Generation Z job change conditions, more important than millennials "work location"
If you write the contents roughly
The survey was conducted on about 1500 users who have "started job change activities" and "have decided to change jobs" on the panel of the research company.
OpenWork recently released the results of the "Gen Z & Millennial Awareness Survey on Career Change Activities".tuning… → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
The word “change of occupation” is often described as changing occupations.
However, the currentJapanSo in general,Regular employment OfEmployeeTerminates existing employment contract and signs new employment contract with another employeremploymentMeans to be done. In other words, it does not necessarily mean changing job categories. Rather, it often means changing the job category and not the employer.
The word “change of job” means independence or practice, that is,self employedIt may also include starting.
Current status of job changes
Second World WarLater in the Showa era, "lifetime employment is one of the characteristics of Japanese companies" (more than half of the workers in the world have the illusion that there are only large companies in the world. I'm working中小企业Ignoring the fact that it is, and the fact that the overwhelming majority of companies are small and medium-sized enterprises, it is not based on statistical research, it is inappropriate) Although mythical discourse was often made. ,in fact中小企业Was not always established as a permanent employment, especiallyyouthJob changes were common in the stratum. Even for mid-sized companiesMedical, Publishing,Hotel,Restaurant industryEngage inProfessionWorkerHas a high job change rate until now.From the Showa era, the company sideBulk recruitment of new graduatesIn the boom period, mid-career recruitment was widely carried out in search of immediate fighting power that could not be easily realized.
after that,Bubble burstAfter that, not only small and medium-sized enterprises, but alsolarge companyEven in the case of, we will stop strictly maintaining lifetime employment and increase the number of employees depending on the situation, in effect.UnderstandingThe number of companies that do business has gradually increased, and the percentage of people who change jobs has also increased. In small and medium-sized enterprises, even full-time employees are often dismissed easily (slightly violently), but in large enterprises with tens of thousands of employees, doing so can be a social problem, and in large enterprises. Of employeesUnionHowever, it is functioning well and there are many difficulties such as being sued by employees and going to court, so in the case of large companies, we often use all means.Retirement encouragementIn a way that avoids going to court as much as possibleUnderstanding(Restructuring) was done).
The percentage of people who change jobs or have to change jobs continues to increase and is nowOver 9% of all Japanese workers change jobs, Is the situation.To give specific numbers, already in Japan as of 2009Regular employmentThe average length of service of workers is less than 20 years, and the fact that it can be said that it is lifetime employment is limited to male employees of large companies with more than 1000 employees.populationThe ratio was only 8.8%..
There is a great difference between job types and the actual job change rate depending on the type of job. For example, for IT professionals involved in system planning/development, operation/maintenance, there is a very high standard of one in two who wish to change jobs. The first reason is "SalaryDissatisfaction” (48%). Also, 3 in 1 people replied, "I want to work in a more promising organization.".
Person who has changed jobs
- In August 2001, 8% of all workers had a job transfer, and 5.1% were 15-24 years old. The job turnover rate for females is flat or declining, while that for males is increasing except for the elderly.
How to change jobs in Japan
The following are some methods for finding a job change destination.
- Introducing and recruiting acquaintances
- Job placement businessUse of
- Public Employment Security Office
- Search for yourself
- Job change information site
- Recruitment information published on company websites, etc.
- Career information specialist magazine
- Those who want to change jobs are not looking for it voluntarily,scout)” and head hunting also exist.
Many self-employed companies do not disclose their job information, and there are relatively many job changes due to the introduction and solicitation of acquaintances. Also, at the time of “spin-off”, the means of referral/solicitation is used for the same reason.
Withdrawals may be made to personnel with highly specialized skills. Since the burden of research and adjustment on the target of extraction is large, specialized companies often intervene. In addition, a company that wants to quit that person can contact the company that specializes in changing jobs (and in some cases, even in the front) and perform a withdrawal, so that they can quit comfortably without any trouble. It is basically different from the scout service provided by the career change information site.
In the recruitment service, we interview those who wish to change jobs and propose appropriate job information held by the company. Recruitment information may also include non-public information.
Job change information site in Japan
インターネットWith the spread of, job changes using job change information sites are becoming mainstream. As a matter of course, the job change information site is provided by the job change information company for the purpose of advertising and profit, so it is necessary to be careful not to have excessive expectations or illusions about job change.
The first full-fledged job change site is "Digital B-ing," which was launched by Recruit in 1996. After that, the service has been renamed "Recruit Navi Career" and "Rekunabi NEXT" and continues.
Job change sites with a large number of sales and listed companies include "Rikunavi NEXT", "en career change information" (2000) and "Mainichi Career Navi" (1999). Most of the operating companies of these sites deal with occupational information in paper media or sell information magazines.
Depending on the job-hunting site, there are places where the job-change information is posted on the portal site for an advertising fee. From the user's point of view, by accessing the portal site, you can check the information of each career change information company in one stop..
Since the site operator receives the advertisement fee from the company and posts the job posting information, it is generally available for those who wish to change jobs (*).
Recruiting information is basically created by the recruiting company itself (however, refer to "Independent coverage" below). However, the site operator will check if there are inappropriate expressions and working conditions,Labor Standards ActJob listings that violate laws and regulations are refused to be posted. However, if it is a large-scale site, the recruiting company's check may not be well received, and jobs that violate the law may be posted, so it is not just the posted job information that is posted, but you can judge it with your own eyes. It's important. If you find a job information that violates the law, you can contact the operator to take measures such as suspension of posting.
As a function common to many career change sites,
- Retrieval information classified by job type and industry can be searched under various conditions such as work area and salary.
- Must be able to apply online
- You can register your own personal information and can reuse it by logging in
And so on.
As competition among job-changing sites has become fierce, each company is trying to provide its own service to bring out its special characteristics.
From 2007Intelligence RecruitmentAnd information from information magazines and career change sitesADDStart theTakeshi ShinjoThere is also a comprehensive job-hunting site where the human resources business is compounded, such as by carrying out large-scale promotion using. In addition, a matching service that introduces a recruitment agency that is similar to the image when a job applicant wishes to change jobs anonymously inputs work experience and desired conditions, such as FA.com, has also appeared.
- Scout service
- By anonymously disclosing personal information such as registered work history to companies, companies interesteddirect mailService that can receive. However, some companies automatically send scout mail based on the registered information. Therefore, just because a scout email arrives does not necessarily mean that you will be hired.
- Original coverage
- Emphasizing a third-party perspective, the site management company creates job information through interviews.
- It is highly objective because it includes not only the sought-after articles of recruiting companies, but also the toughness of work as seen by the press and the atmosphere of the workplace. recently,BroadbandAlong with this, the video distribution of the inside of the company has been started.
- Aptitude diagnosis
- Introduce jobs that meet individual characteristics through analysis using R-CAP and competency models.
- Various reading materials
- Create and post edited information that will be useful for changing jobs.
- Recruitment information with a job search engine
- CorporateWebsiteThere is also a model in which the job information page inside is collected and posted by an automatic patrol robot.
- Similar to the comparison of the amount of information between robot-type and directory-type search engines, some companies are implementing conversion of recruitment sites from advertisement-type to information-type.
- またCareer Change Library PlusThere is also a comprehensive summary site about changing jobs.
Changes in salaries of job changers
By changing jobsSalary(wage) Will vary considerably depending on the age range of the job changer, the industrial field, and the type of job.The numbers also differ depending on the institution or organization that collects statistics, the organization that uses it to calculate estimates, and the organization that conducts questionnaire surveys.Numerical values differ for each material.
Regarding changes in wages due to job changes, generally speaking, younger people tend to have higher salaries after changing jobs, the rate of increase is large for those in their 30s, and the level tends to be sluggish (decreased) with aging after those in their 40s and 50s. There is a tendency to do).
Looking at the changes in salary levels over time (although it is already quite old data), in 1995 there were many people who had higher salaries after changing jobs, but after that they decreased, and in 2005, After changing jobs, more people had lower salaries..
By industry, the 2007 data from "Youthful Labor Statistics 2003", which is a collection of materials that introduces the methods and results of calculating new statistical indicators using existing labor statistics, is as follows.Wholesale-retailWork,金融-insuranceWhile it is about 8% in the industry,transportation-communicationIt was about 6% in the industry, electricity, gas, and water services..
On the other hand, Tech Research Institute, 2004 to 7 years old, who changed jobs from July 2005 to July 7EngineerWe asked 100 people about various things related to changing jobs.questionnaireAccording to the results of the survey, income increased by 20 yen in the early 35s, 30 yen in the late 85s, and on average, the annual income increased by about 55 yen due to job changes.The average annual salary of 100 respondents to the questionnaire before changing jobs was 454.5 yen, an increase of 55.2 yen to 509.7 yen.As a result, an increase of about 12%.By age group, the largest increase was in the late 30s, and the annual income increase rate was 16%, which was much higher than the average. ("This is a project manager in his late 30s, etc."Job change after being evaluated for management abilityThere are many, and on the side of those who change jobsThe bargaining power is also higher than that of the (more) younger generation, so we succeeded in drawing out favorable salary conditions.It must have been done. " ) The increase in annual income was larger for hardware-related engineers than for software-network-related engineers.
Problems related to changing jobs
The problems in changing jobs are described below.
- * Unless otherwise specified, the numerical data used in this section areMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareBased on the comprehensive survey of job changers (H.10) and the Labor Force Survey Special Survey (H.13) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
Supply and demand mismatch
Despite the fact that the number of job offers corresponds to the number of job seekers, no jobs will be created because the conditions are not met.Supply and demand mismatch(Employment mismatchTomo).Transformation of industrial structureIs often seen as is progressing.
Bubble burstLater recession,Effective job openings-to-applicants ratio(Job vacancies/Job seekers) was constantly below 1 (Labor marketExcess supply in). However,ITAs for various engineers required by, the number of job vacancies has exceeded the number of job seekers, and the demand has continued to exceed. On the other hand, for general office workers, the number of job seekers has exceeded the number of job offers, and the excess supply has continued even after the effective ratio of job offers to applicants has recovered.
It is said that proper vocational education and assistance to companies that will hire beginners are necessary to prevent mismatches.
Confidentiality and non-competition
Civil servantIt is,retirementI can't get a job in a private company that had been working for the previous 5 years for 2 years after I retired. Even in private companiesLabor regulationsTherefore, it is often prohibited to work for a competitive company for a certain period after retirement (6 months to 1 year is common). theseDuty to avoid competitionIs required from the viewpoint of confidentiality, but it also makes it difficult to change jobs based on experience. Competitive evasionFreedom of choiceIt is necessary to clarify the requirements and scope because it restricts Even in actual court cases, various circumstances are judged on a case-by-case basis, such as the existence of stipulations, rationality, and whether confidential information such as technology and new product information is touched.
Increase in early employee turnover
Even though the job market is becoming more active, there areInformation asymmetryExists. Therefore, there are many people who have the impression that “this should not have happened” after changing jobs. The percentage of those who are satisfied with the change of job is about 60%, and conversely about 10% of them are dissatisfied. It is considered that these layers are likely to change jobs. About 3% of those who changed jobs more than three times.
Social insurance such as pension
Defined contribution pensionThe situation is improving to some extent due to the legal development of (Japanese version 401k).
More than 5% of respondents answered that they have utilized their experience in previous jobs, and about 25% say they are not utilized, and it can be said that knowledge and experience are always accumulated and utilized. Absent. However,ManagementThen, about 7 to 8% answered that somehow their experience has been put to good use. Although it may not be possible to get a job that can make use of the experience in consideration of confidentiality, targeting young people up to about 25 years oldSecond newbieIt is also pointed out that companies do not seek half-finished knowledge and experience, as indicated by hiring (employers are treated as new graduates).
Mismatch with Japanese social customs
Even in Japan, there is legal freedom to choose a profession, so there are no legal restrictions or penalties on job change activities themselves.However,lifetime employment,Seniority,Bulk recruitment of new graduatesSuch systems, the company demands absolute loyalty and obedience from employeesDestructive private serviceIn Japan, mistakes and failures are considered to be failures, and there is a deep-rooted awareness that mistakes and failures are subject to a large negative evaluation, so these are effectively shackles for changing jobs.
In Japan, career development is premised on the premise of the systems and ideas listed above.Therefore, working for the same company longer than the person's personality and skills, one-sided by the company and bossTransferOrders andIroningEven if it is painful or unreasonable for the recipient, it is a positive evaluation to endure and obey without repulsion and not to "fail" as much as possible.In other words, the job change itself that accompanies retirement is subject to negative evaluation.
It is not that there are no cases where the circumstances of the aspirant, such as pure career advancement, are taken into consideration, but most of them have a history of changing jobs (retirement) for any reason, including unavoidable unavoidable forces. It is called "dirty resume", and the fact is that changing jobs is premised on lowering treatment, income, and working conditions.
According to a survey, it is said that "you can change jobs up to three times."In a questionnaire conducted by Rikunabi NEXT to corporate personnel managers and career advisors, 3% of the respondents answered, "I'm worried about my career change history from the third time.".. Another thing I did for the personnel manager of the companyquestionnaireIn response, 91% of respondents said that “I get a negative impression if I have a lot of job-changing activities”.
Decoy job offer
It is said that among the many jobs posted on the Internet, etc., there are those that have no actual conditions for recruitment and "Decoy vacancies (empty vacancies)" that are posted without permission from the recruiting company. , Has become a problem in recent years.In particularJob placement businessMany people use it as a method to encourage them to register for their services. An environment in which recruitment information without actual recruitment is flooding is a major problem because it hinders appropriate job-hunting activities by job seekers. In addition, the increase in the use of employment placement services in the form of bait recruiting will force the hiring company to bear a high hiring fee, which is said to be 20 to 35% of its annual income. And small and medium-sized enterprises will suffer from rising labor costs. Also, decoy recruitment is considered to have legal problems.Employment Security ActArticle 65, item 8 states that "a person who has made a false advertisement or presented false conditions to introduce a employment, recruit a worker, or supply a worker, or a person engaged in these" has 6 items. It is stipulated that imprisonment for up to a month or a fine of up to 30 yen will be imposed.Job information that is not actually posted by the employment agency to the recruiting company without permission is "False advertisementIt is highly likely that the above conditions are met, and it is considered that the provisions have been violated.
However, it has been pointed out that the liquidity of the labor force declines with age. When you are older than a certain age, you will settle down into a stable job..
- ^ NIRA Research ReportResearch and Development Organization
- ^ Nikkei BP According to the December 2005 questionnaire survey results.
- 2 in 1 IT professionals want to change jobs(Nikkei BP)
- ^ However, it boasts the largest number of customersYahoo! JAPANIs information provided by Rikunabi NEXT alone
- ^ a b "Youthful Labor Statistics 2007"
- ^ I asked 100 people about their annual income and room for negotiations after changing jobs.Rikunabi NEXT
- ^ "Do not be swayed by empty vacancies! Let's know how it works and how to avoid it". Hataractive. 2019/12/14Browse.
- ^ "Working Papers No. 11878 (2005)" (NBER)