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🏥 | Chikako Nishiyama Learn about "meaning of life" and "enjoyment" from guests "Yamaguchi Satoyama 100th Anniversary School" October 10st ...

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Chikako Nishiyama Learn about "meaning of life" and "enjoyment" from guests "Yamaguchi Satoyama 100th Anniversary School" October 10st ...

If you write the contents roughly
We have also opened a watermill, a room with a hearth, and a Goemon bath so that you can experience old life.

"Yamaguchi Satoyama 100 ..." is a place for learning to live a healthy "10 years of life" with "meaning of life" and "enjoyment". → Continue reading

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First published in 1978. We issue 3 copies of free local information paper three times a week on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday in the distribution area of ​​Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. In addition to daily life information, we also deal with "hard articles" such as Yamaguchi Prefectural Government, Yamaguchi City Government, and local economy.

Wikipedia related words

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Watermill(Suishagoya) orWatermill(Suishaba) isWater millWith a structure equipped with a water wheelFlour,Lumber,fabricDrives some mechanical process such as production and metal processing.in English watermill However, if you translate it literally, it is a "hydropower factory", and it cannot be said that a water wheel is indispensable.HutNot necessarily.

in Japan,RuralUntil recent years, it was seen all over the country for the purpose of using it for rice mashing, but recently the number has decreased sharply.However, the idyllic landscape is JapanRural sceneryAs something that is familiar to people, it has been left behind or rebuilt for sightseeing purposes.SouthGermanyThere is still a lot of watermills in the area.


There are basically two types of turbines, one driven by a vertical turbine (to convert the axis of rotation).gearThe mechanism transmits the power, and the other uses a horizontal water turbine.The former can be further divided into top-firing turbines, medium-firing turbines, and bottom-firing turbines, depending on how the water hits the turbines.


Classical antiquity

The watermills and gears that are the components of the watermill were invented by the Greeks in the 1st century BC.Roman EmpireIn the era, bottom-fired, top-fired, and medium-fired watermills came into operation.[1].

The earliest literature on powered turbines in the WestByzantium Philon(Around 280-220 BC) It was tentatively entrusted around 80 BC. (Water wheel) Spiral mechanism was already completed at that time,Ptolemaic morningAlso depicted in Egyptian 2nd century BC murals[2].

Lewis is horizontalWater millA simple watermill using the Greek colonial cityByzantiumIn the first half of the 3rd century BC, a vertical watermill was used as a watermill.Ptolemaic morningOf the eraア レ ク サ ン ド リ アIt is said that it was put into practical use around 240 BC.[3]However, it is generally considered to be in the second half of the 2nd century BC.

Ancient Greek geographerStrabongIsGeography magazine』, From before 71 BCPontos OfMithridates VIIt notes that there was a hydraulic mill on the side of the palace.[4].

Ancient Roman engineerVitruvianIs the first Western country to leave an engineering description of a watermill from 40 BC to 10 BC.It was powered by a submersible turbine and transmitted by a gear mechanism.[5]..It also indicates the existence of a hydraulic machine that kneads bread dough and clay.[6].

An ancient Greek satirical poet describes a watermill with an improved top-fired turbine from 20 BC to 10 AD.[7]..He praises the milling process and the fact that it reduces human labor:[8].

Milling girls, get your hands off the mill.Stay asleep, even if the chicken ring tells you the dawn.DaymatereIs your manual workNymphaeBecause they jump on the wheels and turn the axles.The gears that surround it[9]With the axleNisyrosBirthStone millAlso rotate the hollow weight of.If you can enjoy the products of the earth without any trouble, you will be able to enjoy it again.Golden ageWill come.

Ancient Roman naturalistGreat PlinyIs about 70 ADNatural history』, Note that hydroelectric power is used in most of the Italian peninsula.[10].Syria province OfAntiochEvidence of an aqueduct (one of the finishing processes for woolen fabrics) around 73 AD has been found.[11].

southFrance2nd century ADBarbegal aqueductHas a watermill,Ancient timesIt is one of the areas where mechanical power was concentrated in the western part of Rome.[12].. There are 16 top-fired turbines, the same numberFlourI was driving the machine. About 1 tons a dayFlourSeems to have been producingAllerateIt was produced enough to make bread for the 12,500 inhabitants who lived in the area at that time.A similar watermill complexRomeTo supply flour toYanikurumIt was built on the hill.This facility was so important to Rome that laterAurelian WallsThe wall was built to be inside.

Medium-firing ceremony around the end of the 2nd centuryWater millA watermill using a watermill has been excavated in France[13].

3rd century ADHierapolisThere is a stone-cutting aqueduct incrank,Connecting rodIt is known as the oldest example in the West using mechanical elements such as[14]..A similar watermill was around the 6th centuryJerash,エ フ ェ ソ スWas also in the quarry[15].. 4th century poetAusonius TheMoselle riverIn a poem about大理石Stone-cutting aqueduct (currentlyGermanyThere was).Christianity of almost the same agesaintGregory of NyssaAlsoRoman EmpireIt keeps a record of how hydropower is used in various places.[16].

oldestTurbineIt is said that it is a watermill usingAfricaRemains found in Noya, dating from the end of the 3rd century to the beginning of the 4th century[18]..The oldest using hydraulic powerFurnaceAs for the FrenchMarseilleThere are remains found in[19].

Great PlinyAccording to the watermill, it was mainly used to make flour from grains, but there are others.大理石Was also used for stone cutting[8].

In ancient Rome, in addition to fixed water wheels, water wheels that float on the surface of the water were also used.Roman EmpireIt used hydraulic power in various places.The one with a vertical axis and a horizontal turbine body was called the Greek type, and the one with a horizontal axis and a vertical turbine body was called the Roman type.The Greek type is older and has a simpler structure, but it does not work well unless the water flow is fast, and the millstone that can be driven is also small.The Roman style had to use gears to change the direction of the axis of rotation.

Only a dozen watermills have been found in ancient Rome,Roman aqueductIt is believed that there are remains of a watermill that have not yet been found, as the watermills were spread over a wide area.For example in LondonFleet riverFrom the remains of the waterway that existed along the road, what appears to be a watermill using tidal force has been found.[20].

537 years,Eastern Roman EmpireGeneral ofBelisarius TheOstrogothic KingdomWhen he surrounded the area, he skillfully used what was called a water wheel ship that floated on the surface of the water, and cut off the supply of water to the Goths.[21]..This is a water wheel installed on a floating ship moored in a fast-flowing river.

中 世

Western Roman EmpireFollowing the collapse ofEra of ethnic migrationHowever, the importance of the watermill did not change.Documents referring to synchronizing with the surge in watermills in the early Middle Ages (Code,ConventCharter, Hagiography, etc.) also increased rapidly.

It is said that there were 6 water wheels in Gaul in the 10th century.[23].Caroling morningIn the times, the number of watermills in the territory was said to be "innumerable".[24],Domesday BookIn (1086)EnglandOnly 5,624 watermills are listed, but archaeological surveys reveal their exact location in only 2%.[25]..Subsequent studies estimated that there were at least 6,082 turbines, but records in northern England appear to be inadequate and even more.[26].. Around 1300 the number increased from 10,000 to 15,000[27].. By the beginning of the 7th centuryIreland islandA watermill was also built in the 8th centuryGermanyThe watermill spread to the north, which was not conquered by the Roman Empire.[28]..Watermill using tidal force (en) Has evidence of its appearance in the 6th century, but there is no certainty as to whether it existed in ancient times before that.[29]..They are大西洋It operates in response to changes in the water level of rivers and rivers, and indicates the spread of watermills in the early Middle Ages.

in recent years,Ireland islandThe remains of a watermill that uses tidal force have been found one after another on the coast of Japan, and its appearance is accelerating. A tidal turbine using a vertical turbine in the 6th centuryWaterfordIt was in the nearby Kirotaran[30]..The tidal turbine with two channels using a horizontal turbine found in is around 2.[31][32]..Alongside that, a tidal turbine using a vertical under-fire turbine has also been found.[31][32].Northern IrelandThe island floating on the lake is dated to 787 Nendrum Monastery mill There is.The millstone is 830 mm in diameter, and it is estimated that the vertical turbine produced a maximum of 7 to 8 horsepower.A 619 watermill was later found on the same island.[33][34].

In 2005, Adam Lucas published a survey of when watermills appeared in Western Europe for each application.Although the results show that France has advanced in hydropower utilization, Lucas emphasizes that the development of watermills in other countries is less advanced than in France.

The time when watermills began to be used for various industries in medieval Europe (770-1443) [35]
Leather tannedAround 1134France
FurnaceAround 1200England, France
hempThread manufacturing1209/France
bellows1269, 1283Slovakia, France
LumberAround 1300France
Ore crushing1317/Germany
blast furnace1384/France
Cutting the horizontal bar (material for nails)1443/France


Water turbines have been used in China since the 3rd century BC.Initially (or(I.e.) And stone mills are widely used throughout the country as a power source for mechanical rotation, and remains and parts have been found in tombs and ruins in various places.For astronomical observationArmillary sphere(Zhang HengIt was also used for reference).

2nd century BCFormer HanFor iron conjunctives that operate via gears and shafts powered by hydraulic powerBag, Kiln operation resistance, rollover was made.Former HanOf scholarsHuan TanAround 20 years of writing "Shinron], There is a reference to the hydraulic pestle.[37]またAfter Chinese bookThen, in the 7th year of Kenbu (30th year)crankWater drainage using mechanical elements such asBag) Was made. "[38].

488, mathematician and engineerZu ChongzhiMakes a water hammer (a hydraulic mill) and uses it.Nan Qi OfEmperor Wu(Reign 482-493) There is a record of inspection[39][40].Of the generation (581-618)Yang SuIs said to have operated hundreds of watermills (watermills) by the beginning of the 6th century.[40][41].. About the profits obtained from the watermill in the 8th year of the great business (612) in "Hirohiromeishu"Buddhist monkIt is noted that is discussing.[42][43].

In the teens (618-907), a law on waterways was enacted in 737, stating that watermills should not block waterways, and in some cases their use was limited to certain seasons.[40].. In another 8th century Tang dynasty, whether it was a powerful man or a merchant,Buddhist templeIt is stated that the government was demolishing a watermill that violated the law, even if it was, and it can be seen that such a law was strictly applied.[40]..Tang emperorXuanzongServed (reigned 712-756)eunuchGalixOwns a watermill with five turbines in Tenpo 8 (748), Nissan 5Was producing as much flour[40][44].

In 610 or 670,JapanThere is a theory that the technology of the watermill was transmitted to[45].TibetHas been transmitted by 641 at the latest[45].


Islamic world

In the Islamic worldEastern Roman EmpireIt inherits the widely used water wheel from Iran, which is the remains of the Sassanid dynasty, to Egypt.For the use of watermills in the Islamic world,milling,Rice huller,(I.e.moon,Lumber,Steelmaking,Sugar makingThere were also watermills and tidal force watermills. By the 11th century, almost every settlement in the Islamic world had a watermill, the extent of whichAndalus,North africaからMiddle EastThroughCentral AsiaSpread to[46]..Middle Eastern engineers use watermills and pumpingmachineToCrankshaft,Turbine,gearAs a water sourcedamBy constructing and storing the potential energy of water, it became possible to supply more power to watermills, etc.[47]..A watermill for squeezing and steelmakingAndalusIntroduced to the Christian world (Spain) in the 12th century.A relatively large scale centered on a watermill工場Was built in Andalus in the 11th to 13th centuries[48].

Engineers in the Islamic world have used several means to increase the power of the turbines.One of them isbridgeThe idea was to install a water wheel on the pier of the bridge to increase the amount of water flow that could be captured.The other was to install a water wheel on a ship moored in the stream.This technique was used in the 1th centuryTigris riverEuphrates RiverAdopted incheekWith lumberNissan 10 on a giant water wheel made ofT OfFlourTo produce,Baghdad OfGranaryWas supplying to[49] .

Operation of the watermill

Generally for water turbines and turbinesriverAnd dedicatedReservoirFrom waterways and pipes (Waterway, Water canals, water pipes).The force of the water stream moves the blades of a turbine or turbine, which rotate around an axis, and the rotational force moves other mechanisms.The water that turns the turbine or turbine is drained to the drainage channel, which may be the headrace of the next turbine or turbine.The amount of waterSluiceIt is adjusted by.The floodgate洪水It also serves as a control means for.Large watermills have intricately interconnected waterways, so there are many locks.

The oldest watermill used a horizontal watermill.A water wheel with simple blades was sunk horizontally into the stream to rotate a vertical axis, and a millstone installed directly on top of it was rotated.Since this type of device does not have a gear mechanism, the limit of the rotation speed of the water turbine becomes the limit of the rotation speed of the millstone, which is the limit of the working speed.

Vertical turbines used in Western turbines are classified into bottom-fire, top-fire, and medium-fire types.Since it rotates a horizontal axis, it can be used directly to lift hammers and pestle onlys.BlacksmithYou can do work such asBut rotate the millstoneFlourTo make, the axis of rotation needs to be vertical.For thisgearA mechanism is required, and the number of rotations can be increased by adjusting the number of teeth.In Western milling mills, the turbine rotates a horizontal shaft with a gear at its tip.This gear meshes with a gear installed on a vertical shaft to rotate a large gear installed on the same shaft.Another small gear is engaged with this and rotated, and the millstone installed on the shaft rotates.The number of millstones that can be driven depends on the amount of water. In the 19th century, this mechanism was improved so that one turbine could drive up to four millstones.[50]..The rotation speed of the millstone can be increased by adjusting the gear ratio at each stage.SluiceSeasonal fluctuations in water volume can be compensated for by adjusting the degree of opening.

In many cases, a single millstone is driven by a large gear with a vertical axis, but it is not uncommon for a building to have multiple such mechanisms. The first time I drew a mechanism to drive multiple millstones with one water wheel Henry Beighton It was in 1723.It was in 1744,John theophilusPublished by[51].

The top-fired turbine is a technological innovation relatively later, and is about 2.5 times more efficient than the conventional bottom-fired turbine.[50]..In the under-firing type, the water turbine is simply installed in the water stream of the water channel, and the efficiency is essentially low because the blades rotated by the water stream exert a force that hinders the rotation when they exit the water stream behind.The top-firing type solved this problem by bringing the water stream onto the turbine.The water wheel has a part that stores water in a bucket shape, not just a blade, and water from above is stored there.With that weight, the turbine begins to rotate.The bucket becomes slanted as it goes down, so water flows down from there.Since the turbine itself is not submerged in its drainage channel, there is no resistance to prevent rotation.Not only the weight of water, but also the impact of water falling on the water wheel from above is used for rotation.In order to use a top-fired turbine, it is necessary to store water at a higher position than the turbine, and it is also necessary to construct a pond, a waterway, and a floodgate.

By the end of the 19th centuryPelton turbineWas invented to replace the conventional turbine with a water pipe and a Pelton turbine.TurbineThere was also a watermill to set up.

Water wheel (steel(Made) with gear teeth on the tipInstead, there is also a method of driving by engaging that gear with another gear.

A watermill that uses tidal power does not use the flow of a river as a power source, but a breakwater or road is built at the mouth of a small bay on the coast and installed there.At low tide, the floodgates are opened to allow the gradually rising seawater to enter the bay.The floodgates are closed at high tide.When the tide on the outside is low to some extent, open the lock to the water wheel to let the seawater on the inside flow and rotate the water wheel.This is canadianBay of FundyIt is especially effective in places where there is a large difference in tides.As an example that still works Eling Tide Mill There is.

Also, on large bridges, the water flow between the piers is faster than before and after, so a water wheel may be installed there.London bridgeThere used to be many watermills underneath, complaining that it was difficult for the boatman to pass through.

The sound of a machine grinding flour

If you can't watch this audio or video well,Help: Playing audio/video.

Modern watermill

In the early 20th century, electricity became cheaper in developed countries and watermills were abolished, but until the 1960s, some watermills continued to operate in rural areas.Most of them are still operated mainly for tourism, and there are few places that use water turbines as a power source for some kind of production.

Some developing countries still use watermills for milling.for exampleネ パ ー ルIn 25,000 places,IndiaIs estimated to have 200,000 watermills[52]..Many remain the old method, but some replace wooden parts with metal to improve efficiency.for example Center for Rural Technology, Nepal Remodeled 2003 watermills between 2007 and 2,400[53].

Use of watermill

  • milling - MortarRotate穀物ToFlourTo.Most common.
  • Polished rice - (I.e.Up and down,brown riceSqueezeWhite riceTo.in JapanEdo PeriodSince the middle term, it has spread mainly in urban areas.
  • Sugar making - Sugar carRotatesugar caneSqueeze and squeeze the juice
  • --The finishing process of woolen fabric.
  • Lumber - sawActivate and cut the treewoodTo.Also, raw woodbarkPeel off to make it into powderleatherMake it usable for tanning.
  • spinning --From cottoncottonMake a thread.Industrial revolutionEarly on, it was powered by a water wheel.Related woodenBobbinWas also made with a water wheel as a power source.
  • Weaving --From the threadfabricmake.carpetEven in factories that weave such items, water wheels were sometimes used as the power source.
  • BlackGunpowder,Smokeless powderManufacturing of.
  • blast furnace,smeltingFurnace,TinplatePrior to the advent of the steam engine, work was done using hydraulic power.
  • Cutlery OfGrind
  • Cut an iron rod to a certain length andnailTo make.
  • Metalrolling
  • Papermaking ――At the same time as using a water wheel as power, the manufacturing process itself required a large amount of water.
  • Mainly of non-ferrous metalsOreThe(I.e.Crush with.
  • needleIn the past, it used hydraulic power to manufacture.
  • rapeseed oil,Sesame OilIn the past, the squeezer was operated by hydraulic power or wind power.
  • Power generation ――By improving the technology of the generator and combining metal gears, it has become possible to generate electricity effectively even with a water turbine of 10 rpm or less. Therefore, in recent years, it has been re-evaluated as a power source for power generation such as mini hydropower and micro hydropower.

Where you can see the watermill

Watermill and works

  • SchubertComposition and lyrics "Daughter of a beautiful water wheelhouse'
    A young miller who embarks on a wandering trip meets the daughter of a beautiful water mill while traveling and falls in love.However, the feelings of the man are not transmitted to the daughter, and the young man continues to worry while being fascinated by the appearance of the daughter.In the meantime my daughterhunterI am fascinated by.The miller has so much heartache thatOgawaThrow yourself into.


  1. ^ Oleson 1984, pp. 325ff .; Oleson 2000, pp. 217–302; Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, pp. 10-15; Wikander 2000, pp. 371-400
  2. ^ Oleson 2000, pp. 234, 270
  3. ^ Wikander 2000, pp. 396f .; Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, p. 11; Wilson 2002, pp. 7f.
  4. ^ Wikander 1985, p. 160; Wikander 2000, p. 396
  5. ^ a b Wikander 2000, pp. 373f .; Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, p. 12
  6. ^ Wikander 2000, p. 402
  7. ^ a b Wikander 2000, p. 375; Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, p. 13
  8. ^ a b Lewis, MJ, Millstone and Hammer: the origins of water power, University of Hull Press 1997. ISBN-0 85958 657-X-.
  9. ^ The interpretation of this word is very important.Generally translated as "spoke" (Reynolds 1983, P. 17), Lewis pointed out that the word primarily means "ray", but when it refers to something concrete, it means "gear".Since horizontal turbines do not require gears for milling, it is concluded that this turbine uses vertical turbines.
  10. ^ Wikander 1985, p. 158; Wikander 2000, p. 403; Wilson 2002, p. 16
  11. ^ Wikander 2000, p. 406
  12. ^ Kevin Greene, "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: MI Finley Re-Considered", The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 53, No. 1. (Feb., 2000), pp. 29-59 (39)
  13. ^ a b Wikander 2000, p. 375
  14. ^ Ritti, Grewe & Kessener 2007, p. 161
  15. ^ Ritti, Grewe & Kessener 2007, pp. 149–153
  16. ^ Wilson 2002, p. 16
  17. ^ Wilson 1995, pp. 507f .; Wikander 2000, p. 377; Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, p. 13
  18. ^ Wilson 1995, pp. 507f .; Wikander 2000, p. 377; Donners, Waelkens & Deckers 2002, p. 13
  19. ^ Wikander 2000, p. 407
  20. ^ Spain, Rob: "A possible Roman Tide Mill", Paper submitted to the Kent Archaeological Society
  21. ^ Wikander 2000, p. 383
  22. ^ Yorke, Stan (2005). The Industrial Revolution explained. Newbury, Berks: Countryside Books. Pp. 20–31. ISBN 978 1 85306 935 2 
  23. ^ Regine Pernou, "Women Who Survive the Medieval" (1987) Hakusuisha, p103.However, the note continues, "(However, it must be taken into consideration that there are few materials written in this era)."
  24. ^ Wikander 1985, p. 170, fn. 45
  25. ^ Gimpel 1977, pp. 11–12
  26. ^ Langdon 2004, pp. 9–10
  27. ^ Langdon 2004, pp. 11
  28. ^ Wikander 2000, p. 400
  29. ^ Wikander 2000, pp. 379 & 383f.
  30. ^ Murphy 2005
  31. ^ a b Wikander 1985, p. 155–157
  32. ^ a b Rynne 2000, pp. 10, fig. 1.2, 17, 49
  33. ^ McErlean & Crothers 2007
  34. ^ Recently discovered Tide Mill from 787 AD at Nendrum Monastic Site
  35. ^ Adam Robert Lucas,'Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe', Technology and Culture, Vol. 46, (Jan. 2005), pp. 1-30 (17).
  36. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 417f.
  37. ^ Huan Tan, "New Theory" Divorce Eleventh
  38. ^ Fan Ye, "Book of the Later Han" Vol.
  39. ^ "Southern History" Retsuden XNUMXnd Zu Chongzhi
  40. ^ a b c d e Needham 1986
  41. ^ "Shinsho" Retsuden XNUMXth Yang Suden
  42. ^ Needham 1986, pp. 400–401
  43. ^ Daoxuan "Hirohiromeishu" Volume 6 
  44. ^ "Old Karasho" 134. Retsuden XNUMX Eunuch Official Gao Lishi Den
  45. ^ a b Needham 1986, p. 401
  46. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), p. 1-30 [10].
  47. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering
  48. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), p. 1-30 [11].
  49. ^ Hill; see also Mechanical Engineering)
  50. ^ a b Gauldie, Enid (1981). The Scottish Miller 1700 --1900. Pub. John Donald. ISBN-0 85976-067-7.
  51. ^ A Course of Experimental Philosophy II (1744; 1763 edition), 449-53.
  52. ^ Nepal Ghatta Project
  53. ^ Ashden Awards case study on upgrading of water mills by CRT / Nepal


  • Burns, Robert I. (1996), “Paper comes to the West, 800-1400”, in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422, ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007), A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD), Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, ISBN 90-04-15605-4 
  • Donners, K .; Waelkens, M .; Deckers, J. (2002), “Water Mills in the Area of ​​Sagalassos: A Disappearing Ancient Technology”, Anatolian Studies 52: 1–17 
  • Gimpel, Jean (1977), The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages, London: Penguin (Non-Classics), ISBN 978-0140045147 
  • Holt, Richard (1988), The Mills of Medieval England, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 978-0631156925 
  • Langdon, John (2004), Mills in the Medieval Economy: England, 1300-1540, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199265585 
  • McErlean, Thomas; Crothers, Norman (2007), Harnessing the Tides: The Early Medieval Tide Mills at Nendrum Monastery, Strangford Lough, Belfast: Stationery Office Books, ISBN +978-0-337-08877-3 
  • Murphy, Donald (2005), Excavations of a Mill at Killoteran, Co. Waterford as Part of the N-25 Waterford By-Pass Project, Estuarine / Alluvial Archeology in Ireland. Towards Best Practice, University College Dublin and National Roads Authority, http://www.acsltd.ie/cms/uploads/02_02_kiloteran_mill_-_ucd.pdf 
  • Needham, Joseph (1986), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; Part 2, Mechanical Engineering, Caves Books Ltd, ISBN 0-521-05803-1 
  • Oleson, John Peter (1984), Greek and Roman Mechanical Water-Lifting Devices: The History of a Technology, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 90-277-1693-5 
  • Oleson, John Peter (2000), 窶弩 ater-Lifting 窶 in Wikander, Te Mutsumi jan, Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 217–302, ISBN 90-04-11123-9 
  • Pacey, Arnold, Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History, The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 1, 1991). ISBN-0 262-66072-5.
  • Reynolds, Terry S. (1983), Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7248-0 
  • Ritti, Tullia; Grewe, Klaus; Kessener, Paul (2007), Relief of a Water-powered Stone Saw Mill on a Sarcophagus at Hierapolis and its Implications Journal of Roman Archeology 20: 138–163 
  • Rynne, Colin (2000), 窶弩 aterpower in Medieval Ireland 窶 in Squatriti, Paolo, Working with Water in Medieval Europe, Technology and Change in History, 3, Leiden: Brill, pp. 1–50, ISBN 90-04-10680-4 
  • Wikander, Te Mutsumi jan (1985), Hiroshi rchaeological Evidence for Early Water-Mills. An Interim Report History of Technology 10: 151–179 
  • Wikander, Te Mutsumi jan (2000), 窶 弋 he Water-Mill 窶. In Wikander, Te Mutsumi jan, Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 371–400, ISBN 90-04-11123-9 
  • Wilson, Andrew (1995), “Water-Power in North Africa and the Development of the Horizontal Water-Wheel”, Journal of Roman Archeology 8: 499–510 
  • Wilson, Andrew (2002), Acehnese, Power and the Ancient Economy. The Journal of Roman Studies 92: 1–32 

Related item

外部 リンク


bath(Furo) is for cleaning the bodyHot bath,bathingEquipment to do.bathroom-BathhouseAlso called.


Originally, we have been bathing in places with water for a long time due to hygiene needs and religious ideas.SpaTo wipe out the cold usingMetabolismIn order to remove and discharge waste products and waste products, hot water and steam are used to take hot baths even in places where there are no hot springs. 5000 years agoIndus civilization OfMohenjo-daroAnd large in the center of the citypublic bathhouseWas complete.What is currently confirmed as the origin of the bath4000 BCWhenMesopotamiaSo, cleansingBatheForbathroomWas made,2000 BCAroundfirewoodThe hot water bathroom usingtempleWas made in.at the same timeGreek civilizationSo nowOlympicBased on the idea that "a healthy mind is in a healthy body", which is the basis of the spirit, it is attached to a sports facility as a large-scale public bath for bathing.Water bathWas made.100 BC OfRoman EmpireIn the age ofAncient Roman public bathsUtilizing the heat of boiling water and a luxurious public bath known asHypocaustTo sayFloor heatingEquipment is well developedMediterranean worldSo nowJapanBut as a social gathering placeMixed bathingThe public baths were being enjoyed.HadrianIt became a separate bath for men and women around that time[1].

But,キ リ ス ト 教With the infiltration of, it was avoided to gather naked in the same place, and it became obsolete.[2]..Inheriting the territory of the Roman EmpireEuropeIn the land of13st centuryUntil then, even in remote areasbathingThe custom was widespread,(I.e.As a cleansing to go to, put warm water in a large wooden barrel and rinse yourself easily.Running waterIt was like.There is a public bath in the city center, and it is said that the residents enjoyed hot water baths and steam baths about once or twice a week.However, because it was a mixed bathing for men and women, lewd acts andprostitutionConnected to itThe idea of ​​Christianity was added and it became obsolete[Source required]..To spur it14st centuryToPlagueDue to the epidemic, not only public baths but also bathing itself was misinterpreted as "actively taking in Yersinia pestis", habits such as bathing were avoided, and bath culture shrank from the Mediterranean Sea and Europe. I went.On the other hand, it corresponds to the eastern part of the former Roman Empire.Middle EastThen the bathing culture is inherited,HammamA public bath called "Sho" played a role as a social gathering place for residents. 2600 BCMohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization around that time,HarappaLarge-scale public baths were available in such cities.AncientIndiaXNUMX great powers OfMagadhaThe capital ofRoyal castle(CurrentBiharLarge gil) WasBuddhismThe first templeTakebayashi SeishaThere was a Buddhist monastery (Tapodarama) with a hot spring near.Hot springIt seems that it was aimed at.Currently on the siteHinduA temple has been built, but the hot springs are still alive.

With the progress of medicine in Europe18st centuryThe interpretation that "bathing actively takes up pathogens into the body" was denied, and it came to be regarded as preferable for health.Along with that, the habit of bathing remotely became more active, but it was not a bath soaked in warm water.ShowerAs a result, the habit of bathing in warm water became widespread.Even in the current Europe and AmericaBathtubSome bathrooms do not have a bath, and it is common to soak in a hot water bath once or twice a month.

Japanese bath

Originally in JapanShintoIt seems to be a kind of bathing in rivers and waterfalls.SakakiIt is believed that the custom of (Misogi) has been practiced for a long time.[3].

When Buddhism was introduced, the temple was built with a bathhouse and a bathing facility called a bathhouse.OriginallyMonkIn Buddhism, bathing was encouraged as a means of rejecting illness and inviting good fortune, and it is called "Buddhist Greenhouse Bathing Buddhist Monk".SutraAlso exists,BathingIt is said that the opening to the general public has also progressed.In particularGuangming EmpressInstructed the construction, and it is said that the purpose was to treat the poor for bathing.Hokkeji TempleThe bathhouse is famous.Bathing at that time was not soaked in hot waterMedicinal herbIt was a steam bath type in which hot water containing such substances was boiled and the steam was taken into the bathhouse.Furo was originally thought to refer to a steam bath, and structures that allow the body to be immersed in the current bathtub were distinguished as bathhouses and bathhouses.

Heian periodWhen it comes to, the facilities of the steam bath style bathhouse that was in the temple are advancedOfficial houseA style to take in the mansion appears. "Pillow soshiko], Etc., the state of the steam bath is described.It is believed that the religious meaning gradually diminished, and the hygiene and entertainment aspects became stronger.

Kamakura PeriodToTodaiji TempleMade an effort for reconstructionHeavy sourcebyBathingYou can see the iron bath at.this isNanto burningChogen asked for a giant tree to rebuild the Great Buddha Hall that was damaged in1186/By the timeSuoIt was a hot water practice for a laborer engaged in timber cutting.Chogen openedAmidaji(Amida Temple)The old iron bath remnants ofExperienced ChogenSouthern Song DynastyIt is a domestic reproduction of what I learned in[4], The Kitchen and Bath Industry Association introduces this as the originator of the Choshu bath.[5]..The existing iron bath1197/Was engaged in the Great Buddha castingHanoicastingA thing dedicated to Todaiji Temple by his teacher, Kusabe Kosuke,1290/Also by Kawachi founder Sadakiyo YamakawaNariaiji TempleChionji TempleSeen in.

It is unknown when the style of filling the bathtub with hot water and immersing the body in it occurred.For a long time, put water in a tub to wash your bodyRunning waterIt is believed that this style and the steam bath were fused.This bathing method has become popularEdo PeriodIt is believed that it has been in.Introducing a bath called a cupboard bath where only the lower body is immersed in the bathtub.KeichoAt the end of the year, a bath called a soe bath or a water bath, in which the whole body was immersed in the bathtub, appeared.


Japanese OfbathThere are two etymologies of.

  • Originally it has the meaning of "cave" (Iwaya) and "Iwamuro" (Iwamuro)A roomThe theory that (Muro) has changed
  • Matcha"" of the kettle used when turning onWind furnaceThe theory that it came from

English"Bath" isUnited KingdomThe name of the hot spring town inバ ー スThere is a popular theory that (Bath) is the etymology, but like the place name "hot spring town" in Japan, it came to be called "Bath" because it has hot springs.The noun that means "warming" or "warming" in English "bath"Germanic ancient languageAlready in, and further backProto-Indo-EuropeanIt is thought to be derived from.


Steam bath

Steam bath(Mushiburo) is a bath that steams the body with steam.As mentioned above, in Japan, the term "buro" was originally used to refer to this.Often seen in hot springs rich in steam,OitaBeppu OfKannawa OnsenIt is inKannawa Mushiyu TheAll overIt is said that the superior opened it for bathing.On the floor heated by the hot springStone irisSpread the herb and steam it at a high temperature.TerpeneIt is used by releasing an aroma containing (which has an analgesic effect) and absorbing it into the body through the skin and respiratory organs.The box-shaped steam bath for one person is especially called a box steam bath.Including dry type that does not use steamSauna bathAlso called a sauna in a narrow sense (British: sauna bath) IsFinlandRefers only to the dry type of the formula.

It's not meant for people to enter,lacquerwarePainted onlacquerIt is a room to dryLacquer bathA type of steam bath.

Rock bath

Rock bath(Iwaburo), orStone bath(Ishiburo) is mainly in JapanSeto Inland SeaIt is a steam bath that was in the coastal area[6].. NaturalgrottoIn a closed rock hole such as, heat it by burning it and give it water to take a steam bath or a hot air bath.[6]..Do not get naked when taking a bath, stay in clothesmatSit or lie down[7]..Traditional stone bathHigh economic growth periodWhen entering, it disappears one by one, and the ones that remain in some areas are tangible.Folk cultural propertySpecified in[6].

There is a difference in how steam is generated between a beach bath and a mountain bath.In a seaside bath, when the temperature reaches an appropriate level, a straw mat (rather) wet with seaweed or seawater is drawn on the ash.The bath along the river was wet with fresh waterRice strawirisAnd steamed[8].

Kettle bath

Kettle bath(Kamaburo) is mainlyJapanese archipelagoIt is a steam bath that has spread in the inland area of ​​Japan.In particular京都 OfYaseThe traditional Kamado bath is typical.A dome-shaped rock with a diameter of about 2 m, with a small entrance on the underside.First, heat the fire in the dome.After heating, ventilation was performed, a straw mat wet with salt water was pulled, and a person lay on the straw mat to take a bath.

Goemon's bath

Old furo 002.jpg

Goemon's bath(Goemonburo) is one of the types of Japanese baths.The origin of the name isAzuchi-Momoyama PeriodThievesIshikawa Goemon 京都SanjoKawaharaBoiled in a potIt is said that he was sentenced to.

"Tokaido Naka Knee Chestnut Hair]OdawaraThere is a story about Yaji-san and Kita-san taking a Goemon bath at the inn.There, about the structure of the Goemon bath at that time, "The tub of the bath is placed directly on the clay pot, and the bottom plate is floating above. When taking a bath, the bottom plate is sunk into the bottom with your feet. It ’s economical, ”he said, and it was in the upper form.[9]..Yaji Kita didn't know how to take this bath, and when he tried to remove the bottom plate, he burned his leg with a kettle, and after suffering, he went to the toilet.下 駄Put on and take a bath.Mr. Kita trampled on with clogs, broke the kettle and was ashamed.

"Edo period"Morisada Manuscript』In the article of the living bath," Kyosaka exclusive use does not bottom the tubPlace the flat pot on the earthenware.Firewood and old wood old equipment Kuchiki no KinTherefore, it is not suitable for a bathhouseversusNoya This bath is called Goemon bath because it is similar to the legend that it goes to the old Goemon, the punishment of oil-boiled kettle. "

As of November 2014, Goemon Bath is the only manufacturer.Hiroshima OfDaiwa Heavy Industrycast ironMade of products are being produced.Strictly speaking, the one made entirely of iron is called the "Choshu bath", and the Goemon bath has a wooden barrel at the edge and only the bottom is iron.Since it is made of thick cast iron, relatively high heat retention can be expected.

Old furo 001.jpg
Former Japanese bathroom
Japanese style bath tub (Goemon bath, Choshu bath) and washing area.There are legged tubs and legged washbasins in the washroom.From the washing place, you can enter the bath tub that is one step higher.The edge of the bath tub is set down one step so that the hot water overflowing from the tub flows down to the washing place side.The wall on the right side of the screen has a hole in the upper row for inserting firewood and a hole in the lower row for scraping out the ashes after burning the firewood.In this example, so that the fire does not fallBricksThe structure is such that the lid is inserted into the hole.WaterIn an era when there is no water, the part that is one step lower than the washing place is to be able to draw water into the tub from the outside, carry out the remaining hot water from the bath tub after bathing, and wash away dirty feet outsideDirt floorIt's been beaten.

Drum bath

Drum bath(Drum Kanburo) is one of the types of Japanese baths and is vacant.DrumIt is a subspecies of Goemon bath, which is used as a bath by using waste products.Fill a drum placed on a kettle made of stones with water, and heat the bottom with the fire of the kettle to make hot water.As with Goemon bath, you can take a bath by stepping on a wooden lid or wearing clogs.Second World WarSince it is easy to procure materials such as empty fuel cans, it was often made in the battlefield, and even after the war, many households did not have an indoor bath as a simple bath (≒ 40).1965/ - 1975/Until that time, it was often done in ordinary households.Even nowBoy scout,Children's associationDrum processed products (with a water drain faucet on the bottom) that allow you to take a drum bath outdoors are commercially available for events such as, or as entertainment at accommodation facilities.

Wooden barrel bath (gun bath)

One of the Japanese bathsCypressIt is shaped like a large oval wooden barrel made of wood, with a cast kettle and chimney attached to burn the fire.The shape of the kettle with a chimney resembles a gun, so it is sometimes called a "gun bath".It has existed since the Edo period, but it has become popular.Meiji EraからTaisho eraIt is said to be over.The one in the photo on the right is a relatively new type with a structure similar to the current reheating type bath heater, which circulates the water in the bathtub by convection in a double-structured kettle.The prototype was to heat hot water by putting lit firewood or charcoal in a metal cylinder submerged in a bathtub.There was also a type that heats directly with a kettle and a chimney that are integrated with the bathtub.During the transitional period, the heat source for the wooden barrel gun bathGas burnerOr, conversely, in a wood-fired kettle like the one in the photoFRPYou can see the development history of baths in modern Japanese homes, such as an example of combining made bathtubs.Nowadays, it is rarely seen like Goemon bath.

Gas bath

From the Meiji era1950 eraUsed up to[10], EarlyHousing complex[Annotation 1]Was also used.The structure was just a gas burner attached to the gun bath.It was not popular because it was expensive.Most of them are intake and exhaust types in the bathroom.[Annotation 2],Poisoning accidentHappened a lot.[11]

FRP bath

1958/,Ina Ceramics(CurrentLIXIL) Released "Polybus" which is a combination of FRP and circulation pot.The bathtub can withstand high temperatures and has good heat retention.[12]It became an alternative to the wooden barrel bath.Since then, the entry of other companiesBalance kettleThe combination of these has spread to housing estates and homes nationwide.

Modular bath

A bath in which walls, ceilings, bathtubs, and floors are molded at the factory and then brought to the site for assembly.Wash basin,WCSome are integrated withexcretionIn Japan, the value that integrates the toilet used for the toilet with the bath is considered unsanitary is the mainstream.Therefore, Western styleHotelOther than that, it is installed in houses for low-income earners to some extent, and most of the unit baths distributed in Japan are separate bath and toilet types.Second World WarpreviousAmericaThen.PatentWas taken, but it did not spread.in Japan1960 eraStarting with the hotel in the middle1970 eraFrom the middle of the year, it became popular as a large-scale and easily assembled bathroom for apartment houses.The first mass delivery was in 1964.Tokyo OlympicsIn Tokyo, where rush work was being carried out towardHotel New OtaniToto pottery made by ordering from (currentlyTOTO) Product[13]..Early productsFiber reinforced plastic Bathtubs made of (FRP) were the mainstream, but the development of materials has progressed.1980 eraAfter thatPolyester resin,acrylic resinUsedArtificial marbleBathtub and high heat retentionstainlessSome have used bathtubs.

Whirlpool bubble bath

There is momentum in the bathtubThe bath that puts out a whirlpool is called a "whirpool type bubble bath", but in general, it is "Whirlpool"Jacuzzi" "Jacuzzi" "Jacuzzi" (Japanese "Jacuzzi"Shekou"Misreading from") "and so on.Some are equipped with lighting that illuminates the inside of the bathtub.

"Whirpool type bubble bath" isItalian americanJacuzzi (Italian pronunciation: [jaˈkuttsi] YaClickZzi,English pronunciation: [ʤəˈkuːzi] JaKuuZi) Company started by brothers(English edition3rd generation Roy Jacuzzi1968/The Whirlpool tub developed in Japan is said to be the first.After that, Jacuzzi generally refers to "whirpool type bubble bath" in each country.nounBecame.

Problems with the bath

Noritz,Matsushita Electric Works(CurrentPanasonic),Toto equipment(CurrentTOTO),Hitachi Chemical(CurrentHouse tech),INAX(CurrentLIXIL) Manufactured and soldBathtub with jet jetso,Some trouble (accident) occurred while taking a bathAn example was reported.Among them, INAX and NoritzBathtub with jet jet, manufactured and sold byWhen it comes toformerIn 1992,The latter is 2000To eachCase of causing a fatal accidentThere is also.[14][15][16][17]

Water bath

As the name suggests, it is a bath filled with water instead of hot water.It often enters in the summer and when it is hot.Also,saunaAfter entering, it may be entered to make you sweat.

Edo PeriodIn rural areas, it is said that baths were water baths = running water in tubs, and the diary and Honjin documents left in various places say "two water baths" and "three water baths". There is a description, and it is presumed to be a tub for running water.[18].. "" (KanseiIn the 3rd year), you can see a picture of a child in a tub being watered by her mother.

Residential bathroom

Residential bathtubs are classified into three types: Western style, Japanese style, and Japanese-Western style.Western style is 3 length mm ――Long at 1600 mm, shallow at depth 400 mm ――450 mm.The Japanese style is as short as 800 mm-1200 mm in length and as deep as 450 mm-650 mm in depth.This is due to the difference in bathing methods, and is a manifestation of the difference between the Western style of stretching and washing the body and the Japanese style of bathing up to the shoulders.Simply enlarging the bathtub can withstand both purposes, but since the amount of hot water required increases, the Japanese-Western eclectic type, which is an intermediate size, is often used.[19].

If the bathtub is deep, it is dangerous to raise your legs high when entering.There are two types of bathtub installation methods: embedded type, semi-embedded type, and stationary type.It is safest to use a semi-embedded bathtub that keeps the height of the bathtub.

The bathroom in the house is from under the floorpestDue to intrusion or humidityMoldUnderfloor space is usually provided to prevent breeding oftileThe bathroom is made in direct contact with the ground in order to embed the bathtub and finish the floor with water resistance.Molds and pests (for example, around the bathroom) where the temperature and humidity are maintained even in winterTermite) Is likely to be a hotbed.In order to prevent these harms, it is important to carry out regular inspections and make them available for inspection.Modular bathIn the case of, since it is usually installed away from the ground, it is not in direct contact with the ground, but the same caution is essential because it also causes a hot and humid condition.After bathingVentilation fanIt is desirable to turn[20].

In urban areas, bathrooms may be installed on the upper floors in order to make effective use of small areas.Wooden houseIn this case, it is quite possible that the waterproof layer will break due to the expansion and contraction of the wood, and sufficient caution is required for water leakage.

In the bathroomLoofah, Bath chair, Yuoke, foot wipe mat, bath boots,SoapKind,shampooMany items are used, such as types and tables on which they are placed.

BathroomWashingIt is also used as a place to hang things.By installing and operating a bathroom dryer, the air in the bathroom can be dried, and the laundry can be dried without worrying about bad weather or pollen adhesion.Heat source TheElectricalOrgasIs used, performance andinitial cost(Initial cost)·running costThere are advantages and disadvantages in terms of[21][22].

Related item

Type and form of bath

Bathing method

Bath as equipment

Customs such as clothes related to bathing in Japan

Metaphor, metaphor



  • lacquerwarePainted onlacquerA facility where a dedicated room or space is filled with steam to dry (lacquer).Also called Muro (room)
  • Wind furnace..A furnace for boiling water in the tea ceremony.Or by metallurgyCrucibleA device that heats.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Mainly Ogikubo housing complex etc.
  2. ^ It is a CF type and has a headwind stop.A method in which exhaust gas is released into the bathroom by wind pressure so that it will not disappear due to strong winds such as typhoons (gas leak prevention).Also, if you use a ventilation fan etc., the pressure inside the room will be negative, so in the bathroomCarbon monoxide leaks and becomes addictiveBecause it is dangerous.Currently, new installation is prohibited unless it is unavoidable.


  1. ^ Thermae Romae[Detailed information for identifying documents]
  2. ^ Thermae RomaeDVD recording audio commentary[Detailed information for identifying documents]
  3. ^ "Shinto Guide" Murakami Bookstore Published January 1996, 1, page 30 out of page 222
  4. ^ "Amida-ji Temple Yuya Attached Old Iron Bath Pot Old Iron Bath Boat Residual". Nationally designated cultural property database. 2016/6/29Browse.
  5. ^ "From Goemon bath and Choshu bath to cast hollow enamel bathtub”. Kitchen and Bath Industry Association. 2016/6/29Browse.
  6. ^ a b c Katsuo Maeda "Stone Bath" "Journal of the Japan Hot Spring Climate Physics Society" Vol. 52, No. 1, Japan Hot Spring Climate Physics Society, 1988-1989, pp. 32, two:10.11390 / onki1962.52.32.
  7. ^ Yamaguchi Prefectural University Faculty of International Cultural Studies (ed.) "University Yamaguchi Guide: A New Perspective on" History and Culture "" Showa-do 2011 ISBN 978-4-8122-1069-7 pp. 234-236.
  8. ^ Yamaguchi Prefecture History Walk Edition, edited by the Training Committee, "Yamaguchi Prefecture History Walk," Yamakawa Shuppansha, 2006,ISBN 463424635X, Pp.24-25.
  9. ^ It was in Kansai at that time that the structure was written in detail, but it was probably because it was not yet common in Edo (Shojiro Kobayashi, "Personal Directory That Is Not a Person's Name").Diligence Publishing 2014 p.58-60).
  10. ^ From the Tokyo Gas catalog[Detailed information for identifying documents]
  11. ^ Industrial Technology History Database[Detailed information for identifying documents]
  12. ^ "New material challenged by pottery makers". LIXIL. 2016/9/16Browse.
  13. ^ Kaname Tsunoda (August 2014, 8). “Discovering the first unit bus 50 years of evolution from the Tokyo Olympics". Asahi Shimbun digital.As of August 2014, 9original[Broken link]More archives.2014/10/2Browse.
  14. ^ "XNUMX Failures-A Girl Drowns in a Whirlpool". 2019/11/29Browse.
  15. ^ "A child accidents while taking a "jet whirlpool bath"! (PDF)”. National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan. As of November 2011, 11original[Broken link]More archives.2019/11/29Browse.
  16. ^ "Accident Information Special News No. XNUMX”. National Institute of Technology and Evaluation of Products. 2019/11/29Browse.
  17. ^ "Free replacement of parts for whirlpool bath | Important notice regarding products”. Noritz Corporation. 2019/11/29Browse.
  18. ^ Yutaka Honda "The picture tells the life of Edo that I didn't know" Vol.
  19. ^ "How to choose a bathtub”. Homepro (June 2015, 6). 2020/7/9Browse.
  20. ^ "How much is the bathroom ventilation fan and electricity bill?I want to keep it spinning for 24 hours to prevent mold!”. Iemo (July 2016, 7). 2016/9/24Browse.
  21. ^ "What is Kotobank Bathroom Dryer (Glossary of Remodeling)". 2016/9/24Browse.
  22. ^ "How to use the bathroom dryer well.How to dry the laundry and how to deal with odors”. Iemo (July 2016, 5). 2016/9/24Browse.


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