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👩‍🎓 | What is the number one learning problem for children, junior high and high school students who have "dirty handwriting" in elementary school?


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Children's learning troubles first place, elementary school students "handwriting is dirty" middle and high school students?

 
If you write the contents roughly
For elementary school students, it can be inferred that the timing to start attending cram school is when they start thinking about whether to take the junior high school entrance exam or go on to a public junior high school.
 

The number one problem with children's learning is that elementary school students "poor handwriting" junior high school and high school students "poor study points". → Continue reading

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The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.


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    Middle school exam

    Middle school examWhat is (Chugakujuken)?Junior high school OfEntrance examinationIs to take the exam. Especially this testMiddle school entrance examination(Chuugaku Nyuushi)・ModerateIt's called (chuju).

    JapanIn junior high school, before the war, only excellent men went to school. Post-war new system junior high school will be compulsory education, by taking the entrance examination to the junior high school, you will need to prepare to pass the selection test, which is different from the pre-war position.

    1998(10) of JulySchool education lawDue to the revision,Secondary schoolIs allowed, and adjunct type/cooperative type of middle school education[1],primary schoolThe number of entrance examinations for prospective graduates is expanding.

    This article is not limited to junior high schools in a narrow senseSecondary educationSchool (junior high school, first half of secondary school,Special schoolMiddle school, etc.), unless otherwise specified, the notation "junior high school (etc.)" and "lower secondary education (school)" includes all of the above.Similarly, the notation "private junior high school (etc.)" includes everything other than public junior high schools that are not selective.

    Overview

    The history of entrance examinations for junior high school is a modern education systemSchool systemIntroducedMeijiIt starts after that. Late Meijiprimary school OfSchool attendanceIs 98%[2]However, at that timeCompulsory educationIs up to elementary school, so you can enter a senior high schoolWealthy soldiersIt was a small number, with only excellent men who could support.

    TaishoWhen you enterWorld War IDue to Japan's favorable economic conditions, the number of applicants for middle school is increasing in urban areas with many affluent people.[Note 1].

    There are many public and private schools that were founded around this time, but even if the number of students wishing to go on to the school increased, the number of students did not suddenly increase, so the competition was intense. As mentioned earlier, compulsory education was limited to elementary school, so there was a waste of life. The number of junior high school passers in 1919 was more ronin than active[2].. Not a few children had tutors, spending most of their day studying while cutting sleep time.[2].

    Higher elementary schoolAlso functioned as a recipient of ronin.

    19271939,Ministry of Education(At that time) banned the departmental examinations for the entrance examinations for junior high school, and instructed them to make selections based on reports from elementary schools, physical examinations, and physical examinations instead.[3].

    During the war, due to lack of supplies and manpower, there were cases where a written examination was not conducted and only the interview or composition was used to make a pass/fail decision.

    From prewar to postwar,Old junior high schoolMost of the public schools are new high schools with co-education, and private schools areGender-specific studiesThere are many schools that have inherited this form.Mission schoolis one such example.especially in urban areasPort townThis is why there are so many mission girls' schools in Japan. As of March 2020, nearly 3% of private girls' junior high schools in Tokyo were founded before the war.

    After the war, in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Hanshin, and Kyoto, where there are many affluent people, there was a boom in junior high school exams that was not comparable to before the war.[4], Described laterMikaIn addition to the national university with low tuition,Waseda,Seki Seki SupportWill be a difficult school.

    In national high school entrance examinationsComprehensive selection,School group systemStudents who were disappointed that they were not able to enter the first-choice public high school, even if they had the ability, aimed for private school. This is the basis for the current middle school entrance examination.

    It can be said that there is a strong positive correlation between the rise of national private high school and junior high school in the achievement record of passing the National Difficulty National University and the increase and difficulty of the number of applicants for the junior high school examination.

    1998(10) October,School education lawHas been amended,Secondary schoolInstallation, the adjunct type and cooperation type of middle and high school integrated education school will be accepted[1].. As a result, it became possible to flexibly deal with middle and high school courses regardless of national, public or private, and the institutional consistency of public high schools began.

    In addition, 21st centuryTo enter the,Metropolitan high schoolThe abolition of the school districtShintaro IshiharaRealized by the Governor of Tokyo (at that time). This movement spread all over the country, and a movement to select public was started between private and public middle and high school.

    At private junior high and high school, after the 21st century,Kyusyu,KansaiThe co-education of boys' schools can be seen in the order of. Also especiallyCapital AreaThen, co-education of girls' schoolthe 2010sIt can be seen even after the latter half.

    Speaking of junior high school entrance exams, especially in urban areas, the pattern that some elementary school students aim for national private junior high school is changing.

    Eligibility

    age

    JapanIs a compulsory education course atJunior high schoolOr equivalent school (junior high school, lower secondary school,Special schoolTo enter a junior high school, etc.,Primary EducationCourse (primary school,Compulsory education school, Special support schools, etc.)CompletionThere is a need to. So in JapanSchool ageTherefore, those who have completed the primary education course and entered the lower secondary education course are 12 years old or older.

    LawsystemThe above does not mean that those over the age of 12 and those who have already graduated are not prohibited from entering.

    However,Middle school daytime courseIn fact, in most cases, there is no upper age limit or admission of past graduates.

    However,returnee childrenIn case ofSchool systemDue to differences between countries (such as the difference between the fiscal years), unlike the examinees from within Japan, there are cases when recruiting with a certain age range.

    Middle school night course-Distance learning in middle schoolIn contrast, most of the students are over-aged.Past studentSee).

    Sex

    1947(Showa 22)Basic Education LawHas been recommended byCoeducationSaid that its mission was fulfilled2006It will be deleted due to the revision of the law (18). Currently in national and private junior high schoolsGender-specific studiesThere is a school.

    NationalThe middle school for men and womenUniversity of Tsukuba Komaba Junior High SchoolOnly. (Ochanomizu University Junior High School,Nara Women's University Secondary SchoolIs co-ed)

    There are many private junior high schools across the country that have been gender-specific, and have continued from before the war.Mission schoolThe girls' school, in particular, is one such example. this is,School reformIn publicOld junior high schoolMany of them became co-educational (However,Saitama,Gunma,TochigiIs inheriting the gender-specific school), while the private school, the five-year old junior high school is a six-year junior high school consistent school, because it has inherited the form. However,#OverviewAs noted in, in the 21st century, co-education of private boys'schools has been seen in western Japan, and co-education of girls' schools has become.Capital AreaSeen at.

    School district

    In junior high school, the school side considers the burden of physical strength and timeSchool districtor limit commute time (e.g.ShinkansenIn some cases, long-distance commuting such as commuting to school is not permitted).There are many national junior high schools.Boarding houseRegarding junior high school and high school, high school students are allowed to board, but junior high school students are often not allowed.

    Complete elementary and junior high school

    Of course, you cannot enroll in a complete elementary and junior high school. There are not many such examples, but for example,Denenchofu Shuyoha Junior High School,Sacred Heart Women's AcademyIs a complete elementary and junior high school. Also,Compulsory education schoolAlso, in many cases, transfer to the 7th grade is not permitted.

    Understanding of school guidelines

    In addition, understanding of school guidelines may be specifically required.For example, in the case of a junior high school attached to the Faculty of Education of a national university, the mission is to cooperate with teachers and students in education and research.キ リ ス ト 教,BuddhismSuch asReligious educationUnderstanding.

    Also, cooperate with school advertisements and go to a high school inside the facility (especiallySecondary school, Junior and senior high school consistent education), and the assumption that you want to go to university.

    The current state of taking the junior high school exam

    Areas where junior high school exams are popularCapital Area,Kansai area(mainlyKeihanshin) And other metropolitan areas.

    National junior high schools are each except Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima.PrefecturesIt is dispersed in.On the other hand, private junior high school is as of 2020[5], Of the 782 schools in Japan, in the Greater Tokyo AreaTokyo188 schools,Kanagawa64 schools,Saitama31 schools,ChibaThere are 25 schools and 1 schools in 3 metropolitan area, accounting for 308% of the total.In KeihanshinOsaka63 schools,Hyogo43 schools,KyotoThere are 26 schools and 2 schools in 1 prefectures and 132 prefecture, accounting for 17% of the total.

    Therefore, the amount of information for junior high school exams varies from region to region.In urban areas, more than half of elementary school students take the junior high school exam in some areas, while in the suburbs there are no or near areas.In some areas, the majority of elementary school students go on to national and private junior high schools, so the number of public junior high schools in the area is significantly reduced.In addition, there are many areas where most people do not know the option of taking the junior high school exam.

    Middle school is a compulsory education, and elementary schools, except for some private elementary schools, have curriculums that do not presuppose middle school entrance exams. Therefore, it is generally said that it is impossible to pass an influential junior high school without a private supplementary school or tutoring, and it is necessary to pay not only the tuition fee after going on to school but also the tuition fee for the private supplementary school and individual tuition.

    Therefore, taking a junior high school exam is an educationalEqual opportunitySome point out that they are taking away.

    It has been pointed out that when a high-quality elementary school student goes to a junior high school in another region to see junior high school and sees a decline in the quality of a public junior high school in an unexamined area, the junior high school examination may become overheated.

    Entering the 21st century, some public high schools across the country have set up affiliated junior high schools and some schools have been reorganized into secondary schools.In order to equalize opportunities during public school, the academic ability test is not conducted even at the selection stage, and the entrance exams are actually "taken", "appropriate test", composition, interview, etc.The question format is not a collection of memorization of knowledge, but is characterized by a cross-curricular type and a descriptive formula, which is significantly different from the entrance examination during national and private schools.At first glance, it seems that the opportunities are equal, but it has been pointed out that it is necessary to have enough academic ability to pass a difficult private junior high school.There are also public junior and senior high schools with an entrance examination rate of over 10 times.

    The number of public junior high and high schools will vary depending on the initiatives and policies of local governments.

    Intermediary rate of each region

    Even within metropolitan areas such as the Tokyo metropolitan area and the Kansai area, there are regional differences in the acceptance rate.

    Private junior high school enrollment rate is 7.7% nationwide[6]However, in the metropolitan area, Tokyo is 25.5%, Kanagawa Prefecture is 11.0%, and in the suburbs Chiba Prefecture is 6.7% and Saitama Prefecture is 5.2%.Iwate Prefecture has an overwhelming disparity of 0.8%.

    Furthermore, even in the Tokyo metropolitan area, there are few in the suburbs and downtown areas.Private junior high school entrance rate is 2021[7]Then, there is a big difference between Bunkyo Ward 47.4% and Edogawa Ward 11.4%.In addition, in the city center and Yamanote, there are many internal entrances from the attached elementary school.

    West JapanIn some parts of the city, junior high school exams are as popular as in the Tokyo metropolitan area and Keihanshin.Kyoto13.6%,Kochi18.1%,HiroshimaIt is 10.3%.

    In Tohoku and Hokuriku, there are few schools that can take junior high school exams, and the junior high school acceptance rate is inevitably low. Since 2013, there are no private junior high schools recruiting students in Akita and Yamagata.

    Mika

    JapanIntroduced the modern education systemMeijiSinceNationalThe most difficult ofOld school,New universityOf the schools with a high track record of passing theMika".

    Prewar

    Before the war,Old high schoolAmong theOne highThe highest number of successful applicants to Ichiko became the high popularity and difficulty in the entrance exams for junior high school. At the time, the highest number of high-ranking applicants wasNumber schoolMet(Daiichi High School (old system)See). Therefore, before the warTokyo prefectural first,Aichi Prefectural Daiichi,Hyogo Prefectural Daiichi Kobe"Ichinaka Gosanke"[8]Was called (Three Houses # Educational InstitutionSee).

    Before the war,Higher educationSince only boys can go on to school, the school was naturally limited to boys' schools.

    Since the Meiji era, the history of prioritizing the private middle over the prestigious public is Tokyo and Kyoto, where many wealthy people wereBetween HanshinStarted with[4].. "Private private house" which nominated the top 3 private schoolsUnder construction,In Azabu,Shiba Junior High School[9][10].MusashiWas supposed to be second only to public after the war[4], At that time, it was a 7-year high school. It was said that the pass rate to Tokyo Imperial University was sometimes higher than one (Musashi High School (old system) #Establishment and developmentSee).

    After the war

    New systemTokyo UniversityIn the number of successful applicants,Metropolitan high school OfSchool group systemBefore the introduction, pre-war public junior high schoolsHigh schoolNumber school occupies the top rank, and it was not much different from before the war except that the school name changed due to co-education[11].

    After the war, in Tokyo, Hanshin, and Kyoto, where there are many wealthy people, there is a boom in junior high school exams that is not comparable to that before the war.[4].. At public high schools nationwideComprehensive selectionAfter the latter half of the 60s, when the school group system was introduced, private middle and high school integrated schools began to rise with the number of successful applicants at the University of Tokyo. Since that time,Kaisei,Azabu,MusashiCame to be called "(Tokyo Boys) Misanke".

    In the Kanagawa boys, it was private and outstandingEikoenHowever, due to the subdivision of school districts of Kanagawa public high schools from the 1980s to the 1990s, it was one of the leading in Japan.Shonan High SchoolSurpassed. As a secondary school after that,SeigakuinThere is. Until the early 90s,Mammoth schoolIsToin AcademyHas emerged since its establishment, and has almost overwhelmed the number of university passers. Originally proven since 2000AsanoWill grow, and these three schools will be called the "Kanagawa Boys Gosanke".

    KansaiIn the latter half of the 80s to the first half of the 2000s, the number of passers of the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University was high.Nada,Koyo,Todaiji Temple,Rakusei,Osaka Seigakuin,RakunanWill be called the 6th strong[12].. Since the latter half of the 2000s, the number of successful applicants at the University of Tokyo and Kyoto has gradually changed, high school recruitment has stopped, Rakunan andNishi YamatoSuch asCo-educationAs a result, it has become difficult to group together 3 or 6 schools.

    In Western Japan, the private entrance exam in the Kansai area was at the same time as a unified entrance exam, and those who had lost the difficult junior high school in Kansai began to take the entrance exam for the junior high school in western Japan, which has a dormitory.[4].. West Japan's private high schools have begun to rise, including schools that have dormitories, and the number of successful applicants at the University of Tokyo is high.La Salle,AikoCame to be called "Western Japan's Three Houses".

    For Tokyo Girls, an advanced school established solely by Japanese womenSakurakageWas first founded in JapanMission schoolGirls' Academy, By a sister who came to Japan for the first time as a foreignerFutabaBecame higher in school achievement and entrance examination difficulty, and became known as "Women's Three Houses". The same as the oldest in Japan in Yokohama YamateFerris,Yokohama leaf,Yokohama Kyoritsu AcademyCame to be called "Kanagawa Women's Three Houses".

    One of the leading private schools in Japan20st centuryThere were many boys' schools until the latter half, and girls with the highest grades had no choice but to go to public high school. Since the 2000s, the co-education of private high school for boys has been declining.KyusyuAnd starts in Kansai[4].. Especially in the Tokyo metropolitan areathe 2010sIt can be seen even after the latter half.

    In Kyushu,Blue clouds,Kurume UniversityBecame a co-education, and the passing record increased. Together with La Salle, it will be called the “Kyushu Private Three Houses”.

    The number of students who have passed the university in upper secondary school varies depending on the number of students with the highest grades. Depending on the passing record, the grouping of "- Misanke" may change. However, especially since the 21st centuryFormer Imperial UniversityOnly the number and rate of successful applicants are no longer indicators of higher advanced schools. For example, the number and rate of successful applicants to national public medical schools and overseas prestigious schools. Even if the number of successful applicants decreases, the traditional and quality education up to that point may be evaluated and it may be honored by the Osanke family. This is especially true for boys and girls in Tokyo and Kanagawa.

    In addition, since the system was revised at the end of the 90's, public high schools established an attached junior high school,High school consistent educationOr (at first1999 OfOkayama Municipal Okayama Korakukan Junior and Senior High School),Secondary schoolSchool to be reorganized into (first in 1999Miyazaki Prefectural Gokase Secondary School) Is appearing. In terms of the "three family members" who took the "junior high school" examination, it is possible that the "three family members" who are in the public state will appear as before the war.

    Preparation for passing

    Deviation of entrance examination

    Although it has been criticized so far as an indicator of the difficulty level of the entrance examinationAcademic deviation valueIs convenient. At a major school, the deviation value of each school is calculated from a wide and large population by public trial. For example,SAPIX Elementary School,Yotsuya Otsuka,Nihon LabOr, it is a metropolitan area imitation center, which is a coalition of small and medium-sized schools. This is not what the school announces. Since the capacity is often fixed for each gender, the deviation value is displayed for each gender.

    In Keihanshin, each study cram school often conducts an individual test, and multiple cram schools hold a small number such as the Kansai unification test. Also,KansaiOnly the choice of 3 department types or 4 departments excluding society.

    Private junior high school enrollment rate in Japan will be less than 2022% by 8[6]Because it is a very small group of elite, even if the deviation value is 50, for example, the index is quite different between that of the junior high school exam and that of the high school entrance exam.

    Determine passability

    You need the following information to determine your chances of passing.

    • Form and policy of school (national/private/public, co-education/boys'/girls' school, internal admission system to adjoining school, admission to school, religious school,Donation(Amount of gold/presence/absence)
    • Whether the entrance examination schedule or application guidelines have changed
    • Contents explained at the school information session
    • Public events such as school festivals, sports festivals, and open schools
    • School's passing record last year, whether there is big news
    • Competitive trends of other schools
    • Mock test judgment
    • Past question tendency and my compatibility

    As for the result of the trial test by the school, an approximate value is calculated based on the independently aggregated data and questionnaire.

    Some schools have multiple entrance exams, and some schools do not consider points at all and take multiple points.

    In addition, if there are parents, relatives, siblings from the same school, some schools will add it.

    Advantages and problems of taking the junior high school exam

    It is not normal for elementary school students, who are in the developmental stage of mind and body, to study autonomously and independently and pass the desired junior high school by their own efforts.GuardianAnd family cooperation is essential.

    By going to a junior high school that has passed the selection test, you can be blessed with good quality education and good quality classmates. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of taking a junior high school exam.

    利 点

    Curriculum

    • Since only those who have been selected based on their academic ability are enrolled, you can expect a curriculum that suits your stage.
    • In an integrated middle and high school, it is possible to get a bird's-eye view of learning in six years, and it is possible to get rid of preemptive learning and duplication of content between middle school and high school courses.As a result, it is advantageous for university entrance examinations.Many private junior and senior high schools complete the contents of junior and senior high school courses in five years, and spend the last year studying for university entrance exams.[13].
    • Only those who wished to enter the school.Blessed with classmates who can share their aspirations.
    • You don't have to take a high school entrance exam at a junior high and high school.
    • You don't have to take a university entrance examination at a private university affiliated school. You can truly learn without being limited to studying for an exam.
    • Privately,Religious educationCan be received.

    Extracurricular activities

    • It's not uncommon to have a lot of facilities.
    • At an integrated middle and high school, students do not have to spend time taking high school entrance exams, and can manage club activities in junior and senior high schools in an integrated manner, and can devote themselves to them in five years.

    course

    • At a private university affiliated university, you can go to university with an escalator, so you can spend your junior high and high school with a view to the research that you want to enter.

    problem

    Before admission

    • Since learning is exposed to the principle of competition, it is required to produce results in a short period of time.
    • Examination stress destabilizes the mind, and school is seen as a place to relax, leading to violent behavior[14]
    • They spend too much time studying for entrance exams, and cannot devote much time to exercise, practice, hobbies, or sleep.
    • When passive learning is neglected by parents and learning leaders, the attitude and willingness to learn on their own will be delayed.
    • It is necessary to make students aware that simply excelling in entrance exams does not necessarily mean excelling in courses after junior high school.
    • If you fail to pass, especially if you are wiped out, it is necessary to make them realize that learning is not superior or inferior.

    After enrollment

    • Unlike public junior high schools, which do not pass selection tests, students belong to a group of people with similar home environments and circumstances, and do not meet classmates with significantly different career orientations at school.
    • Go to a junior high school different from your local classmates.
    • In the case of a junior high and high school, there is no high school entrance exam, so there is a possibility of slackness.
    • In most cases, it takes more time to go to school than the public offices nearby.
    • If you feel that your school policy does not meet your needs, you must transfer to another school.
    • At private schools, tuition is higher than at national governments.
    • In the case of gender-specific studies, there are few opportunities to interact with classmates of the opposite sex.
    • If your career aspirations are significantly different from what your school expects, you will need to broaden your knowledge outside of school.
    • If you want to go to a high school that is not affiliated with a junior high school, unlike your classmates, you have to prepare for high school entrance exams yourself.

    Admission schedule

    Exam date

    In some public schools, entrance dates may be set before December.

    For private mid-career entrance examinations, private school associations in each prefecture have set dates for admission.returnee childrenThe entrance examination and the special application entrance examination may be conducted earlier than the ban date.

    In the case of the metropolitan area, Saitama prefecture... January 1, Chiba prefecture... January 10th, Tokyo/Kanagawa prefecture... February 1st. For private entrance exams in Saitama and Chiba, examinees from all over the Tokyo metropolitan area will test their skills.

    So-calledMikaIs all2/1Only the entrance examination is conducted. Therefore, it is physically impossible to apply for the Osanke. However, if February 2st is Sunday,Mission schoolThere is a school in which the exam is set on the following Monday. This is to avoid duplication with Sunday service. this"Sunday shock". In the year of Sunday shock, the 1st school is concentrated, but the 2nd school is concentrated and dispersed.

    In the Kansai area (2 prefectures and 4 prefectures), it is January 1th.

    In general, private entrance examinations are usually conducted on the same day each year at each school, regardless of the day of the week. Many schools can take entrance exams on multiple days, but the more difficult the schools, the less likely they are to enter.

    Also, from the beginning of the 21st century,Afternoon entrance examinationSchools implementing the are beginning to appear. In recent years, some schools have begun to conduct a one-math entrance exam in the afternoon entrance examination.

    result publication

    Normally, some schools announce up to two days later, except for public junior and senior high schools, and early schools around 2:22 on the day of the morning and afternoon entrance exams.

    In recent years, many schools make presentations on a dedicated page on the Internet and on bulletin boards in the school in parallel.On the other hand, in traditional schools such as the Misan family, many schools make announcements only on the bulletin board in the school.Once at the designated time on the announcement dateFAX,電子 メ ー ル,Retax,telegramThere was also a school that sent individually at.

    Outbreak of new coronavirus after March 2020In response to this, many schools that used to post their results on a traditional school bulletin board also announce the results on a dedicated Internet page in order to avoid crowds of people.

    Not all successful applicants are enrolled in both private and national public schools, so based on data from past years, customs are generally announced a little more or as alternates. There may be more people who decline than the expected number of people, and there may be cases where they are passed and passed. As a result, new declined students may be born at schools that have already completed admission procedures, and they may be successively propagated and moved up to the first regular day of the end of the fiscal year to pass successful applicants.

    On the contrary, the expected number of refusals does not appear, and the number of classes will be increased, which may affect the next year's examination by reducing the number of recruitment staff for the next year.

    Admission procedure

    After announcing the results, the admission procedure will be conducted by the successful applicants within a certain period of time set by the school. Some of the difficult schools and prestigious schools have a short reception period, and some schools only accept one day. On the other hand, in order to wait for successful applicants to pass or fail at the same school, there are some places where admission is accepted for a long period or in two stages.

    For the procedure, you will receive a pass certificate and a set of procedure documents. In many cases, the enrollment fee and other initial costs will be paid in advance to the account of the school or designated financial institution, and the required documents and payment form will be submitted to complete the enrollment procedure. The enrollment procedure itself varies from school to school, including the reception desk, office, and mail. For applicants with a school that is also applying for the exam, there are some places where the lump sum payment is paid first, and the balance can be postponed according to the schedule of the subsequent announcement of the results.

    In many cases, the date of announcement of acceptance will differ from the start date of admission procedures. Successful applicants who do not receive it after the deadline for receiving, or who have not completed the entrance procedure even during the procedure period are automatically treated as refusal to enroll, and if there is a vacancy for the capacity, it will be raised to the substitute applicant Notification of acceptance will be given.

    When you go through the procedures at the school, you will often be notified of the schedule up to the entrance ceremony, but apart from this, there are many schools that set a pre-school attendance date in March and convene prospective students. In addition, uniforms may be measured and school life and curriculum may be explained during the enrollment procedure or on the day of pre-school attendance. In the case of a prestigious school or a traditional school, in particular, parents may be gathered separately to hold a preparatory discussion with school personnel. Also aimed at students for parentsCram schoolSolicitation andDonationscamBe careful aboutKindergarten examination,Elementary school entrance examAs with other things, knowing how to deal with other parents[Note 2]In some cases, a booklet summarizing these will be distributed.

    If you decide to enroll in another school, you can apply to decline even after the enrollment procedure.For those who passed the advance after the reception period, it will be accepted separately because it is the school's convenience.

    Question scope and content

    National public junior high schoolprimary schoolYou have to give questions within the range of the course. Have jurisdictionMinistry of educationHas no authority to limit the scope of questions to private schools, but the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyCourse of StudyHe requested that he not deviate too much from the above, and the junior high school side also professed that the questions were given within the range of studying at the elementary school.However, in private schools, questions may be asked from a range that is outside the scope of the course of study (for example, in 2002).

    Especially in science, mathematics, and society, it is often seen in private schools that the contents of the junior high school course and above are given in the words of elementary school students with guidance.

    It is virtually impossible to pass the written test of a national or private public junior high school only by studying at a public elementary school.

    National language

    National language The漢字, Wording,こ と わ ざIn addition to being asked basic national language skills such as, long-sentence reading comprehension questions that look at reading comprehension are given.Since it is a subject that makes it easy to convey the admission policy (what kind of students you want to enroll), there are some schools that give ingenious questions.

    In recent years, it has become a problem with publications from multiple companies, as the entrance examination questions using the sentences of famous authors are posted on the website and past questions as they are.

    Arithmetic

    ArithmeticOften there is a difference in the score, so it is often talked about in terms of difficulty.The question format is generally divided into a school with a large number of questions and an emphasis on accuracy and speed, and a school with only 3 to 6 applied questions.

    Text titleThen,equationIt is necessary to focus on the unique properties of the unit and solve it without relying solely on it.Since elementary schools do not learn equations, if you try to use only equations, there are many problems that the number of characters and equations will increase and it will be difficult to formulate.

    • Calculation problem
      • Four arithmetic operations, back calculation
      • Insect worm
        • It requires logical thinking and case analysis, and there are also difficult questions.
        • Mask calculation(The same number will be on the same label (alphabet, etc.))
        • Komachi math
          • Komachi calculationIs the problem of creating a calculation formula that gives a calculation result of 123456789 (there is also a theory of 100) by inserting arithmetic symbols such as four arithmetic operations and parentheses into the number 99.
          • Komachi calculationOno KomachiHowever, I was compelled to commute for a hundred nightsFukakusaIt is said to be a calculation that was devised in memory of his death.
          • The source of the storyZeami OfJoruriThere is a theory that it is fictitious.
          • In turn, the problem of inserting arithmetic symbols and parentheses into some numbers to make a given number is called Komachi calculation, or by distinguishing it, it is called Komachi calculation.
      • Magic square
        • n×nPut numbers in each small square so that the sums in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonal columns are equal to each other.In addition, there are some anomalous problems such as the diagonal line does not matter and the product is a product instead of the sum.
        • There is also a magic square.For example, there are several circles that intersect each other, and the problem is to fill in the blanks written at the circumferences and intersections so that the sum of the numbers lined up on each circumference is equal to each other.There are various shapes.
        • In addition to the four arithmetic operationsGaussian signIs mentioned.
    • Number theory
      • Problems with divisors and multiples
      • Quotation/remaining issues
      • Problem solving for special properties of particular integers
        • Year number etc.
      • Card shuffle
        • The problem of asking the placement of card numbers when dividing cards into two sets with the same number of cards and rearranging them according to a certain rule.
        • Cases are divided according to the evenness of the position number.
        • In the junior high school entrance examination, the one that appeared in Azabu in 1982 is said to be the first to appear.[15].. After appearing at the University of Tokyo in 2002, she has re-emerged in the junior high school entrance examination since 2004.
      • Mamakore
        • The child of the stepmother and the child of the ex-wife are mixed and lined up in a ring, and every 10 people are removed and the last remaining person is made the successor. Problems that ask people.
        • Famous in the Edo periodDiaryOf the Kamakura periodNatural grassBut also in the books of the Muromachi periodWest lineThe source cannot be specified, such as the fact that the cat figurines that Minamoto no Yoritomo gave to the last remaining child were given to the last remaining child by arranging the children who were playing along the way in a ring and counting them one by one. ..
        • In the westJosephus problemIt is also said to be.
        • Since it was opened in 2009, it has been asked at other junior high schools.
        • In the junior high school entrance examination, "remove every other go stone arranged in a ring" and "discard the cards piled up in one pile one by one from the top, put them at the bottom" alternately, and ask the last remaining card. It comes out in two forms.
    • Number and regularity (Sequence, Number table)
      • Difference sequence
      • Recurrence formula
      • Arithmetic sequence
      • Proportional sequence
      • Number of figures
      • Group sequence
      • Mathematical table
      • Fibonacci numberColumn
        • A sequence whose value is equal to the sum of the previous two terms.
        • 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233,…
        • Leonardo FibonacciExplains how to increase the number of rabbits in his own book "Arithmetic Book". It is known that this sequence of numbers can be seen in various aspects of the growth of living things.
        • In the junior high school entrance examination, the questions will be presented in the following forms.
        1. Questioning the term of a number in the Fibonacci sequence
        2. Rabbit arithmetic-Questions about how to increase the number of self-propagating things such as rabbits, fictitious microorganisms and robot production robots
        3. Time when the communication network is transmitted
        4. Stairs Up-One step or one step up the stairs to ask for the total number of climbs in two steps. As a development problem, recently, a problem that three kinds of 1, 1, and 2 stages may be mixed has begun to appear. this isTribonacci sequenceuse.
      • Pascal's triangle
    • Plane shape
      • Properties of special angles
      • Shape wrapping
      • Triangularsimilar
      • Area ratio of triangle
        • Area ratio of isobaric triangle / isobaric triangle
        • Area ratio of isometric triangles and complementary triangles
      • Benz cut - Divide a triangle into 3 smaller triangles and find the ratio of their areas.As a result, it is originally outside the scope of elementary schoolMenelaus's theorem,Cheba's theoremYou can find the line segment ratio and area ratio without using .
      • Fixed point problem
      • Moving shapes
        • Center line official
          • Pappus-Gourdin theoremIt is a two-dimensional version of.
          • The line segmentSmoothIf the passage areas do not overlap, the passage area is equal to the product of the length (“center line”) drawn by the midpoint and the diameter.
          • It also holds in space. (Application example:Truncated coneSide area[16]
          • For proof, of the university courseExtremeis necessary[17].
          • If the length drawn by the center of the rolling circle is known, then the passing area of ​​the circle can be easily obtained.
          • Even if the movement is not smooth, if it is piecewise smooth, it can be applied to each piecewise.
    • Three-dimensionalFigure
      • Stack of blocks
      • Three-dimensional hollow
      • Three-dimensional cutting
      • Rotating body
      • length, area and volume of
      • water problem
        • The problem of water supply and drainage to the water tank
        • The problem of submerging a solid in a tank

    science

    scienceconsists of those that question knowledge, those that make us summarize and consider experiments, and those that make us seek answers through logic and calculation.Which fields are tested varies from school to school and from year to year.

    In addition to the set consisting of pattern problems, there is a set that searches for and guesses the answer from the guidance sentence, and a set that has a large weight of computational problems.Some schools have unique questions such as a set with relatively long sentences, a set that develops a story according to one theme, a question to consider what is distributed, and a question to ask one's opinion.

    Science-related current affairs are often asked.There are many cases where the topic of the junior high school course or higher is developed by the guidance sentence, and the range is wide.Therefore, not only learning terms, results, and solutions, but also being able to establish a causal path is the key to solving unknown problems.

    Even in science, there are cases where questions were asked from the contents of society (geography, etc.) and national languages ​​(literary works, etc.).

    社会

    社会 TheGeography-History-citizenWill be asked from.Current affairsThere are many questions ofYotsuya OtsukaAccording to the survey, 8% of junior high schools set questions on current affairs, and it can be said that the trend is increasing year by year.

    There are complex questions of geography and history.For example, from the question of geography, question the history set in that place, and then connect it to the current social structure.

    In addition, there is a problem that makes us guess the production area, crops, and partner country from the latest statistics.The number of descriptive and essay-type questions is increasing at higher and middle-ranking schools.

    In the problem of various maps, the straight line on the earth, that is,Great circleMore than math, such as questions aboutTopologyThere are times when a high degree of spatial understanding is required.

    English

    Once in private junior high schoolreturnee childrenAt the entrance examEnglishHowever, since 2014, some schools have adopted English as an examination subject even in general entrance examinations.[18]..The number of schools that have introduced English into their exam subjects has been 2014 since 15.[Note 3]There are 2018 schools in 112, 2019 schools in 125, and 2022 schools in 146, which are increasing rapidly.Especially often seen in girls' schools[19]..In the nationalTokyo Gakugei University International Secondary SchoolHas adopted.At public junior and senior high schoolsSaitama City Omiya International Secondary School(Opened in April 2019) has adopted.

    As of 2020, the form of English entrance exams is large

    • 2 subjects or 4 subjects exam +EikenPreferential treatment for points added by qualifications such as
    • Select 2 departments from Yasui Sanei
    • Select either 3 departments of Kokusai English or 4 departments of Kokusaisha
    • English only exam

    The English test content is roughly divided into two types: interview format and paper test.

    Interview-style practical test
    Students have conversations in English with native teachers and Japanese teachers in the English department.In recent years, it has been attracting attention as a new type of English entrance examination.
    English "listening" and "speaking" abilities are required.
    The time is about 10 to 15 minutes, and each school has its own characteristics such as individual interviews, group formats, and speech formats.
    Written test format test
    A so-called paper test style test.
    This is a written test in which you listen to an English conversation, select illustrations and phrases that apply to the questions that follow, and complete the conversation that follows while reading the English text of the question and answer session.
    English "listening," "reading," and "writing" abilities are required.

    Subject/Score

    Until the first half of the 90's, there were schools with two entrance exams in difficult schools, but in recent years, four entrance exams have become the mainstream.However, in Kansai, there are many forms in which the better one is adopted as a score in the entrance examination for 2 subjects excluding society, or the entrance examination for 4 subjects.

    In the 21st century,Afternoon entrance examinationSchools that carry out are beginning to appear. In the afternoon entrance examination, there are schools where you can choose between 4 and 2 subjects. Also, at the end of the 2010s, some schools started to take a 1-math entrance exam in the afternoon.

    As for the points of the 4 subjects, there are few schools where the 4 subjects are even, and there are many schools which do not have 100 points, and the points for each subject vary considerably depending on the school.

    Also, the followingElements other than academic abilityThere are also schools that take into account the judgment.Some schools in the country impose specialized courses (physical education, arts and crafts, music, etc.).

    Elements other than academic ability

    Practical exam

    • Physical education (eg mat, sprint, ball game)
    • Music (eg, write the notes played on the paper as notes on the distributed paper)
    • Drawing (Example: Make a shape from the distributed origami paper and draw it on the separately distributed paper)

    interview

    Depending on the school to be conducted, there are parent-child interviews, interviews by applicants/guardians, and individual interviews/group interviews only for applicants.

    Reason for application

    Describe why your child (or guardian) is willing to choose this school. Submit at the time of application or examination. I may confirm the contents at the time of the interview.

    lottery

    In the case of too many applicants at National Junior High School, a lottery will be held. There are cases where the implementation is called before the academic examination called the first screening, and there are cases where it is conducted after selection by the academic examination.

    Copies of reports and notices

    The report is a document prepared by the teacher in charge of the elementary school.Unofficial reportEquivalent to. Some styles are unique to junior high schools, and some are uniform in the area. Submit it to the school you want to keep it in a tightly sealed condition. In many cases, a copy of the notification table can be used instead. This is for checking the number of days absent and grades, and in areas where the examination rate is high, the work burden of the homeroom teacher has to finish in a short period of time. These two may not be needed.

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ In 1920, the number of applicants for middle school was 47,000, but in 1924 it increased to 73,000.
    2. ^ This is because, even in the entrance examinations for junior high school, so-called “examination” for entrance exams for kindergarten and elementary school, so-called “mama friend troubles” often occur between mothers who are enthusiastic about taking the exams.
    3. ^ 2015年33校、2016年64校、2017年95校、2020年141校、2021年143校となっている。

    Source

    1. ^ a b Outline of Integrated High School Education: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
    2. ^ a b c Masahiro Kogamino "Mystery of the Empire of Japan"Saizusha, August 2019, 8.ISBN 978-4-8013-0386-7. 
    3. ^ "Why Kaisei and Nada became prestigious schools". PRESIDENT Online (September 2015, 3). April 2020, 3Browse.
    4. ^ a b c d e f History of junior high school exams-high school ranking
    5. ^ "School Basic Survey / Reiwa XNUMXnd Year Junior High School Number of Schools by Prefecture”. E-Stat (general counter for official statistics). April 2021, 3Browse.
    6. ^ a b "Basic Survey of Schools XNUMX (preliminary report) Elementary and secondary educational institutions, specialized training colleges and miscellaneous schools School surveys and school correspondence education surveys Junior high schools | Files | Search for statistical data |". April 2022, 8Browse.
    7. ^ 3 Public School Statistical Survey Report [Survey on the Career Paths of Public School Graduates (2)] | Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education Homepage 3 Statistical Tables(Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education website)> Elementary school> From "Number of graduates by situation"
    8. ^ Shinsei News Edition “The 100 Best Japanese High Schools in Public High Schools”Aichi Prefectural Asahioka High SchoolHen" (Shinsei Communication, Asahi Shimbun)
    9. ^ Club's Future-Japan | Translator's Room-Kazuhiro Akase-
    10. ^ Not Popular Adults-Joji Abe OFFICIAL WEB-Anpontan Diary [The 248th] "Tara, If You" 2015.8.15
    11. ^ University of Tokyo Passers/High School Ranking
    12. ^ "Let's find a valuable school (lucky school) in 2001 Kansai boys' school + co-school"Obunsha, August 2000, 7.ISBN 4-01-008958-X. 
    13. ^ "What kind of junior and senior high school integrated school has? How to choose that?". Junior High School Examination Information Office "How to Use the Kashikoi Cram School". April 2020, 7Browse.
    14. ^ Naoki Ogi, 1999 & p50-51.
    15. ^ Arithmetic Essay-Math Too Early (April 2009, 4) Kei Shinto, Asahi Shimbun
    16. ^ [Elementary geometry] Finding the lateral area of ​​the cone | Mathematics for adults to relearn
    17. ^ How to choose a junior high school exam cram school (XNUMX) The official centerline is unreasonable | UBQ Mathematical Forum Blog
    18. ^ What is the expanding "English" entrance exam for private junior high schools? -Interview with Kazunari Kita, an expert in junior high school entrance exams- | [Official] "Disney English System" (DWE) | Retrieved February 2020, 9, April 11, 2021.
    19. ^ English entrance exams that can be taken by non-junior high school students and non-returnees | Interedu Retrieved February 2020, 12, April 3, 2021.

    References

    • Naoki Oki "How to View 'Class Collapse'" Japan Broadcasting Publishing Association, June 1999, 6.ISBN 4140018623. 

    Related item

    Public school

    Public school(Koritsugakko) is generallyPrimary Education,Secondary educationGive free education at the stageDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularRefers to. ManytaxOperated by.

    in Japan,Local governmentFounded byDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThat thing. In a broad senseNational schoolAlso include.

    Japanese public school

    Public schoolInstallerIs roughly divided intoPrefectures,市町村(CityToTokyo OfAreaIncludes), andcombination(Special local governmentThere is a union).Local independent administrative corporationIsPublic university corporationInstalled byUniversity(Less than"Public university. "Junior collegeIncluding) and itsAffiliated schoolIs also included in this.

    National school(Country,Ministry of education) Andprivate school(private,School corporation-Ltd.-Individual) Is a term used to distinguish it from. Of local public bodiesBoard of education,Education AgencyManages. For thisKindergarten,primary schoolからUniversityIs included. However,Public universityAbout management and execution ofLocal governmentChief (prefectural governor, mayor of municipality,Some office associationsThe board of education is not involved.

    Specific in public schoolsReligious, Religious education based on denominations should not be conducted,ChristmasIf it is an event, it is often acceptable.

    Kindergarten

    publicKindergartenIs basically managed and operated by the Municipal Board of Education. There are few kindergartens managed and operated by prefectural boards of education.

    • Public kindergarten teachers are hired (appointed) by the municipal board of education and the prefectural board of education that establish the public kindergarten.SalaryTo bear.

    Elementary school, junior high school, compulsory education school, high school, secondary school

    primary school-Junior high school-Compulsory education school-high school-Secondary schoolIs managed and operated by the board of education of each local public body.

    • Basically, elementary and junior high schools or compulsory education schools are managed and operated by the municipal board of education, and high schools are managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but some junior and senior high schools are prefectural. Municipalities are obliged to establish elementary and junior high schools or compulsory education schools.
    • High schools are basically managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but can also be set up and operated by the municipal board of education.
    • Work in the first half of a public elementary and junior high school / secondary schoolStaff(head teacher-Professor-Teacher・ Assistant teacher ・nursing teacher・ Assistant teacher ・School nutrition staff-office worker)ofAppointeeIs the prefectural board of education (the administrative staff may be general administrative staff) and bears the salary (→Prefectural expense staffHowever, for simple labor staff such as janitor and school lunch cook, the municipal board of education is the appointed person, and the municipality is the salary bearer. In addition, some municipalities have municipal staff in addition to prefectural government staff at elementary and junior high schools.
    • For some school staff, the principal is the appointed person.
    • The Municipal Board of Education is basically the person who has the right to appoint and bears the salary for the second half of the municipal secondary school and the high school faculty and staff, but it is a part-time course.TeacherThe prefectural board of education is the appointed person and the salary bearer.
    • For teachers of prefectural secondary schools and high schools, the prefectural board of education is the appointed person and the salary bearer.

    Public elementary and junior high schoolsEntrance examinationWithoutSchool ageFor those who have reachedResident cardA school attendance notice will be sent to the local public elementary and junior high school.AdmissionTo do. publicHigh school consistent schoolThen, tests such as writing, practical skills, and aptitude tests are required.

    Public high school is an entrance examUnofficial reportIs emphasized, and in some areasComprehensive selection-School group system(Group system)School district systemDue to such factors, it was not possible to go to the desired school, and the school area was restricted. By the examinee who disliked itthe 1970sAround this time, many public high schools in urban areas dropped the number of successful applicants at difficult universities.
    In recent years, abolition of school districts and emphasis on written examinations,Original entrance examinationReforms such as the introduction ofMetropolitan High SchoolThe reforms are highly evaluated, as the number of successful applicants at difficult universities has increased significantly, and other prefectures are also pursuing the reforms.

    On the other hand, the consolidation of public schools is occurring one after another due to the declining birthrate and depopulation, and the number of consolidations from 23 to 30 is at the same pace as the consolidation at the time of the Great Heisei Consolidation.[1].. For example, in Ibaraki prefecture, 1976 schools were closed from 2005 to 111.[2].. Utilization of the site of the consolidated school can be classified into "abandoned school building utilization type", "school resource utilization type", "new facility construction type", and "site utilization type". Can be classified into "operation" and "private ownership / private operation"[2].

    In the case of rural areas suffering from depopulation, the closure of public elementary and junior high schools means that it will be difficult for new child-rearing generations to settle in the area, which will be a factor in accelerating the further declining birthrate and aging population in the village.[2].. Therefore, from outside the prefecture of locationNationwide recruitmentThe number of high schools that carry out this is increasing.

    Special school

    Basically, publicSpecial schoolIs set up, managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but can also be set up, managed and operated by the municipal board of education. Prefectural governments are obliged to establish public special needs schools.

    • In both prefectural and municipal governments, the prefectural board of education appoints the faculty and staff of special needs schools and bears the salary. However, for simple labor staff working at municipal special needs schools, the municipality is the appointed person / salary bearer.

    Higher education

    Debate over public schools

    Academic gap

    Compared to private schools, public schools cannot improve their academic ability sufficiently, and there is a disparity between public and private schools.[3].. According to the 2007 National Achievement Survey

    Comparing the average correct answer rate (6th grade), Arithmetic A, which tests basic skills, is 82.1% public, while private is 10%, which is 92.1 points higher. Arithmetic B, which tests applied skills, was 63.6% public and 77.1% private, with a wide difference of 13.5 points. The national language has the same tendency. Many of the higher schools do not participate in private schools.[3]More quotation

    It is pointed out that the percentage of correct answers was higher for private school students.[3].. Aside from urban areas where private schools are located, there are also rural areas where private schools cannot be considered as an option in the first place, so there are opinions calling for "rebuilding" the educational capabilities of public schools.[3].

    On the other hand, of the pedagogueHidenori FujitaQuestioned these opinions and pointed out the influence of the tone of the media, which repeatedly criticized for criticism, and compulsory education in Japan was "very internationally in all aspects of institutions, functions, and practices. It is at a high standard. " Fujita also points out that the high level of public education in Japan is recognized in other countries, and that there are many points to be learned from public education in Japan. According to Fujita, what is highly evaluated by foreign countries especially in Japanese public education is the continuous self-improvement of educational technology through lesson study, the collaboration of teacher groups, the community and care function of public schools. Be done[4].

    Also known as the "Kageyama Method",Education reproduction meeting,Central Education CouncilServed as a member ofHideo KageyamaIs sometimes said to be the best in education in the world at the 17 Special Committee on Compulsory Education for Junior High School Tribunals.FinlandHowever, while there are many educational opportunities at home, it is difficult for Japan to have such a situation, and teachers make up for it. And in response to the opinion of the Ministry of Finance that "the national treasury burden for compulsory education is increasing," "I would like to say to this financial counsel that faculty and staff are doing work that is commensurate with their salary. "[5].

    To improve students' academic abilityCram schoolThere is an opinion that we have to rely on[6],RecruitmentFromCivilian principalKazuhiro FujiharaRegarding this problem, if students' academic ability is divided into five stages from 1 to 5, it is impossible to teach 1 and 5 (lowest and highest) students at school alone, and 1 student is traditionally For example, the local community has taken care of it, but it has become difficult due to changes in social conditions in recent years, and it is said that the teacher's true intention is that 5 students should go to a cram school. In addition, Fujiwara visited Finland's educational situation with Kageyama mentioned above, and said, "Finland has a large number of teachers."Wada Naka) But if there are 7 or 8 more teachers (education like Finland), we can do it. "[7].

    Regarding the curriculum, such as application of knowledge and ability to think for oneself,Yutori educationWas also one of the highlights ofComprehensive learning timeWas fueling anxiety about Yutori educationNihon LabSuch asCram schoolHowever, the situation is becoming chaotic, such as the start of providing services that allow students to learn "total study time."[3].. It has also been pointed out that the background to this is that entrance exams for private schools have become more demanding for the application of knowledge.[3].

    British public school

    British educationIn public schools (“State School” or “Comprehensive”, or “Grammar School” with selection exams (Grammar school) ”) Refers to a government-funded school that provides free education. This is private and paidIndependent School, Treated as a non-profit organizationPublic schoolIs contrasted with.

    Public school problems

    Unpaid tuition and school meals are also a problem in public schools.

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ "Current status and issues of consolidation of elementary, junior high and high schools". Ministry of education. April 2020, 6Browse.
    2. ^ a b c Naoko Saio "Study on Consolidation Process of Public Elementary and Junior High Schools and Utilization of Closed School Buildings-Understanding the Actual Conditions of All Closed School Cases for the Past 30 Years and Impact on Agricultural and Mountain Village Areas-" No. 73, Architectural Institute of Japan, 627, pp. 2008-1001, two:10.3130 / aija.73.1001.
    3. ^ a b c d e f "" Comprehensive learning "evolving cram school, ahead of the sluggishness of public education," Sankei Shimbun, February 2008, 2.
    4. ^ Hidenori Fujita "Re-questioning Compulsory Education" Chikuma Shobo, July 2005, 7.ISBN 9784480062437
    5. ^ Compulsory Education Special Subcommittee (20th) Minutes and Handouts
    6. ^ "[Ask about public education] Part 1 In the shadow of private popularity (2) Correcting the academic disparity that relies on cram schools”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2008, 1). April 2008, 7Browse.
    7. ^ "Promoting Educational Gap" or "Providing Fair Educational Opportunities" Wada Naka, Principal Kazuhiro Fujihara ""Argument』May 2008 issue, Asahi Shimbun Publishing.

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