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|Of this articleitem nameHas the following notational fluctuations. (Note,Past discussion）|
User interface(British: User Interface, UI) OrUser interfaceIt is,machine,In particularComputerAnd the user of the machine (usuallyA human) To exchange information betweeninterfaceIs.For thisPresence or absence of choonpuDue toNotationCan be seen, but in this article we will use the same "user interface". The user interface provides the following means.
- input - the userシステムMeans to operate
- output -A means to present what the system generated as a result of user operation
システムWhen using, users need to be able to control the system and know the state of the system. For example,AutomobileWhen driving, the driver operates the steering wheel to control the direction of travel, and the accelerator, brake, and shift lever control the speed. The driver grasps the position of the car by looking at the outside world through the window,SpeedometerYou can know the exact speed with. The user interface of an automobile is composed of the above-mentioned equipment groups, and provides everything necessary for driving the automobile as a whole.
The term "user interface" is based on the premise that there is a relationship between machines and the users thereof. As a word consciously emphasizing that it is the machine that captures humans more generally than the user's position and confronts themHuman machine interface(HMI) is.
Different user interfaces are often prepared depending on the type of user. For example,libraryThe system is based on the premise of a user interface for general users that emphasizes "easy-to-go" and skill for building staff.[Note 1]Will have a user interface.
In some cases, the computer observes the user's behavior and responds without having to enter a specific command. A means to follow the movement of each part of the body is required, and a sensor for grasping the position of the head and a direction of the line of sight are grasped.sensorIs being used experimentally. They areImmersive interfaceIs closely related to what is called.
User interfaceDesignIs closely related to the amount of effort required to input by the user, the amount of effort required to interpret the output, and the effort required to learn how to use it.Usability (usability) is the user's ability to design a particular user interface.PsychologyAspect orPhysiologyIt is a measure of how much the physical aspects are taken into consideration, and thereby the efficiency/effect/satisfaction of using the system.
Usability is mainly a characteristic of the user interface, but it is also related to the product functions themselves. It shows how efficiently, effectively and satisfactorily a product is used by its intended users for its intended purpose, as well as whether it takes into account the demands that arise from the context of use. To do. These functions and features are not always part of the user interface, but they are an important element of product usability.
Among the principles for UI design,Ben SchneidermanAndJacob NielsenBy is the most prominent.. It is a national examinationInformation Technology Engineer ExamHowever, in 2010, it was asked as "10 heuristics concerning the user interface of Jacob Nielsen"... Both Schneiderman and Nielsen's principles include "maintaining consistency" and "preventing errors," including similar, if not the same..
Computer programThe user interface of is the graphical information, textual information, and audio information that the program presents to the user, and the control sequences used when the user operates the program (KeyboardKey press,mouseMovement ofTouch panelIn, etc.) refers to. In the following, not only programs (software) but also devices (hardware) will be mentioned.
As of 2008, there are mainly the following types of user interfaces.
- Graphical user interface (GUI)
- As inputKeyboard,mouseUsing a device such asdisplayA method of presenting graphical output above.
- Input method using mouseWindows,Mac OSHowever, the method of inputting some information by the movement of the mouse pointer that crosses the boundary line (Crossing Based Interface),Mouse gestureThere is also a method of controlling with.
- Web user interface (WUI)
- Web pageInput and output by generation, andインターネットTransferred on,Web browserThe user displays it with.ExistingHTMLYou can use a base web browser and controlJava-Ajax-Adobe Flash-Microsoft .NETIt is implemented with a relatively new technology such as.
- Character user interface (CUI)
- A method in which the user inputs a command from the keyboard and displays characters on the display for output.mouseな どpointing deviceIt is used for system management work that does not use.
- Tactile interface
- As an auxiliary outputTactile sensefeedbackMethod using. computersimulation,virtual realityUsed in.
- Touch interface
- Touch panelAnd a method that uses GUI for input and output. Industrial machines and self-service machines (TMJEtc.) orTabletIt is often used in etc.
Other types of user interface are as follows.
- Batch interface
- Batch processingA non-interactive user interface used in. The user inputs the details of the process as a batch job, and obtains the output result when all the processes are completed. Once the process begins, the system does not ask for further input.
- Perceptual user interface (British: perceptual user interface, PUI)
- A method in which the user does not input commands as in the past, but uses gestures and voices to convey his/her intentions, and outputs are made by video and audio.Kinect,Crab/CortanaAnd so on.
- (British: reflexive user interface)
- A method in which the entire user interface can be redefined by the user. Mainly only possible with a very rich GUI.
- Tangible user interface (British: tangible user interface, TUI)
- A user interface that emphasizes physical contact.
- Text user interface
- The output is in text format, but the input is a user interface that allows methods other than command input. Refers to text-based menu operations.
- Voice user interface[Question]
- TelAt, in the voice guidance, the userTelephoneInput method with push button. Voice guidance.
- Zooming user interface
- A type of GUI in which information objects are displayed at different levels of detail, and more detail is displayed when the user selects an object from them.Microsoft Windows 8Introduced inModern UIIn style applications it is called "Semantic Zoom".
The history of the user interface can be divided as follows according to the type of the dominant user interface.
- Age of batch interface (1940 era-1960 era）
- Age of character user interface (1960 era-1980 era）
- Age of Graphical User Interface (1980 era-Current)
The following user interfaces have emerged since the 1990s.
Modalities and modes
In the user interfaceModalityIs a communication path used for input and output. For example,
- Input-The keyboard allows the user to type in text,pen tabletAllows the user to draw lines freely.
- Output-The display allows the system to display text and graphics (visual modality),speakerAllows the system to generate sound (auditory modality).
The user interface may have multiple redundant modalities, allowing the user to choose which one to use.
on the other hand,modeIs a different concept, which means that different states of the program give different results even if the same input is given. The heavy use of modes leads to poor usability because the user must always remember the current state.
- pointing device
- Braille display
- ^ It does not mean that it is difficult to use unless you are skilled. For example, if emphasis is placed on ease of attachment, the design may become redundant and annoying when trained, and this is not the case.
- ^ a b Jeff Johnson "Psychology of UI Design-The Law of Ease of Understanding/Usability" Hiroyuki Musa, Translated by Rumi Musa, Impress, 2015, pp. 3-5.ISBN 978-4844337713 .
- ^ Keiji Matsubara "Information Processing Textbook [Autumn] Advanced Examination AM I/II 2014 Edition" Shoeisha, 2014, 73 pages,ISBN 9784798136325.. Keiji Matsubara "Information Processing Textbook [Autumn] Altitude Examination AM I/II 2015 Edition Book" Shoeisha, 2015, 73 pages,ISBN-978 4798140988