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💼 | Hidaka Promotion Bureau staff can do side jobs outside of working hours ... Aiming to solve the shortage of workers The minimum wage is 889 yen and 30 hours a month


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Hidaka Promotion Bureau staff can do side jobs outside of working hours ... Aiming to solve the shortage of workers Hourly wage is 889 yen, which is the minimum wage, and 30 hours a month

 
If you write the contents roughly
The minimum wage is 889 yen and you can work up to 30 hours a month.
 

The aim is to solve the shortage of workers.The Nanairo Hidaka supporter system newly introduced by the Hidaka Promotion Bureau is not during working hours ... → Continue reading

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minimum wage

minimum wage(Saito Ichingin) isLabor market OfSafety netAs a minimum you must paywageset a lower limit forusersystem to force[1]..Minimum wageAlso abbreviated as (Sachin) (In Japan, it is not defined as a legal abbreviation,Listed companiesEtc.CorporationHeadlines in organizations and newspaper articles,UnionIt is used in etc.Labor Standards Inspection OfficeBut if you inquire about the minimum wage, it will be understood as the minimum wage).National minimumOne of the.

However,Real economy-ProductivityA sharp increase in the minimum wage that is not worth it is notlarge companyTo full-time employeesWorking hoursSuppression·DismissalEmployment reduction byInternet of thingsIt led to the introduction of mechanization such as the introduction of mechanization (English: Internet of Things, abbreviation: IoT), etc.Low-income workersLayers andself employedIt has the opposite effect on the person[2][3][4][5].

Overview

Basic labor rightBased on. In many countriesWorkerThe basic ofrightWidely applied as, but not necessarily allThe laborIt does not apply to peopleForeign workerMay be reduced or exempted for certain groups, such as those not covered.SingaporelikeCleaning industrySecurity business,LandscapingExcept forMinimum wage systemDoes not exist,wageof the workforceSupply and demandSome nations are determined by the balance of[6].

JapanThen,Minimum wage lawIn Article 1, "This law iswageInexpensiveWorkerabout,wageThe minimum amount ofProtectionBy doingThe labor条件To improve the life of workersStable,Labor forceQuality improvement and businessFairnessIcompetitionTo secure theNational economyThe sound ofdevelopmentThe purpose is to contribute to. ]” [7]I sing.Developing country,French speakingCountries tend to have widespread minimum wages[8]. 


2020 OECD Minimum Wage,
US dollar Purchasing power parity[9]
CountryDollar / hour
Luxembourg
12.43
Australia
12.41
France
12.14
Germany
11.79
New Zealand
11.57
Netherlands
11.24
Belgium
10.97
United Kingdom
10.94
Spain
10.63
Canada
10.46
Ireland
10.13
South Korea
8.74
スロベニア
8.53
Japan
7.89
Poland
7.74
America
7.25
Israel
6.93
Turkey
6.74
リトアニア
6.70
Portugal
6.54
Czech Republic
5.95
Greece
5.77
エストニア
5.68
Hungary
5.58
ラトビア
4.41

History

[10]

The reason why it was introduced for the first time in the world is1890ToNew ZealandPort that happened inLabor disputeIs. The 56-day dispute has had a tremendous impact on New Zealand society. However, at that time,lawSince it could not be solved with the system of,1894ToForced arbitration lawWas enacted[11].

In addition, 1907 OfAustraliaThere was a ruling on the minimum wage arrangement by Judge Higgins of the Federal Mediation and Arbitration Court, which was later called the basic wage.[12].

This trialVictoriaManufactured by Hugh Victor McKay, his companyAgricultural machineryTo1906This is a request for an exemption from the Goods Customs Law.Because unless you admit that you are paying "fair and reasonable" wages, the manufacturerExcise taxThis is because it was stipulated that tariffs must be paid in the form of.At that time, the judge in charge decided to dismiss the claim, focusing on the protection of workers rather than the profitability of the company.laterFederal Supreme CourtからUnconstitutionHowever, his principles were accepted as a strong argument for the minimum "living wage" living wage.[13].

Before this ruling, the idea of ​​living wages existed.1776Published inAdam Smithof"Wealth theory』States that at least enough wages are needed to support the family, and without rising wages, the country's economy will not develop, and there are thoughts to support living wages (Source: AdamSmith , Wealth of Nations, I .viii.36[14]). But thattheoryThe maturity of the system is20st centuryFrom the end21st centuryIt is done in the early days[15].

1894 years,United Kingdom"A Living Wage" in the economic magazine (Vol.4, No.14)[16]The paper was published under the name of, and at the beginning the living wage was "workers keep their working efficiency at the highest level,Citizenship OfobligationNeeded to fulfillLeisure timeEnough years to providewageTotal amount[*1].. Clearly defined as[15].

Then the BritishMinister of FinancewasPhilip SnowdenIs the living wagelegislationI was trying to make it.And of the American living wage movementPioneerIsAugustine RyanHe published the book A Living Wage: Its Ethical and Economic Aspects in 1906,EconomicsHe advocated the legitimacy of living wages from the perspective of. In his book, Ryan argued that wealthless adult men have the right to seek "just price" from their employers as income to fully support their families.[15].

And in terms of minimum wages,1909The Industrial Commission Act was enacted in the United Kingdom,1911A wage committee was set up as an institution to forcibly determine wages for workers working in low-wage industries.[17].

The following year, it was first enacted in a state in the United States. That stateMassachusettsWas enacted for the purpose of protecting the labor of women and young people.[18].. Furthermore,1915For the first time in FranceDomestic laborA minimum wage system has been established for people[19].

19286/16IsILOAdopted ILO Convention No. 26 by[20][21].

For Japan,1947Established in (Showa 22)Labor Standards ActAtAdministrationGovernment officeThere was a provision that the minimum wage can be set by hearing the opinion of the Minimum Wage Council. afterwards,1959In (34),Minimum wage law(Law No. 34, April 4, 15) introduced the minimum wage system.[22].

19706/22IsDeveloping countryWithILO ConventionNo. 131 was adopted.At the same time, No. 135 was adopted.[23][24].

Decision method

The ILO Convention on the Minimum Wage System (No. 26) also applies the minimum wage rate and guarantees income for low-wage workers.Labor and managementThe content of the discussion is based on the participation of both parties, and it is almost common in the countries that have ratified this treaty.[25].

However, even if the purpose is the same, the method of revising and determining the minimum wage differs from country to country.It is generally divided into four, and most countries operate by the above three methods.However, even in the same country, the decision-making methods may differ depending on the type of industry or region.The following isYuu Ohashi"Special feature: Minimum wage Japan's minimum wage system based on the actual situation and discussions in Europe and the United States[22]Is reprinted.

  • Council method
The minimum wage is decided by the council consisting of the same number of members representing the labor side and the employer side and the neutral member, but the council, which is formally and practically called the wage committee, has the decision right. Of the person who has the decision-making power but formally the decision-making power.ConsultationIt may function as an institution.
Currently, as a country that adopts the former method,BelgiumI wanted to set up a wage council in a certain industryUnited Kingdom (1993Abolished).
On the other hand, the present EnglandFrance,Germany,SpainMany asEUCountries, andJapanThen, the latter council method is adopted.again,Labor and managementIf the minimum wage is decided by a council consisting only of representatives, it is just likeCollective bargainingBelgium is classified as a country with a minimum wage as a result of collective bargaining.
Elsewhere in the UKThatcherUnder the administrationDeregulationThe policy was promoted, and as a part of it, the Wage Council Law was abolished. But then1998The Minimum Wage Act established a low wage committeeRecommendThe government determines the minimum wage based on. And in Germany, the decision method used to be the collective agreement method only, but since 2016, like France and Spain, the council method and the collective agreement method have become parallel.
  • Legal system
Since the minimum wage is determined by law, the revision must be done in the same way as general law revisions. As an example,AmericaThe federal minimum wage ofSenateHouse of RepresentativesIt was decided after the legislative process of parliamentary deliberation inFair Labor Standards Act(1938The enactment) directly regulates the amount.
In addition, each state in the United States has a state minimum wage system based on state law, but it varies from state to state, and there are council methods centered on statutory methods and combinations of both. Depending on the state, there are also minimum wages by industry and occupation.2009Since then, there has been no revision of the federal minimum wage,物 価Many states set a minimum wage level above it to avoid a substantial reduction in the minimum wage and to be influenced by the Fight for $15 (fight to raise to $15 minimum wage) movement.
However, in some states, the minimum wage is the same or lower than that of the federal state. This applies in most states to all workers in a state, whereas in the case of the federal minimum wage, interstate commerce (between states or between one state and a region outside its territory). oftransaction,輸送,communicationIt is because the range is decided such as being engaged in work related to () etc. or being employed by a company of a certain size or more.
  • Collective agreement
Under this method, the minimum amount of wages under a collective agreement concluded in collective bargaining between a labor union and an employer shall be based on the Extended Applicable Law, and the labor outside the parties other than the parties to the agreement (union members). It is forcibly applied to other people. However, the underlying collective agreement must apply to a significant portion of the workers of a particular industry or occupation within a given region, ie above a certain percentage of the law.
As a country that adopts this methodGermany,Italy,Austria,Denmark,Sweden,Norwayand so on.
こうした各部門別の協約賃金の拡張適用の結果、経済全体で協約最低賃金によってカバーされる雇用者割合は、ドイツが56.0%(2016)、イタリアが80.0%(2016)、オーストリアが98.0%(2017)、デンマークが82.0%(2016)、ノルウェーが72.5%(2014)となっている[26].
NetherlandsIs said to be decided by the government by using the wages concluded in collective bargaining, but it can be classified as a collective bargaining agreement.In France, the collective bargaining agreement system exists in a specific industry and coexists with the "Minimum Wage for All Occupations for Development" (SMIC), which is applied uniformly to workers in all industries nationwide by the council system. If the minimum wage for a specific industry is determined above the SMIC, the minimum wage will be determined by applying the extension.This is basically the same in Spain.
In Japan, the extended application of collective agreements has been legalized,HiroshimaShiga OfPainting製造It was carried out in business relations, but it is said that it does not match the labor relations in Japan2007The amendment of the Minimum Wage Law of Japan will abolish regional minimum wages based on collective agreements.
  • Labor court method
It is used in Australia and New Zealand,Labor court,Labor CommitteeAn organization that coordinates labor-management relations, such as, deliberates while listening to the opinions of labor and management, and decides or decides the minimum wage.

Reduction / Exemption

The minimum wage may be reduced or exempted in the following situations:[8].

  1. Labor productivityWhere the wages are low and it is difficult to pay the minimum wage in situations where there is no danger of being out of scope
    • Example: young people, students,handicapped, Apprentice
  2. In the first place, people with high incomes and generous blessings who do not need minimum wage protection (White collar execution)
  3. Due to special employment relationships, it is justified not to apply the minimum wage
    • For example: managers, professionals, domestic helpers,チップThose who have received
  4. Employees in the public sector
    • Example: General government officials in Japan and France

Other than that, if the number of establishments is less than 10, (バングラデシュ,スーダン,MyanmarSuch),Agriculture:Is excluded (Canada,PakistanEtc.) in some countries.

Reductions and exemptions are common in countries that reduce[8].. Also, in the past, reductions were generally made to women.[8].

Application to young people

Although the majority of countries do not apply the reduction to young people,[8]In some countries, a reduction system is being applied because labor demand is created by reducing the burden on companies.

When applying, the amount to be reduced and the age limit for exempting the minimum wage vary from country to country. In general, "we apply a rate between 18% and 17% less to workers under 5 or 15"[8]More quotation(In the text below, the reduction rate for young people is the minimum wage for adults).

  • Netherlands
    Minimum wages apply for 21 years and older. Minimum wages are reduced for those under 21 years of age. The reduction rate is shown in the table below. The minimum wage was once 23 years old and older, but since January 2018 it has been 1 years and older. Being 22 years old or older after July 2019. In addition, due to the change, the reduction rate was changed.[27].
Minimum wage reduction rate by age in the Netherlands (%)
age201918171615
Reduction rate (%)20.040.050.060.565.570.0

The following are examples of ways to set the minimum wage for young people, taking the Netherlands as an example.

  • Productivity: The idea that the productivity of workers under the age of 21 can set a lower minimum wage than general.
  • Necessity: Young people usually have to live with their families, so they are less likely to work and earn wages. Therefore, it is not necessary to guarantee a general minimum wage for income security.
  • Attending schoolRelationship with: Young people are supposed to attend school, and if the minimum wage is the same as that of the general public,SchoolworkNegative effects such as neglecting.

In the Netherlands2004Age by law enacted in MayDiscriminationThe minimum wage for young people is maintained as an exception. In addition, the Working Hours Act (for labor aged 13 and 14Working Hours Act -ATW) allows minor jobs that are not industrial jobs on days without school. However, the minimum wage is not applicable based on the belief that the age should be devoted to studying.

In addition, in some industries, the minimum wage for young people does not apply, or the reduction rate decreasesDismissalThe central labor organization (FNV) Calls for the abolition of the minimum wage for youth and the application of the general minimum wage from the age of 18. In response to this demand, the minimum age for general minimum wages has been reduced from 23 years old to over 21 years old. Also, Belgium, which is a neighboring country of the Netherlands,LuxembourgDutch reduction rate is large compared to general minimum wage reduction for young people[28].

Relationship with employment

Minimum wage lawemploymentThe good and bad influences on are controversial[29][30]..Regarding the interpretation of accumulated research on minimum wages, some have no evidence that the impact of minimum wages on employment is negative, while on research on minimum wages.consensusSome conclude that there is no[31].

Theoretical consideration

originally,economistWe are traditionalPerfect competitionStrictly criticized the Minimum Wage Act based on a model[32].. In generalEconomicsThen, since the employment amount and wage are determined at the point where the demand amount (employment amount) of labor and the supply amount (equal wages) match,unemploymentIs said to not exist[33].. From the viewpoint of social security, the minimum wage law sets the minimum wage higher than the equilibrium wage if it is lower than the equilibrium wage.[33].. Therefore, it is said that people with labor productivity below the minimum wage will be deprived of employment opportunities and will be unemployed.[33].. It is said that the minimum wage that should correct the income gap creates the possibility of widening the gap.[33].

Micro economyOne of the representative theories is the proposition that the existence of the minimum wage rather lowers the welfare of low-wage workers.[34]..Corporate laborcostThe minimum wage system, which raises the number of workers and reduces labor demand, is effective as a means of guaranteeing the minimum living of workers.toolThe two basic propositions are that it should not directly intervene in the supply and demand of the labor market, and that livelihood security for low-wage workers should be provided by ex post facto income transfer from the government.the 1990sSince then, it has continued to be a consensus among mainstream economists.[34].

However2013Current,Labor marketOf economists themselves point out the inadequacies of considering[32].. First, rising wages work hard for workersIncentiveAs a result, productivity is improved and job changes are suppressed. Employers, therefore, tend to pay wages above the equilibrium level in anticipation of these effects.[*2].Joseph E. StiglitzSaid the wage increase under the Minimum Wage Act may be offset by the resulting increase in wages, so the Minimum Wage Act may not be as bad as expected.[35].

There is also an opinion that the Minimum Wage Law has a positive effect on employment in the long run. The minimum wage law may destroy industries that were made up of low-wage workers in the short term, but as a result it can increase investment in workers and increase productivity in the long run. Because there is a nature. For exampleStanford University OfEconomic historyAccording to my house, the minimum wage law isCivil WarからGreat DepressionAnd played a decisive role in eliminating low wages in the southern United States until that time and played a dynamic role in shifting the labor market in the southern United States to higher-wage industries.[35].

Another point is that the labor market is not completely competitive.Demand monopoly[*3]There is a possibility that it is.This model allows businesses to take advantage of their monopoly position to unreasonably reduce employment and reduce wages.The minimum wage law says it will help improve this situation.Furthermore, although in the short term, employment will increase as long as the increase in the minimum wage does not exceed his W'm in the figure on the right.However, in the long run, labor costs will increase and profits will decrease due to the increase, so it is possible that some companies will go bankrupt due to the decrease, in which case there will be downward pressure on employment. Need to be careful[29].

In addition, the high standard minimum wage isWorking PoorThere is an advantage of eliminating the problem of. High minimum wages are said to ensure that the income earned from labor is higher than the amount earned from welfare when unemployed, resulting in incentives for unemployed people to seek employment.[35].

University of California IrvineWith Professor Newmark ofFRBWashers are looking into the impact of minimum wages on employment,

  1. The effects of wage increases often appear in the long term, not in the short term
  2. Analyzing the employment of low-wage workers as a whole, not just the impact of specific industries
  3. Increasing the minimum wage could cause employment substitution among low-wage workers

Is going to need to be careful[36].

Regarding specific minimum wages (minimum wages by industry), theoretically there is theoretical support that the welfare of workers will increase when applied to labor-intensive industries. Is applied to industries and industries with high[Who?].. In addition, the specified minimum wage also has the effect of being a barrier to new entry into the industry, and therefore has the meaning of profit for the industry.[Source required].

Demonstration

Empirically, there is no case where the minimum wage has increased significantly enough to have the effect of reducing the minimum wage employment. Not done[35].

1994In December"American economic reviewWas published inDavid cardAlan KrugerThe paper isNew JerseyPennsylvaniaA survey of 410 fast-food restaurants in the east on the impact of employment due to the increase in the minimum wage did not show a decrease.[37][38].

In addition, British Minimum Wage CommissionCommissioned fromLand Institute``The impact of the National Minimum Wage on employment A meta-analysis,'' published in 2017 by the United States, said that employment by raising the minimum wage in the UK since 1999 Of 1451 studies that analyzed the impact onMeta-analysisAs a result, it was found that although part-time workers were adversely affected, they did not adversely affect overall employment. This is because raising the minimum wage reduces non-regular employment and increases regular employment. Furthermore, by raising the minimum wageWage gapThe benefits of reducing wages and improving the standard of living of low-wage workers[39][40].

2019According to a paper published in the "American Economic Review" in August,HungaryWhen the minimum wage was raised significantly in 2001 and 2002 (2000: 2)Hungarian forint→ 2002: 5 Hungarian Forint), exposed to international competitionTrade goodsEmployment in industries (many of which are large companies) has declined, and in the non-tradable goods industry, which is not the case, prices have been passed on to consumers (2% price increase).Of the 29 minimum wage workers, about 3 (0.076% of total employment) lost their jobs and the remaining 26 benefited from a 60% increase in wages.Ultimately, of the increase due to the increase in the minimum wage, 77% was borne by the seller who purchased the product with the increased price, and the remaining 23% was borne by the employer in the form of a decrease in profit.[41][42].

Bill ClintonWhen the minimum wage was raised in 1996, the unemployment rate did not rise, and the salaries of low-income earners increased.[43].

AustraliaThen,Toyota,Ford,HoldenWithdrawals such asAutomobileThe production base ofManufacturing industryThere is an opinion that employment is decreasing due to tapering as a whole, but the cause is that economic growth has raised the minimum wage and lost international competitiveness.[44][45].

United KingdomThen,1999Has reintroduced the national minimum wage and has had a positive impact on the economy and society for raising the minimum wage[46].

Because not only the national minimum wage,Tax credit,Job trainingThis is because the measures for low-income earners have been taken by using other policies such as[46].

その結果、最低賃金が1999年から2019年までの20年間の間に約2.3倍(1999年:3.60ポンド[22歳以上]→2019年:8.21ポンド[25歳以上])もの引き上げが行われたにもかかわらず、その間の失業率は、2008年のLehman shockAnd then became more seriousEuropean debt crisisExcept for, it is decreasing.In addition, the average economic growth rate (nominal) from 1999 to 2018 has maintained a high level of 0.9%, which is higher than Japan's 1.9%.[46].

On the contrary, in the case of negative impact,South KoreaCan be mentioned[46].

Because,Mun JaneWith the "income-led growth" policy set by the administrationIncome distributionAs a result of implementing a policy that is biased toward, it forced a heavy burden on the company and did not give the company room for management improvement.2018This is because it ignored the economic situation and raised the minimum wage by 17%, which is the largest increase in the past 17 years.as a result,Unemployment rateIn January 2018, it had the opposite effect of curbing investment and job vacancies and reducing the income of low-income earners. The unemployment rate in January 1 isLehman shockIt deteriorated to 2010%, which is close to 1% in January 4.7 recorded in[46]..In addition, unmanned mechanization, dismissal, and curtailment of working hours have spread.

In addition, David AtkinsonAccording to the report, raising the minimum wage by 12% or more is a dangerous level.As mentioned above, the negative effects of the 2018 minimum wage increase in South Korea have been pointed out.[47]. But,20208/6In the Toyo Keizai ONLINE article, he denies the failure to raise the minimum wage in South Korea and argues that the impact of the increase is not so great.At the same time, he denies that Japan is not insisting on a sharp increase like South Korea.[48].

other,OECDAt the time of the report released in June 2018 after the sharp increase was made,Mun JaneThe government's increase in minimum wage is unprecedented in member countries, warning President Mun to "assess the economic impact of the year" before raising the minimum wage.[3].

In 2021Bank of KoreaIn a report on the sharp increase in the minimum wage, "The employment impact concentrated on self-employed people with employeesCurrency crisisIt looks almost the same as it was at that time, "and states that the damage to employment is about the same level as the situation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the latter half of the 1990s.[5]..However, in the end, in South Korea, the cumulative increase rate of the minimum wage in the five years under the Mun Jane administration41.5%From Japan (13%) during the same period3 times or moreWas pulled up at the speed of.South Korea's minimum wage increase rate for the same periodG7More maximumx7.4Was also a high rate of increase.Statistics also show the adverse effects of excessive minimum wage increases that do not match the rate of economic growth, and there are concerns about the effects of a vicious circle that stimulates price increases.[4].

Korea Statistical OfficeAccording to the report, the increase in the minimum wage is low, with the number of self-employed people with employees in 2021 decreasing by 2018 compared to 34, and conversely the number of "one-person presidents" who do not hire anyone increases by 4000. It leads to a decrease in employment of the income group[4]。 韓国経営者総協会によると、2021年最低賃金を受け取れてない労働者割合が全体賃金労働者の内、日本2%、英国1.4%、米国1.2%である。それに対して、同年韓国国内で最低賃金を受け取れてない労働者が321万5000人で全体賃金労働者の15.3%であり、2001年4.3%から11%急騰している[4]..The president of the National Cafe President's Cooperative said, "If you combine the weekly leave allowance and the four major insurance contributions, the actual minimum wage is 4 won." "If the minimum wage is unbearably high, people and society without special skills That could reduce the number of jobs for the vulnerable. "[4]..As a result, there were a number of small businesses and small and medium-sized enterprises that could not afford to pay.The policy promoted to save low-income workers has caused the problem of unpaid wages, and the number of unpaid wages is 2.5 times that of Japan, which is about 14 times the population.[2]

Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry OfMasayuki MorikawaAccording to the report, unlike Japan, which is uniform throughout the country, in Japan, where minimum wages are set for each prefecture, it has not been confirmed that raising the minimum wage has the effect of increasing productivity or reducing the ratio of non-regular employment. Was[49].

Alternative proposal

Some economists have proposed a system to replace the minimum wage. Fumio Otake points out that “poverty problems should be addressed by income redistribution policies that use tax and social security, rather than the distortion of unemployment through the hard-line means of wage regulation.”[50].

In addition, Daiji KawaguchiAccording toTax credit with benefitsIsLabor income tax creditProposing (Earned Income Tax Credit),WelfareCompared toEmploymentIt is said that there is an advantage in promoting the employment rate of low-wage workers. On the other hand, if the system design is not carefully done, there is a risk that companies will not be able to raise wages, which in turn will reduce the wages of workers. Point out that there is a drawback that disappears[51].

Author of "Law, Legislation and Freedom"Friedrich HayekSuch as the principle of non-intervention in the labor marketRule of lawIn order to achieve both protection of individual survival rights byBasic incomeSome economists advocate[52].

Status of each country

The following are the legal minimum wages in each country and their trends. Note thatDeflationSuch,物 価Fluctuations have not been adjusted.

  • Luxembourg flag Luxembourg -Month 2,313.38Euro*Age 18 or older (Some workers, such as skilled workers aged 18 and over, will be charged 20% to €2,776.05) [As of January 2022][53]
  • Irish flag Ireland - 時給10.50ユーロ(2022年1月現在) ※20歳以上(2018年雇用雑則法より簡素化され、勤続年数や研修中か関係なく年齢のみとなった。20歳未満は減額適用され、19歳は最低賃金額の90%、18歳は80%、18歳未満は70%となっている。)[54]
  • Dutch flag  Netherlands -1,756.20 euros per month (as of July 2022) *7 years and over (excluding apprentice)[27]
  • Belgian flag Belgium --Monthly 1,786.16 euros (as of May 2022) * 5 years old and over.However, trainees under the age of 18 who do not benefit from alternate vocational training and who have no work experience and are between the ages of 18 and 18 are eligible for the youth reduction.In addition, there is an additional system based on the number of months of service, and workers aged 20 and over for less than 12 months of service, workers aged 19 and over for 12 months and less than 24 months of service, and workers aged 20 and over for 24 months and more of service. Is added. Workers over the age of 22 pay € 19 a month for 6 months of service and € 1,833.55 for 22 months of service for those aged 12 and over. € 1,854.61 / month for 22 months and € 24 / month for 1,871.98 months of service over 36 years old[55][56]However, public sector employers, apprentice workers, and trainees are excluded.
  • French flag France --Monthly 1,678.95 euros, hourly wage 11.06 euros (as of January 2022)[57][58][59]
  • German flag Germany -10.45 euros (July 2022-September 7)[60], 12.0 euros (from October 2022)[61][62]
  • Spanish flag Spain 1,000 euros a month, 1 euros a year (4,000 months including 2 months of bonus) (September 14 to December 2022)[63]
  • Czech flag Czech Republic -Monthly 1Koruna(Simple tasks whose scope is strictly defined by instructions [Example:Cleaner,, simple instruments, etc.].The minimum wage differs depending on the work content, and it is divided into seven categories other than simple work, and the minimum monthly wage is 7 to 1 CZK. ) (As of January 7,900)[64][65]
  • Turkish flag Turkey-Monthly salary 5,500.35Lira(Social insurance premium-income taxDeductionLater take-back amount) [July 2022-December 7][66][67]
  • Australian flag Australia -Weekly 812.60, hourly wage 21.38Australian dollar(October 2022-March 7)[68][69]
  • New Zealand flag New Zealand -Hourly wage 21.20NZ dollar(From April 2022) * 4 years old and over.However, during the training period, $ 16 (from April 16.96)[70].
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaIn the case of, the minimum wage varies depending on the area. (Highest: Shanghai [2,590 yuan monthly]-Lowest:Anhui ProvinceClass 4 [1,340 yuan per month])[71](As of 2022 year 4 month)
  • Hong Kong flag Hong Kong-Hourly wage 37.5Hong Kong dollar(May 2019-April 5) [79][80][81][82]In addition, Foreign housekeeperIn the case of, the monthly salary is HK$4,630 (However, in addition to the minimum monthly salary, HK$1,121 is also obligated to be paid for food expenses.) (As of September 2019, 9)[83][84]
  • Republic of China flag Republic of China -Hourly wage 168New Taiwan dollar, NT$25,250 a month (since January 2022, 1)[85][86]
  • Mongolia flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu -42 a monthTugurk(As of May 2020, 1)[87]
  • Republic of Korea flag South Korea --Hourly wage 9,160 won (as of January 2022)[88][89][90][91], Hourly wage 2023 won from January 1[92]
  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea flag DPR Korea - US Department of State2019 Country Human Rights Report[93]According to him, there is no minimum wage system. However,Gaeseong Industrial AreaWas set in.
    • Kaesong Industrial Area (Employee of North Korea)-Mon 73.87Dollar(As of 2015 month of 8)[94]2016 North Korea missile launch experimentNote that it has not been shut down by. (Currently, operations are resumed by North Korea without prior consultation with South Korea.)
  • Indian flag IndiaIn this case, a complicated minimum wage system is used, and as of the end of 2014, the central government set minimum wages for 45 job types and the state government set a total of 1,822 job types, and revised them from time to time.[95]..However, it was enacted in August 2019 by integrating and reorganizing the four laws of the 8 Minimum Wage Law, the 1948 Wage Payment Law, the 1936 Bonus Payment Law, and the 1965 Equal Compensation Law.2019 Wage Code[96]It is stipulated that all industries, including those that have not been set by the central government and the state government, must not fall below the minimum wage standard (floor wage) set by the central government, April 2021. Will be enforced on the day[97][98].
    • National Floor Level Minimum Wage-Daily 178Rupee(As of 2019 year 7 month)[99]
    • Central Government (Unskilled Agricultural Workers)-Area A: Rs 423/day B Area: Rs 385/day C Area: Rs 382/day (October 2022-March 4)[100]
    • Delhi(Unskilled workers)-Monthly income 16,506.00 rupees (daily sum 635 rupees) (as of December 2022)[100]
    • Uttar Pradesh(Unskilled workers)-Monthly income of Rs 9,530 (April 2022-September 4)[100]
    • Maharashtra (Unskilled workers working at hotels and restaurants)-District I: monthly income 11,764 rupees, Region II: monthly income 11,464 rupees, Region III: monthly income 11,264 rupees (as of May 2021)[100]
    • Bihar(Unskilled Agricultural Worker)-Rs 279/day (however,ト ラ ク タ ーExcept when harvesting work such as. ) (April 2020 to September 10)[100]
    • Chattiesgarh(Unskilled workers) --A district: 386.92 rupees per day B district: 376.92 rupees per day District C: 366.92 rupees per day (However, agriculture is 257.00 rupees per day regardless of the district) (October 2022-4 March)[100]
    • Nagaland (Unskilled worker)-Rs. 176 per day (However, loading and unloading work is done by weight, and loading trucks depends on the size of timber.) (As of June 2019)[100]
    • Haryana (Unskilled worker)-Daily 388.82 rupees (as of January 2022)[100]
  • Bangkok -Month 9,930Baht(As of 2020 year 1 month)[101]
  • Ho Chi Minh -Month 4,680,000Don, Hourly wage 22,500 dong (as of July 2022)[102][Until June 2022, salaries for vocationally trained workers are at least 6% higher than this minimum wage.[103].. After July 2022, there is no additional provision, but it cannot be reduced without the consent of the workers.[104]. ]
  • Manila --Daily salary 570Peso(Non-agricultural sector, as of June 2022, 6)[105][106]
  • Jakarta --Monthly 445 Rupiah(From January 2022)[107]
  • Myanmar flag Myanmar -Month 144,000チ ャ ッ ト(As of January 2018)[108][109]
  • Malaysia flag Malaysia --As of May 2022.The minimum wage is the basic salary only and does not include other allowances[110][111].
    • Professional Activity in Malaysia Standard Occupational Classification (MASCO)[112][113]Employees working in professions classified as, Employees working in companies with 5 or more employees in professions not classified as Professional Activities ―― 1,500 per monthRinggit
    • Employees working in a company with less than 5 employees in a profession that is not classified as a Professional Activity (special city)[114]And general city[115])-Monthly 1,200 ringgit (until December 2022, January 12 to monthly 2023 ringgit)
    • Employees working in companies with less than 5 employees in occupations not classified as Professional Activities (other than special cities and general cities)-1,100 ringgit per month (until December 2022, from January 12 to 2023 ringgit per month) )
  • Cambodia flag Cambodia --$ 194 per month ($ 2 during the 192-month trial period) [as of January 2022]Sewing-shoemakingOnly workers engaged in the business[116]..You will also continue to receive a $ 10 perfect attendance allowance, a $ 7 residence and commuting allowance, and other benefits in addition to the minimum wage.[117].. Since 2021Volume-based salary systemIssued by the Ministry of Labor and Vocational TrainingMinisterial OrdinanceIt is clearly stated that the payment amount will not be less than the minimum wage, but not so much.[118].

Disparities between countries

EUHowever, it has been pointed out that there is a minimum level of disparity between member countries.

EU member states

For GDP

As of January 2006: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,503 euro] Minimum:Latvian flag ラトビア[€129/month])[119]

As of January 2009: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,642 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag Bulgaria[€123/month])[120]

As of January 2020: Approximately 2 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 2,141.99 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag Bulgaria[€311.89/month])[121]

As of January 2022: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 2,256.95 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag Bulgaria[€332.34/month])[121]

Purchasing power parityWhen converted by

As of January 2006: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,417 euro] Minimum:Latvian flag ラトビア[€240/month])[119]

As of January 2009: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,413 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag Bulgaria[€240/month])[120]

As of January 2020: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly salary 1,562.37 euro] Minimum:Latvian flag ラトビア[Monthly salary 538.35 euro])[122]

As of January 2022: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly salary 1,572.08 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag Bulgaria[Monthly salary 566.64 euro])[123]

Ratio of legal minimum wage to full-time worker wage (EU)[123]

For central wages (as of 2020) Maximum:Bulgarian flag Bulgaria(0.659) Minimum:Czech flag Czech Republic(0.439)

Average wage (as of 2020) Max:French flag France(0.494) Minimum:Hungarian flag Hungary(0.348)

OECD member countries

OECDReal minimum wage gap between member countries (DollarConversion)[124] For GDP (2020 real exchange rate)

2000: About 24.7 times (Max:Australian flag Australia[Hourly wage $12.09] Minimum:Mexican flag Mexico[Hourly wage $0.49])

2010: About 26.8 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $13.15] Minimum:Mexican flag Mexico[Hourly wage $0.49])

2020: About 19.1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $13.53] Minimum:Mexican flag Mexico[Hourly wage $0.71])

When converted by purchasing power parity

2000: About 11.7 times (Max:Australian flag Australia[Hourly wage $10.55] Minimum:Mexican flag Mexico[Hourly wage $0.90])

2010: About 12.4 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $11.29] Minimum:Mexican flag Mexico[Hourly wage $0.91])

2020: About 9.0 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $12.43] Minimum:Mexican flag Mexico[Hourly wage $1.38])

*Mexico's minimum wage (for the general public) is 2022 per day as of January 1.Peso($8.37),Northern borderThe area has a daily salary of 260.34 pesos ($ 12.61)[125].. In 2020, the daily salary is 123.22 pesos, and in the northern border area, the daily salary is 185.56 pesos, both of which are about 2020 times higher than in 2022.[126]..The reason why the disparity narrowed in 2020 compared to 2010 isPresident of Mexico 201812/1ToAMLOAfter the change of government to the president, he served as chairman of the National Minimum Wage Council (CONASAMI) for 27 years.Old schoolBasilio Gonzalez becomes presidentOne day laterDue to being dismissed by[127].

Ratio of legal minimum wage to full-time worker wage (OECD)[128]

Central wage (as of 2020)
Best:Colombia flag コロンビア(0.92) Monthly salary 100 millionPeso(Approximately $254 in US dollars. A separate transportation subsidy of 2 pesos/month will be paid to workers whose monthly income is less than double the minimum wage.) [As of January 11][129]
Minimum:United States flag The United States of America(0.29)

Average wage (as of 2020) Max:Colombia flag コロンビア(0.61) Minimum:United States flag The United States of America(0.21)

世界

GDP per capitaRatio of legal minimum wage toUnderground economyAndUnemployment rateThere is adjustment)[130]

Best:Central African Republic flag Central African Republic(2.511) (Average minimum wage 28,000CFA franc Civil servant monthly salary: 26,000 CFA franc Agricultural worker monthly salary: 8,500 CFA franc [as of 2018][131]

Minimum:Burundi flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(0.003) (Bujumbura[Unskilled worker]: Unofficial minimum wage 3,000Burundi Franc Rural Area: Informal minimum daily wage of 2,000 Burundi Franc +lunch[As of 2018][132])

Poorest countryNote that some parts of the country may have higher minimum wage ratios due to relatively low GDP. In addition, the minimum wages stipulated in the minimum wage system and collective bargaining agreements based on collective bargaining have not been introduced, or are applied only to specific fields, so the ratio is 0 (Cambodia,Singapore,トンガEtc.) are excluded.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Original: yearly wage sufficient to maintain the worker in the hightst state of industrial efficiengy and to afford him adequete leisure to diacharge the duties of citizenship
  2. ^ This is due to the fact that the labor market is not really completely competitive. Employers are in the labor marketIncomplete informationDue to gender, it is not possible to fully grasp the good or bad of workers. Therefore, it is necessary to generate incentives in places that have nothing to do with the quality of labor.
  3. ^ It refers to the situation where there is only one buyer in the market. However,Incompleteness of informationAs a result, the seller (worker) has a cost of finding a job, and if the employer is incurring costs in recruiting activities, the employer will be in the same position as a pure demand monopoly situation. You will face a supply curve.

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