[Explained by a pediatric psychiatrist] Is it true that diet and vaccination during pregnancy cause developmental disorders?
If you write the contents roughly
ASD is known to be congenital due to genetic factors.
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Wikipedia related words
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Congenital(Sensei,British: Congenital) Is usually used to mean that a particular property of an organism is "provided at birth" or "being born." Usually used in the form of the adjective "congenital". The word "congenital" is "I ChingIt is a word that appears in.The antonym is "Acquired”, and this word has the meaning of ``what was provided after birth.Also哲学upperthe termas,A prioriUsed as a translation of (a priori).A PrioriLatinIn addition to "congenital", there is a translation of "a priori" in the sense of "before".
A human,AnimalFor example, the fact that a characteristic or property is congenital means that the individual already has that trait or property when it is born.Organisms have been fertilizedgeneAffected by expressionFetus(OrLarva) Is affected by the environment (etc.) such as the mother's body.However, "congenital" does not necessarily mean "genetic".Some maternal effects and delayed inheritance are not inherited.AlsoGenetically deterministicIt does not always refer to only the features.Even if it is congenital, it has many properties that are affected by the environment.Also, they do not always have it as a salient feature when they are born.The growth of permanent teeth is genetically deterministic, but not a feature at birth.Therefore, when we say congenital, we distinguish whether it is a direct result of gene expression, whether it is determined by factors other than genes, whether it is "determined" or "affected", and whether it is prominent or insignificant at birth. There is a need to.
Almost everything humans haveknowledgeEtc. are acquired through experience, but there are also knowledge and innate ones.
AnimalIn the case of, various practical knowledge is acquired by nature without learning by experience.these are"instinct, OrInstinct behaviorSometimes called.for example(I.e. NestingWhen orBeaver damWhen buildingnestI know roughly how to make a bird and how to make a dam.This is the innate part.
However, nesting and courtship behavior are affected by imitation and trial and error.for exampleSatin bowerbirdNesting is more sophisticated in older individuals than in younger individuals.Therefore, the property is not always "determined" by either congenital or acquired, and cannot be divided into congenital and acquired properties.Especially in the field dealing with the behavior of living things,Developmental psychology,EthologyIn such cases, attention is paid to how a specific feature is affected by heredity and environment (how heredity and environment interact), and the dichotomy of congenital or acquired is no longer used.In the case of human knowledge, (Theory of mind), It is proposed that there is innate knowledge of naive biology, naive physics, and naive taxonomy, but there is debate about how congenital it really is.
Congenital traits of living things
AllBiology It is,ウ イ ル スWith the exception ofDouble helix OfChromosome or DNA It's abovegeneThe basic design as a living thing is decided by the arrangement pattern of.Two humansfootAnd a pairHand(Orwrist) And having an upright body system is genetically deterministic.On the other hand,birdsBasicallyWingsAnd thatFishesThe limbs are as limbsdevelopment-進化Not donefinHas,Gill breathingThe same is true for doing.
BiologyIn種The concept of is the pattern of genes and the traits caused by them, the body structure and further.ReproductionIt is decided from the possibility of.dogからSheepNo children are born and(I.e.,牛からA humanNo children are born.The order of species stability and diversity in the biological world is innately determined.
Animal'smale and femaleMany are also determined by genes.FishesToNutritionState and sexSex ratioSuch asEnvironmentUnder conditions, males and females naturallySex changeThere is something to do,mammalian-birdsMales and females such as are genetically determined.AlsoBlood TypeAnd色神The development of the internal and external genitalia of men and women is also genetically deterministic, but the period of sexual maturity is affected by the environment (mainly nutritional status).It is known that height and physique are also strongly influenced by heredity, but the influence of the environment is also large.Whether the bee larva becomes a worker bee or a queen bee depends on the food.In other words, it is determined acquiredly.However, the nature of "how food grows is determined" is innately determined.
In the case of humansPersonalityIs the basis of精神 OftemperamentThe target part is also considered to be influenced by heredity.AlsocriminalProduced a large numberFamily treeOr, conversely,MusicFamous as a houseBach clanLike of musicTalentFrom the study of the family that produced outstanding figures in, some personality elementsMusic-MathIt is assumed that genes have some deterministic factors such as talent.[Source required]..These mean the existence of innate factors.
Impact of development process
"Congenital" means "before birth", but living thingsFertilizationAfter that, "until you are born"Embryo,FetusAsindividualOutbreakHave a period of.During that time, it is affected by the effects of eggs, mother's womb, environment, and gene expression.
Since fertilized eggs of many marine organisms (aquatic organisms) are closely related to the outside world such as substance exchange and physical environment, it is known that the development is affected by the external environment.Usually, major environmental changes stop the outbreak itself (ie, lethal), but even if it does not lead to death.TeratogenicityDeformity due to substance,Environmental hormonesIt has been reported that abnormalities such as undifferentiated or reversed sex are caused by.The size of the body, if not abnormal, may depend on the environment at the time of occurrence.
AmnioteIs thought to be a group that developed the amniotic membrane to protect the embryo from changes in the outside world during development, but it is still not unrelated to the external environment during development.In some reptilesTemperature dependence determinationThe sex of an individual is determined by the temperature of the embryo's growing process.These animals (ワ ニ-カ メEtc.)ChromosomeToSex chromosomesIt is often undiscovered and sex depends on the environment.The temperature-dependent determination system itself is genetic, and sex itself is non-genetic (environmentally) determined.
Grow embryos in the mother's wombFetusSince the mother itself is the external environment of the animal, the embryo is relatively isolated from the physical and chemical environment of the habitat.placentahaveCartilaginous fish-reptiles-mammalianIn such cases, the exchange of substances other than the required substance exchange (oxygen / carbon dioxide / nutrients / waste products) tends to be hindered by the placental barrier, so the degree of protection is even higher.However, in other words, since all the external environment is entrusted to the mother, it may be affected by the health condition of the mother and chemical substances that pass through the barrier.
The most well-studied animalHuman capitalIn this example, when the mother is malnourished due to diet or starvation, the development of the fetus is affected by insufficient blood flow.This also affects the likelihood of developing diabetes in children.Also of the mothersmokingbynicotineOr contained in foodEnvironmental hormones,thalidomide OfTeratogenicityAs the incident shows, the drug taken by the mother goes through the placentaFetusIt is known to affect the development and growth of.Also in the mother's bodyToxoplasma,rubellaInfections such asVertical transmissionAsVenereal disease-Sexually transmitted disease,for example,syphilis,Gonorrhea,Chlamydia,Hepatitis B, Herpes simplex virus, and has become a problem in recent yearsHIVEtc. may infect the fetus due to transplacental infection.
There are also primary genetic decisions in the differentiation of men and women in humans, butTestes,OvaryBasic genital organs andMale OfTesticle,penis,Female Ofuterus,vaginaPrimary such asGenitalThe government influences the development of sex hormones by the mechanism of response to sex hormones on the part of the fetus and the secretion of sex hormones in the mother's womb.The interaction of sex hormones is also significant in the development and development of the cerebrum, and a variation of the male and female brains, or an intermediate cerebrum, may be born at the fetal stage.
- The meaning of the word "born" in the developmental process of an organism is thus influenced by both gene expression and the environment during development.
Congenital in humans
Congenital in the body
身体,fleshThe trait characteristics of are generally influenced innately.thalidomideThe induction of malformations by drugs such as these may be due to acquired causes, but other than that, it is congenital that appears in a certain number of populations.diseaseThere is.For example, it is also called a rabbit mouthCleft lipAndHideyoshi Toyotomi OfMeansIt is known that there were sixPolydactylyand so on.Also,Blood coagulation factorsComes from the lack ofhemophiliaAndNewbornIs said to exist at 1% ofVentricular septal defectAnd so on心 臓Abnormalities are congenital diseases.
The most common innate decision isMaleとFemaleTo saySexIs the decision.This is because there is a clear difference in the genes, where a woman usually has two her X chromosomes and becomes a type XX sex chromosome.On the other hand, a man has her Y chromosome in addition to her X chromosome, which is different from that of the XY type.Sex chromosomesIt has become.For this reason, the basic genetic determination of gender is innate.Even in this case, there are a small number of gene abnormalities, and there are mutations in genes such as XXY type and XXX type.
However, it is known that the innate determination of gender is determined not only by genes but also by the hormonal environment in development and development at the fetal stage.The differentiation of male and female types in the primary reproductive organs is determined by the development in the womb, but it is also congenital because it is "before birth".AlsoGender difference TheCerebrumThe male cerebrum is congenitally larger than the female.Also connect the left and right cerebral hemispheresNerve fibersIs a bunch ofCorpus callosumThere is a difference in the thickness of men and women.The corpus callosum is thicker and more complex in women.
Anatomical gender differences in the body and cerebrum are predominantlySex hormoneIt is determined by the interaction of, but even if it is not a genetic abnormality, it is primary.Genital,External genitaliaMay not be attached to both men and women at the time of birth.Sexual orientationInHomosexuality,HeterosexualityAlthough the influence of congenital factors has been suggested (for example, the influence theory of birth order), it is not yet clear.
Besides the innate distinction of gender, various characteristics of the body are innately affected.The physiques of men and women are affected by the environment, but differences are observed on average even when raised in the same environment.birthAt the time, boys and girls appear to have almost the same body, but it can be said that the basic framework for gender differentiation has already been determined innately.
sexThere are many congenital physical traits other than the differentiation of.What is easy to understand from the outside is眸Color andhairIs the color of.RaceTargetPeopleCharacteristicskinColor, highbridge of the noseThe difference between the deeply carved appearance and the flat appearance is also a genetic difference.
Blood TypeThere are several classifications other than the four typical ABO types, but these are also inherited.There are also congenital and tendency in the physiological mechanism of the body,Acetaldehyde dehydrogenaseWith or withoutliqueurThe reaction to sickness is different.Affinities for certain physical illnesses are also genetically affected.
Congenital in the spirit and mind
In addition to physical congenitality, humans精神,Heart,PersonalityIs also believed to be innately affected.Separated and different almost at the same time as birthEnvironmentRaised inIdentical twins Ofpsychological,communication skillA comparative study is being conducted.However, the interpretation of studies using identical twins is controversial.When there are unexplained differences even when considering the effects of the environment on development, and conversely, when homology is significantly found with relatives, the effects of heredity on the human mind and mind can be inferred.
Uniqueness as a human
Humans do not behave like other animals, and other animals do not behave like humans because they are strongly constrained by the genetic factors they inherit from their ancestors, especially the innate nature of humanity. There is debate about.
- PersonalityOrPersonality: The reason why human beings can establish "human relations" with other human beings and have personal exchanges and friendships is because human beings are just human beings. As a hypothesis, on the basis ofCerebrum OfNerveThe innate structure of "human consciousness" and "personality" that is thought to be established by the network of[Source required].
- 言语: One of the unique ways of human existence is that it has a language.People areDevelopmental psychologyAccording to the research of, he has the ability to actively seek the language himself and to spontaneously create the structure of the language.Noam Chomsky OfGenerative grammar,Universal grammarShows that such linguistic competence is an innate structure of human beings.[Source required].
- Intelligence-Thinking power: There is a clear correlation between the expansion of language ability and the expansion of intelligence and thinking, although the interpretation differs depending on whether language and intelligence or thinking are different or the same thing is viewed from different aspects.However, in intelligence and thinking, there is also a dimension that is exhibited specifically in the sensorimotor system, and language ability is not intelligence or thinking ability.Language and thinking skills develop through learning and experience,Learning,経 験-knowledgeIt can be said that the basic ability to enable organic structuring is innate.[Source required].
- temperament-psychologicalTendency: Temperament is individual humancharacterAtBiology Target身体It is thought to be a trend related to the aspect, but it can be said that it includes various things.FeelingIf you think about something that is liable to change, or if you think about something certain, you will always be obsessed with that thought.joy,悲 し みThe richness of the expression is likely to be a natural and innate factor, although it is influenced by the acquired environment and learning.[Source required].
- These separated from their parents after birth,Personality OfdevelopmentIn cases where it is considered that there is no influence from parents, the psychological tendency of a specific individual isparentsEither orHereditySince there is a significant correlation when they are related to each other, a genetic predisposition is considered. "criminalIt can be said that "family lineage" arises from the genetic inheritance of certain psychological tendencies.[Source required].AcquiredIEnvironmentThere are cases that cannot be explained by determinism[Source required].
Congenital in philosophy
In philosophy, human精神Congenitally has some archetypal structure or framework,経 験,knowledgeIs classified and contained in this framework, and the idea that cognition is established when an organic interlocking structure is built, and the idea that human cognition is established from the acquired structural composition by the complex of simple perception etc. There are two main ideas.
A priori and a posteriori
"A prioriIsLatinAnd it came from the word that means "a priori"哲学the termso,"a posterioriThat is, it is an antonym of the term meaning "after (a posteriori)".A priori is translated into Japanese and is called "congenital" or "a priori" ("a priori" in Kant's philosophy is not a prori but also "transcendental").On the other hand, a posteriori is called "acquired" or "empirical" when translated into Japanese. It is used in the form of "a priori recognition" or "a priori knowledge". "A priori" is something that is already contained in the spirit of the human subject prior to the experience.that is経 験It may be recognition content or knowledge that you do not know.
The Ancient Greek OfphilosopherIsPlatoon TheIdeaInsisting on the theory, before human beings were born into this "world of things" (Reich der Dinge), they entered the world of ideas.魂He claimed that the human soul contained the knowledge known in the idea world.This is the knowledge that we already know before gaining experience in "this world = the world of things", and it is called innate knowledge.Platoon isMathKnowledge of purelogicKnowledge, and human beings are mathematical without learning by experiencetruthHe said that he could introduce it with his own pure thought, and that this was a proof that the soul once existed in the idea world.
Western EuropeThe early modern period OfGermanyIdealism哲学Is a representative philosopher ofImmanuel KantSaid that a priori knowledge and cognition existed, and asked for this in human cognition and knowledge about the truth of mathematics as well as Platoon.The axioms and theorems of mathematics, and the rules of logic, are not the knowledge that humans have learned and found through experience in this world, but the knowledge that the subject knows before the experience, that is, innately (a priori). ..Kant'sTranscendentalEpistemologyStrictly speaking, this "congenital knowledge" inBiologyTypicallyA humanIndividualDoes not mean the knowledge that "before birth" has.
But,言语,思考,logicThe archetypal structure of the human spirit is present in the human spirit even before it was born.Developmental psychology,LinguisticsFrom this finding, Kant's a priori recognition and knowledge suggests that it is the same as the existence of innate structures such as language and logic.
- Psychological nat - instinct - Genetic determinism
- Acquired - Tabula rasa
- gene - Embryology - Biology
- Genetic traits - Acquired traits
- 経 験 - Learning - Developmental psychology
- 思考 - 言语
- Sex - temperament - character
- Personality - Personality - self
- Platoon - Idea
- A priori - a posteriori
- Immanuel Kant
- Epistemology - Transcendental(Transzendental)
- Math - truth - Logic