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👩‍🎓 | KEC Kinki Preparatory School, 26th House of Councilors Election Contest for high school and high school graduates ...


KEC Kinki Preparatory School, 26th House of Councilors Elections, "Election Discount" for high school and high school graduates ...

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Originally, you should vote after recognizing social issues on a daily basis, but when teenagers who have never voted exercise their voting rights, they should look at and know the problems in society and know what their careers should be. KEC believes that thinking is also important to them.

KEC Kinki Preparatory School (KEC Co., Ltd. Headquarters: Hirakata City, Osaka Prefecture, President: Takeshi Kimura, hereafter K… → Continue reading


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Social issues

    Voting right

    Voting right(Election contest,English: Suffrage) IsPoliticsInSuffrageIs a type ofCountry,RegionAtelectionRefers to the qualification or status of participation in.This is in the electionvoteNot only the right to do (voting right)Electoral listWhen there is a significant imbalance in the right to register for elections, public notice of elections, or the number of MPsElectorAlso includes the right to seek legislative action to correct it.

    In a broad senseRight to voteMay be included.

    The essence of the right to vote

    NowadaysNational democratic rightFrom the principle ofSovereignCan participate in elections as part of exercising sovereigntyVoting rights theory(Senkyokenkenrisetsu) is influential, but in the old days, as a member of the electoral college (group of voters)Public affairsParticipate in elections as part ofVoting rights public servant theory(Senkyokenkoumusetsu) was also influential.

    In the former interpretation, all citizens are sovereign and each has equal rights.General electionHowever, in the latter interpretation, it is permissible to limit the granting of the right to vote only to those who are deemed suitable to perform public duties.Restricted electionsIt was also possible to derive the affirmation of[Note 1].

    Even a candidate for the election can vote for another candidate because he has the right to vote (with exceptions).Those who have the right to voteVotersAlso called.

    History of Japanese voting rights

    In Japan,1889ToImperial Japanese ConstitutionAnd was promulgated, and the right to vote was given to boys aged 15 and over who directly paid national tax of 25 yen or more.Second Yamagata Cabinettime(1900) Will be relaxed for boys aged 10 and over who pay national tax of 25 yen or more directly.Hara Cabinettime(1919) Was relieved again for boys aged 3 and over who pay a national tax of 25 yen or more directly.after that1925The second constitutional movement took place in Japan, and won the House of Representatives election with universal suffrage.Takaaki Kato CabinetGranted voting rights to all boys over the age of 25[1]..However,Second World WarUntil the end of the warFemale,BankruptFor those who are assisted by poverty (with the exception of assistance under the Military Relief Act), those who do not have a residence, those who have been sentenced to imprisonment or imprisonment for 6 years or more, Chinese heads, active military personnel, and military personnel. Was not given the right to vote[1].

    After the end of the war1946ToThe Constitution of JapanWas promulgated, and was newly enacted in response to this.Public office election lawIt was decided that men and women over 20 years old.Since then, the right to vote has been 20 years old or older for a long time. Changed to "Men and Women"18 years oldHas come to be recognized.

    Voting rights and age

    Current status of countries and regions around the world

    Of the 192 countries / regions with data on voting rights, 170 countries / regions have voting rights of 18 years or older.[2][3]

    Voting rights age in countries and regions around the world

    Age of voting rights in the world and regions[4][Note 2](As of 2020 year 7 month)

    (☆Some of the countries participating in the summit,TaiziIs an OECD member country)

    2007年6月にオーストリアが国政レベルの選挙権年齢を18歳から16歳に引き下げており、ドイツのように一部の州が地方選挙の選挙権年齢を先行的に16歳としている例もある。イギリスやドイツでは16歳への引き下げが議論されている。また韓国は選挙年齢を20歳から18歳に引き下げる段階的措置として、2005年6月に19歳に引き下げた[6].. in Japan2015In June, the revised Public Offices Election Law was enacted to recognize the right to vote at the age of 6.[7]2016Since it came into effect on June 6, if you include absentee voting and early voting24rd House of Councilors ordinary election(Public announcement date: June 6nd, polling date: July 22th) From the day after the announcement date, 7-year-old and 10-year-old voting rights can be exercised.[8](The polling date is June 6th notification date and July 26rd polling date.FukuokaUkiha CityThe long election was one week earlier than the upper house election, and it became the first 1-year-old and 18-year-old election right).

    Reasons for disqualification of voting rights

    Disqualification clause

    For those who do not have the right to vote exceptionally in Japan, Article 11, Paragraph 1, Article 252 of the Public Offices Election Act,Political Funds Control LawArticle 28,Electromagnetic record voting methodThere are provisions in Article 17.

    • imprisonmentThose who have been sentenced to the above sentence and have completed their execution
    • Persons who have been sentenced to imprisonment or higher and are no longer subject to their execution (excluding those who are on probation)
    • Public office[Note 12]Fucked while inBribery or Arrangement gain crimeThose who have not expired due to
    • Public office[Note 12]Those who have not passed 5 years since the expiration of the prison sentence for bribery or recruitment gains committed while in
    • Election contest crimes[Note 13]A person who has been sentenced to imprisonment or more and is on probation
    • Election contest crimes[Note 13]Those who have not passed 5 years since the end of the prison sentence
    • Crimes stipulated in the Political Funds Control Act[Note 14]Was sentenced to more than imprisonment, and the sentence is suspended.[Note 15]Person
    • Crimes stipulated in the Political Funds Control Act[Note 14]For a certain period from the expiration of the prison sentence[Note 16]Those who do not pass

    For mental illness

    In England, people with intellectual disabilities and insanity were once denied the right to vote under common law, but Article 2006 of the Election Administration Act 73 abolished these disqualifications.[9].

    In France, adult ward was once a disqualification clause, but the 2007 amendment to the law requires court judges to decide whether to maintain or suspend their right to vote when they receive or renew their guardianship.[9].

    In Canada, the election law once required "those whose freedom of action is restricted by mental illness or those who are prohibited from managing their own property" as a disqualification requirement, but the disqualification clause was deleted in 1993.[9].

    In Austria, the National Assembly Election Law of 1971 stipulated that those who were deprived of their ability to act do not have the right to vote, but those who were appointed as spokespersons due to the introduction of the spokesman system in 1984 were disqualified. Was[9]..However, it was deleted in 1987 because the Constitutional Court made the disqualification clause unconstitutional in 1988.[9].

    In Australia, the 1918 Commonwealth Elections Act stipulated that “a person with a mental illness” was a disqualification requirement, but after the 1983 amendment to the law, the 1989 amendment to the law objected to the addition of a doctor’s certificate. can now claim[9].

    Japan also2013Until (25)Adult wardWas also disqualified, but in March of the same yearTokyo District CourtでUnconstitutional rulingWas issued, the revised Public Offices Election Law was enacted in May of the same year, and the right to vote was restored from July 5, 2013.[10][11][12].

    For prisoners and parolees

    In the United States, all states except Maine and Vermont have banned voting for serious offenders in prison, but most states have regained their right to vote after release or during probation.A few states, including Florida, have mandated additional waiting times and measures for former serious offenders to regain their right to vote, pointing out that the poor and Africans are being targeted.[13].

    In the case of bankruptcy

    OncebankruptcyAnd its predecessor systemRansom,Dispersion of household goodsPersons in the process of the above shall not have the right to vote for members of the Diet under the following provisions.

    • 衆議院:衆議院議員選挙法(明治22年法律第3号)14条2号、同法(明治33年法律第73号による全部改正後)11条第2号、同法(大正14年法律第47号による全部改正後)6条2号。
    • 府県会:府県会規則(明治11年太政官布告第18号・明治13年太政官布告第15号)13条3款及び14条但書、府県制(明治32年法律第64号による全部改正後)6条[Note 17].
    • Hokkaido Association: Hokkaido Association Law (Meiji 34 Law No. 2) Article 5, the same law (after partial amendment by Taisho 2 Law No. 15) Article 76 Paragraph 3 proviso.
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly:Tokyo Metropolitan Government(Act No. 18 of 89) Article 6 Paragraph 1 proviso No. 2 and Article 13 proviso.
    • Tokyo Ward: Tokyo Metropolitan Government Article 6 Paragraph 1 proviso No. 2 and Article 145 proviso.
    • City Council:Municipal system(明治21年法律第1号)9条2項及び12条1項但書、同(明治44年法律第68号による全部改正後)11条2項及び14条1項但書、同(大正15年法律74号による一部改正後)9条1項但書2号及び14条1項但書。
    • Municipal Association:Municipal system(明治21年法律第1号)9条2項及び12条1項但書、同(明治44年法律第69号による全部改正後)9条2項但書及び12条1項但書、同(大正15年法律第75号による一部改正後)7条1項但書2号及び12条1項但書。

    However, all of these disqualification clauses were removed shortly after the war as follows:

    • House of Representatives: Deleted by the law (Act No. 22 of 43) that partially amends the House of Representatives election law.
    • Prefectural and Hokkaido Associations: (due to changes in the voting rights of the following municipal council members[Note 18])
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly and Tokyo Metropolitan Ward: Deleted by the law to partially revise the Tokyo system (Law No. 21 of 26).
    • City council: Deleted by the law to partially revise the city system (Law No. 21 of 28).
    • Municipal Association: Deleted by the Act to Partially Amend the Municipal System (Act No. 21 of 29)


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ JapanIn the constitutional scholarKiyomiya Shiro"Has both rights and public affairs"Monism(Senkyoken nigensetsu) also exists as a dynamic theory.
    2. ^ Bicameral countries are the age of the right to vote in the House of Representatives.With the voting age in each countryadultAges do not always match.
    3. ^ Since July 1971, the United States has been uniformly elected to 7 years old not only in the federal but also in state and local elections (due to the passage of Article 18 of the US Constitutional Amendment).During the Vietnam War, it was alleged that it was unreasonable for people between the ages of 26 and 18 to be drafted but not have the right to vote.
    4. ^ In the United Kingdom, the voting age was reduced to 1969 from April 4.Similarly, in July 18, the adult age was lowered to 1969 years old (due to the enactment of the Representation of the People Law and the Family Law Amendment Law, respectively).
    5. ^ Both the voting age and the adult age were reduced to 1975 in 18.The Senate's right to vote is 25 years old.
    6. ^ The voting age was reduced to 1970 in 18.
    7. ^ In 18, the voting age was reduced to 21 in the wake of the allegation that it is unfair to have a voting age of 1970 while the military service obligation is from 18 years old.
    8. ^ After June 2016.Until then, over 6 years old
    9. ^ Both the voting age and the adult age were reduced to 1974 in 18.
    10. ^ The age of voting rights, the age of majority and the age of marriage are 18 years old since before World War II.
    11. ^ After June 2005.Until then, over 8 years old
    12. ^ a b In the past, there have been cases where civil rights were accidentally suspended during a suspended sentence when a person who was not in public office was found guilty of a suspended sentence.For example, when a former non-civil rights Agricultural Commissioner, Shikamachi Town Construction Section Manager, Mizuho Post Office Insurance Section Manager, and former Deputy Director Sakata Construction Office of the Ministry of Construction were found guilty of suspended sentence, they were erroneously suspended. Civil rights have been suspended during the period.
    13. ^ a b Violation of reporting obligations related to viewing excerpts of the list of electors, violation of restrictions on election offices, rest areas, etc. Violation of display of use, violation of poster posting, refusal to remove documents and drawings, refusal to present flag of street speech, violation of prohibition of night street speech, refusal to return normal postcards for election campaign and violation of transfer prohibition Excludes violations of restrictions on greetings, violations of election campaigns of recommended organizations, violations of regulations on political activities of political parties and other political activities, and false testimony of electors.
    14. ^ a b False statements in political fund audit reports, violations of confidentiality obligations found in political fund audit operations, etc.
    15. ^ Depending on the circumstances, the court may not apply the suspension of voting rights or shorten the suspension period.
    16. ^ It is usually up to 5 years, but it can be shortened by the court depending on the circumstances.
    17. ^ Having the right to vote for members of the municipal assembly was a condition for having the right to vote for members of the prefectural assembly.
    18. ^ The Hokkaido Association Law was abolished by the law that partially amends the prefectural system (Act No. 21 of 27), and the Hokkaido Association is also stipulated in the prefectural system (renamed to the prefectural system).


    1. ^ a b Takashi Momose "Encyclopedia Japan in the pre-Showa War ... System and reality"Takashi ItoSupervision (First Edition),Yoshikawa Hirofumikan (Original work October 1990, 2), p. 10 pages.ISBN 9784642036191. 
    2. ^ Taro Nakayama "You are the one who will create the future of Japan! Constitutional revision theory from the age of 15 ”PHP Institute, October 2008, 10, pp. 17-57.ISBN 978-4-569-70409-8.. "The aggregated results are listed on page 63. The date of issue isThe book information page posted on the publisher's websiteaccording to". 
    3. ^ youthpolicy.org
    4. ^ Age of voting rights and age of majority in countries and regions around the world(Ministry of Justice website)
    5. ^ "Argentina lowers voting age to 16 years from 13-year election"CNN.co.jp], January 2012, 11.April 2016, 7Browse.
    6. ^ Rei Sato, Akiyo Otsuki, Tosato Ochimi, Noriko Sawamura (Japanese) (PDF) "Focusing on the process of reducing various legal ages, voting ages, and adult ages in major countries"National Diet LibraryResearch and Legislative Examination Bureau <Basic Information Series (2)>, December 2008.ISBN 978-4-87582-676-7.http://www.ndl.go.jp/jp/diet/publication/document/2008/200806.pdf.April 2017, 10Browse. 
    7. ^ "The revised Public Offices Election Act is enacted for the voting right age "18 years or older""47NEWS], January 2015, 6.April 2017, 10Browse.originalArchived as of October 2015, 6.
    8. ^ "18-year-old election right enforced = applied in the upper house election, 240 million people participate"Newsletter], January 2016, 6.April 2017, 10Browse.originalArchived as of October 2016, 6.
    9. ^ a b c d e f National Diet Library "Right to vote for persons with mental illness in other countries" (November 2011, 11)
    10. ^ "Restoration of the right to vote for adult guardians The revised Public Offices Election Law is enacted". Asahi Shimbun(July 2013, 5). https://web.archive.org/web/20130528055434/http://www.asahi.com/politics/update/0527/TKY201305270198.html April 2017, 10Browse. "There is a member-only area in a part of the article text"  *Currently remains in the Internet archive
    11. ^ “Right to vote for adult guardians from this summer's Upper House election”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2013, 5). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNZO55547850Y3A520C1CC1000/ April 2013, 5Browse. 
    12. ^ "Right to vote for 13 adult guardians, enactment of revised Public Offices Election Act". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2013, 5). https://archive.is/eYUTN April 2017, 10Browse.  * Currently remains in the web archive site "archive.is"
    13. ^ "Florida, USA passes state constitutional amendment to restore voting rights for former serious offenders”(May 2018, 11). April 2018, 11Browse.

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