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👩‍🎓 | Borrowed words in Yoruba: How languages ​​evolve


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Loanwords in Yoruba: How Language Evolves

 
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Consider the word restaurant, borrowed from French to English.
 

Akara, or Nigerian bean cake, is the country's main breakfast. 2013… → Continue reading

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French

French(French,French French pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃sɛ] Francais) IsIndo-European OfItalicLanguages ​​that belong to.Romance languagesOne of theLatinColloquialism (Profane latin) Changed fromFranceNorthernOil language(OrWi language,langue d'oïl) Is said to be the mother.In JapaneseFrench orchid Spanish,For shortFrenchAlso write.

The term French is used in many languages ​​(Occitan,AlpitanEtc.) can be misleading in France, so simplyOil languageSometimes called to distinguish it from other French languages[4].

In the worldEnglishIt is the second most used language after (about 80 countries / regions), and 2 countries, mainly France, Switzerland, Belgium, Canada, and countries that were once the territory of France and Belgium. Is the official language of (French speakingSee).Used by 1 million people worldwide as the primary language, with a total of over 2300 million speakers[5].United Nations,European UnionIt is also selected as one of the official languages ​​such as.This French speaker,Francophone(in your language,English edition)[Annotation 1][Annotation 2].

voice

consonant

Both lipsLip teethDental consonantgumPosterior gumHard palateHard palate on both lipsSoft palateLabial-velar conchUvula
Plosivepbtdkg
nasalmnɲ
Fricativefvszʃ ʒʁ
Approaching soundjɥw
Side approach soundl

If two symbols are lined up, the one on the right isVoiced sound, LeftUnvoiced sound.

vowel

Front tongueMiddle tongueBack tongue
iyu
Half narrowe øo
Centerə
Semi-wideɛ œɔ
Wideaɑ

If two symbols are lined up, the one on the right isRounded lips, LeftNon-rounded lips.

Nasal vowel

  • / ɛ̃ /: in, im, ain, aim, ein, eim -Although it is a nasal vowel of "d", it is actually close to "an".
  • / œ̃ /(In Paris etc. / ɛ̃ / Join): un, um
  • / ɑ̃ /(Slightly rounded lips): an, am, en, em --Dark "A" nasal vowel, close to "On".
  • / ɔ̃ / or / õ /: on, om

As an example of a phrase containing four nasal vowels « un bon vin blanc » / œ̃ bɔ̃ vɛ̃ blɑ̃ /(Delicious white wine) is famous.

Half vowel

Spelling and pronunciation

In French, basically the endings excluding c, r, f, lconsonantvowelThe e is not pronounced.The French notation seems complicated to beginners, but it is relatively regular.EnglishAnd JapaneseRomajiIt's so different from the notation that you can't read it correctly without knowing French, but you can easily pronounce it if you remember the rules.For example water Always / o / Pronounced.However gentleman(Mosh) Is /mɔ̃.sjœʁ/ not /mə.sjø/ Andwoman(Female,wife) Is / fem / not / fam / Etc.Italian,SpanishThere are many exceptions compared to other Romance languages.does,plusSome words have different pronunciations depending on the context.Also,in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim Is all / ɛ̃ / Because different spellings often show the same pronunciation, such asHomophoneThere are many.For example wine(Wine)When twenty(20) Are both / vɛ̃ / And also adjectives blue (tag, The masculine singular) and its variants blue(Multiple masculine),Blue(Feminine singular),blue(Multiple feminine) are all / blø / Is.For this reason, it is relatively difficult to hear the pronunciation and write it separately.[7]..Some people, even natives, can't write correctly, which is a problem in France.Due to such difficulties, it is being carried out in Japan.Practical French Proficiency TestA dictation test is conducted in the second and subsequent grades of (DAPF), and the sentences flowing on the CD are written correctly while grasping the context firmly and paying attention to the conjugation of verbs as well as the matching of gender and number. The ability is tested.Although it is a dictation test, grammatical knowledge is also tested, and in fact, there are so many examinees who score points on this dictation question, which shows how difficult it is to write French correctly.

Alphabe

The alphabetIn French, it ’s called Alphabe (alphabet).

Name of each letter

A, a a /to/(AB, b baby / be /(Be
C, c this / se /(D, d of / de /(De
E, e e / Ə /(CormorantF, f effe / ɛf /(F
G, g ge / ʒe /(JeH, h Ache / aʃ /(Ash
I, i i / i /(LeeJ, j ji / ʒi /(The
K, k ka / ka /(MosquitoesL, l elle / ɛl /(Elle
M, m in me / ɛm /(MN, n uropean / ɛn /(N
O, o o / o /(OhP, p foot / pe /(The
Q, q cu / ky /(KyuR, r erre / ɛʁ /(Ale
S, s that / ɛs /(ST, t the / te /(Te
U, u u / y /(YuV, v vee / ve /(Ve
W, w double vé / dublə ve /¹ (Du BruveX, x go / iks /(Ix
Y, y i grec / i ɡʁɛk /² (EgrekZ, z zède / zɛd /(Zedd
  1. The meaning of two Vs.
  2. GreeceMeaning of I.UpsilonSee.

Spelling symbol

  • É, é of " : Aksantegu(acute accent, SharpAcuteMeaning)
  • À, È, Ù, à, è, ù «` »:: Acute accent(This is an accent grave: `, Meaning heavy acute accent)
  • Â, Л, Î, Ô, Û, â, ê, î, ô, û of " : Acute accent(circumflex accent, Meaning curved acute accent)
  • Ä, Ë, Ï, Ö, Ü, Ÿ, ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ of " : Trema(umlaut, Partion symbol)
  • Ç, ç of " : Cedilla(cedilla

Cedilla, diaeresis, acute accent, and the grave accent and acute accent on the e are pronunciation-changing symbols.On the other hand, grave accents and acute accents attached to vowels other than e do not change the pronunciation.

* I do not strongly read the place where acute accents are attached.

Ligature

Œ, œ Is o and eLigatureIs.This combinationSingle vowelIn words pronounced in, o and e must be connected in this way.Usually in œu / œ / Represents

  • sister / sœʁ /
  • oenology / enɔlɔʒi / --In Greek origin,The Œ transcribed from /is/ Is pronounced.

Æ, æ Is a ligature of a and e, a fewLatinUsed in loanwords from.

  • caecum / sekɔm /

Punctuation marks

In frenchQuotation marks(EnglishThen, as "" ""), "«» "(guillemet) quotation marks) Is used.French punctuationOf which, comma (,), period (.),bracketsQuestion marks (?) Other than ((), []),Exclamation point(!),colon(:),semicolonBefore (;)spaceAnd also put a space after and before the quotes.

Number system

A combination of 20-ary and decimal[8]..Quite complicated, but this is an example in France, 70 in Belgium and Switzerlandseventy, 90nonante, And 80 in SwitzerlandhuitanteExpressed as, it is relatively close to the decimal system.

  • 1: un (une)
  • 2: two people
  • 3: three
  • 4: four
  • 5: five
  • 6: six
  • 7: Sept
  • 8: eight
  • 9: new
  • 10: dix
  • 20: twenty
  • 30: thirty
  • 40: forty
  • 50: fifty
  • 60: sixty
  • 70 (60 + 10): soixante-dix
  • 80 (4 * 20): four-vingts
  • 90 (4 * 20 + 10): ninety
  • 100: cent
  • 200: two hundred
  • 1000: thousand

grammar

SingularMultiple
First personje chantenous chantons
second persontu chantesvous chantez
third personhe singsils chantent
  • verb Thesubject OfPerson-QuantityUse it according to such reasons.For example sing The present form of (singing) is as shown in the tableInflectionTo do.For more informationFrench verbSee.
  • nounTosexThere are (male / female).According to genderarticle・ Of the verbPast participle-adjectiveThere are masculine and feminine forms.
  • Adjectives and articles change according to gender and number.
  • It is basically a post-modification.For example, "red wine" is « Red wine ».However,small(small),largeFrequently used adjectives such as (large) may be pre-qualified.For example, "small child (single)" is « little child »(Petit Tan Fan) (If there are multiple, « grandchildren »(Petitzan fan)).

Title

  • Mr. [məsjø] (Mushu) (Male) (Mr.) * In Japan, "MoshIs often written.
  • Mrs.[madam] (Madam) (Married woman) (Ms.)
  • Miss [madmwazɛl] (Mademwazel) (Unmarried woman) (Miss)

Language variant

Dialect and local language

Europe (France and its surroundings)

North America

Africa

Used in southern FranceOccitanIs sometimes used as a French dialect, but linguistically it is usually treated as a different language.

French Creole language

Mixed language

Such(French-based creole languagesSee).

Mixed language with other languages

History

58 BCから51 BCOverRepublic Rome OfGaius Julius Caesar Gallic WarsIt is the origin of French in this area that almost all of the present French territory was Roman territory.LatinWas the trigger for the full-scale introduction.Prior to the Gallic Wars, the region was predominantly Celtic.GaulishWas used, but as Roman rule took root, Latin became dominant, andGallo-RomanceA Latin dialect group called was established.This language was basically influenced by Latin, and although it was a dialect, it was influenced by some phonologies from Celtic.[9]. afterwards,Roman EmpireWith the collapse ofFrank kingdomWas their language when they ruled this areaGermanic system OfFranconianWas brought in, and under the influence of that, the Latin language in this area changed drastically,9st centuryCompletely separated from Latin by nowOld frenchWas established[10]. afterwards,14st centuryAroundMiddle frenchChanged to17st centuryThe modern French was established by the purification and maintenance of French by the Academy Francaise.

Control agency

As a French control bodyAcademy francaiseCan be mentioned.this is1635/ChancellorRichelieuA national institution founded by the French language, with the aim of improving the French language to make it a language that anyone can understand.dictionary"Academy Francais DictionaryWas aimed at compiling[11].

This "Academy Francaise Dictionary" is1694/After the first edition was published in, it has been compiled and published until the present day.The newest dictionary is1992/It was compiled in.It was rare at the time that such a language control body was created by the state, which was the source of the French state's strong influence over French.

It is also one of the missions to make recommendations on the current state of French, and although not enforceable, these recommendations have a strong influence on French.Academy FrancaiseInstitut de FranceIt is the oldest and most prestigious academy among the five academies that make up.Académie Francaise consists of a capacity of 5 people with a lifetime term and will only be replenished if vacancies occur.

This member, the composition of French speakers and the academy itself, has been established and survived as a national institution of the French government.French historyThe number of French citizens is overwhelmingly large, but other citizens can become members if they are deemed appropriate.

For example,1983/Became a memberLeopold Sédard SangorFor 20 yearsセネガルThe person who served as the president of the republic, but in FrenchpoetsIt is a very well-known existence, and it is an international organization that seeks to integrate the French-speaking world.Francofony International OrganizationHe was allowed to become a member because he led the establishment of.

Speaker distribution

France is the only country with a majority of French-speaking people.However, in some countries, native speakers of French have a great deal of power.In addition, the region where French is originally the mother tongue in France is limited to northern France, and it is spoken in a wide area of ​​southern France.OccitanBeginning withBrittany peninsulaSpoken inCelticSystemBreton,AlsaceSpoken inGermanSystemAlsatian,CorsicaSpoken in ItalianCorsicanThere are several local languages ​​with different strains.However, the French government is the earliest nation to build the language by the government.French RevolutionSince then, it has consistently defined French as the only language in France.[12]..For this reason, strong national French dissemination policies, including education, have been adopted, and even in each of the above language regions, French is now being spoken in most of the modern times.However, until the latter half of the 19th century, the Occitan restoration movement "Félibrige", Etc. have been carried out, and criticism is deeply rooted in this situation from the viewpoint of protecting local languages.

The country with the highest percentage of native French speakers outside FranceBelgiumIs a French speaker and lives in southern BelgiumWalloonMakes up 31% of the population.In Belgium, he lives in the north and speaks the Dutch dialect.FlemishMakes up 60% of the population and is with the WalloonsLanguage warThere is a serious language conflict situation called.Against the backdrop of this conflict, Belgium has become a federal state in the north and south, and in the south.Walloon areaMost ofFrench communityIs forming.Also in the capitalブ リ ュ ッ セ ルAlthough it is located on the north side of the language boundary, the population of French speakers accounts for 8%, and it is a unique region for both languages ​​as the Brussels metropolitan area.Next, the nations with a high percentage of French speakersSwitzerlandIs.Native French speakers make up 20.38% of the Swiss, second only to German speakers, who make up 64%.Swiss French speakers are concentrated in the western part of the countryGeneva,Vaud,Neuchâtel,JuraTwo ofCantonHas made French the official language as a state dominated by French speakers.It also straddles both sides of the language boundaryFriborgandValaisIs in frenchGermanBoth languages ​​are the official languages.Switzerland is a multilingual nation, and the official languages ​​of the federation are German, French,Italian3 languages[13][14], And as a national languageRomanshAdopts 4 languages ​​including[15][14].Continental europeIt is in these three countries that native French speakers have a great deal of power.

In addition, as a country with a large number of native French speakersCanadaThere is.Native French speakers make up 22% of Canada's total population and have a non-negligible force.Especially the French speakers are concentrated in the eastern partQuebecAlthough English and French are both official languages ​​in the Commonwealth, the official language of Quebec isFrench onlyAnd an active protection policy is taken.Independence movements often take place against the backdrop of this linguistic conflict.

Native French speakers have a great deal of power only in the above areas, but France was once vast in other areas as well.French colonial empireIn the former colonies, there are many countries that use French as their official language, and they occupy the status of official language in 29 countries.The region where French is the official language is Africa, and in the former French territory,セネガル,(I.e.,(I.e.,コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ト ー ゴ,(I.e.,ニ ジ ェ ー ル,チャド,中央 フ リ 央,カ メ ル ー ン,ガボン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,(I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ジブチFrench is the official language in.In addition to the former French territory, it was a Belgian colony that also uses French as its official language.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euandEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlso uses French as its official language.On the other hand, even in the former French territory, French is not an official language in Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, which belong to North Africa.It makes up the majority of the population of these countriesArabIs the mother tongue ofArabicBecause it was a large language and could withstand the official language, the official language was rapidly switched to Arabic after independence.However, even in these countries, many elites are free to use French, and it is widely accepted as a quasi-official language and cultural language in Japan.Especially in Algeria, around 1,200 million people use French regularly (fr: Langues en AlgérieSee also).It is also a former Belgian territoryRwandaHas long used French as the official language,Rwanda massacreRelations with France deteriorated rapidly after the outbreak of2009/Since adding English to the official language, the educational language has been changed to English, and English is rapidly becoming the official language.[16]. Also,セ ー シ ェ ェ,Mauritius TheNapoleonic WarAlthough it was a British territory after that, it was a French territory before that, and the people who settled in that era remained after that, so the leadership of society is occupied by French speakers, and the common language of both countries is French. ing.In addition, the most popular languages ​​in Japan are the French Creole languages.Seychelles CreoleMauritius Creole[17]Is.In addition, in FranceOverseas prefectureIsMayotteandレ ユ ニ オ ンAlso has French as its official language, and Reunion is a Creole language whose everyday language is also French.Reunion CreoleIt has become.

In the new continent, other than Canada mentioned aboveハイチIs the only nation whose official language is French.In Haiti, the everyday language of the general public is also the French Creole language.HaitianHas become[18]..Also, although it is not an official language, it is a former French territory.LouisianaFocusing on the southwestern part ofCajun FrenchThere are people who speak a French sect called.Dotted in the Lesser AntillesGuadeloupe,Martinique,Saint Martin,Saint Barthelemy, And in South AmericaFrench GuianaAlso uses French as its official language.

OceaniaWas once a condominium of Britain and FranceバヌアツMakes French one of the official languages.It is also an overseas territory of France.New CaledoniaandFrench Polynesia(TahitiSuch),Wallis and FutunaAlso has French as its official language.Former French territory in AsiaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Laos,CambodiaThe official language has been localized in the three countries of Japan, and French is almost no longer accepted, but it is slightlyLebanonIt is somewhat accepted in Japan and is treated as a quasi-official language.

The language community of these French speakersFrancophoneCalled1970/ToFrancofony International OrganizationWas established,1986/The Francophone Summit, in which the leaders of member countries participate, will be held once every two years, and French-speaking countries are coordinating.However, for Francophony International OrganizationEgypt,Greece,ルーマニアCountries with few French speakers are also members, such as, and on the contrary, there are many French speakers.アルジェリアFrancophone international organization member countries are not necessarily French-speaking, such as not participating[19].

French in international organizations

French17st centuryから19st centuryUntilEuropeIs the most influential international common language inDiplomatBecause it has been used as a termInternational organizationInOfficial terminologyIs often set.

As a specific example, the following international organizations use FrenchOfficial terminologyAndUnited Nations(UN),International Olympic Committee(IOC),International Football Federation(FIFA),International Telecommunication Union(ITU),Universal Postal Union(UPU),Inter-Parliamentary Union,Islamic State Council,African Union(AU),North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO),International Standards Organization(ISO),World Trade Organization(WTO),Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD),Doctors Without Borders(MSF; Médecins sans frontières),European Council (CoE).

In these institutions, French is often not the only official language, but is used in conjunction with other languages ​​such as English.However,19st centuryから20st centurySince it had a position as an international common language at the beginning, French is the first language in the international organizations established during this period, such as the Universal Postal Union, the International Telecommunication Union, the International Olympic Committee and the FIFA. And has a higher status than English[20].

In the United NationsEnglishAnd FrenchUnited Nations SecretariatDefined as "working language" and otherUnited Nations official language(Russian-Chinese-Spanish-Arabic) Higher in position.Also before the warDainichi this empire OfJapan passportIn, French was written together with English.

There are many world-famous international sports organizations whose official name is French.FIFA World CupIs holdingInternational Football Federation(FIFA; Fédération internationale de football association),Modern olympicIs holdingInternational Olympic Committee(Comité international olympique, CIO),F1Is holdingInternational Automobile Federation(FIA; Fédération internationale d'automobile),MotoGPIs holdingInternational Motorcycling Federation(FIM; Fédération internationale de motocyclisme),Tour de FranceSuch asUCI World TourIs holdingInternational Cycling Union(UCI: Union Cycliste Internationale) And so on.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ FrenchGeographer(English editionBut the book France, Algérie et colonies (1880) It begins with the use in.[6]
  2. ^ In addition, as a similar and different concept, "Francofil (francophileIs present.

Source

  1. ^ Risk to employment of up to 50 people due to decrease in French users, report analysis
  2. ^ a b Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology basic data
  3. ^ "Académie française”(French). 2007/9/28Browse.
  4. ^ "Revised World Folk Map" P387 by Michihiro Takasaki December 1997, 12 First edition, first edition published
  5. ^ University of Tsukuba Foreign Language Center
  6. ^ Noriyuki Nishiyama"Establishment and prospect of Francophone"French Education" Special Issue, 2003, p. 22.
  7. ^ Ziegler, Johannes C .; Jacobs, Arthur M .; Stone, Gregory O. (1996), “Statistical analysis of the bidirectional inconsistency of spelling and sound in French”, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 28: 504-515, http://www.up.univ-mrs.fr/Local/lpc/dir/ziegler/article/1996.BRMIC.ziegler.pdf 
  8. ^ French number system
  9. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p44 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  10. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p45 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  11. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p53 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  12. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p33 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  13. ^ "Illustrated Swiss History" p86 Tomoji Odori Kawade Shobo Shinsha August 2011, 8 First edition published
  14. ^ a b Yasukazu Morita "Story of Swiss History" Chuko Shinsho p198 Published July 2000, 7
  15. ^ "Illustrated Swiss History" p111 Tomoji Odori Kawade Shobo Shinsha August 2011, 8 First edition published
  16. ^ Rwanda Basic Data | Ministry of Foreign Affairs Reiwa May 5, 31 Retrieved August 2019, 8
  17. ^ "Encyclopedia of Africa", Heibonsha,ISBN-4 582-12623-5 February 1989, 2 First Edition First Print p.6
  18. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p41 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  19. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p38 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  20. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p37 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published

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