains have the highest case fatality rate[2]It is said that

There are no symptoms characteristic of Ebola[2], As a disease that needs to be differentiated,Lassa fever,Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever,yellow fever,Dengue feverOther such asHemorrhagic fever,malaria,influenza,Hepatitis A,Hepatitis E,typhoid,Paratyphoid,Bacillary dysentery,Plagueand so on[57]..It is also the origin of the name hemorrhagic fever.BleedingSymptoms are only seen in some patients.

治療

Against Ebola virus in 2019vaccineAlthough the efficacy of this drug is being found (as mentioned above in the section on vaccines), no effective drug for Ebola hemorrhagic fever infection has been established.But of multiple medicinesClinical trialIs being done.For ex-patients who recovered after being infected with EbolaantibodyAnd the blood of the ex-patientserumIs considered to be an effective treatment method[† 5]. AlsoDehydrationAgainstDripAndPainkillerAnd administration of vitamins,Disseminated intravascular coagulation Against (DIC)AnticoagulantEtc. are being administered[58][59].

  • In 1995CongoIn the event of an infection in Eight patients, the blood of the former patient who recovered was given to eight patients.transfusionAnd 7 of them are recovering[60]..In 2014, infected American doctors were given serum and blood transfusions.[61].. In September 2014, WHO recognized the blood and serum of recovered patients as an effective treatment method and issued a recommendation to "try it immediately".[62].
  • May 2010, 5, United StatesBoston UniversityInfected with the Zaire-type Ebola virus, which is the most pathogenic to humans among the Ebola viruses, by a research team led by virologist Thomas Geisbert.Rhesus monkey"Successful treatment ofThe LancetAnnounced in the magazine[63]..Artificially generated small interfering RNA (siRNA) Is wrapped in fat molecules to prevent side effects and delivered directly to infected cells, thereby inhibiting the L protein that promotes self-renewal of the virus.[63]..Seven of the nine monkeys used in the experiment received the same dose of the drug for 9 days, 7 of the 6 monkeys took the drug every other day, and 7 took the drug daily.[63]..One in each groupControl groupWas not given the drug as[63]..Analysis of the drug-administered monkeys showed that the blood levels of the virus in monkeys administered every other day, 10 days after infection with Ebola virus, were very low.[63]..Also, no virus was detected in the daily dose group.[63]..Since this siRNA agent can be artificially produced in a short time according to a specific type of Ebola virus, even if a new type of Ebola virus appears, it can be dealt with immediately.[63].
  • August 2014, 8,Ebola, a pandemic in West AfricaAn experimental antibody treatment given to two Americans infected by a medical team inZMapAn application was submitted to WHO for approval of this unapproved drug for patients with Ebola.[64]..There was an ethical issue of "who should be administered" due to the shortage of supply due to the effects and side effects of the drug, but it was tentatively approved by the WHO Special Committee.Regarding the report that the use to American doctors mentioned above was effective, the causal relationship between administration and effect was not clearly shown, and even if it was effective, it was about safety including side effects. Has not been confirmed yet[† 6][† 7]..Two other companies in the United States, Tekmira and Biocryst Pharmaceuticals, are developing new drugs with government support.[65].
  • FUJIFILM HoldingsAffiliated companiesToyama Chemical IndustryDeveloped byinfluenzaTherapeutic drug "Fabipira BuildingIs a virusRNA polymeraseInhibitors have been confirmed to be effective in eliminating Ebola virus in a mouse model of plague[66][67]..FUJIFILM's US partner Medivector intends to apply for use in the treatment of people infected with Ebola.US Food and Drug AdministrationWe are in talks with the (FDA).If approved, it will be one of the first drugs approved by U.S. authorities to treat people infected with Ebola.[68][69][70].. July 2014, 10,FranceGovernment announced that favipiravir clinical trials will begin in Guinea[71].
  • Used to treat infertility and breast cancerEstrogen receptorBlocker (clomipheneとToremifene) Was infectedmouseSuppresses the progression of the Ebola virus[72]..90% of mice treated with clomiphene and 50% of mice treated with toremifene survived the test[72]..Available orally and with a history of human use, these drugs, whether used alone or in combination with other antiviral drugs, are intended to treat Ebola virus infections in distant geographic locations. Would be a candidate for.
  • In a 2014 studyTest tubeWithin, Used to treat cardiac arrhythmiasIon channelIt is a blockerAmiodaroneWas found to prevent the invasion of the Ebola virus into cells[73].
  • WHO Assistant Secretary-General Keeney said at a press conference on August 2014, 8 that the two vaccines are in the early stages of clinical trials.[74].
  • Health Canada has about 1500 unapproved vaccines.He said he was ready to supply about 1000 of them.[74].
  • MerckThe vaccine "VSV-EBOV" was started in Phase III clinical trials in April 2015, and its high efficacy and safety were confirmed at the end of July of the same year.[75]
  • Lamivudine(NormallyHIV / AIDSAntiviral drug used to treat) in September 2014Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euUsed as part of combination therapy by doctors静脈Of internal organs damaged by infusion and EbolaOpportunistic bacterial infectionTo fightAntibioticsWas also introduced at the same time, and it was reported that 15 out of 13 Ebola-infected patients were successfully treated.[76]..However, the number of patients treatedConfoundingThe number of factors is currently low, so a warning has been issued for the results.National Institutes of Health(NIH) researchers are preliminaryIn vitroThey state that they could not show anti-Ebola activity in the trial, but they continue to test it under different conditions, and if even the slightest evidence for efficacy is found, try it. Will move forward[77].
  • anti-malariaOne of the drugs may have the effect of reducing the mortality rate of Ebola[78][79].
  • National Institutes of HealthUnder the umbrella of (NIH)National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseasesaccording to,Monoclonal antibody"REGN-EB3" and "mAb114" reduced mortality in patients treated in clinical trials[80].

trend

From 1976 to March 2019, more than 3 outbreaks have been reported.[81][1].

Sudan (1976-1979)

From April 1976,スーダンSouthern (now南 ス ー ダ ダ) Nuzara (Nzara), Maridi (Maridi), 284 people were infected, and 151 people (53%) died.[1].. On June 6, a Sokoban man developed at a cotton factory in the town of Nuzara and spread to his family and doctors.[1].

In 1979, 5 people from 34 families were affected and 22 died in Yampio.[1].

Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) (1976)

Two months after the outbreak in Sudan in June 1976,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(OldZaire) Large-scale at Yanbuk Church Hospital in the northOutbreakOutbreak happened[1]..A 44-year-old man who is a teacher at Yanbuk Sunday SchoolmalariaReceived an injection on suspicion ofsyringeAll nine people who received other injections were infected and all died[1]..In addition, transmission occurred through medical treatment such as doctors and nurses who came into contact with patients, and 2 (318%) of 280 patients died in 88 months.[1]..One of the causes isMASKS,gloves,gown,syringeThere was a shortage of medical equipment such as[1].. AmericanCDC,WHO,BelgiumTeam entered and ended[1]..17 out of 11 hospital staff died and the hospital was closed[1].

Côte d'Ivoire (1994)

1994 Côte d'Ivoire.It all started when a Swiss woman who was involved in the dissection of chimpanzees was infected.[1].

However, chimpanzees, like humans, are terminal hosts, not natural hosts.[1].

Zaire (1995)

April 1976, 18 years after the 1995 pandemic,ZaireIn the centerKikuwitOccurred in a general hospital, more than 244 of the 100 deaths were medical personnel[1]..Again, the lack of medical equipment was the main reason for the spread of the infection.[1]..Teams from the US, WHO and Belgium joined and ended on June 6th.[1].

The gene sequence of the virus isolated at this time was almost the same as the virus isolated at the time of the epidemic in Congo Yambuku 19 years ago.[1].

Gabon (1996)

In October 1996, children came into contact with a chimpanzee that had died in the forest in Gabon and became infected.[1].

There were a few percent (both men and women) of subclinical infections[1].

Uganda (2000-2001)

It started in October 2000 in Guru, which borders Sudan, and also occurred in Machine Day in the south (10 cases) and Mbarara (27 people) far away.[1]..Bed baths of the dead and contact with blood and body fluids at funerals are the causes of the spread of infection.[1].

  • 425 infections, 225 deaths
  • Case fatality rate: 53%

Twenty-three teams from all over the world, including WHO, and 23 human resources were dispatched, and five from Japan responded.[1].

Republic of the Congo, Gabon (2001-2002)

Outbreak in December 2001 on the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo[1].

  • Gabon: 65 cases of infection, 53 deaths
  • Congo: 32 infected, 20 dead)
  • Case fatality rate: 75%

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda (2003-2007)

Over 2003 outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda in 2007-100[1][82].

Democratic Republic of the Congo (2008)

2008 yearsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn the epidemic, 32 people were infected and 14 died (mortality rate 44%).[4].

Uganda (2011-2012)

From 2011 to 2012Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu32 people were infected and 22 deaths were reported.[4].

West Africa Pandemic (2014)

January 2014(I.e.Occurs in neighboring countriesシエラレオネandEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn Ebola Zaire[† 8]Is prevalent and spans multiple countriesPandemicIt became.The World Health Organization (WHO) announced on October 2015, 10 that 18 people were infected and 28,512 died, including suspected cases of infection.

WHO on August 2014, 8PHEICDeclare[1].

Outbreaks continued until 2016 and PHEIC was lifted on March 2016, 3[1].

With a total of 28,616 patients (including suspected cases) and a case fatality rate of 40%, it was the largest epidemic to date.[1][83].. (Guinea 3,814 cases, case fatality rate 67%) (Liberia 10,666 cases, case fatality rate 45%) (Sierra Leone 14,122 cases, case fatality rate 28%)

Democratic Republic of the Congo (2018-2020)

Number of patients

March 2018

2018/, Popular in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[85]..This is the ninth outbreak in Congo since 1976, with the first case on May 9, northwest.EquatorConfirmed in the remote Bikoro area, two and a half months later, it was declared dead on July 2, but 7 people died.[86][1].

  • On May 5, the Ministry of Health declared its ninth EVD outbreak and strengthened quarantine.At the request of the Ministry of Health of the DRC, Japan dispatched the Japan Disaster Relief Team.

54 patients in total (33 deaths, case fatality rate 61%)[1].

August 2018: Re-fashionable

July 7, the same year, in the eastern partNorth KivuFour EVD patients were identified in[1].. August 8 The DRC Ministry of Health declared the 1th EVD Outbreak.The epidemic is in the eastNorth KivuAnd in neighboring states, 211 cases were reported, of which 135 died by October 10, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was in charge of response support.CDC) Expert team evacuated from the worst-damaged area due to safety concerns[87][88]..The World Health Organization's emergency response team, which had been deployed in a city in North Kivu (Beni), was on November 11th.Islamic armed groupsとUnited Nations PKOThere was a clash with the troops and they were forced to withdraw.[89].

It is said that the outbreak of the equatorial state shown in the next section is not related to the difference in the gene base sequence of the Ebola virus that causes the epidemic.

The outbreak area is of the United NationsPKOIs also a conflict zone where[1].

2019: Re-fashionable

From February to March 2019, the Ebola Treatment Center in Butembo, North Kivu was attacked three times by armed groups, killing one police officer and one medical worker on March 2. A person is injured.Local police have attacked armed groupsMy MaiI have determined.The Secretary-General of the World Health Organization, who visited the site, has told reporters that the measures against Ebola, which had been making progress at one time, are retreating due to violence.[90].

As of March 2019, 3, 12 EVD cases (20 deaths, case fatality rate 927%) were reported from 584 health zones in North Kivu and Ituri.

The endemic area borders Uganda and South Sudan.In Uganda, as of March 2019, 3, a total of more than 1 people were vaccinated with the Ebola-rV4,400V vaccine.[1].

In July 2019, WHO announcedPublic Health Emergency of International Concerns (PHEIC)Specified as[3].

Impact on ecology

2002 year 4 month,who (WHO)ガボンInhabits the northWestern lowland gorillaI found the virus in the corpse of.People living in Ebola endemic areasgorilla,ChimpanzeeGorilla and chimpanzee are also infection routes because there is a habit of eating wildlife such as gorillas and chimpanzees because some people who actually developed the disease testified that they touched the carcasses of wild animals in the forest just before the onset. It may have become one of.The following year, in the neighboring countryEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWhen Ebola broke out in Japan, a large number of cases of gorilla infection were reported at the same time as human infection, and it was reported that about 2002 gorillas died between 2005 and 5,500. IUCN announced on September 2007, 9Red listThen, the sharp decrease due to Ebola andpoachingBecause of this, western lowland gorillas are classified as Critically Endangered, which is the most endangered.[91].ChimpanzeeIt is estimated that there were about 100 million animals 200 years ago, but poaching for commercial purposes andfoodIt is currently estimated to be about 20 due to the epidemic of Ebola and the like, and it is said to be an "endangered species."Red list”, Classified as endangered IB[92].

In addition, non-human gorillas, chimpanzees, etc.PrimatesIs a source of infection to humans, but possession of the virusHostInstead, it is believed to have accidentally become a terminal host, similar to humans.[93].

フィリピンSo from 2007 to 2008,ManilaPigs died one after another in several places, including pig farms in the north.A study by an American research institute confirmed that it was infected with the Ebola virus of the Reston strain.家畜It is the first time in the world that Ebola virus infection has been confirmed.[94]..Later, in 1989, 1990, 1992, and 1996, it became clear that monkeys infected with Ebola Reston were exported from the Philippines.

Japan's response

law

currentInfectious disease lawThen "Class I infection"(" A kind of pathogen, etc. ").OldInfectious disease prevention method(Abolished in 1999) was designated as a "statutory infectious disease".

  • Quarantine Act[95]
    • Article 2 defines Ebola as a "quarantine infectious disease".
    • In Article 15, paragraph 4, the "principal" may request that the quarantine be lifted.
    • In Article 16-2, Paragraph 1, the "principal" may request the Minister for examination if the quarantine exceeds 30 days.
  • School Health and Safety Act[96]
    • Article 19 (1) suspends attendance for persons with type XNUMX infectious diseases "until they are cured".

Accepting hospital

Since Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a type 2018 infectious disease, it can be accepted only by medical institutions designated for specific infectious diseases and medical institutions designated for type 5 infectious diseases. As of May 1, XNUMX, the former isMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareThere are 4 beds in 10 medical institutions designated by the Governor, and the latter has 54 beds in 101 medical institutions designated by the governor in all prefectures.[97].

The requirements for a medical institution designated as a first-class infectious disease are "Standards for infectious disease designated medical institutions established by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare based on the provisions of Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX of the Act on Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients with Infectious DiseasesThis is the only case in the past that was used in hospitalization.[Source required].

Pathogen

Ebola virus TheInfectious disease lawIt has been designated as a specific type of pathogen (a pathogen that may have a "extremely significant" impact on the life and health of the population), and possession, import, transfer and transfer are prohibited with some exceptions.Notification to the Prefectural Public Safety Commission is required for transportation.The owner is obliged to keep books.

米 国CDCThen.Biological weaponsEbola virus is classified into category A, which has the highest risk and priority, as a pathogen that is likely to be used as a pathogen.In addition to Ebola virus, Category A includesMarburg virus,Arenavirus(Lassa feverandSouth American hemorrhagic feverPathogen),Smallpox virus,Plague bacterium,Anthrax,Clostridium botulinum,TularemiaIs also specified.

Funeral procession of the body

If the infected person dies, the corpse will beCremationIs desirable to do[98]..In Japan, the Infectious Disease Prevention Law requires that bodies be cremated unless they are thoroughly disinfected and special permission is obtained.Cremation may be refused in countries or regions where cremation was not customary[99].

Works dealing with Ebola as a subject

Non-Fiction

It deals with the Ebola epidemic that occurred in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1995.
  • Translated by Laurie Garrett / Kazuya Yamanouchi, translated by Koichi Nonaka and Masao Onishi, "Cumming Plague: The Fear of the Approaching Pathogens"Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2000 (Original 1994). NCID BA49345452

fiction

  • Robin cook/ Translated by Katsumi Hayashi, "Outbreak-Infection," Hayakawa Publishing (Hayakawa Bunko NV), 1988 (original work 1987).ISBN-978 4150404826

Documents / materials

Japan

International organizations such as WHO and ICAO

CDC

Other

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ American Englishpronunciation:[iːˈboʊlə / əˈboʊləˌheməˈrædʒɪk fiːvər] I (-)BoBack / ABoUra HemaLaJiku ・Fi-Ver
  2. ^ British English: Ebola haemorrhagic fever,British English Pronunciation:[iːˈbəʊlə / əˈbəʊləˌheməˈrædʒɪk fiːvə (r)] I (-)BoBack / ABoUra HemaLaJiku ・Fi-Va
  3. ^ The average number of days in the 2014 epidemic was 11.4 days, but it exceeded 5 days by about 21% and sometimes reached 40 days.It is not safe if it exceeds 21 days.Therefore, in practice, it is quarantined until the virus cannot be detected.
  4. ^ January 2014Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBrought in EbolaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euPS of American descent is said to have been infected with Ebola by his sister, but since it takes more than 3 weeks from the isolation of his sister to the onset of PS, the incubation period may be 3 weeks or more.
  5. ^ Questions arise about this therapy, and WHO issues a recommendation in early October 2014.
  6. ^ Due to the nature of experimental chemicals, the production and supply volume is limited, and it is said that the stock was out of stock by the shipment in early August 2008.
  7. ^ Opting Not to Give Ebola Drug to African Doctor"New York Times, Aug 12, 2014 The administration was considered by the leading physician in Sierra Leone, but the joint MSF and WHO medical team decided not to administer it.Two days later, the person died.
  8. ^ Infectious disease lawArticle 6, Paragraph 2, Item 1 Ebolavirus genus Zaire virus
  9. ^ Kenya AirwaysHas been announced to suspend all 70 weekly scheduled flights to West African countries, and Kenya Airways has canceled the suspension.
  10. ^ Just saying, "The possibility of infection on an aircraft is low.", We are calling on each country to take measures against the movement of people infected during the incubation period by strengthening their alertness.

Source

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  2. ^ a b c "What is Ebola?" "Pathogen" NIID National Institute of Infectious Diseases, viewed September 2019, 9
  3. ^ a b c d e About EbolaMinistry
  4. ^ a b c "Ebola virus disease" (English). Media center Fact sheets. WHO (June 2014). 2014/6/19Browse.
  5. ^ a b "Name of fever". Advantageous Japanese. Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) (September 2014, 11). 2014/11/22Browse.
  6. ^ Diane Bennett; David Brown (1997). “Ebola virus" (English). British Medical Journal.As of August 2009, 2originalMore archives.2014/6/19Browse.
  7. ^ "Prevention of infectious diseases overseas during the summer vacation". 2. Infectious diseases transmitted from animals (3) Ebola hemorrhagic feverMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (July 2010). As of September 7, 2012originalMore archives.2014/6/19Browse.
  8. ^ National Geographic: October 2007
  9. ^ Primate Forum: Zoonotic Diseases (168th) Japanese Society of Veterinary Medicine
  10. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2016-01-04, 5th edition). “Q & A about Ebola Q & A Q2 "How do you get infected with Ebola virus?" Answer "... When you touch a contaminated substance (such as an injection needle) without sufficient protection, the virus invades through the wound or mucous membrane. In general, it is not transmitted from asymptomatic patients. It is not transmitted by air. "". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare homepageMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2016/4/4Browse.
  11. ^ "NewtonIllness from the separate volume ”p.64
  12. ^ Ebola - National Institute of Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease Information Center
  13. ^ "Hot Zone"
  14. ^ Ebola virus --Pathogen Safety Data Sheets Health Canada
  15. ^ a b Offices are full of viruses and attach to half in 4 hours-handshakes also help spread"Wall Street Journal] June 2014, 10
  16. ^ a b c What's the difference between infections spread through the air or by droplets? CDC
  17. ^ Hand gel is effective against Ebola-Stores that are out of stock are also in the United States IBTimes October 2014, 10
  18. ^ a b c Tips for not being infected with hemorrhagic fever IBTimes October 2014, 10
  19. ^ "Medium risk" US guidelines for Ebola patients within 90 cm"Yomiuri Shimbun] June 2014, 10
  20. ^ a b Epidemiologic Risk Factors to Consider when Evaluating a Person for Exposure to Ebola VirusCenter for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) October 2014, 10
  21. ^ HSPA5 is an essential host factor for Ebola virus infection. Science Direct July 2014
  22. ^ 1-1 cups of green tea a day reduces influenza in elementary school by 5-40% Your Health Encyclopedia October 2011, 10
  23. ^ "Fear of Ebola and the possibility of a pandemic" East Sports Web(2014 10 年 月 日 25)
  24. ^ "Soils and Human Health" P.45 Eric C. Brevik, Lynn C. Burgess December 2012, 12 ISBN-978 1439844540
  25. ^ How to avoid being infected with Ebola The Guardian November 2014, 10
  26. ^ NY doctor of Ebola infection worsens symptoms "to the next stage" Tele morning news(2014 10 年 月 日 26)
  27. ^ CDC issues new rules for protecting workers from Ebola USA Today October 2014, 10
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  29. ^ "Ebola fever, prepare for 45 designated hospitals in Japan, placement of roles and division of roles training""Asahi Shimbun] June 2014, 10
  30. ^ "Discussing the handling of Avigan tablets, Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare for Ebola measures" Reuters(2014 10 年 月 日 24)
  31. ^ "Ebola: Isolation Measures for All Immigrants in Contact with Infected People in Two States of the United States"Mainichi Shimbun October 2014, 10
  32. ^ "After the start of isolation of U.S. Army soldiers and the end of the Ebola mission" Reuters (July 2014, 10)
  33. ^ a b Answer your questions about Ebola The Huffington Post September 2014, 10
  34. ^ a b What is contact tracing? Contact tracing can stop the Ebola outbreak in its tracks CDC
  35. ^ Shinji Kanto (February 2009, 2). "Ebola: Vaccine development ... Confirmed by mouse experiment The University of Tokyo". "Mainichi Newspaper". originalArchived as of October 2014, 1.. https://archive.is/GgikR#selection-603.125-603.129 2014/6/19Browse. 
  36. ^ "Ebola vaccine "up to 100% effect" WHO". AFP (September 2016, 12). 2019/2/10Browse.
  37. ^ ""Ebola in Congo, vaccination of more than 500 dead has peaked"”. AFP (July 2018, 2). 2019/2/10Browse.
  38. ^ "WHO Postpones Declaration of End of Ebola in Congo-Society: Nikkan Sports”(Japanese). nikkansports.com. 2020/4/11Browse.
  39. ^ "Vaccine development for the new coronavirus-why pharmaceutical giants are reluctant”. Swissinfo.ch (March 2020, 3). 2020/4/18Browse.
  40. ^ a b c Guidance for disinfection and sterility based on the Infectious Diseases Control Law Yamaguchi Environmental Health Center
  41. ^ * Excerpt from the 22 Food Safety Assurance Comprehensive Survey "Literature Survey Report on Food-borne Infectious Diseases, etc." (created by Toray Research Center Co., Ltd.) Food Safety Commission
  42. ^ Kimberly-Clark Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Precautions Brief: September 19, 2014
  43. ^ Kimberly-Clark Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Prevention Overview: October 2014
  44. ^ Japanese technology contributes again to prevent the spread of the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the CongoJapan International Cooperation Agency (May 2018, 5) Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  45. ^ National Institute of Infectious Diseases Ebola testing facility open to the public NHK News August 2014, 10
  46. ^ Ebola diagnosis manual National Institute of Infectious Diseases March 2012
  47. ^ Prime Minister Abe gives instructions on a thorough system for measures against Ebola NHK July 2014, 10
  48. ^ Craig Spencer Tests Positive For Ebola In New York City Huffington Post October 2014, 10
  49. ^ "US FDA urgently approves Ebola virus detection system, judges in 1 hour" Reuters (October 2014, 10)
  50. ^ "Progress of Ebola patients known from English medical journals" "Yomiuri Shimbun" Yomidokuta (November 2014, 11)
  51. ^ A Case of Severe Ebola Virus Infection Complicated by Gram-Negative Septicemia The new england journal of medicine November 2014, 11
  52. ^ About Ebola virus (fact sheet) FORTH March 2014 WHO
  53. ^ WHO | Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease Retrieved February 2014, 8
  54. ^ Q & A on Ebola | Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC Retrieved February 2014, 8
  55. ^ a b "Japan Pediatric Society Vaccination and Infection Control Committee "Explanation of infectious diseases to be prevented in schools, kindergartens and nursery schools"". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/1/22Browse.
  56. ^ Ebola, far scarier than AIDS, signs of epidemic 1/3 JB Press July 2014, 7
  57. ^ Ebola virus disease background and summary
  58. ^ About EbolaDoctors Without BordersJapan-Activity News
  59. ^ "Death virus" Ebola Hemorrhagic fever, does not infect air, but be careful of blood, saliva and sweat (2)"JoongAng Daily News] June 2014, 8
  60. ^ "Ebola: WHO with over 2000 deaths"Mainichi Shimbun October 2014, 9
  61. ^ "Treatment of Ebola with recovery doctor's blood Patients get better"cnn.co.jp(2014 9 年 月 日 12)
  62. ^ "Ebola doubles in less than a month with over 2000 dead""Tokyo Newspaper』Evening May 2014, 9
  63. ^ a b c d e f g Successful treatment of Ebola in monkeys, application to humans National geographic News August 2010, 6
  64. ^ Experimental Ebola treatment "ZMapp" developed for the purpose of protecting biological weapons"JoongAng Ilbo" February 2014, 8
  65. ^ Questions and Answers on experimental treatments and vaccines for Ebola CDC, August 8, 2014
  66. ^ Gatherer, D (2014 Aug). “The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.”. The Journal of general virology 95 (Pt 8): 1619-1624. PMID 24795448. 
  67. ^ "A drug from Japan that attracts the world's attention for Ebola hemorrhagic fever". Nikkei Medical(July 2014, 8). http://medical.nikkeibp.co.jp/leaf/mem/pub/eye/201408/537890.html 2014/8/18Browse. 
  68. ^ "Fujifilm's influenza investigational drug, promising for treatment of Ebola?". Bloomberg(July 2014, 8). http://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/123-N9X6ZO6S972F01.html 2014/8/13Browse. 
  69. ^ "Ebola" International Emergency "Fujifilm" Silver Bullet "Treatment Use". ""Sports report』. (August 2014, 8). http://www.hochi.co.jp/topics/20140809-OHT1T50036.html 2014/8/13Browse. 
  70. ^ “Procedures for Ebola drug candidates with Fujifilm's drug rice”"Nikkei". (October 2014, 8). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASGM0701X_X00C14A8FF1000/ 2014/8/13Browse. 
  71. ^ Mina Mitsui (September 2014, 10). “French and Japanese Ebola unapproved drugs to clinical trials”. "Yomiuri Shimbun". http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/20141021-OYT1T50122.html 2014/10/21Browse. 
  72. ^ a b Johansen LM, Brannan JM, Delos SE, Shoemaker CJ, Stossel A, Lear C, Hoffstrom BG, Dewald LE, Schornberg KL, Scully C, Lehár J, Hensley LE, White JM, Olinger GG (2013). “FDA-approved selective estrogen receptor modulators inhibit Ebola virus infection”. Sci Transl Med 5 (190): 190ra79. two:10.1126 / scitranslmed.3005471. PMC 3955358. PMID 23785035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955358/. Lay summary - Healthline Networks, Inc.. 
  73. ^ Gehring G, Rohrmann K, Atenchong N, Mittler E, Becker S, Dahlmann F, Pöhlmann S, Vondran FW, David S, Manns MP, Ciesek S, von Hahn T (2014). inhibit filovirus cell entry ”. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 69 (8): 2123–31. two:10.1093 / jac / dku091. PMID 24710028. 
  74. ^ a b Canada to provide Ebola vaccine There are also uncertainties about the effect of unapproved treatments Sports Hochi (Kyodo News) October 2014, 8
  75. ^ Henao-Restrepo et al., Ana Maria (2015-07-31). “Efficacy and efficacy of an rVSV-vectored vaccine expressing Ebola surface glycoprotein: interim results from the Guinea ring vaccination cluster-randomized trial”. Lancet 15: 61117-5. two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (15) 61117-5. http://thelancet.com/pb/assets/raw/Lancet/pdfs/S0140673615611175.pdf. 
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  77. ^ "A Liberian doctor is using HIV drugs to treat Ebola victims. The NIH is intrigued. Elahe Izadi, Washington Post. 2 October 2014". "Washington Post". 2014/10/7Browse.
  78. ^ Malaria remedy effective for Ebola Confirmed in patients such as Nagasaki UniversityNihon Keizai Shimbun November 2016, 1
  79. ^ New Ebola treatments mostly failing CNN (January 2016, 1)
  80. ^ "Two drug effects on Ebola, case fatality rate reduced to about 2% in clinical trials"AFP (December 2019, 8) Read December 13, 2019
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Related item

外部 リンク

Juichi Yamagiwa

Juichi Yamagiwa(Juichi Yamagiwa,1952/ -) is JapaneseAnthropologist(Anthropology-Eco-environmental biology).The degree isDoctor of Science(Kyoto University-1987/).First name"Tsu" is "Shou"Old fontfor,New fontでJuichi YamagiwaAlso written as (Juichi Yamagiwa).

Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceEncouragement Researcher,Japan Monkey CenterResearch Fellow, Kyoto UniversityPrimate Research InstituteAssistant, Kyoto University Graduate SchoolGraduate School of ScienceProfessor, Dean of Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto UniversityFaculty of ScienceDean, President of Kyoto University (26th generation),National University AssociationChairman (26th generation),President of Science Council of Japan(29nd generation) and so on.2021/Since AprilInstitute for Global Environmental StudiesServe as the director.

Overview

TokyoFromAnthropologist, To be a primatologist,gorillaA leading researcher[2].Graduate School of Science, Kyoto UniversityAfter working as a professorKyoto UniversityPresidentHe retired after completing his term on September 2020, 9.Science Council of JapanIs a member of the "Security and Academic Review Committee"PresidentAlso took office.

history

Upbringing

TokyoBackground[2].Kunitachi XNUMXst Junior High School,Kunitachi High SchoolThroughFaculty of Science, Kyoto UniversityGraduated and completed the doctoral course at the Graduate School of Science.Doctor of Science(1987)[3].

As an anthropologist

Karisoke Research CenterVisiting researcher,Japan Monkey CenterResearch Fellow,Primate Research Institute, Kyoto UniversityAfter working as an assistant professor, an assistant professor at the Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University,2014/Yamagiwa was ranked first in a vote (intention survey) by faculty members held at Kyoto University on July 7, and it was officially decided to become the president at the president selection meeting on the following day.[4].. Appointed President from October 2014, 10[2]..Became the first president of Kyoto University born after the war[2].

person

Hayao Kawai Arts AwardSelection committee[5]And so on.

Junichiro ItaniMajored in the theory of human evolution,gorillaExploring the origin of humankind as the main research subject.[Source required]

PathologyArtificialcancerKnown as a pioneer in researchYamagiwa KatsusaburoIs a distant relative[6].


book

  • "Forest Giant" (Ayumu Shobo,1983/)
  • "Gorilla Forest Shining Silver Back" (平凡 社,1984/)
  • "Good morning little gorilla" (New Japan Publisher(New Japan Animal and Plant Picture Book)) 1988
  • "Between Gorilla and Human" (Kodansha modern new book,1993/)
  • "The Origin of the Family: The Appearance of Paternity" (University of Tokyo Press,1994/)
  • "What did monkeys eat and become humans? The theory of food evolution" (Kagawa Nutrition University Publishing Division, 1994)
  • "Africa's rich nature and wisdom living in a gorilla forest" (NTT Publishing,1996/)
  • "The origin of a civilization that explores the extra thing of a father, a monkey" (Shinshokan,1997/) LaterShincho Bunko 2015 Commentary:Kiyokazu Washida
  • "Gorilla Trivia Note: The Unknown Real Face of the" Forest Giant "" (Diamond Company,1998/)
  • "What I learned in the jungle: Gorilla and human father training" (Flavel Building,1999/)
  • "Gorilla and Akaiboshi" (Gospel building bookstore,2002/)
  • "The theory of evolution of men seeking the origin of masculinity" (Chikuma new book,2003/)
  • "Gorilla" (University of Tokyo Press,2005/)
  • "Yakushima walking with monkeys" (Mountains and valleys(Nature Stories), 2006)
  • "Dad Gorilla is an Amusement Park" (Shinnihon Shuppansha (Documents of the Earth), 2006)
  • "Where did violence come from? Searching for the origin of humanity" (Japan Broadcast Publishing Association(NHK Books), 2007)
  • "Theory of Human Evolution: Development from Primatology" (Sokabo,2008/)
  • "Family Evolution" (University of Tokyo Press, 2012)
  • "Human society that" monkeys "" (Shueisha International Knowledge trekking series 2014)
  • "Gorilla hits the chest" Tomoaki Abe (Fukuinkan Shoten Many Mysterious Masterpieces 2015)
  • "Kyodai-style interesting study method (Asahi Shinsho 2015) Later paperback
  • "Warning from gorilla" Human society, this is strange "" (Mainichi Shimbun Publication, 2018) Later Bunko
  • "Everything important in life was learned from gorillas" (Ie no Hikari Association, 2020)
  • "What gorilla scholars thought in the jungle of Kyoto University" (Asahi Shinsho, 2021)

Co-edited

paper

Media appearance

tv set

radio

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "CV of Professor Juichi Yamagiwa". 2022/3/22Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d Takeshi Sato (July 2014, 7). “Professor Juichi Yamagiwa as the next president of Kyoto University". Asahi Shimbun digital. Asahi Shimbun. 2015/1/28Browse.
  3. ^ The title of the doctoral dissertation is "Life history and social relationships among males of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)".
  4. ^ Yuki Noguchi (July 2014, 7). “Kyoto University: Professor Juichi Yamagiwa as the next president, a leading researcher in gorilla research”. Mainichi Newspapers. http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20140705k0000m040079000c.html 2014/7/5Browse. 
  5. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2013, 5original[Broken link]More archives.2013/6/11Browse.
  6. ^ "Asahi Shimbun" November 2015, 11, the second regional side of all Nagano prefectures. In an article about Juichi Yamagiwa giving a lecture at Katsusaburo's Bodaiji Temple as "Dr. Katsusaburo Yamagiwa's 7th Anniversary Lecture on Successful Artificial Cancer Experiments".

外部 リンク

Public office
Predecessor:
Takashi Onishi
President of Science Council of Japan
2017/10 month - 2020/9
Next generation:
Takaaki Kajita

 

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