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🎁 | e ☆ Earphone, Nintendo Switch win purchase campaign. Until May 5st


写真 

Purchase campaign to win e ☆ earphones and Nintendo Switch. Until May 5st

 
If you write the contents roughly
This campaign is for those who have made a contract with the purchase service of portable audio products, and three people will be presented with an organic EL model (neon blue / neon red) of the home video game machine "Nintendo Switch" by lottery.
 

The e ☆ earphones from the earphone / headphone specialty store will be selected by lottery for 3 people from the "Nintendo Switch" organic EL model ... → Continue reading

 PHILE WEB

It is a site "PHILE WEB" (file web) that delivers daily news, reviews, bargain information, etc. on AV / audio / gadgets. First published in 1999.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

game machine

game machine(Game) is a video game (Computer games) Is a general term for devices for operating[1]..For gameshardware全 般[1]..It's just a generic term, soHome gamesMachinearcade gameMachine, (more naive) NintendoGame & WatchAnd (early)TamagotchiIs also a game console[1], Furthermore, the PC in the state used for playing video games (Personal computer) Is also a type of game console, although it is not a dedicated game console.[1]..However, due to the influence of the ratio of the number of machines that are popular in the world, when children etc. vaguely say "game machine", "Home game consoleIs often pointed to[1].

Overview

Collectively called game machines include arcade game machines, home-use game machines, electronic games, and personal computers.Each is further subdivided. →Type/Classification

arcade game
The first successful arcade game productAtariIntroduced by the company in 1972, "Pong].After that, arcade game machines appeared one after another.Especially in 1978TaitoBut"Space invaders』Developed and gained popularity, game centers were created all over the world, and Taito's arcade game machines were installed, establishing the game as an industry.After witnessing the hit of the Invaders game, many companies have appeared that also manufacture arcade machines that imitate the game machines.If you want to offer a new game to your players with this Invaders game console and the way Taito has done since then, it's the outermost.CaseAs it is, by exchanging the internal memory (memory board), and by exchanging the graphic board as needed, a method of making a new game into a running game machine has become widespread.
Home game console
On the other hand, the earliest home-use game machines appeared to easily enjoy arcade games at home, but the early home-use game machines were the same as the early arcade games.Wired logicWas composed of[Note 1]Therefore, "1 hard 1 game", that is, a method in which only one game can be played on one game machine, or at most, multiple games can be switched with a switch.Introduced in 1977 to eliminate that shortcomingAtari 2600Then.cartridgeIntroduced a method of exchanging programs at, and became a hit machine.
From the 1980s to the early 1990s, many manufacturers developed and released game consoles.It was during this period that major game consoles were soldNintendo,Sega,NEC Home ElectronicsWas released by Nintendo in 1983.NESAdopts a cartridge method (cassette method),Third partyTolicenseIn addition to manufacturing software by the method and setting the price at a low price, many software development companies released high-quality game software one after another.As a result, cumulative sales reached about 1991 million units by the end of March 3.
Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE. Now:Sony Interactive Entertainment(SIE))PlayStationAfter entering the market, it became an oligopoly by Nintendo, Sega, and SCE.
In the 2000s, Sega withdrew from game console development, and in 2001Microsoft XboxSince entering the market with, Nintendo, SCE, and Microsoft have been in the top three states.
Personal computer
In personal computer (home computer) machines, computers with 1970-bit CPUs from the 1980s to the early 8sApple II, Commodore PET2001, Tandy TRS-80And so on, and users of each machine used them as game consoles.Especially released in 1982Commodore 64(Abbreviation C64) has spread to American households due to its low price, and has sold a total of 1994 million units by April 4.[Note 2]..This C64 was used as a game machine in each home, and since it was widely used, many companies developed game software.Over 1300 types of game softwareWas produced and sold for C64.
Among personal computers, "Hobby computerThose classified as "" were for "hobby" or hobby use, and were used as computers for games.Sold by a common standard from Japanese companiesMSXWas also used as a game console[Note 3].

After that, it was released in 2004PSPIs pointed out that "the line of game consoles is ambiguous (" game consoles "disappear)" due to the versatility that goes beyond games.[2], From the late 2000sSmartphoneHas become widespread, and by downloading and installing game apps on smartphones, it has become widespread to use it as a kind of portable high-performance game machine.[3].

Type/Classification

As explained at the beginning of this article, there are the following types of game consoles:[1].

  • Home video game consoles (home game consoles, detailed in the first half of this article)
  • Electronic games(mainlyLSIA device operated by a chip.NintendoGame & WatchSeries and (early)TamagotchiSuch)
  • Arcade game machine (so-called ""ArcadeA game machine installed in such places.Since it is a game machine used by the management side such as a game center for business (business), it is also called "business machine")
  • A (general purpose) personal computer ready to be used to play games

There are various classification methods, but for example, there are the following classification methods.

Subclassification of home video game consoles

As a subclass of home video game consoles, the following major classifications may be made.

"Stationary type" is a device / device designed on the assumption that it will be installed and used in a specific position.[4], "Stationary game machine" is a game machine developed on the assumption that it will be installed and used in a specific position.Generally, it is designed on the assumption that it will be used by connecting to a TV receiver installed in the home.On the other hand"Portable game console"" Is a game machine developed on the assumption that it will be carried and played in various places, and it is a game machine designed to be portable in size and weight, and is generally small. It has a screen of.However, in the past, the line between "stationary game consoles / portable game consoles" was fairly clear, but in recent years, we have dared to aim at those boundary areas and carry them with a small screen on their own. Models that can be played on a large screen by connecting to a large home-use TV while being able to play, or those that realize it by connecting to something like a docking station have also been developed, and those models are also considerable. Since it is the number of units sold, the classification of "stationary game consoles / portable game consoles" is a little more ambiguous than before.

Home video game consoles are becoming more and more popular with the timesア ー キ テ ク チ ャAnd the level of performance is changing, and despite being developed and manufactured by multiple manufacturers, roughly speaking, it can be summarized with some kind of similarity for each era, so the first generation, the second Generations ... etc.Classified by generationIt is widely practiced to do.Although it is remarkable in the stationary type, the same classification may be applied to portable game machines.

Subclass of arcade game machines

Arcade game machines may be broadly classified as follows as subclasses.

  • Arcade game machine for video games / Elemeca

Arcade machines for video games may be broadly classified as follows according to the type of housing.

  • Upright housing (type) / Table housing (type) / Projector housing (type)
The upright type (housing) is an arcade machine where the player plays while standing, and the table type (housing) is a game machine.テ ー ルThe player sits on a chair, looks into the screen on the top of the table-shaped machine, and operates the levers and buttons on the side of the machine.In addition to the above three categories, there are also intermediate ones such as semi-upright.There is also a way to classify commercial game consoles, which are made of particularly large housings.

It may also be classified into a general-purpose housing and a dedicated housing.A general-purpose housing (general-purpose type) is an arcade game machine that can run various games by exchanging software and boards.On the other hand, a dedicated housing (dedicated type) is a game machine that can be used only for a specific game. For example, specializing in a specific car / racing game, the handle, seat, screen, and decoration around the screen. It is a game machine that cannot be diverted to other games, and a game machine that has to be disassembled and disposed of when the demand for the game disappears.

Subclassification of PCs used in games

Personal computers in a state of being used as a game machine can also be classified as follows.

  • General-purpose PC / gaming PC
The former is a general-purpose PC, that is, a general-purpose PC (personal computer) designed for various purposes.Game softwareIs installed and playing. Games called "2D games" that are flat and do not have stereoscopic vision can be fully enjoyed on a general-purpose PC.On the other hand, a "gaming PC" is a PC equipped with high-performance parts that can realize (high-speed, beautiful) 3D graphics in order to play so-called "3D games" (comfortably).[5], In general, countless fast to achieve smooth and beautiful 3D imagespolygonCan be drawnGPU(Image processing unit) and especially fastCPUIt refers to a PC equipped with a large main memory.

History

Here, we briefly describe in chronological order how the so-called game consoles were established.

Around 1970 when the game console was born, speaking of computersmain frameOr at mostMini computerAnd there were only expensive systems used by large corporations, universities, or those or military laboratories. One of the most famous early computer games was the space battle game written on a minicomputer and played by an unspecified number of college students.Space War!][6].. After that, the game evolved through four paths.

1972/, The first video game machine in history appeared, but it was not commercially successful, and the first successful commercial game was Atari's arcade game "Pon".[7].. Video games until thenArcadeWas popular inPinballWas expelled in a blink of an eye.Arcade video games are becoming more and more complex, and as wired logic circuits become more difficult to achieve.MicroprocessorCame to be adopted. The earliest video game consoles (1970st generation) that appeared in the mid-1s were for enjoying those arcade games easily at home. Initial video game consoles consisted of wired logic, similar to the early arcade games, so one hardware, one game, or a method to switch multiple games with a switch. In the second generation (late 1s-early 1s), hardware was used to meet the user's desire to play various games on one hardware.Game softwareA system that can play computer games was adopted by combining. Software supply mediacassette tapeAlthough there were machines that adopted the Atari 2600,cartridgeIt adopted a system with a replaceable cartridge to supply the program, which became the standard.1979/First in historyThird partyWas born, and here, apart from the industry that sells game consoles, the game industry that produces profits by selling the game program itself was born. Although the image of the video game was almost established by this Atari 2600,1982/So-calledAtari shockHappened[8].

In 1975, the Altair 8800, known as the "first commercial personal computer in history," appeared, but it wasn't used in games because it wasn't a computer that had a screen, such as when connected to a home TV. ) It was the reason why game software that runs on personal computers came to be produced.1977/ToSteve Jobs,Steve WozniakByApple IIWas developed and released, and it was successfully sold. The Apple II is a type that uses a home TV receiver as a monitor, and the Apple II is a Break Out created by hardware developer Steve Wozniak himself.BreakoutThe game was attached, and the purchasers decided to make game software one after another. Apple II CPUMOS 6502And at this time,8 bitsMicroprocessorAs a result of fierce competition for market share between so-called "80 series" processors such as Intel and Zilog and so-called "68 series" processors such as Motorola.PriceThanks to that, it became possible to make a computer at a low price and at a price that can be purchased at home, and it became possible to develop and sell the Apple II, but after that, each company said, " It can be classified as "personal computer" (also called "home computer" or "hobby computer" at that time).8-bit personal computerWill be released.By this time, there were already video games and arcade games, so PC users tried to enjoy these arcade games at home for free on their own.programmingWe made games that resembled arcade games, and exchanged the finished works with each other.Pc gamesIt is, thenAdventure games,Role playing games,Simulation gamesIt will develop in a field different from the arcade games and consumer games of the same era.[Note 4].

Late 1970'sMicroprocessorWas not fast enough to process the graphics on its own (for example, NTSC graphics display required a dot clock of 12 to 15 MHz, and the microprocessor at that time was not powerful enough.[Note 5]), All of the game consoles, personal computers, and arcade games at that time were originally created for video display.circuitIt was designed and was the individuality of each model.Typical functions for games, including image processing functionsSprite(Object) functionscrollIt may be hardware support such as functions. In each case, the function and performance around this is determined by the balance of cost with the intended user group and the like, so the rotation function of the arcade game machine designed specifically for the target game was a flower shape. The tendency that game consoles, personal computers, and arcade games each have their own unique architecture continued.

Portable game consoles also became popular in the late 1970s. In 1979, a cartridge exchange type portable game machine had already appeared, but at that time, due to technical restrictions, it was not possible to make sufficient products compared to other forms. Instead, what was the mainstreamElectronic gamesWas called. Electronic games are the application of calculator technology, and were born in a completely different system from arcade games and PC games. Display a specific shape as a display deviceliquid crystal,Light emitting diodeWas used. It did not have a general-purpose graphic display function, and it was inevitably one game per hardware.

In the third generation (early 3s-mid-1980s), Zilog'sZ80MOS 6502Microprocessors and other processors that have become cheaper due to intensifying competitionIntegrated circuitThe technology has added a sprite function and a hardware scroll function that have been simplified and reduced in price to video game machines.NintendoReleased in 1983NESIn addition to being equipped with the cheaper 6502Third partySoftware production bylicense(The game machine maker licenses the development and sale of game software to a third party) and expects the license revenue from the game software makerhardwareIt was possible to sell itself at a low price, and as a result, the number of game machine owners increased, and game software makers could also benefit.

In the latter half of the 1980s, the speed of performance improvement of personal computers accelerated and the latest models were replaced, so the platform characteristics of PCs for games were lost, while the game consoles with relatively few model changes have that platform characteristics. Has increased. If a single model such as a PC or game console continues to be sold without changing its basic performance over a long period of time (long product life), that model will be recognized as one platform, and that model will be used for games for other models. A lot of software was created to playtransplant). "Platform hardware and lots of software" is a technique that advances hardware and introduces new programming techniques (most of the software for these game consolesAssembly languageAlthough it was described in,C languageAlthough it hindered the transition to, etc.), it also contributed to the rapid development of the game software industry by promoting competition and technological development in the specific cutting-edge field of game software.In the 4th generation (late 1980s-early 1990s), the technical and expressive power of game software has further improved, and higher performance hardware has been required, and processors dedicated to game consoles will be designed. Became.Until then, many game consoles used chips for personal computers and general-purpose products, but in this era, it was established that game consoles had far superior performance to personal computers for game use.In addition, a cartridge-replaceable "portable game machine" equipped with a CPU and graphic display device with sufficient performance comparable to other hardware forms was released around this time and became popular.

It should be noted that the distinction between stationary machines (video game machines), portable machines, arcade games, and PC games becomes ambiguous again in game machines from the 2000s onwards, but this will be described in detail below.

Brief history

Game hardFor generations of "Video game console" in English Wikipedia (video game console(See )), that is,Consumer gamesMachine" "Home game machine" "Game machine"[Note 6]It mainly deals with the topic of what is called etc.

There are a wide variety of forms, including minor ones.[Note 7]However, in this section, for the moment, each model is a stationary machine (so-calledVideo gamesMachine),Handheld gamesIt is classified into two types of machines.

Regarding generations, English Wikipedia classifies them from "First generation" to "Eighth generation", so it is in line with that.Probably an original research, The generations seen here are from JapanGame researchEtc. are not often seen, and differences are also seen in materials in English[9][10].

Home game console

Here, we will explain about home game consoles, that is, game consoles used at home.This is commonly referred to as a "home video game console."However, gaming PCs were excluded.[11].

1th generation

First half of the 1970s-The middle of this article is "third generation".

In 1972, the first home-use game console everOdysseyWas released.OdysseyCPUInstead, it realized the electronic game function with an analog circuit.Atari, who made a big hit in the arcade of the video game "Pong" produced with reference to the Odyssey,tv setYou can enjoy Pon at home just by connecting to "Home pon"1975/ToreleaseIt was a big hit.As a result, the existence of home video game consoles was widely known, and Pong's copy games and sub-stream games called "Pong clones" were released by numerous toy makers from large to small and medium-sized.Launched Odyssey in JapanMagna BoxGame consoles were released by Epoch Co., Ltd. and Nintendo Co., Ltd., which are affiliated with Nintendo Co., Ltd., and these are also called pon clones.Atari1976/Released in "Break out』(Block breaking) and many clone machines have been around. These game machines appeared in the earliest period, namely the game first generation. In this era, the software was built into the hardware, so I could not buy more software later, but I can switch multiple games with a switch, I can play optional games by purchasing additional switching cards Some things could be done.

Pork clone
Breakout clone
More informations

2th generation

Late 1970s-Early 1980s is referred to as "2th generation" in this article.

1976 years,FairchildReleased Channel F.Channel F was the first home video game console to be able to enjoy various types of games by inserting a ROM cartridge.[12]..Magnavox too1978/The Odyssey² game console, which uses a similar system, was released.Atari also released the Atari 1977 (VCS) in 2600. ""Space invadersSuch asarcade gameAs a killer title, around 1980AmericaExplosive inPopularityWas won.Furthermore, from Atari in 1979ActivisionIs the first game in historyThird partySince then, we actively accept third-party software that is born one after another.business modelEstablished.North AmericaThen, intellivision and ColecoVision became popular,EuropeThe VC 4000 by German Interton was also popular.However, it was decisive in the 1982 Christmas sales season (so-called)Atari shock) Caused[8].. Not only the Atari 2600 but also the American game console market (Pc games(The market is not included) itself was forced into a state of temporary destruction.Japan,South AmericaFull-scale spread of game machines in such areas will be after the next NES era.

3th generation

First half of the 1980s-The middle of this article is "third generation".

Atari shockLater, in North America and Europe, game PCs with programming functions in addition to game functions gained power, and many game makers moved game releases from home consoles to PCs. In North America as a game PCCommodore 64But in EuropeZWas successful.Similar models (Pyuta, M5, SC-3000, MSX, etc.) appeared in Japan, but in the end, a model that specialized in game functions and realized better game performance than the 1st and 2nd generation succeeded. Was stored.Especially for Nintendo, which was released in 1983.NES(Famicom) is responsible for the full-scale spread of home video game consoles in Japan, and in 1985 it was an overseas version of Famicom in the United States.Nintendo Entertainment System(NES) was released and was successful. RPG andCompetitive fighting gameThe prototypes of today's game systems such as 2D action games were also completed at this time. So far derived from Atari 2600ATARI specificationsA joystick type controller called was commonly used, but a NES pad type controller (Game pad) Is compact but versatile, and is used in almost all subsequent game consoles.Input deviceBecame the basis of.

Game pc

4th generation

Late 1980s-Early 1990s is referred to as "4th generation" in this article.

Equipped with a more advanced sprite function than the conventional model, the expressive power of 2D graphics has improved.Stereo sound has become the standard, and games are becoming more complex and sophisticated.対 応TocontrollerThe number of buttons has increased.On the other hand, the limits of packing complex and expressive games into ROM cartridges are beginning to appear.Due to the increase in the capacity of game software, the manufacturing cost of ROM has also risen, and software of 9,800 yen or more has appeared one after another.Under these circumstances, the world's first CD-ROM was used as a game medium instead of the conventional ROM cartridge.CD-ROM2[13]Appeared, and the supported titles made full use of the large capacity, which became the basis of the software supply by the optical disk later.

The main hardware isPC engine-Mega drive-Super NintendoThere are three models. Although the release of Super Nintendo was significantly delayed compared to the other two types, in Japan it succeeded in transitioning by inheriting the overwhelming share from the family computer. On the other hand, in the North American market, Nintendo's SNES (Non-Japanese Super Famicom) and SEGA's GENESIS (Mega Drive) developed market competition, and GENESIS achieved a certain success with a 3% share of 2 million units sold.[14].

SNK, which had gained immense popularity in battle-type fighting games in the arcade market, entered the game machine market with NEOGEO, which has diverted the arcade system to home-use machines. Due to the high performance of home game consolesarcade game,Pc gamesThe performance difference with In overseas markets, the hobby PCs Atari ST and Amiga were released, gaining popularity as a competing game PC. Japan alsoX68000,FM TOWNSHobby PCs were released, but in Japan where stationary machines and software are blessed, PC games cannot be handled by home-use game machines.Adult gameExcept for. 4th generation game consoleDot pictureIt corresponds to the maturity and completion period of the 2D game by Sprite.

5th generation

Mid-1990s-The second half is referred to as the "fifth generation" in this article.

In this generation, replacing the traditional ROM cassetteoptical diskBecame the mainstay of content sales packages.Although optical discs have the drawback of taking a long time to read, they have a larger data capacity than ROMs, are easy to repress, and can mass-produce game media at low cost.Along with this, the sound quality has been improved and the production by playing movies has expanded.With the advent of game consoles equipped with full-scale 3D graphics functions, the range of video expression in the game has expanded.A controller with a vibration function and an analog stick has also appeared.Dot pictureWith polygons, the manufacturing know-how is different, and new small and medium-sized software houses have emerged.

From this generation to the 6th generation,Console warPerformance competition between hardware, called (game console war), reached its climax, and each company actively appealed for the high performance of its own game consoles.The main models are PlayStation, Sega Saturn, and NINTENDO 64.Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE, now:Sony Interactive Entertainment(SIE))PlayStationIs an inexpensive and easy to develop system,Third partyWith a high level of support, the company was ranked first in the background of a fulfilling software group. SEGA'sSega SaturnShowed good performance immediately after the release, such as selling 100 million units faster than the PlayStation, but due to the hardware configuration that is hard to cut costs, it was in a difficult situation with the price reduction competition with the PlayStation. In North America, US SEGASuper 32XIt was seen that there was a discrepancy with the Japanese SEGA side in the sales strategy, such as the introduction of the first, and as a result it caused confusion on the part of the user and collapsed together. Released by NintendoNINTENDO64Aims to be a symbolic presence that appeals to 64-bit high performance by its name, but the release of the software is far behind that of other companies, there are few third parties, and the traditional ROM cassette is adopted, so the software price is Higher and less price competitive, it succeeded in North America but never became mainstream. In Japan, it was a big delay for PlayStation.

The largest consumer game company in North AmericaElectronic ArtsFounder established 3DO and entered the game console market. Atari, who has long supported the game industry as a maker of game consoles and game PCs since the dawn, entered this period with a long dormancy period that lasted for a quarter century in the hardware business.CommodoreWent bankrupt. As a result, as a computer used for games,PC/AT compatibleBecame almost.Windows 95Although MS-DOS was the mainstream for game use for a while after the appearance of,DirectXSince then, Windows has gradually become the main environment for games. Microsoft became a major game maker with many PC game development studios, and finally entered the consumer console in the sixth generation.

6th generation

The late 1990s-early 2000s are referred to as "sixth generation" in this article.

The expressive power of 3D graphics has improved, and it has begun to support communication with the Internet and 5.1ch sound in a limited way.The mainstream media is DVD or original standard discs that apply DVD technology.At the end of this generation, Sega withdrew from hardware sales and replaced Microsoft'sXboxHas entered. Xbox succeeds in foreign marketsPS2However, in Japan, it was released in February, after the end of the year when game consoles were generally sold, and was criticized for initial defects and countermeasures related to them.NINTENDO64Of the successorNintendo GameCubeGained some support in Japan, but outside JapanFront hardI didn't shake as much.

In the period of widespread use of personal computers for personal computers, we started to use home-use game consoles with insufficient internet support,online gameWas fulfilled. Although home-grown games are beginning to be seen in emerging countries in Asia such as China and South Korea, stationary games have large development costs.Barrier to entryWas big, and in Asian countriesPirated versionBecause it was difficult to make a profit in content sales due to the popularity of the game, the online PC games for which billing was applied became the mainstream of development, and it was often seen that the works of these countries were exported to the world. ..

7th generation

Mid-2000s-The end is referred to as "seventh generation" in this article.

NintendoWiiIt is,Wii remoteOf the experience typeControllerEquipped withHigh definition videoSupports (HD)PS3Xbox 360AlsoPlayStation Move,KinectWas released. All models are official software released on former hardwareemulatorOf contentDownload saleAlso began to take place.Video on demandOverseas, Xbox 360Smart tv Ofde factoWas said[15].

For software makers, the future of market share remains uncertain, and more than the previous generationMulti-platformincreased. Sales of the Xbox 360 and PS3 have been sluggish, and sequels, remakes, and HD-compatible versions of popular games have been released more often. Wii has changed the conventional wisdom of game consoles and put it out as a hands-on experience type, so it is new and easy to understand, and it has increased its share at a much faster pace than the hardware of the same generation and became the top in the hard share for the first time in two generations. However, unlike other hardware, the input device was special, and the image quality was the only one in the same generation that did not support HD image quality, so it was often excluded from the target of multi-platform release.Especially in terms of image quality, the fact that the penetration rate of high-definition television (mainly HD television) has increased significantly ahead of the complete transition of terrestrial digital broadcasting in 2 has become a major mistake for the long-term development of Wii.In later years, the number of Wii-only titles also decreased significantly.As a result, while the lineup of Xbox 2011 and PS360 was enriched, on the contrary, Wii became short of new software.[16].

On the 7th generation machines, network services were used to deliver the games of the time and "new works using dot paintings in the same hardware environment at that time."

In emerging countries such as South America and Asia, cheap and low-performance game consoles are being actively released while incorporating network compatibility and experience type, etc., and have been active as an agent of SEGA for a long time in Brazil.TectoyThe successor to the Dreamcast released by the company in 2009ZeeboAnd Sega's distributor in China, At GamesZONEAnd its variation, SEGA Reactor, is a typical product. Sega, which has withdrawn from hardware in developed countries, has continued its hardware business in emerging countries through Tectoy and AtGames, and from Tectoy it is a model change version of the mega drive.Mega drive 4Was also released in 2009.

8th generation

First half of the 2010s-The middle of this article is "third generation".

Wii U 2012/January,PS4Xbox One 2013/In November, both in North AmericaHoliday seasonIt was released according to. All three models are prioritized for launch in North America[17][18][19][20].

With the spread of smartphones and tablets in 2012CommoditizationAdvanced mobile hardware and software technology started to be diverted to game consoles,CrowdfundingAgainst the backdrop ofOUYA,GameStickBy the start-up companiesAndroidPlanning and development of game machines are one after another[21].. Game development Free "open platform" and no media inventory "Digital distributionAre common. Also in 2013Valve Corporation SteamOS/Steam Machine/Steam Controller announced. The Steam Machine was the Steam Box, a concept that has long been communicated, that is, the company's PC game platformSteamHome video game consoles/dedicated to the development of the consumer marketGaming pcIs the standard (Piston of Xi3 has been unofficial).

Gaikai/OnLive/PlayStation Now,Microsoft Azure,Amazon Web Services[22]Like eachク ラ ウ ドService platform has emergedNVIDIA GeForce GRID,G cluster/ Ubitus[23][24]IsETC.It was also used for (Shinla Technology, which was aimed at supercomputer gaming, dissolved, but the main member launched Genvid Technologies[25]).

Consumer gamesMachine
Micro console
Cloud gamesMachine
Android installed

9th generation

Late 2010s-Early 2020s is referred to as "9th generation" in this article.

Nintendo's previous generation Wii U was short-lived due to sluggish sales, leading other companies2017/In March, as a hybrid game machine that can be played as both a stationary machine and a portable machineNintendo SwitchReleased[26].Game boyThe platforms for stationary and portable devices, which had been separated since the launch, have been integrated.Also2019/In 9 monthNintendo SwitchPortable device, andCheap editionIn the position asNintendo Switch LiteWas also released.Oculus VRMay 2019, the firstStand aloneIt is a type VR game machineOculus QuestReleased.AtariAtari JaguarSince then, it has returned to the home video game console industry for the first time in about a quarter of a century.Atari VCSannounced.also,MattelAlsoIn TelevisionRepurchased the rights of, announced.Moreover,Sony Computer Entertainment ThePlayStation 5, MicrosoftXbox Series X / SThe2020/It will be released in November.

From this time on, the performance of game hardware will be further improved.Video distribution siteDue to the spread ofGame commentaryIncreasing popularity, andResale for commercial purposesDue to the rampant of games, especially game hardware immediately after its release often suffers from supply shortages. Nintendo Switch has not been in short supply even three months after its release, and Nintendo has officially announced an apology.[27].. Also in 2020Global epidemic of the new coronavirusDemand for nesting has further increased, and the shortage of hardware supply for PlayStation 5 and other games has caused a serious slump in sales of game software.[28], In Japan, even two months after the release, there is a rush of people to over-the-counter sales and the police are dispatched.[29].

In this generationCloud gamesService platforms are also attracting attention,Google,The Amazon,Facebook,NVIDIAHas entered.

Consumer game console
Cloud gaming machines / services

Portable

First generation (portable device)

The late 1970s-hit the early 1980s.

In 2, when the stationary game machine became the second generation and became a boom, it was the first portable game machine with a cartridge exchange in history because it was a major American toy maker.MicrovisionHas been released.Microvision TheCPU cartridgeIt was very different from the later game consoles, such as being on the side.LCDscreenDue to technical restrictions such as fragility, it ended with little commercial success. Not the format of inserting the ROM cartridge into the hardware, but the format of one game per hardwareElectronic gamesHas appeared.Electronic games at that time were monochromeLCDI couldn't even install it,LEDMostly by display, Mattel was the world's first portable type in 1976.Electronic game machineBecomeMattel Auto RaceSince the release of, LED games have been released one after another from each company, and it is bigboomIt became.

Electronic games

First generation (portable device)

Early 1980s-hit the middle.

the 1980sWhen you enterLCDHas become cheaper, and electronic games equipped with LCDs have become a boom.A representative product is Nintendo1980/Released inGame & WatchIt's a seriesモ ノ ク ロsimpleIt is one of the most popular handheld game consoles, although it was dominated by many games.Game & WatchIn some models of, it will develop into the main interface laterthe cross keyWas also adopted in advance.Nintendo,Bandai,ト ミ ー,タ イ ガ ー-electronicsIn addition to the major toy makers, many makers have released various electronic games,arcadeTransplantation was also popular. In 1982, on the main bodySolar cellBandai has released the first game console that does not require batteries. In 1983, the series, which was the first portable game machine equipped with two displays and enabled 2D display, was released.ト ミ ーWas released.1984/ToEpochIs Japan's first portable game machine with a replaceable ROM cartridge.Game pocket computerWas released, but it failed again commercially.

Electronic games

First generation (portable device)

The late 1980s-hit the early 1990s.

This is the first generation when a portable game machine with a replaceable ROM cartridge has achieved practical specifications and can enjoy a variety of games. The specifications of Atari Lynx and game gear were almost the same as those of the 3rd generation stationary hardware, and the PC engine GT was compatible with the 4th generation stationary engine PC engine. The Game Boy, which used a monochrome LCD, was inferior to other models with outstanding performance and image quality at the time, but the LCD technology at that time was immature and large in power consumption, and the color LCD model was even more expensive and battery (AA).Dry cell) While the consumption was intense, the Game Boy, which is compact and can be driven for a long time, became the most popular portable game machine. Game Gear struggled commercially in Japan, but in North America it did well against Game Boy. With the advent of practical handheld game consoles, the boom in electronic games ended in this generation, but electronic games continue to sell and maintain a certain market, and at timesTamagotchiThere were also big hits like (Bandai 1997).

Electronic games

First generation (portable device)

Mid-1990s-hit the second half.

The specifications are about the same as or slightly higher than those of the 3rd generation of stationary hardware, which is not much improved from the 3rd generation of portable hardware, but it realized a thin and small body with excellent portability. Due to the development of liquid crystal technology, even models that use color liquid crystals can withstand long-term operation. Games that incorporate infrared communication functions and utilize communication functions have become popular.Visual memoryPocket stationThe external storage medium of the stationary machine (memory card) was to add a game function, but did not reach widespread, it was not adopted in later generation machines. Although there were ambitious models such as Sega Nomad compatible with Mega Drive and Wonder Swan that dared to challenge in monochrome in this era, Nintendo's Game Boy series that was colorized in this generation was a one-person winner. It was

External storage medium of stationary machine
Electronic games

First generation (portable device)

The late 1990s-hit the early 2000s.

Color LCD game consoles that use the above have become mainstream.specIn terms of features, it is equipped with functions that exceed the 4th generation of stationary hardware, and the range of expression in portable game machines has expanded dramatically.As with the previous generation, models other than Nintendo did not perform well, and Nintendo's monopoly was established in handheld game machines.From around this timeMobile phoneI used it because the penetration rate ofMobile phone gamesHas begun to appear.N-GageLike a PDA orMobile phoneGame consoles equipped with functions have begun to appear. N-GageS60It was installed in 2008.

First generation (portable device)

Mid-2000s-hit the end.

Nintendo DS(Hereinafter DS) andPlayStation PortableIt was divided into two by (PSP).Up to the previous generationDry cellHigh energy density instead ofLithium ion batteryAdopted and brightBacklightIt became a liquid crystal display.As with stationary machines, graphics are becoming 3D, and data can be downloaded via the network.OnlinePlay is possible. DS isBlue ocean strategyThe light layer was also targeted, and the PSP set the core layer as the main target. DS lowered the hurdle to internet connectionNintendo Wi-Fi connection[36]AndTouch panelThis is the first portable game machine in history to use the "" with a distinctive two-screen screen.Touch! GenerationsThe hit expanded the user base, and the DS was incorporated into education. PSP has a large LCD screenoptical drive, Equipped with a high-performance microprocessor.In the Japanese market, "Monster hunter portable』Being blessed with the series, Nintendo's hardware fought well unlike the previous generation, which was in a state of winning alone.and,Takatok toisInherited fromHanayamaHas released a reprinted electronic game machine.

Electronic games
  • Game Robot 21 (Hanayama, 2005)

First generation (portable device)

Early 2010-hit the second half.

3DS,PS VitaDepends on the cameraAR,communication-socialMany functions that are conscious of are included. In 2013GPUNVIDIA known as a manufacturerTegra/AndroidEquippedNVIDIA SHIELD PortableWas released. The newcomer Android game machine can be said to be the trend of the year, but the machine is also a game streaming client that uses a PC as a server, and it was announced with new streaming server technology and attracted attention.Smartphone/Tablet such asSmart deviceuseOSIncorporating game-conscious features into[37].. Apple's iPhone OS in 2008 (currently:iOS) Since the SDK was releasediPod touch/iPhone/iPadSuch as for iOSApp Store[38]And GoogleGoogle PlayWas provided. The series that has been developed so far for home-use game consoles was provided and collaborated.

Android installed
Electronic games
  • Game Robot 50 (Hanayama, 2013)
  • Game Robot 25 (Hanayama, 2014)

First generation (portable device)

This is from the latter half of the 2010s.

With SIE withdrawing from handheld game consoles and Nintendo also releasing a Nintendo Switch that supports both stationary and mobile, the number of handheld game consoles in the strict sense is decreasing, but a new onePlaydateannounced.also,Steam deckGaming PCs in the shape of handheld game consoles, such as, have begun to appear.

Electronic games
  • Game robot ai (Hanayama, 2020)

XNUMXD video game console

the 1980sFrom TommyStereoscopic visionAn electronic game that can be released has been released (7 of "Space Battle Battle", "Jaws", "Space Laser War", "Jungle Fighter", "Cosmo Le Mans", "Dog Fight", "Sherman Attack" The work has been confirmed)[39][40][41][42][43].

From Nintendo1987/ToNES 3D systemIs released,SegaFrom the American marketSega master systemSegaScope 3-D GlassesAnd multiple compatible software has been released.1994/From AtariMissile command 3D"When"Wolfenstein 3D』Was just two titles,Jaguar VR headsetWas released[44][45][46].

1995/Stand type from Nintendo in JulyVirtual boyWas released, but the sales volume did not fluctuate. As mentioned above, all were released sporadically until the early 200x.2006/Released in NovemberPlayStation 3 The2010/With the system update released in April3D displayVideo output to[47],Also2011/In February, a portable game machine from Nintendo that supports naked-eye stereoscopic imagesNintendo 3DSWas released.

Electronic games

PC

For general-purpose type PCsPersonal computerSee article.

For PCs equipped with high-performance GPUs, CPUs, large-capacity memory, etc. for 3D gamesGaming pcchecking ...

For game software that runs on those hardwarePc gameschecking ...

Reprint game machine

In recent years, the number of people who miss game consoles from the late 1970s and 1980s (young people at that time, elderly people today) is increasing, and those 2D games and the atmosphere of decades ago are interesting from a modern perspective. The number of modern young people who enjoy playing games is increasing, and it is becoming more active to reprint game consoles from decades ago in order to meet those demands.The same group of games as before moves, the appearance is miniaturized to resemble that time, and the connection with the TV receiver isHDMIThe ones that have evolved so that they can be done with terminals are popular.In addition, there are some that have HDMI or USB terminals, similar to the ones at that time, even in the case size and key touch.

Stationary machine

Portable

Arcade game machine

Best-selling game console

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It didn't have a microprocessor and wasn't software-powered.
  2. ^ The world's number one sales record for a single model of personal computer.No model has ever broken this record.
  3. ^ It was also used for education.
  4. ^ Apple IISince it was possible to purchase software that can also be used for accounting processing called visuals, it was possible for only those who work in accounting to use it for that purpose, but at that time, printers had extremely low performance and characters. It was an era when the Internet did not exist yet, so people who bought what was called a "home computer" or "hobby computer" bought it. However, (the majority of people who are not accountants) could not print beautiful documents or search for information, so computers in the late 1970s and 1980s were not available for a while after purchase. Then, after all, it was quite common that the main uses were to play games, write game software, and use it to improve programming skills.
  5. ^ It's not the architectural reason that it's 4 or 8 bits.
  6. ^ Incidentally,the 1990sDue to the spread of the Internet from the latter half of the year, information distribution with English-speaking countries has become denser, so the expression "game console" is often seen in Japanese-speaking countries.
  7. ^ For example, in a form similar to a laptop computer in a personal computerPC engine LTetc.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f "What is a game console?". 2014/4/8Browse.
  2. ^ Katsuyuki Okawara (April 2008, 7). “A CESA report supporting Katsuyuki Okawara's "PC industry, Tohoku Nishirun" and "Day when game consoles disappear", a white paper on games, and "Increased use of games in their 50s"". PC Watch. Impress. 2021/7/4Browse.
  3. ^ Katsuyuki Okawara (April 2009, 6). “A major turning point in the game console market as seen in Katsuyuki Okawara's "PC Industry, Touensai Run" Game White Paper 2009-Downloading game content that is rapidly increasing". PC WatchImpress. 2021/7/4Browse.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ What is Dospara and Gaming PC?
  6. ^ JM Graetz (1981), “The Origin of Spacewar”, Creative Computing (August, 1981), http://www.wheels.org/spacewar/creative/SpacewarOrigin.html 
  7. ^ Atsushi Miyazawa; Hirohisa KomanomeArcade Game Technology (Part 1) Augmented Revised Edition"<Small Feature> Play / Entertainment and Media", IPSJ Research Report. IM, [Information Media], Vol. 96, No. 29, pp. 9-16, 1999.https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002929678. 
  8. ^ a b Eiichiro Kabashima "The North American Video Game Industry from 4 to 24 from the Viewpoint of the Stage Development Theory of the Content Industry: How to Interpret the So-called" Atari Shock "" "Content Culture History Research" No. 42, Content Culture Institute of Science, pp. 2010-XNUMX, XNUMX. 
  9. ^ Michael Miller (April 2005, 4). “A History of Home Video Game Consoles”. Inform IT. 2009/3/3Browse.
  10. ^ ""Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: a historical analysis of the US home video game market" IEEE Trans. Eng. Manag. 49 (2002)". 2014/4/8Browse.
  11. ^ "Kentucky Fried Chicken officially announces the full-scale gaming PC "KFConsole" equipped with chicken heat insulation function! Its identity was a high-end gaming PC that also supports 4K and 240 fps". jp.ign.com.jp.ign.com. 2021/1/11Browse.
  12. ^ Motoi Yagi; Hiroo Takemura5-5 Consumer equipment (5. Image application)"<Special Feature> Annual Television Report", Journal of the Television Society, Vol. 32, No. 7, Video Information Media Society, pp. 597-601, 1978..https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110003698158. 
  13. ^ ""PC Engine Archives" in the PlayStation Store "Game Archives" category is available today”. Sony Computer Entertainment Japan News Release (September 2007, 9). 2012/9/21Browse.
  14. ^ From "Business makers dispute who is market leader." in the January 1995 issue of Video Business magazine.
  15. ^ "The essence of smart TV is questioned". Diamond Company. p. 3. 2013/12/3Browse.
  16. ^ "Will Wii U Repeat Wii Failure Part 2". All About. All About (September 2013, 4). 2013/5/1Browse.
  17. ^ "Wii U" slump ・PS4 will be released next year... "Cold" game year-end sales(Sankei Shimbun October 2013, 10)
  18. ^ Xbox One will not be released in 2013? What will happen to Microsoft Japan's game business? I asked three key persons of Microsoft Japan in a straight ball(4Gamer.net July 2013, 7)
  19. ^ Xbox, the reason to put more effort into promotion in Japan Now Microsoft executives talk about "Japan-focused strategy"
  20. ^ "Home video game consoles sold 24 million units in 100 hours even in headwinds! The key to a good start for Sony PS4 is the development of indie music ――Shuhei Yoshida SCE Worldwide Studios President". Diamond Company. 2013/12/3Browse.
  21. ^ "From stick-type to palm-sized PCs for Steam-Understanding a series of "game console" announcements [CES 2013]". Famitsu. Enterbrain (September 2013, 1). 2013/12/3Browse.
  22. ^ "Amazon AppStream". Amazon.com. 2013/12/3Browse.
  23. ^ "Cloud game service "G Cloud" The new "Game Now" service started today. Enjoy a total of 26 works on your Android device, including "Ys I Complete Edition"". 4Gamer.net. Aetas (November 2013, 4). 2013/5/1Browse.
  24. ^ "Enjoy high-load online games on your smartphone or tablet... Cloud gaming at data hotels”. Eid (October 2013, 6). 2013/6/24Browse.
  25. ^ "The DNA of Shinra who was alive! Achieve more free and flexible game watching than the world of "Gameplay Distribution 2.0" that Genvid is aiming for.Enables player-viewer interaction". 2017/7/12Browse.
  26. ^ Mono ・ magazine February 2020, 2 issue P16 Chronicle of home game
  27. ^ "Apology and notice of shortage of "Nintendo Switch body"”. Nintendo (September 2017, 6). 2017/6/24Browse.
  28. ^ ""Reseller" threatening Sony PS5 sales, spurring supply shortage due to hoarding”. Bloomberg (December 2020, 12). 2021/2/4Browse.
  29. ^ "Yodobashi Camera, PS5 over-the-counter sales to police dispatch”. GameWatch (January 2021, 1). 2021/2/4Browse.
  30. ^ "Double the performance, increase the number of pixels by 2%, and reduce the size and weight of the "Oculus Quest 50" actual machine review". pc.watch.impress.co.jp. pc watch (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/19Browse.
  31. ^ "Cloud gaming environment "OO Parts" officially released, all-you-can-play over 100 beautiful girl games of yesteryear on smartphones". 2020/4/24Browse.
  32. ^ "Amazon Moon". www.amazon.com. www.amazon.com. 2020/9/25Browse.
  33. ^ Amazon enters cloud gaming with "Luna" Hosted on AWS, PC, Mac, iOS, Fire TV support --ITmedia NEWS (September 2020, 9), viewed September 25, 2020.
  34. ^ "Facebook finally enters! Cloud game service "Facebook Gaming" announced for overseas". game.watch.impress.co.jp. game.watch.impress.co.jp. 2020/11/22Browse.
  35. ^ "Subscription type game service "Plex Arcade" of 520 yen per month started". gigazine.net. GIGAZINE. 2021/1/27Browse.
  36. ^ Easy, secure, free! Nintendo Wi-Fi connection Gpara.com - Wayback machine(For archived March 2016, 3)
  37. ^ "Game industry outlook: What is the key to PS4, which is advancing the use of smartphones as game consoles? KADOKAWA Managing Director Hirokazu Hamamura Talks". 2014/1/14Browse.
  38. ^ "What makes iPod touch "as a game console" attractive?”. Mycomi Journal (February 2011, 2). 2011/5/15Browse.
  39. ^ 3D stereoscopic game
  40. ^ Tommy 3D XNUMXD graphic game Shaman Attack
  41. ^ 3D XNUMXD graphic game, Space Battle Tank Battle
  42. ^ Weekly Electronic Game Review Space Laser War
  43. ^ Weekly electronic game review Space fierce tank battle
  44. ^ Jaguar VR
  45. ^ ATARI JAGUAR VR HEADSET
  46. ^ AGH Jaguar Review: MISSILE COMMAND 3-D
  47. ^ [Senka Nishida's Random Tracking] 3D compatible PS3 Ver.3.30 target and future-AV Watch

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