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👩‍🎓 | “Inquiry seminar” for junior high and high school students to face social issues


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"Inquiry seminar" for junior high and high school students to face social issues

 
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The keywords for the "environmental seminar" are plastic waste, food loss, renewable energy, climate change, and picking up trash.
 

Ridilover will start a “Research Seminar” for junior high and high school students on September 2022, 9.Company… → Continue reading

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The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

再生 可能 エネルギー

再生 可能 エネルギー(Energy of the world,British: renewable energy[Note 1][7]In a broad sense(I.e.-GeophysicsTargetBiologyDerived from a typical source, faster than you can usenatureReplenished byEnergyRefers to general[8].

Sun light,Wind power, Wave power / tidal power, running water / tide,Geothermal,biomassEtc., derived from energy resources that are constantly (or repetitively) replenished by natural forces[8][9],Power generationAnd so on.The power systemsmart gridIs becoming mainstream.other,Hot water supply,Air conditioning,輸送,fuelEtc., used in all forms of energy demand[8][10].

Renewable energy is an existingDepleting energyCompared to, it is generally inferior in terms of cost and technology and is disadvantageous.

Limited underground resourcesDepleted resourcesIn recent years, it has been increasingly used not only for the purpose of future countermeasures against deficiency, soaring prices and global warming, but also as an "energy source with new advantages".[11][12]As of 2010, it accounts for about 1/3 of the world's new power plants (excluding large-scale hydropower)[2][Note 2].. Annual investment reaches $ 2110 billion[1](Right figure and#Usage and outlookSee). The smart grid business is the priming water.

Definition

Renewable energy is essentially "continuously replenished with resources.Energy that never runs out, "Energy that naturally regenerates faster than it is used," and is defined by Japanese law.New energyIs part of renewable energy. Specific examples include sunlight, solar heat, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal power, wave power, temperature difference, and biomass. However, regarding the detailed definition and what is included in the regulations and statistics, the following differences can be seen depending on individual materials, organizations, regulations, etc. In some cases, such as the European Union, it depends on the performance whether or not it is included in the category. In addition, oil etc.Fossil fuelDoes not meet the definition[8].. Attention should be paid to hydroelectric power generation. Of the hydropower, those using large dams are distinguished from micro hydropower, which has less environmental damage, and may be treated statistically separately from renewable energy (for example, REN21).[13]Then, the output is distinguished by the boundary of 10 MW (Table 1)). Pumped storage power generation is not power generation, but storage and discharge for power generation adjustment.

  • IPCCThe Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate Change (SRREN) defines "general energy derived from solar, geophysical and biological sources and replenished faster than is available by nature". Ru[8].
  • International Energy AgencyStatistics "Renewables Information" published by[14]"From the constantly replenished natural process, of various forms, the light supplied directly from the sun, the heat generated inside the earth, the sun, the wind, the ocean, hydropower, biomass, and geothermal resources. And electricity, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. " According to "REInfo"heat pumpBy heat (Underground heat, Etc.) are described separately[15].
  • According to Japanese law, "renewable energy"Is simply "an energy source that can be used permanently"[21]"Among solar, wind and other non-fossil energy sources, those specified by Cabinet Order as being recognized as being permanently usable as an energy source"[22]According to the enforcement order, "solar power", "wind power", "hydropower", "geothermal power", "solar heat", "heat in the atmosphere" and other heat existing in the natural world.[23]"Biomass (organic matter derived from animals and plants that can be used as an energy source)[24].. ) ”Is listed as an example[25].

Synonyms / Synonyms / Antonyms

There are the following synonyms and synonyms.

natural energy
The literal translation of English words is "Natural Energy", but Westerners do not use that word, and even if it is a word that refers to energy resources,Natural gas("Natural Gas")Natural resourcesConsidering from ("Natural Resource")Fossil resourcesIn Japanese, it is used as a simple phrase and is rarely used academically.Everything that exists in nature has energy as its attribute, and there can be no "artificial energy" that should be paired with this word, so researchers in the natural sciences do not use this word.
Green power
United States Environmental Protection Agency"Green power" refers to electricity generated by renewable energies other than large-scale hydropower[26]Define as[27].
New energy
"New energy" in Japanese law means "manufacturing, generating, or using" and using the power obtained by converting electricity, which is an economical restriction. It is not sufficiently disseminated, and it is especially necessary to promote it in order to introduce non-fossil energy "(Article 2 of the Special Measures Law Concerning Promotion of New Energy Utilization), and the Cabinet Order 10 Types of "new energy use" are listed (Article 1 of the Enforcement Ordinance)[28][29].. The 10 species listed are biomass, solar heat, snow or ice, geothermal, wind power, small-scale hydropower, and the use of solar cells.
Alternative energy
Outside Japan, mainly renewable energy, especially "new renewable energy"[30]Point to. In Japan, it refers to "oil alternative energy"Coal gasNatural gasNuclear powerIncluding depleting energy such as[31].

The antonym isDepleting energyso,Fossil fuel(coal,oil,Natural gas,Oil sand,shale gas,methane hydrateEtc.) oruraniumEtc.Underground resourcesThose that use (Nuclear powerEtc.), which refers to a finite resource.

Source of energy

Renewable energy is an energy resource that is constantly replenished by the power of nature.[9], Use something that plays faster than you use[32].. The source is(I.e.-Geothermal-tidalEtc., virtually[Note 3]Not exhausted[32][27].

The following energy resources are used[9][15](Detail is#Usage patternSee section).

エ ネ ル ギ ー 源OverviewDirect useIndirect use
(I.e.
(Nuclear fusion
(I.e.The remaining life of the is estimated to be about 50 billion years.
  • 照明
  • Power generation
  • heating
  • Cooking
Geothermal
(Radioactive decay
地球Use the heat inside.The period during which high heat is emitted from inside the earth is estimated to be one to billion years.
  • Power generation
  • heating
  • Cooling source
  • Heat storage / cold storage source
  • Spa
tidalIt is derived from the difference between the rotation speed of the earth and the revolution speed of the moon. The rotation speed of the earth and the revolution speed of the moon do not match until about 140 billion years later.[33].
  • Tidal force: Movement of seawater due to changes in the positional relationship with the moon and the sun. mainlyEstuaryIntideEbbs.
  • Ocean current: The flow of seawater in the ocean.
  • Atmospheric tide : stratosphereTide-like atmospheric movement due to changes in the gravitational balance between celestial bodies at altitudes such as. Currently unused. Due to its low atmospheric pressure and temperature, it is greatly affected by gravity. On the contrary, near the surface of the earth where the atmospheric pressure and temperature are highTroposphereThe effect of gravity on wind power (general wind) is negligible.
  • Wind power-Ocean currentPart of: With the rotation of the earthCoriolis powerWestward near the equator and eastward along the Antarctic coastRecirculationAnd wind (Polar easterlies,Trade wind).
  • Wave power : Wind powerPart of: Vertical movement of the sea surface due to the wind.

Usage pattern

There are various ways to use renewable energy. Regarding the use of natural heat by heat pumps, which is included in the policy, only those that meet the requirements such as performance are included (heat pump requirements in Europe).[17]etc).

Light / electromagnetic waves

Daylight(Light → Light)
Direct sunlightwindowBesides the method of entering fromReflective plateTake it indoors, etc.照明Use as.
Solar power(Light → power)
It uses solar cells to directly convert sunlight into electricity. While it can generate electricity anywhere in the sun, it cannot generate electricity at night due to the weather. Many of them can be carried around, and are also used in remote areas and artificial satellites. Can also be used with scattered light[34]In addition, in terms of temperature characteristics, areas with low temperatures are more advantageous.[35].. Price reduction was an issue, but while the number of lower-priced solar cells manufactured in China and other countries is increasing, in the United StatesGrid parityThere is also a view that achievement is near[36].
温室(Light → heat)
It keeps warm by taking in the heat of the sun and not letting it escape.Glass,vinylIt is often installed on the ground, but a hole is dug in the ground to remove the lighting.地下By installing inSat OfInsulationEffectUnderground heatTo get the heat retention effect bytrombe wall) Encloses it to greatly improve heat retention ()[37][Source required]There is.Passive solarIt is a common method with.
Solar water heater(Light → heat)
blackパ ネ ルWarm the water.Conversion efficiency is about 6%[Source required]Is expensive. It is relatively cheap.
Solar furnace(Light → heat)
High heat is obtained by the reflector and the lens. Small ones (Solar cooker), And get a heat of several hundred degrees調理Used for. The surroundings become very dazzlingVisual impairmentTo preventSunglassesIs necessary. It depends on the weather, and it is difficult to obtain sufficient heat unless it is sunny.[38][Source required].
Solar power(Light → heat)
It is a steam power generation that generates steam by condensing it with a reflector or the like and turns a turbine to generate electricity. Power can be generated for 24 hours by storing heat using molten salt. It is suitable for conditions where there is a lot of direct sunlight, the average temperature is high, and a large area of ​​land can be secured. Cheaper than solar power if conditions are good.
Solar updraft tower(Light → heat)
The warm air under the membrane is guided to the chimney to create an updraft, which turns the wind power generator inside the chimney. The higher the chimney, the greater the pressure difference from the sky and the greater the wind power. Hybrid power generation of solar heat and wind power.
Sun sail(Light → Exercise)
Spacecraft propulsion

heat

Spa(Heat → heat)
Directly and indirectly use hot water warmed by geothermal heat. Besides bathing and treatment調理,heatingCan also be used.
Geothermal(Heat → heat)
Geothermal directlyHot water supply,heating,調理Used for etc.
Geothermal power generation(Heat → Electric power)
Generates steam by generating steam with geothermal heat.
(Heat → heat)
Used for cooling and thawing food by utilizing the temperature difference between air and water.
Utilization of snow and ice heat(Heat → heat)
Underground facilities in winter, containers, and snow and ice stored in snow removal areas can be used in condominiums and accommodations in summer.Data centerUsed for cooling. For the purpose of crops in winterSnow roomAlso has a heat retaining effect due to the heat insulating effect. For the purpose of preserving iceHimuroIs a similar form with different purposes.Natural with ice insideWind holeThen it may be lowered to the ambient temperature[Source required].
Underground heat(Heat → heat, heat + electric power + vaporization phenomenon → heat)
Heat conductionGeothermal heat pumpUsed for hot water supply, heating, etc. by utilizing the temperature difference between the shallow underground and the outside air[39].
Air heat(Heat + power + vaporization phenomenon → heat, heat + power + chemical energy → heat)
Air heat heat pumpIs used to transfer air heat and use it for hot water supply and heating / cooling. In the European Union, statistics that meet requirements such as performance are included in the statistics[17].. in JapanMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAlthough it is classified as renewable energy, it is not included in the statistics. "Use of heat from air heat, geothermal heat, and water as a heat source.[40]We are striving to establish a statistical method for.
Radiation cooling(Heat → heat)
Create a low-temperature environment by using radiative cooling during clear nights due to the temperature difference between the surface of the earth and outer space. Does not use electricity[41]Has been put to practical use.
Wind window(Wind power + vaporization phenomenon → heat)
A wind receiver (bad gear) is installed on the chimney that extends from each room to the roof to take in the sea breeze indoors and obtain a cooling effect.Used by the sea in arid areas[Source required].
Ocean thermal energy conversion(Heat → power, heat + power → power)
Power is generated using the temperature difference between the surface layer and the deep layer of the sea, and there are methods that require and do not require a working fluid pump.[42].. There are cost and performance issues[43], In the research stage.

biomass

firewood
wood-bamboo-PalmBurn plants such as gala to get heat.
carbon
wood-bamboo-PalmGala etc.Incomplete combustionByCarbonizationLetcarbonIt is a mass of.charcoalIt is relatively light and easy to burn.
Biocoke
High-density solidified plant biomass[44].. Since it is not carbonized, there is almost no weight loss during fuel conversion.[44].. Used as an alternative fuel for coal, etc.[45].
shitfuel
Animal droppingsSolar heatDry in and use as fuel.Cow dungIt burns well. It is also used as a wall material for purposes other than fuel.
Biogas
Manure,SludgeEtc. were fermented and generatedmethaneUsed as a raw material for burning or chemical products[46].
Bio ethanol
穀物-fruit-Vegetable fiberIncluded in etc.Glucose,carbohydrateWas fermented or chemically reactedethanolUsed as.
Biodiesel
Light oilAlternative fuel.rapeseed oil-Palm oil-Vernicia(Jatropha, etc.) ・EuglenaEtc.greaseUses fuel with properties similar to refined light oil[47][Source required].
heavy oilAlternative fuel.Aurantiochytrium-BotryococcusCan be taken fromheavy oilUses fats and oils close to.
Biomass fuel
firewood,Bagasseな どA steam locomotive that can run only on biomass fuel[Source required]Existed[48].
charcoal
Incomplete combustionLet mewater vaporReact withCarbon monoxidehydrogenBy flammable gas whose main component isInternal combustion engineTo operate "Charcoal car. "

motion

Water flow

Large scaleHydropower,Water storage type hydropower,Dam type hydropower(Gravitational potential → Exercise → Electric power)
The water stored in a dam or the like is used to turn a turbine to generate electricity. It accounts for more than 90% of the total renewable energy power generation and about 18% of the total power generation (see "Power generation" item). The impact of dam construction on the environment is great.
Small hydro(Gravitational potential → Exercise → Electric power)
Uses small running water. Environmental damage caused by the installation of water storage facilities is small. There are many places where it can be installed, such as water and sewage systems and irrigation canals, in addition to swamps that are often found on terrain with large height differences.
Ocean current power generation(Power → Electric power)
The ocean current is received by the wings and the prime mover is turned to generate electricity. Coexistence with fisheries is an issue in coastal areas and shallow waters.
Wave power generation(Power → Electric power)
In addition to the one that creates an air flow inside the device by the vertical movement of the sea surface and turns the turbine to generate electricity, the one that fills the inside with a liquid with high resistance to generate water flow and generates electricity with the turbine, and the one that converts the vertical movement into rotation with a gyro. There is something. Widely used as an independent power source for unmanned marine equipment such as buoys and marine weather buoys. Large power generation facilities are being developed in the United Kingdom.
Tidal power(Gravitational potential → Power → Electric power)
A water wheel is turned to generate electricity using the tidal current, which is the regular movement of seawater due to the tide. Some install dams at the mouth of the river and others use the tidal current of seawater.

air flow

windmill(Power → Power)
Agriculture:PumpingPower (windmill).
sail(Power → Power)
The propulsion force of the ship.
Wind-power generation(Power → Electric power)
The wind is received by the wings and the prime mover generates electricity. Advantageous in areas with stable winds throughout the year. It can be used as long as the wind conditions are good, and it is relatively inexpensive. There are problems such as bird strikes and low frequencies, and construction requires consideration of the living environment and ecosystem.[49].. Installation in nature reserves may be restricted. Power generation using renewable energy other than hydropower accounts for about 75% of the total, and renewable energy accounts for about 6% of the total.

Chemical potential

(Chemical energy + osmosis membrane → gravitational potential → water flow → power → electric power)
Demonstration test stage[50].. Utilizing the difference in salinity between seawater and fresh water, the turbine is rotated using the water flow due to osmotic pressure to generate electricity.

Uncertain whether it is included in renewable energy

The following alternative energies involve energy creation efforts such as the production of hydrogen, which is a raw material, so overallCarbon offsetThere is ongoing debate about whether this is the case.

hydrogen(Fossil fuel + heat + electricity → hydrogen)
Petroleum refining-SteelmakingIn addition to being generated as a by-product ofSteam reformingAnd mass-produce.
Fuel cell(Fossil fuel + microheater + catalyst → water, heat, electricity)
catalystHydrogen and oxygen are reacted with each other to produce water, heat and electric power. The operation of household fuel cells requires the supply of city gas, electricity, and water from the outside.[51].
Waste power generation (garbage power generation)(Fossil fuel → heat → electricity)
General garbage other than biomass power plantsIncineratorWhen generating electricity from fossil fuels, non-renewable waste is included. In the statistics, there are cases where only a part is recorded or it is written separately.[15].
Vaporization phenomenon(Wind power + vaporization phenomenon → heat)
A phenomenon in which water cools nearby objects when they evaporate. The heat in this case is a waste rather than an energy source to do something, and the purpose is to transfer the heat itself.A method of cooling the water inside and the surrounding air with the heat of vaporization of water exuding from the surface of a unglazed jar filled with water has been used for a long time.[Source required]
Human power generation
A wristwatch that automatically winds a spring according to the movement of the arm to generate electricity (Self-winding watch), There are flashlights, radios, and laptops (■ image in the right column) that charge the rechargeable battery by hand-cranked power generation, and generate electricity with an exercise bike to carry 25% of the power of the sports gym. Example[52]There is.
Vibration power generation
Piezoelectric elementUsingvibrationTo power. Remote controller[53],Power generation floor[54]Etc. have been prototyped. When the vibration source is human power, it is human power generation.
Thermoelectric power generation
It is in the research stage.Thermoelectric elementIs used to extract the movement of electrons due to the temperature difference between the front and back of a substance as electric power. The discovery of the principle is old, but there is no material that can withstand high temperatures, so it is not practicalReactorFor the purpose of effectively utilizing the heat ofSpace developmentWas limited to. Suitable materials have been developed in recent yearsMagma power generationIs being researched, and methods for utilizing waste heat from automobiles are being researched.[55].. When a temperature difference occurs, an electromotive force is generated (Seebeck effectTherefore, it is necessary to maintain the temperature difference in order to continuously generate electricity.
Water vortex vibration power generation (vortex power)
It is in the conceptual stage.A lateral cylinder with a spring is installed in the place of a gentle flow of a river or the sea, and power is generated by using the vertical movement of the cylinder generated by the force of a vortex created by the resistance of water.University of Michigan develops a device called VIVACE that operates at speeds of 3.2 km / h or less[56]are doing.

Features

Features common to many renewable energies include:[57][58][59][60][61]

Strong Points

  • Can be used semi-permanently without the need for artificial replenishment.
  • Many of them emit less greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide during operation.
  • For the energy obtained within the useful life of the equipmentGreenhouse gasEmissions of fossil fuels are much lower than when fossil fuels are used.
  • Energy can be procured near the demand area (improvement of energy self-sufficiency rate, reduction of fuel procurement cost, etc.)Power transmission・ Reduction of energy consumption for transportation).
  • Emission of harmful substances such as incineration ash and radioactive waste can be suppressed.
  • Does not generate radioactive waste.
  • In brackish water power generation, effective use of heat by cogeneration can improve overall energy efficiency and reduce costs.
  • Small-scale equipment is easy to relocate, resell, repair, dispose of, and recycle.
  • The smaller the equipment, the shorter the construction period, and the risk of misprediction of demand can be reduced.
  • Since the equipment is relatively simple, repairs are relatively inexpensive and easy, and the operability rate[Note 4]Will be higher.
  • When a large number are installed, even if a part becomes unusable, the effect is small and the overall reliability is high. Even in the event of a disaster or other emergency, the impact (range and period of supply suspension) can be suppressed.
  • It will be a new energy and manufacturing industry to replace fossil fuels.

Disadvantages, challenges

  • Preliminary research is required because energy resources are unevenly distributed and suitable sites are also unevenly distributed.
  • Price increases and disputes occur due to competition with applications that are already in use.
  • Increased environmental load and weak price competitiveness due to small production scale.
    • Due to the small manufacturing plant, the treatment of carbon dioxide emitted tends to be inadequate, mass production is not effective, and it is more expensive than petroleum (Bio ethanol
  • Installation restrictions due to environmental standards
  • Sales slump due to sales methods and information disclosure, sales slump due to permeation of correct or incorrect knowledge, etc.
    • Impact of government subsidy standards on selling prices (Solar power
    • Deterioration of social image of similar products in general due to administrative sanctions due to problematic sales methods (Solar water heater
    • Advertisement that does not reveal the source of hydrogen (Fuel cell
  • Energy supply-demand gap due to output fluctuations due to time of day, season, weather, and uneven distribution of resource distribution areas (Wind power output fluctuations,Output fluctuation of photovoltaic power generationEtc.).
  • Physical limitations due to low energy density. However, energy can be concentrated in geothermal power generation and solar thermal power generation.
  • Wind farm bird strike problem

Discussion on practicality

Renewable energyGreenhouse gasMany of them can obtain energy without emitting energy, and as a new energy source,Measures against global warmingIt is also valid as.

Energy for manufacturing, operation, management, repair, disposal of equipment, transportation of fuel, etc.electricity,fuelEtc.), and in the processGreenhouse gasIs discharged to some extent, but after considering all of them

  • How much energy is produced by the end of the life of the equipment (energy balance or energy balance ratio)
  • Fossil fuelEtc., per amount of energy producedGreenhouse gasHow much less

This point is the subject of evaluation when discussing performance, and many have been recognized for its effectiveness (Stern Report,IPCC Fourth Assessment ReportSee).

In use, compared to depleting energy sources

  • Price
  • Availability
  • Safety
  • Reliability
  • Occupancy rate
  • Maintainability
  • Supply stability (voluntary)
  • Available countries / regions, climate
  • Place (place where cooling water can be secured, place with good sunshine or wind conditions, etc.)
  • Emissions (exhaust / drainage / exhaust heat, waste, etc.), recyclability
  • Noise, vibration
  • Consistency with usage
  • scale
  • life
  • Time required for construction and disposal
  • Future outlook (price fluctuations, supply capacity, performance improvement, etc.)
  • Industrial potential

Various points are subject to evaluation and may be discussed as part of performance.[58]

Energy balance

Manufacture and construction of equipment (turbines, generators, etc.) for producing energy such as electric power (raw material mining, refining, civil engineering work, etc.), and "recovery" of input energy including dismantling and disposal The following indicators are used for the purpose of evaluating performance by the period and the ratio of output energy to input energy.

  • Energy payback time (Energy Payback Time: EPT)… Defined by the output energy, the time until the same amount of energy consumption as input can be avoided. It is said that the shorter this is for the equipment life, the better the performance.
  • Energy balance ratio (Energy Payback Ratio: EPR)… Generally defined by (input energy avoided by power generation etc.) / (input energy). The larger the size, the better the performance.

The above EPT and EPR are affected by the following factors.

  • Resource distribution: sunshine, wind conditions, fuel crop productivity, location and type of high-temperature heat source (geothermal), etc.
  • Equipment technical level
  • Scale of production / distribution / use ... Generally, the larger the scale of spread, the better the performance.
  • Recycling status of equipment, etc.
  • Expected utilization rate

It is believed that many of the products currently in practical use have better performance than fossil fuels.[62].. In particular, wind power generation has high performance, and EPT is said to be less than one year.[63]..As the spread and technological development progress, some have changed several times to more than ten times in the last 10 to 20 years (example:[64]).

Part ofbiomassIt is said that some of the immature technologies such as fuel have low performance as seen in EPT and EPR.[Source required]

In some cases, the performance values ​​are significantly lower than other verifiable survey results, such as by changing the calculation conditions.[65].. However, no reliable source has been found for these claims, and it has been pointed out by specialized agencies that they are based on some misunderstanding.[66].

Greenhouse gas emissions

As part of an energy source or raw material during manufacturing, transportation, operation, maintenance, disposal, etc.Fossil fuelEtc. are used to some extentGreenhouse gasThere is an emission. In many cases, this amount of emissions is mainly determined by the manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance, and disposal of equipment (power generation equipment, etc.).biomassIn the case of fuel, the amount of emissions during fuel production and transportation is large (carbon emissions from the biomass fuel itself are absorbed as carbon dioxide from the environment during fuel cultivation, so that amount isCarbon neutralIs considered).

Whether or not it is sufficiently small compared to fossil fuels, etc. in terms of the amount of energy that produces greenhouse gas emissions is the subject of evaluation. The following are used as indicators.

  • Greenhouse gas emissions per power generation (in the case of power generation): All greenhouse gases emitted during the life cyclecarbon dioxide or carbonConverted to quantityg-CO2/kWh And g-CRepresented by / kWh (12g-C / kWh = 44g-CO2/ kWh).The smaller this is, the better the performance.
  • (CO2 Payback Time: CO2PT)… Overall compared to fossil fuels, etc.Greenhouse gasIt refers to the period of use until the amount of emissions is reduced. The shorter this is, the better the performance.

Like the energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions are also affected by resource distribution, scale of dissemination, and technological level.In addition, the energy sources and raw materials required for manufacturing, etc.Greenhouse gasIf you switch to one with less emissions,Greenhouse gasIt is said that the amount of emissions will decrease.

Output stability

Among renewable energiesWind-power generation,Solar powerSince the output fluctuates involuntarily, leveling means for suppressing the fluctuation are required to meet the large-scale power demand. It is limited to cases where the adjustment on the power generation equipment side is insufficient, but if the system side cannot absorb the fluctuations, it is assumed that the voltage and frequency may be disturbed, or in the worst case, a power failure may occur. On the other hand, it is widely seen that inaccurate or unrealistic assumptions are intentionally made in predicting the limit capacity that can be connected to the power system (estimated to be a few percent from what does not happen). There are things etc.) ([58]P.254, P.261, etc.). If appropriate measures are taken, it will be possible to supply electricity of several percent of demand without problems.[67][68].. For exampleDenmarkAs of 2006, 20% of the country's electricity is covered by wind power, and we plan to increase it further.[69].. In Spain, the supply ratio of wind power generation reached 4% of the instantaneous demand, and the average for several days reached about 28%.[70]There are already many reports such as[67].

The following institutional and technical measures have been put into practical use or developed in order to efficiently use the involuntarily fluctuating power source.

  • Link with small-scale power generation equipment of other power generation methods
    • Wait
  • Institutionally allow combinations of natural gas-fired power generation, etc. up to about 1% of the amount of power generation, and give preferential treatment to the purchase price of power according to the stability of supply ([71]P.51-52)
  • Strengthen system equipment
    • Response to reverse power flow, etc.
  • Stores and stores electricity to some extent on the equipment side (accumulation by pumping, heat storage, pressurization, etc., storage by batteries, flywheels, etc.)
  • Aim to level the supply-demand balance on the demand side
    • Hourly adjustment of electricity unit price
    • Peak shaving (peak cut)[72], Utilization of nighttime electricity, etc.

Occupy in power supplyThermal power generationDecrease in proportion,Solar power,Wind-power generationIncreasing proportion of fluctuating power sources such as and distributed power sources such asElectric carIn response to changes in demand due to such factors, it is being considered to use measures on the system side such as computerization of the power system, strengthening of the transmission network, and addition of storage batteries.[Source required].. Such measures are costly.Wind power output fluctuationsUp to about 10% of the amount of power generated is not a problem, but if it exceeds 20%, the cost will increase significantly.Each country is studying which technology should be used and how many involuntary power sources should be introduced.According to estimates by the German Metal Industry Federation and the Berlin Institute of Technology, the indirect costs associated with the introduction of renewable energy are expected to be 2020-1 euro cents per kWh in 0.6.[73].

In Japan as well, consideration of the impact and cost burden associated with the introduction has begun.[74]..The total cost of grid stabilization is expected to be in the trillions of yen by 2030, and various forms including storage batteries and distribution measures are being considered.For example, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy assumes the introduction of a storage battery with a capacity 1.2-1.5 times that of the Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan, and estimates the cost in this case to be around 5 trillion yen.[75].

Water storage typeHydraulic power,biomassUsing renewable fuelThermal power generation,Geothermal power generationThe output can be controlled arbitrarily. Also, use of solar heat (Solar water heaterEtc.) orSolar powerIn the case of, the output can be controlled more flexibly by heat storage.

Equipment reliability

Large-scale centralized energy facilities are said to have a high probability of unplanned outages due to the complicated system, and the effects of aging are likely to be large ([58]P.42 etc. Relatively high operating rate is possible even at nuclear power plants[76]).Small-scale distributed renewable energy facilities are more reliable in terms of the probability of unplanned outages and are less affected by aging.Hundreds-thousands of well-designedkWNearly 100% uptime is also recorded for large-scale wind and solar power plants ([58]P.241).

Supply cost

Generally, per renewable energy generatedcost(Cost) is often more expensive than existing depleting energy.

However,Wind-power generation-biomass-Solar powerAnd so on, where the conditions are good, we are starting to line up with depleting energy and cost.[78].

Future forecast

The development and dissemination status of renewable energy is greatly influenced by the policies of each country. If we continue to develop it aggressively, we expect it to be an energy source that is as cheap as or cheaper than depleting energy. In the figureIEAShows an example of a comparison and optimistic forecast (BLUE Map) of electricity costs by[77](Cost of solar power,Wind power # cost-effectivenessSee also).

An energy source whose cost is greatly influenced by the price of equipment (Wind-power generation,Solar power-Solar powerIn the case of (such as), it is known that the cost decreases as the market size expands, and it is relatively easy to predict the future cost (for example).[71]P.96, [79]Such). In general, these energy sources have less irregular cost fluctuations than depleting energies such as crude oil and uranium, and the financial risk due to cost fluctuations is smaller.[58].

In order to promote the expansion of production scale and the introduction of new technologies, it is important to expand the market scale in order to reduce costs. On the other hand, a large amount of public money is directly and indirectly invested in depleting energy for the purpose of stabilizing supply, etc., reducing the cost competitiveness of renewable energy.[71].. In many cases, the cost to overcome this barrier is added at the time of introduction, but in the case of Germany, which focused on market expansion using the feed-in tariff (FIT) system described later, even if the cost of FIT is included. Seems to be able to cover 2020% of electricity with renewable energy by 25 at acceptable costs[80].

Subsidies and economic effects

Renewable energy is disadvantageous because it is generally inferior to existing energy in terms of cost and technology.Therefore, if we aim to popularize it, some kind of subsidy will be required, and ultimately the cost will be covered by the burden of consumers and the people.[81].

In an analysis of European countries, this grant cost has some impact on existing industries with reduced employment.[82]At the same time, renewable energy has a larger number of jobs per power generation and calorific value during operation and maintenance than existing energy sources.[83], Overall estimated to increase employment[82].. Among various renewable energies, biomass has a particularly large job creation effect.[83][84]Pointed out that it can greatly contribute to securing employment in rural areas.[84]..In Germany, as of 2009, the EEG law will cost 53 billion euros a year, while inducing 204 billion euros of investment, 171 billion euros of added value for equipment installation, and 375 billion euros for equipment operation. Are[85].. As of 2009, job creation by related industries has exceeded 30.[86].

The Ministry of the Environment estimates the dissemination cost and economic effect in Japan.[87].. 2020 --5,824 million t-CO per year by 8,3582If renewable energy equivalent to the reduction of emissions is introduced, it will be necessary to invest an average of 2011-2020 trillion yen annually from 3.3 to 4.4, including the cost of grid measures and the impact on fossil fuel-fired power generation. Is estimated[88]..Instead, the amount of production inducement was 9.1 ―― 12.2 trillion yen, the gross value added excluding direct investment was 2.5 ―― 3.4 trillion yen, job creation was 45.8 ―― 62.7 people, and the energy self-sufficiency rate was improved to 10 -13% (2005). It is estimated that benefits such as 5% per year) will be obtained.[88].

Amount of resources

There is a huge amount of resources that can be used semi-permanently as renewable energy. It is estimated that the amount technically available is at least about 20 times the current global energy demand, and still more than several times higher than the energy demand projected in 2100. The amount of potential resources is even greater, and it is expected that the amount available will increase as technology develops ([90]Chapter 5 etc.).

Renewable energy resources (ExaJules(EJ) / year * 1 EJ = 10 billion GJ)
Usage as of 2001World technical resourcesTheoretical resources of the world
Geothermal0.65,000140,000,000EJ
Sunlight / solar heat0.1> 1,5753,900,000EJ
ocean(Not calculated)(Not calculated)7,400EJ
Wind power0.126406,000EJ
biomass50> 2762,900EJ
Hydraulic power950147EJ
Total60> 7,600> 144,000,000EJ
The amount used is converted to primary energy. Reference: As of 2001, the world's primary energy consumption is about 402EJ / year.
Renewable energy resources in Japan[91]
Technical resourcesTheoretical resource amount
Hydropower-136,009GWh / year
Solar power102 --202 GWp (GigaWatt peak7984 GWp
Geothermal power generation[92]38 GW6000 GW
Wind-power generation[93]3-30 TWh (land)200GWp (280TWh) (offshore)
biomass2,903 million kl (crude oil equivalent)4,022 million kl
Utilization of solar heatApproximately 810-Approximately 1,621 million kl (crude oil equivalent)Approximately 3,242 million kl
Wind-power generation1 --9 GWp (GigaWatt peak63 GWp
Reference: Annual power generation in Japan is about 1000 TWh[94], Maximum power consumption is about 180GW[95].

Usage and outlook

Renewable energy not only increases energy self-sufficiency,IPCC Fourth Assessment Report,Stern ReportAnd so onMeasures against global warmingIt is mentioned as a part of, and its effect is said to be one of the largest among many mitigation measures.[97].. In recent years, the related industries themselves have expanded rapidly, and some countries have launched policies aimed at stimulating the economy at the same time as environmental measures.[98].. For this reason, in anticipation of future market expansion and cost reduction, there are active movements to introduce it all over the world.[99][100].

Renewable energy accounted for about 2008% of the world's final energy consumption as of 19[13](Right figure). In the power generation field, renewable energy accounts for 18%, most of which is hydropower, and other wind power, solar power, geothermal power, etc. total about 3%.[13].. In recent yearsWind-power generationThe use of ("non-Hydro") renewable energy other than large-scale hydropower is increasing.[13].. The proportion of new power plants built in the world has increased rapidly in recent years, rising from 2006% on a power generation basis in 6 to 2010% on a installed capacity basis in 30 (34% on an installed capacity basis). Reached (value excluding large-scale hydropower)[2]..Wind power, in particular, is said to grow rapidly, reaching 2010% of global electricity demand in 2.3 and 2020-4.5% in 11.5.[101].

It is estimated that investment in renewable energy in 2010 increased by 32% from the previous year to reach $ 2110 billion worldwide.[1].. In particular, new investment in developing countries ($ 720 billion) is growing, surpassing new investment in developed countries ($ 2010 billion) for the first time in 700.[102].. It is also estimated that 2010 was the first investment in new equipment to overtake fossil fuels to reach $ 1870 billion.[103].

International Energy Agency Report released by (IEA) in June 2008[104]Then,Global warming,Energy resourcesIf nothing is done against the depletion of (Baseline)coalNatural gasIncreased usageGreenhouse gasIt has been pointed out that the amount of renewable energy introduced may have more than doubled and the amount of renewable energy introduced may hardly increase. On the other hand, if the world actively takes measures (BLUE Map), it will be from the energy sector by 2050.Greenhouse gasRenewable energy is expected to account for 46% of electricity generation, while halving its emissions.[105].

By December 2008, 12 in EuropePrimary energyPassed a comprehensive climate change bill to bring renewable energy to 20% of the total[106].. Above allGermanyHas been introduced at a faster pace than previously predicted, such as achieving the 2010 target three years ahead of schedule, and investment in related industries has grown to more than 3 billion euros annually.[107].. The previous goal of supplying 2050% of electricity with renewable energy by 50 is expected to be achieved around 2030.[107][108].. In terms of primary energy supply, renewable energy is expected to account for more than 2050% by 50.[108].

In the United States, the US Department of Energy will account for 2008% of total demand by 5 in May 2030.Wind-power generationShows the prospect that it can be supplied at[109], New installations surpass all other power plants as of 2007[72]The introduction of wind power generation is progressing rapidly. In June 2008,Solar powerSolar powerShows the potential to cover 2025% of electricity by 10[110].. The annual introduction of solar power exceeds 2010GW in 1, and is expected to reach 2012GW in 2.[111].. Despite being exposed to competition from China and other countries, the trade balance of the industry as a whole is in the black.[112].

Movement in Japan

Compared to the targets of developed countries, the target amount for dissemination in Japan is small, and it has been the best in the world for many years.Solar powerEven with the annual introduction amount ofGermanyWeakness of policy has been pointed out, such as being overtaken by[113][114][115][116][117][118].

Published in March 2008Cool earth promotion conceptIn response to such things, even in JapanGreenhouse gasThe movement to reduce emissions is accelerating. In June 2008Fukuda VisionWas announced, and by 2030 more than half of the electricity再生 可能 エネルギーNuclear powerThe target to supply in was shown. "Solar, wind, hydro, biomass, unused energy" is mentioned. EspeciallySolar powerIntroduced 40 times more in rural areasbiomassContents such as promoting energy development are shown. In response to thisMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryExamination of dissemination promotion policy was promoted in[119].Solar powerIn January 2009, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry started a subsidy equivalent to about 1% of the equipment cost in line with the urgent proposal in response to the rapid decrease in the spread ofSolar power generation #Situation in Japanreference). In February 2009, the Ministry of the Environment announced the results of a trial calculation of the benefits of promoting the spread of renewable energy.[120]。2030年までに累計25兆円必要だが、累計の経済効果は2020年までに29 - 30兆円以上、2030年までに58兆 - 64兆円以上になり、また2020年には60万人の雇用を生み出すと推計されている[121].. As a dissemination policyFixed price purchase systemProposed to adopt[122][123]..The feed-in tariff system is a system that obliges electric power companies to purchase electricity generated using renewable energy sources at a fixed price for a certain period of time.Part of the cost of purchasing renewable energy is collected as part of the electricity bill from everyone who uses electricity as a levy.It was thought that this system would promote the spread of renewable energy, which is costly to introduce.However, the feed-in tariff system was biased toward solar power generation, and there were more than 30 cases in which power generation was not started even though it was certified by FIT.Then, in April 2017, it was revised to a new certification system, and the purchase period of businesses that have received FIT certification but do not start power generation has been shortened.[124][125]

Of these, for solar power generation, on February 2009, 2, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announced the strengthening of the subsidy system to shorten the recovery period of initial investment to about 24 years.[126][127][127][128][129][126].. Initially scheduled to be implemented from 2010, it has been moved forward from the perspectives of economic crisis countermeasures, energy policy, and global warming countermeasures.[130], Started on November 2009, 11[131].. The purchase price of surplus electricity at the start is 1 yen per kilowatt hour,Ene farm,Eco WillIf you have another private power generator such as, it will be 39 yen, and it will be purchased at the same price for 10 years after installation.[130].. The purchase price of equipment newly installed later is being reduced year by year. Partly due to the effect of subsidies, Japan's solar cell production has resumed expansion[132], The scale of related industries exceeded 2010 trillion yen in 1[133].. Related employment is also estimated to have exceeded 4[134].

From the end of 2009, it is being considered to introduce full purchase and expand the target to other than solar power generation, and the status of the examination is published on the dedicated site of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.[135].. It is expected that such expansion will promote the spread of renewable energy.[136].. The bills (renewable energy special measures bill, renewable energy purchase bill) were submitted to the Diet on April 2011, 4 after hearings from various parties concerned.[137]After discussions and amendments by each party, it was approved on August 8 and 23 of the same year with unanimous approval in both Houses of Representatives.[138][139].. Details of the system such as purchase conditions have not been decided yet, and while expectations for regional economic promotion and industrial revitalization are gathering, there are also voices of dissatisfaction with the increase in electricity charges and anxiety about the possibility of refusal of acceptance by electric power companies. be asked[140][141][142].. On the other hand, with a view to introducing the system, commercialization of renewable energy sources that had been omitted from the target until now[143][144]And new market entry[145], Expansion of related investment[146][147]And so on. The purchase price is scheduled to be decided early in the beginning of 2012.[148]..In June 2014, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announced the current status and forecast of renewable energy in Japan.http://www.meti.go.jp/committee/sougouenergy/shoene_shinene/shin_ene/pdf/001_03_00.pdf

2014 year 8 month,Okinawa Electric PowerAnnounced the suspension of new acceptance of renewable energy, saying that it is expected that the supply of renewable energy will exceed the demand for electricity, causing troubles such as power outages in power generation facilities and power grids. September 9thKyushu Electric PowerBut on the 30thShikoku Electric Power-Hokkaido Electric Power-Tohoku Electric PowerAnnounced the suspension of new acceptance one after another, and had a great impact on emerging power-related companies for new entry into the renewable energy business.[149][150].Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryIs based on the renewable energy introduction policy promoted by the governmentFeed-in tariff (FIT)Started a drastic review of the system because the outlook and design of the system were unsatisfactory. We plan to set the direction by the end of 2014, temporarily suspending the certification of new large-scale solar power generation companies, and also installing and expanding new power generation facilities of already certified solar power generation companies. It is said that it will limit the supply of renewable energy that is frozen and concentrated on solar power generation.[151].

Dissemination policy

The dissemination policy currently in use is a fixed quota (quota or RPS) system.Fixed price purchase systemIt can be roughly divided into (feed-in tariff law, feed-in tariff law, feed-in tariff system).Greenhouse gasRelatively weakens the competitiveness of the emission source itselfEnvironmental taxWhen the (carbon tax) was introduced, the industry strongly resisted. Currently as a renewable energy power systemsmart gridHas become a global business.

Currently the main source of energyFossil fuelIs worried about cost increase in the medium to long term[152].. furtherGlobal warmingThere is an urgent need to curbIPCC Fourth Assessment ReportLet's see the change in average temperature 2By 2050 to keep it downGreenhouse gasIt is said that it is necessary to halve the amount of renewable energy, and renewable energy is also positioned as an important mitigation technology in the report of the Third Working Group.[153]. AlsoInternational Energy AgencyAlso shows a scenario of reducing 2050% of emission reductions by 21 with renewable energy, and argues that policy measures for dissemination are urgently needed.[154].. On the other hand, existing depleting energy sources have a large amount of money directly and indirectly for the purpose of stabilizing supply.SubsidyIs being spent[152]Also, because it is already widespread, it is distributed at a low price. These are barriers to the spread of renewable energy. Various dissemination policies are used to overcome these barriers and disseminate at the required speed.[71].

The effectiveness and necessity of such dissemination policies areMeasures to curb global warmingAs part ofStern Report,IPCC Fourth Assessment ReportBut it has been pointed out. The limits of voluntary efforts that do not rely on policies have also been pointed out.

Fixed frame system

Also known as the quota system. This obliges the use of renewable energy above a certain percentage. Especially in powerGreen power certificate (tradable green certificates) This is a system that allows you to resell environmental value to others using the system.

At the initial stage of introduction, it exerts some effect of promoting introduction. However, it has been pointed out that there are drawbacks such as high investment risk at the time of introduction and development of only limited projects with good conditions. It is empirically known that the cost is not reduced in the long term and the dissemination promotion effect is inferior compared to the feed-in tariff system below.[71].. Japan's RPS system also belongs to this.

Feed-in tariff

Also called a feed interriff system, when a renewable energy facility is introduced, the purchase price of the energy (mainly electric power) supplied from the facility is guaranteed for a certain period (for example, 20 years). Also called a fixed price system. Since it is easy to make a business plan and the investment risk is low, it has the feature that the cost of subsidizing the spread of renewable energy can be minimized. EspeciallyWind-power generation,Solar powerIt is effective in a method in which the initial investment accounts for the majority of the investment amount. It is also characterized by imposing an obligation on the electric power company to connect to the grid and purchase the generated electricity. The purchase price will gradually decrease as the introduction period becomes later. By adjusting the pace of this gradual decrease on a regular basis according to the spread status and the progress of cost reduction, the introduction amount and the subsidy cost are controlled. It is empirically known that this controllability and institutional flexibility are higher than other methods, and the cost per introduction amount is the lowest.[71].. For this reason, it has become the most successful method to date and is used in more than 50 countries around the world.[13], Has become the most common method of renewable energy subsidy policy[155][13].. It has high institutional flexibility and is often used in combination with the following carbon tax (environmental tax), as well as methods such as green power certificates and tax credits.[156].. The superiority of this system was recognized by many public institutions, and in June 2008IEAAlso recognizes its superiority over other systems such as the fixed frame system (Feed-in tariff #evaluationSee).

Environmental tax

Of the environmental taxGreenhouse gasThere is a tax on the emissions ofCarbon taxAlso called. From the perspective of renewable energy dissemination, this has the effect of making fossil fuels relatively less competitive. aboveFixed price purchase systemIt may be used in combination with. It has already been introduced in overseas countries and has achieved reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in many countries (Environmental tax) Therefore, high effects are expected even in countries that are considering introduction.Fossil fuelIn addition to taxing directly on renewable energy sources, it may also be used as a financial resource for reductions and exemptions and refunds for renewable energy sources.[157].Fixed price purchase systemIn Germany, which is used in combination with Germany, 9% of environmental tax revenue is used to curb labor costs related to employment (specifically, reduction of social insurance premiums. The remaining 1% is used for environmental measures) to curb the impact on employment.[158].. It is considered to be an effective means in Japan as well.[159],Ministry of the EnvironmentIs proposing the introduction of a carbon tax by using the obtained tax as a measure against global warming (using it as a specific financial resource).[160].. However, discussions have not progressed as compared to European countries, and they are only sporadically introduced by local governments.

Other policies

There are subsidies for introduction costs, tender system, tax incentives such as deductions, low interest loans, surplus electricity purchase (net metering), fixed quota system andFixed price purchase systemIt may be used in combination with.

In Japan, electric power companies have voluntarily set up a surplus electricity purchase system and have achieved results by introducing solar power generation. From 2009, it became a public subsidy system for solar power generation. In many cases, local governments set up their own subsidies.

In 2019, the National Council is reporting on the use of transmission lines to further popularize renewable energy power generation.https://www.meti.go.jp/shingikai/santeii/pdf/046_01_00.pdf

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The word "renewable" in Japanese means "renewable" in English.renewableIs a word created by translating. "Play" in Japanese is "RecyclingBecause it also means ""renewableSome question the translation of "" as "reproduction"[3][4][5].. However, the original word has no meaning of "recyclable"[6], The translation "renewable" does not mean "recyclable" either. It is used to mean "renewable, revivable" (natural environment, etc.), such as "forest regenerates".[6].
  2. ^ Increase the proportion of renewable energy and uneven distribution of resourcesFossil fuelTo reduce dependence onSecurityIt is also desirable from the viewpoint of.
  3. ^ "De facto" here means地球But living things (especially living things)(I.e.It refers to the period during which a living environment is maintained. The loss of the environment in which living things can survive on the earth is synonymous with the disappearance of the subject who uses energy, and the use of energy itself becomes meaningless in the first place. It is impossible to accurately calculate such a period, but it is thought to be about one billion to several billion years. This period is related to how long the sun can maintain its current shape and energy release.
  4. ^ Percentage of devices in operation. It is different from the equipment utilization rate, which indicates the percentage of actual operating conditions.

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