"That's the future bride ..." A filial boy who hugs his tired mother, but thinks calmly ...
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Title(Keisho) is used by the speaker with respect and respect for the other party and a third party.Name(Person's name) And after the titleSuffix, Or the word itself to describe the other person or a third party代名詞Is.In the latter case, one job title, etc.nounIt has the function of and is used independently.
Honorific titles are used not only for general conversations, but also for writing addresses in mail and documents.When giving honorific titles in Japanese, it is standard to use honorifics in the following descriptions (for example, when saying "His Majesty the Emperor", write "I came out" instead of "I came out". ).
As a synonym, a name that honors the other person without taking the form of a suffixHonorific titleThat is.Antonym, a name that despises the other personContempt,RedneckIt's called (Hisho).
Japanese honorific title
As a characteristic of Japanese honorific titles until the early modern period, if not necessarily limited to that,royal,Lord,General,DamingIt is characteristic that the name of a specific building such as a palace, a palace, a castle, a mansion, or a mansion is often used to honor the palace, the palace, the castle, and the mansion.especiallyEmperor,royal,Minister, As the honorific title of the shogunhospital,Imperial Palace,Big man, "Gosho-sama" and "Ogosho-sama".
Daimyo are often called by honorific titles associated with the palace, as represented by the lord.Muromachi PeriodWas established inHouse numberThe daimyo who was licensed to have a license is honored by his vassals as "house", "house", and "house" (heterographed "house" and "master").is not).Also, of the Sengoku daimyoHojoThere is also a record that he was honored by his vassals as "Gohonjo-sama".
This is also the case for high-ranking women, and as the wife of the royal family called it a breathing place, the shogun's regular roomYour kitchen(The highlight. Modern ""kitchenEtymology), for the wife of the daimyo, "Sudare"Mr. Naka-sama," "Room," "Wife," "Wife," "Behind the scenes," "Mansion," and "New construction."Bureau(Tsubone) sama "and so on.
In addition, the children of the Kuge are called Omuro Gosho, and the Shogun and Daimyo's Seiko are "Small Gosho," "Shinyagata-sama," "Wakasama," "Wakaden-sama," and "Wakaden-sama," respectively.SojiHonorific titles similar to those of the owner were generally used.In addition, there are examples of names of residences such as "Nishimaru-sama" and "Ninomaru-sama" in the noble family, regardless of whether they are Seiko or his wife.
Honorific titles in modern Japanese are for those who want to pay homageProper nounAttach immediately afterSuffixThe title of the type and代名詞It can be roughly divided into two types of pronoun-type honorific titles that include respect for themselves.Also, in Japanese, no title is given to a person in the organization to which the speaker belongs (speaker's relatives, manager of the company to which the speaker belongs, etc.).royal Emperor ImakamiToHis Majesty"Crown princeToYour Highness"And againWrestlerThere are a few exceptions (not the same rank), such as calling a master a "master" even if he is a real parent.In addition, when listing multiple names in the press, etc., there is a problem with the width of the paper (magazine), so there are cases where the title is not given after saying "(honorific title omitted)".
- It is used to respect the other person.It is a title that is used both verbally and in writing, and is not uncomfortable to use in any situation.
- In the mass media, it is often used as the highest honorific title for the imperial family (regardless of the age and gender of the subject), but in that case, it is written in hiragana "sama" instead of "sama" in Chinese characters. It is obligatory to do so by the internal regulations of each company.Japan Communist PartyStartEmperor system abolition theoryIndividuals and groups who advocate this title"What gives a person a grade of preciousness"Avoid as, "Red flag] And other related papers, like the Prime Minister, write without honorific titles...When national institutions including the emperor and the imperial family publicly refer to the imperial family,Imperial ruleAccording to (Article 23), the honorific title of His Majesty or His Majesty is used.
- hospitalIn many cases, "Den" is used instead of "sama" on the patient's name tag (however, "san" is used when calling).
- In the case of written language, the Chinese character "sama" has several glyphs, including eizama, nextsama, bizama, and hirazama.Ei-sama writes "樣" (lower right is Ei) to show the greatest respect...The next is "檨"(Lower right is next), and it is said to be the popular font of Ei-sama...Beauty pays homage to Eikyu..Hei-sama is a broken font and was used by the current person...Currently, it is common to use the usual "sama" for everyone.
- If you write in kana such as "sama" or "sama", the intimacy will increase but the respect will drop considerably, so you need to select and use the other party.It is safe to write in Chinese characters because it is rude in business.[Source required]
- When used for business communication or public matters (office work communication or official documents), "sama" may be converted to "den".
- It is used exclusively in written language, and even for those who have "Den" in the document, it returns to "Sama" in conversation.
- It may be used after the title (example: Director).However, it is an error to use something like "last name + job title + lord" like "○○ manager" because the job title in this case is a honorific title (described later).The correct usage is "last name + job title" (oral or regular document) or "department name + job title + first name + first name + lord" (formal document).[Needs verification - Note].
- In the olden days, it was written as "place name + palace" to refer to a nobleman who set up a palace (mansion) in the land, and was used for high-ranking opponents.Nowadays, it is often limited to clerical and public documents, and in private communication, it is used at present, but it is rarely used at present..
- In recent years, the titles of mails sent to individuals from government offices have been changed from "Den" to "Sama"...On the other hand, from the citizens to the government office (MayorEtc.), because "Den" is not suitable as a private communication today, "Den" is used to emphasize the public position of "public servant who is strictly prohibited from confusion between public and private".The official application form, notification form, etc. may have "Den" written on it from the beginning, but there is also a format in which "Mayor XX + first and last name" is sufficient.
- A dialect of the Kyushu region of Tono. (Example, Segodon)
- The most common title.Honorific title that is used both verbally and in writing, and is not uncomfortable to use in any situation.Attach it to someone who has a certain distance or who cannot measure your relationship with you for the first time.
- 一般 的 なrelativesSuffix of the name. "Father," "mother," "brother," "sister," "grandfather," "grandmother," "uncle," "aunt," etc.
- It is also common to use it after the job title or job title. "President", "Store manager", "Chief", "Caddy", etc.
- It is also common to attach it to the type name of the store. "Kimono dealer", "ramen shop", "toy shop", etc.At business sites, it is often given to the name of the other party's organization, such as "○○ Shoji-san".
- It may be attached to the type name of the creature. "Cat", "elephant", etc.
- It is often used lovingly for children, women or pets younger than the speaker, but it is also a general title that is sometimes used for peers and elders.
- It is often used for girls, but it is also often used for young boys.It may be used by close friends regardless of whether they are adults or children, and because it is closer than "san", it may be used for people who want to get close to each other.
- 一般 的 なrelativesSuffix of the name. "Father," "Mother," "Brother," "Sister," "Grandfather," "Grandmother," "Uncle," "Aunt," etc.
- It is also used in the entertainment world (not a celebrity but a person involved in production, so-called Gyokai) with a surname.To eliminate the proper use according to age and position.
- It is considered to be a shortened system of Chan.
- It is used when introducing a different title, and is not commonly used in spoken language, but is used in written language or in amended situations such as reports and news reports.It was mainly used by men, but nowadays it is often used by women.Also, although it is read as "Uji" in the old-fashioned style (the usage is the same), it is rarely used normally.
- It was a title for women used for women with high social status, but now it isDead languageIn some cases, it is used only ridiculously.However, in rare cases, it may be used in its original meaning in books (especially those translated into Japanese).
- From the 1997 edition of "Reporter's Handbook" published by "Kyodo News", "5 of items of discriminatory words and unpleasant terms" states that "Be careful not to lead to social and institutional discrimination based on gender." Added to the discriminatory term "Sex discriminationIncluded in "words", The notation guidelines in the mass media indicate that "Ms." should be used instead of "Ms.".
- Swordsman (binding)
- Used with respect for older women. "Swordsman" can be used alone or in the name.
- Adding to the end of the name is the same as "san" and "chan".
- It is often used for peers or current people, but it may also be used for close seniors.MaleIt is often used for women, but it is also used for women, such as when a boss calls a subordinate.It may also be used for familiar people.
- OriginallyYoshida Shoin Matsushita Village SchoolIt started to be used as a unified title so that discussions can be held on an equal footing without any difference in status.
- House of CouncilorsThen, according to the House of Councilors precedent record, "Members use" Kimi "as a honorific title for each other in the chamber or committee room."also,House of RepresentativesHowever, the House of Representatives handbook only says, "Members must use honorific titles for each other," but they are named "Kimi" following the House of Councilors.
- Keio UniversityThen "sensei" is the founderFukuzawa YukichiBased on the idea that there is only one person, the faculty and staff are referred to as "○○ -kun" in Keio University documents and notices..
- Johnny's OfficeThen, there is a custom to call a talent with "kun".
- Used for unmarried women.If you are used only for boys, girls may be used for girls.In rare cases, it may be used for married women.
- Tan, Tan
- MoeIt is often used for the target person (mainly a girl).It is rarely used outside the Internet.
- Baby talk of "chan".In this case, it is often used outside the Internet.
- Used for men and women in the Kansai region. (For example, Ochoyan. Paryan (a member of Fujiko Fujio's manga character "Perman").
- Kyun, Kyun
- Same as "kun", but same as "tan"MoeOften used for the target person (mainly boys).It is rarely used outside the Internet.
- In Japan from the Heian period to the Edo periodLordHonorific title forSir IwakuraSuch).Also, a title for the Kazoku in the era when there was a Kazoku system.Nowadays, it is often used as a translation of Lord in England, especially for those who have a title in a foreign country.
- Aristocrats and (ancient)MinisterUse for.In the early modern period, "Faithful dog HachikoThere is also a nicknamed example such as.Konoe Temple,Saionji public aspirationIs called "Kinmochi" or "Saionji Kinmochi"DukeStands forMarquisAgainst "a certain Hou",Piaget"A certain count",Viscount"A certain child",Baron"A certain man"KnighthoodThere was a similar way of saying in response to.
- Mrs. Fuji
- Used for married women.Often used when the husband's social status is high.
- Used when the other party is a company, government office, school, or other organization, such as the destination of a document. "Middle" is a group of human beings.In the middle of a parishioner, in the Shimazu family, etc.
- Used in Buddhism for objects of worship.Especially as an instruction for Buddha, "World honorFor example, the founder of the cultGautama SiddharthaMeans "Buddha, the saint of the Shakya tribe"釈Nun NunPreciousFurther shortened釈 尊Is called. "Son" is also used for Amitabha triad, Fudoson, Jizoson, and other Buddhist bodhisattvas other than Shakuson.Upper neck-MonkTheLordSometimes called.These "son" characters are used in Chinese translation of the scriptures.TaoismIt imitates one of the ranks of the gods in Japan.
- In Japan, the honorific title of gods and nobles has been around since ancient times.Mikoto"" Has been around for a long timelifeHowever, since the Nara period, the special character "Mikoto" has been assigned the character "Takashi" to distinguish it from other "life".However"Record of Ancient Matters』Adopted the old usage and purposely unified it to the character of" life "in EdoSinologySince it was pointed out in, the number of cases in which Mikoto is not expressed in the character of "Kojiki" and follows the usage of "Kojiki" has increased, and the distinction between honor and life has become ambiguous and continues to the present day.It is also a diversion from Taoist terminology to apply the character "son" to this "Mikoto".
- More informations
- Board games with a dan level systemIn that case, the name of the player of the board game may be called by adding the number of steps. (Wikipedia XNUMXth Dan, etc.) Also, if there is a title, title, or something similar to it in the game, the title may be added before and after the name. (Wikipedia Dragon King Wikipedia Eternal Seven Crowns, etc.)
- Second-person pronoun.Parent nameSee also
- Men are loverswifeIt is a name used for women who are, and is used independently.
- In addition to conversations between peers, bosses and others are used for subordinates, older people are used for younger people, and women are used for younger men.
- For young men, "youIt may be written in katakana.
- You, Takao, you (you)
- Women are lovershusbandIt is a name used for men who are, and is used independently.
- It is used independently as a name for customers and an unspecified number of individuals. "Takao" is used only for men, and "You" is used only for women.
- Sir (Kei)
- Second person when the monarch calls his vassals..Before the war, the emperor was the nextPrime MinisterWith the great command of the Cabinet, "I ordered the Lord to resign from the Kiyoura Cabinet, and do my best when the time is serious.Was used.
- Police officer,Firefighter,soldierMore informationsOfficialUsed for.
- Your job
- Used for those in some profession.
- More informations
- Father, father (gosonpu), mother, mother church (mother church), like you, young lady, son (gosoku), wife, husband
Suffix type and pronoun type
- To everyone
- Honorific title for each of multiple people.When there are multiple opponents, use it after the opponent (eg, to all the chiefs of the prefectural police headquarters (in this case, only the police chief is treated differently and a "den" is attached), to all public relations officers, to all the press. ).Depending on the context, it is often the case that the target person is omitted and only "everyone" is used.
- It is a title for each of multiple people, so care must be taken when using it.It is also necessary to consider listing individuals when they can be identified, and using "middle" when addressed to groups instead of each.
- The expressions "Dear everyone" and "Dear everyone" are not used because they are double honorific titles.
- Main (Shujo), Holy (Seijo)
- A word that calls on the emperor, Tenshi.Or it is used as an independent name in itself.
- Lord (Okami), Holy (Okami)
- A word that calls on the emperor.Or it is used as an independent name in itself.What was usedEmperor ShowaUntil reign. Now in the early 21st centuryImperial Household Agency, It is also rarely used by anyone other than court officials.When the general public refers to the emperor as "lord" or "holy", it is the same as "mikado" or "inner back", and it is not particularly rude.
- Reisoku / Lady
- Your son / daughter.A word that honors the children of others.
- thoughtUsed for people who do the same.Comrade in English.
- mainlyCommunist partySuch asLeft wingPolitical parties and political activists, as well as the Soviet UnionKomsomolAmong the members (RussianThen Tavarissi (comrade)).
- GermanAs an expression of, generally, camerat (Kamerad. mainlyNaziUsed in),Left wingIn the system, Genose (Genosse).The former has the nuance of being a comrade or a comrade, and the latter being a companion who shares interests.
- FormerSocialist countryHouse,reformBefore openingChugokuThen "ComradeWas also functioning as a general call (even today政府 Of公 文書Etc.).
- north koreaThen, call it like this only for superiors (pronounced 동지 Tonji), and do the same for people of the same rank or current (Tongmu 동무).And use it properly.
- It is usually used as a suffix in conversation, but in particular, it may be "comrade XX" in the text.
- Honorific titles for people below the same level (mainly men).Usually used in written language (letters, etc.).
- Mr(Sensei) / Dai-sensei (Daisensei)
- Kindergarten,Small-中-high schoolEtc.Teacher,Licensed Nursery School OfChildminder,University Of教授Educators, such asDoctor,Lawyer,Certified public accountantSuch asProfession,PriestReligious teachers such as, etc.Member,作家,Artist,manga artist,Shogi player,Go player, A big player with a long careerentertainer, While it is a call to the lecturer of the lecture, it may be added after the name.Those who fall into these professions are called teachers regardless of age.also,Historical dramaThen it is also used for bouncers.note that,DoctorIn letters to, "sensei" is often followed by "samurai history" or "kika" to refer to "○○ sensei samurai history (desk)". It is wrong to put "Go" on "Samurai History" and "Desk".
- In modern Chinese, "sensei" is close to "san" in Japanese, and the nuances are quite different, so be careful.
- It is a term that mainly refers to a person who has entered the organization first, or who has more experience in some activity than himself, but students and young people may also use it as a title.In South Korea, "senior" is used as in Japan, in China and Taiwan, "president" or "senior" is used, and in North Korea, "comrade" is used.
Honorific title with "bottom"
Since it was considered rude for a low-ranking person to talk directly to a person of extremely high status such as royalty or royal family, it is respected by indirectly calling to an agent who is near a certain place with a noble person. The title of the title was generated.In the original usage of the strict Chinese sentence, it is the second person and cannot be used as the third person, and it is a word that is used alone with only the two letters "○ lower" without being attached under the word or title indicating a specific position. The usages such as His Majesty the Emperor, His Highness Kanpaku, and His Excellency General are anomalous (in short, an error) that arose after they were diverted to the third person.
- His Majesty(Heika)
- The meaning is "under the stairs".
- Emperor,emperor,Queen,Empress Dowager,Queen Mother,Emperor,Empress、王（king-queen),princess、太王太后、王太后の敬称。該当項参照。
- 日本では天皇のみの敬称だったが、Imperial rule制定後、后位（皇后・太皇太后・皇太后）の敬称としても採用された。
- Your Highness(Denka)
- The meaning is "under the palace / hall of fame".
- Crown princeLess than,royal(Prince,Inner prince,Queen,王,queen,princess)・Royal family(prince,princess）や皇帝に臣従する国王に対する敬称。該当項参照。訳語としては、欧州大陸の貴族やその親族に対する敬称としても用いられる。日本では本来、天皇以外の皇族（皇后など）とSan GongIt was a word used for the above-mentioned lord.
- Excellency /Your Honor(Kaka)
- The meaning is "under Takadono".
- A title given under the title of a person who has a high status or position.
- Aristocrat,President,prime minister,ambassadorIt is used for high-ranking officials such as, high-ranking military officials, etc., or is used as an independent name in itself (eg, His Excellency President, His Excellency Chief of Staff).
- originallyRoyal officer(Prefectural governor, deputy ministerial director, etc.) Used for the above persons.Now mainly as a diplomatic ritualMinisterAnd (of other countries)Generalなどの官名・職名につけられる。また、訳語としては、United Kingdomなどの貴族のKnighthoodMay be used in addition to.When giving the honorific title of His Excellency, the other partyDoctor OfBachelor of ScienceIf you have the official name, you may also call it your Excellency under the official name (example: ~ President ●● Your Excellency).
- In the military, even the general officer is "His Excellency" and the officer is "Den" according to the official regulations, but in general, which is not an official place, the non-commissioned officer may be called "His Excellency" regardless of the regulations.
- His Eminence
- The literal meaning is "under Suanni (the seat where the Buddha or high priest sits)".
- What is Suanni?獅子It is another notation of (Lion).The Buddha's Dharma Talk獅子The same as), the seat of the Dharma Talk is called the Master's seat.AlsoSuanni(Sangei) isDragonChild (Nine sons of the dragon), Which is similar to a lion,煙To likeTemple OfIncense burnerIn turn, Leo is also called "Suanni" or "Suanni".
- In other words, His Eminence means "I would like to say to the people under the teacher's seat (= aides)".Suanni (sanka).
- Honorific title of the chief priest.
- mainlyDalai LamaUsed against the highest authority of a sect such as the Pope.Or it is used as an independent name by itself (eg, His Eminence, His Eminence, His Eminence).
- キ リ ス ト 教Then.pope-PatriarchSuch,BuddhismThen the teacher,Monzeki,Gate ruins, Used for the president, etc. (for example, His Eminence Dalai Lama, His Eminence of the Pure Land Monzeki, Rome.popeIn the case of, the Holy Spirit may be used.At this time, "His HolinessCorresponds to).in JapanNichiren MasamuneOnly the exception is "SuperiorThe name "His Eminence" is used.
- Squid / Squid
- The meaning is "under the high tower".
- Honorific titles of high-ranking priests and other nobles.
- In Buddhism, depending on the sect, it may be used as a representative of the sect, or the chief priest of each Omotoyama (branch) class (branch).Priesthood, Gondai Kyosei) may be used.In ChristianityCardinal-Bishop-ArchbishopUsed for.The Japanese government uses it for the Pope.
- Under the seat (Zaka)
- The meaning is "under the seat".
- Orthodox churchInPatriarchOther thanBishop(Bishop-Archbishop・ Honorific title for (bishop).
- His Holiness
- Orthodox church OfPatriarch,Catholic church OfpopeTranslated word used for.A new coined word that imitates other "○ lower" and does not take into account the tradition of Chinese writing.English "His HolinessHowever, even with His Holiness in English, Pope Dalai Lama may be His Eminence and Pope may be His Eminence or His Eminence. I have been there, but I am using the pedestal for the Pope.
- キ リ ス ト 教Highest inclergymanHonorific title for.
- Under the desk (Kika)
- The meaning is "under the desk".
- Doctor,LawyerHonorific titles for those who are in a social position / qualified, such as those commonly called teachers.Usually used in written language (letters, etc.).
- Honorific titles for people below the same level (mainly men).Usually used in written language (letters, etc.).
Name used in occupation (title)
- Title (No name of the department in charge, etc. Also, if it is long, abbreviated form is often used)
- Minister,Secretary,President,Director,The president,President,Head,Managing director,Managing director,Director,General manager,Secretary,Manager,Manager,Chief,chief,Master,Commander, (Army / Master / Travel)Leader, (Ren / Large / Medium / Small)Captain,head teacher,Chairman,Chair,directed by,Chiefな ど
- Class name
- Colonel,Sergeant,Issa,Attorney General,Prosecutor,Police commander,Fire supervisor,command,Inspector,general(Also known as "Odai" for short for "Odai").
- Names representing qualifications and functions
- Lawyer,Doctor,教授,Doctor,Architect,Tax accountant,Driver,Judge,Clerkな ど
- SportsUsed by those who engage in.baseball,soft ballIn the case of, distinguishing from other positions, "pitcherIn addition to often using the name ""catcher"Infielder"OutfielderMay be used.
- Most of the articles and news related to the press, especially the game, are omitted and abandoned.
- Grand SumoでTen carsHonorific titles of wrestlers located above. "○○ (Four-pronged name) Seki ”is also used.On the other hand,MakushitaThe following are referred to as "taken" and are referred to as "sansetsu".On the other hand, the three roles of Komusubi and above, and the highest-ranked yokozuna, are rarely called "Sekitori" and are called "Sekitori".summary""Sekiwaki""Ozeki""YokozunaIs called.
- In the world of comic storytelling, it is used not only for direct masters, but also for seniors in the same class as their masters ("brothers" and "sisters" are used for seniors who do not reach that level).In addition, the master class of the master is often called a "teacher".On the other hand, in sumo wrestling, in principle, it refers to the "master of the room", and even if the active wrestlers are brothers and sisters rather than those who became masters, they must be called masters.
- It is used for Kabuki actors and sumo wrestlers.
Unusual as a Japanese honorific titleprefixWhat is used as.
- Translated from English such as Saint, ChristiansaintUse against (holyJohn, HolyPaul, HolyValentineSuch).
- Great Bach,Large bush,OtanizakiIt is used for those who have the same surname and the same name but who have a particularly great achievement or who are older in the family.
- Used for the deceased.
Equivalent to honorific title
In the past, it was common for criminals (suspects) to omit honorific titles,human rightsDue to heightened awareness, the media reported that the suspect was "Suspect", For the accused,"defendantFor inmates, "TorturedFor those who have been sentenced to death and detained, "Death row prisoner, Etc. are used as similar to honorific titles.If you have a job title, you may use the title instead.The terms "former prisoner (former prisoner)" and "former convict on death row" are used after a definite death row prisoner is not executed or a life imprisonment prisoner is not released and is killed in prison or is executed.
In the mass media, even if a suspect or a defendant is a suspect or a defendant, if a certain title or position is more prominent than before, or if special consideration is given to the honor of the subject, "suspect" or "suspect" or " Instead of using titles such as "defendant," different titles may be used.Aum Shinrikyo OfHideo Murai"Former executive",SMAP OfInagaki Goro"member",Shimada Shinsuke"Moderator" "Affiliation talent",Kyoko Koizumi"talent",Genya Izumi"Kyogen actor",Shido Nakamura"Kabuki actor",UVERworldTAKUYA∞ (real name: Takuya Shimizu) "Vocals",Hotei Torayasu"guitarist",Tsukitei good morning"Rakugoka",Tetsuya KomuroThere are "producers" etc. (→Taboo in the press #Entertainment production taboo).
Kakuei Tanaka Lockheed caseWhen he was arrested in Japan, the suspect and the accused were usually abandoned, but in the media, it was written as "Tanaka" for the Lockheed scandal and "Former Prime Minister Tanaka" for other political articles. ..also,American terrorist attacksIs the mastermind ofOsama Bin LadenInitially, the Japanese press called him "Mr. Bin Laden," but after he stated in a video statement that he was the mastermind, he changed the name to "Bin Laden."In addition, the media that had been abandoned from the beginning[Who?]Also exists.
Honorific titles in other languages
WesternEven in the language ofEnglishOther thanIndo-EuropeanMany ofsecond personToParent nameとTitleMany have.Second person for other personal pronounsSingularIt is often used as a title of honorific title, and the beginning of the word is capitalized for distinction.
- German: Sie (third person singular female, third personMultiple) / Sie (second person honorific title)
- Italian: Lei (third person singular female) / Lei (second person singular male and female honorific title) --Both are grammatically secondthird personTreated as singular.
- French: Use vous (plural second person) as the honorific title of the second person singular.
- Russian: Вы (second personMultiple) Is used as the honorific title of the second person singular and the beginning of the word is capitalized.
- English: You is also historically a second person plural, used as a honorific title for the second person singular thou.
- Spanish: Usted (second person single man and woman honorific title) ustedes (second person multiple man and woman honorific title) / tú (second person single man and woman parent name) vosotros (second person multiple male and female parent name) vosotras (second person multiple female parent name)
There are the following titles, but most of them are used in written language (documents), and in conversation, they are not often used except when the service provider uses them for customers or for superiors. ..There is no direct phrase in English that corresponds to "-san" and "-san" that are often used in Japan, and when you say your name, it is either a title or abandoned.In movies, the boss often uses "Mr." and "Miss" for his subordinates and is often translated as "~ kun" in Japanese, but in the past, honorific titles were used in a wider range. Is.Generally, for colleagues, without honorific titleAbbreviation for personal nameTo use.
In English, for example, on the phone, you may give yourself a title such as "This is Mr. Johnson", but this is whether or not you have a title such as Dr., and in the case of women, you are unmarried (Miss) or married (Mrs. ) Is distinguished, and when it is confused with the first name, it indicates that it is a surname.However, in recent years, women often use Ms. without distinguishing between unmarried and married, so it is less likely to give a title and give a title to yourself, giving a magnificent impression as in Japanese. Some people think they will give it.
- BaronAboveMarquisHas the following titles貴族(British aristocrat Used for Peerage).For example, officiallyAlfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson(Alfred Tennyson, The first Baron Tennyson, is a nobleman, Lord Tennyson.Lord).Note that unlike Sir in the next section, it is written as Lord + title name (not family name).In other words, Sir Tenison has both a surname and a title name, but rather the surname and title name often do not match.ChaebolKnown asBaring familyIn the case ofBaron NorthbrookIncluding the houseBaron AshburtonHouse,Baron RevelstokeHouse,Count CromerHouse,Baron Howick of Glendale5 houses貴族Exists as.The call to the Baron Northbrook's owner is Sir Northbrook, not Sir Bearing.
- ナ イ トQualified orBaronetIt is used for those who are scorned.Sir is a man and Dame is a woman. Sir (Dame) + first name or Sir (Dame) + full name (oral call is Sir (Dame) + first name).For example, does John (Patricia) Smith qualify for Knight?BaronetWhen it is described as Sir John (Dame Patricia) or Sir John Smith (Dame Patricia Smith). Not written as Sir (Dame) Smith.
- Scholars, doctors, etc.Japanese translation is "sensei" "Doctor"Such.It is considered inappropriate to use Mr. or Ms. For those with a PhD.46th generationPresident of the United StatesJoe BidenWife ofJill BidenIs called "Dr. Biden" instead of "Mrs. Biden" in public and private because he has a PhD in pedagogy.
- Higher educationAt the top of the list (教授) Or a person equivalent to it ()Honorary professor) Is the title given to.Considered even higher than the doctor.In Japanese translation, "teacher" is also used in addition to "professor".
- Widely used for men, both married and unmarried.Japanese translations include "sama," "san," and "teacher."
- Used for unmarried women.Japanese translations include "san" and "miss".
- Used for married women.Japanese translations include "san" and "wife".
- Ms.(Ms. Miss)
- Widely used for women, both married and unmarried.Japanese translations include "sama" and "sensei".Since the above two words are distinguished by the presence or absence of marriage, they are sometimes perceived as discrimination against women, and this title is often used in business situations (The following itemsreference).
- Mx.(Mix Max)
- It is used when you want to avoid identifying the gender of the other party.The Japanese translation is the same as Mr. and Ms.
- His / Her Majesty
- Corresponds to "His Majesty" in Japanese.Abbreviation is HM.Example: Her Majesty The Queen (Queen of Englandin the case of).
- His / Her Royal Highness
- Corresponds to "His Highness" in Japanese.Abbreviation is HRH.Honorific title to the royal family, but there are exceptions (Grand Duke of LuxembourgAnd their relatives, etc.Example: His Royal Highness, Prince of Wales (for the Crown Prince of England).
- His / Her Imperial Majesty
- The abbreviation for "His Majesty" in Japanese is HIM.especiallyemperor,EmperorIt is used when it is necessary to distinguish the honorific title of a monarch with the title from the title of a monarch with a king title.Currently used only by Japanese emperors and empresses, most of the time her His / Her Majesty is used, omitting her Imperial.Example: His (Imperial) Majesty The Emperor (Emperor Imakamiin the case of)
- His / Her Imperial Highness
- This is also "His Highness".Abbreviation is HIH.Honorific title to the imperial family.Currently used only by the Japanese imperial family.
- Excellency, His / Her Lordship
- Used for high-ranking commoner officials, diplomatic mission leaders such as ministers and ambassadors, and military generals (admirals and generals). "Your HonorIs often translated. Lordship is used for aristocrats called Lord, which is also translated as "His Excellency."
- Right Honorable (Rt. Hon.)
- United KingdomAnd someBritish CommonwealthIn each countryprime ministerandMinister,UKOf big cities such asMayor..Counts and Countess, Viscounts, Barons,Secretary counselorIt is used for such purposes. Often translated as "His Excellency."
- soldierHonorific title used for.French"Brave, splendid" etc.meaningTo..After thisArmy rankContinue. It is used for writing greeting cards and thank-you notes, such as "Galant Cpt. John Smith (Dear and brave Captain John Smith)", and the rank + name is common verbally.
Other Indo-European languages
The honorific titles for unmarried women shown below are for women.DiminutiveIs attached.Unlike English, where "Ms" has become popular as a title that does not distinguish between unmarried and married, in these languages, the traditional title for married women is increasingly being used for unmarried women as it is.
- Male: Monsieur-"Mu" in JapaneseSushiIt is often written as "yu".
- Woman: Madame
- Unmarried woman: Mademoiselle-"Mad" in JapanesemoreOften referred to as "Zel".
- Male: Herr
- Woman: Frau
- Unmarried women: Fräulein —— Rarely used after the 1960s.
- Title: Dr. (Doctor / Doctor) etc.In German, it is common to add "Herr" and "Frau" in front of the title to make "Herr Dr. ~" and "Frau Dr. ~" (without "Herr" and "Frau", in English. Similarly, it may simply be "Dr. ~").Recently, there is a tendency to omit the title and call it "Herr ~" or "Frau ~".In rare cases, as a written word or a revised call, people with a "master's degree" may be given "Herr Magister ~" or "Mag. ~" (Magister means master's degree), but unlike Dr. Is often omitted. If a person with the title of "Professor" has a "Master" or "Doctor" degree, officially "Prof. Mag, ~", "Prof. Dr. ~", "Prof. Dr. Mag. ~" Will be.
- Male: Signóre-In Japanese, "SheaIt is often written as "Nyore".
- Woman: Signóra-In Japanese, "SheaIt is often written as "Nyora".
- Unmarried woman: Signorina-in Japanese, "SheaOften referred to as "Nyorina".
- Dottore (male), Dottoressa (female): Used for doctors or those who have graduated from a four-year university in Italy and received a degree.
- Maestro (male), Maestra (maestro, female): Used by musicians (composers, conductors, musical instrument players, music educators, etc.), artists, cooks, etc.
- Honorific titles and honorifics are used for those who are in a higher position than their relatives.
- For example, even if you point your father at another person, he is called "father" instead of "father" (there is another title for the other person's father).
- Also, "President" and "Teacher" alone are not regarded as honorific titles, and the suffix "-"sir"(Nim," sama ") is attached.
- In the formal scene, men are named "~ Sensei", unmarried women are named "~ Xiao Jae", married women are named "~ Nui Shi", and "~ Mrs. Huren". Attach it to the back.
- In normal situations, "Old (Lao) ~" and "Small (Xiao) ~" are added in front of the name.There is "A" as a familiar prefix (Amon of Kuroshita), Also used as a honorific title for older people(A Q Masaden).
- If there is a title, put it after the name.
- Knowledge workers such as teachers, authors, and artists add "~ old master (Laoshi)" to the end of their names.
- Skilled workers and manual workers add "~ Shifu" to the end of their names.
Honorific title and political correctness
Political CorrectnessThere is a point of view that the usage of honorific titles, which is considered inappropriate due to the relationship between the two, should be changed.
In schools, it was common to use "kun" for boys and "san" for girls to distinguish them, but in recent years, "kun" has been used compared to general "san". There is also an opinion that this usage is not appropriate from the viewpoint of gender equality because the other party is limited to equality or less, and it is being encouraged to add "san" to both men and women (especially).Compulsory educationMay be mixed with older peopleUniversity,Universityin the case of).note that,hospitalThen, it is common to use "kun" for young boys and "chan" for girls.
In addition, honorific titles that emphasize being a woman, such as "Ms."Sex discriminationIt is regarded as one of the words.. Published in May 1997Kyodo NewsIn the "Reporter's Handbook 8th Edition", it is shown that "Ms." is not used but "san" is used..
Honorific titles for married women in EnglishMrs.Originally, it was usually used with the husband's surname or surname, but recently it is said that it is misogyny to be called by the husband's name instead of his own name, so recently Mrs. is added to his full name. There are many examples of attaching and calling.Furthermore, it is inappropriate to have different titles for women depending on whether they are married or unmarried, regardless of whether they are married or unmarried.Ms.It is common in business places to use.
In 2012, in France, the expression of the honorific title Mademoiselle for unmarried women was gender discrimination, and official documents issued a notice to unify with Madame regardless of whether it was unmarried or married..
In recent years, the honorific titles in English (e-mail, etc.) for Japanese people have been used as "XXX-san" (san) and "XXX-sensei" (sensei) instead of "Mr. XXX".Also, when calling a Japanese name in English oral expression, the word "last name + san" is sometimes used.for exampleDaisuke MatsuzakaMatsuzaka-san,Otani XiangpingIs called Ohtani-san.For foreigners who are not familiar with Japanese names, it is useful as an expression that can avoid the above-mentioned political correctness problem by saving the trouble of confirming the gender of the destination Japanese.
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- ^ "Special feature Sanaichi separate volume! Interview period proof Kazuhiro Marushima ~ Will left by Toyotomi Hideyoshi ~". NHKTaiga drama"Sanadamaru』. 2016/8/20Browse.
- ^ Jiichiro MatsumotoThe word "If you are an aristocrat, there are people" is famous.Generally, only Japan gives the head of state of another country a title and gives it to the imperial family.
- ^ Ei-sama - Koto bank
- ^ Next - Daijirin Third edition Kotobank
- ^ Beauty -Kotobank
- ^ Mr. Taira -Kotobank
- ^ "Which [Den]". Daijirin Third edition. Koto bank. 2018/3/20Browse.
- ^ "Agency for Cultural Affairs | National Language Policy / Japanese Language Education | National Language Policy Information | 1st National Language Council | Future Honorifics (Proposal) | Honorifics / Honorifics / "Tachi" and "Ra"". www.bunka.go.jp. 2019/9/21Browse.
- ^ a b c d "Sexist language". KashiwaGender Equality Center (May 2016, 5). As of January 27, 2019originalMore archives.2019/1/4Browse.
- ^ "Keio Gijuku Bean Encyclopedia No.18 Mr.". Keio University. 2019/1/5Browse.
- ^ History of horse mackerel [Reference Code] A06050013100 You can check the names such as "Itoko", "Kanekoko", "Nanbuo", and "Kikuchio" in "Eligibility for election of members of the House of Representatives".
- ^ "Kei" "Kojien XNUMXth Edition" Iwanami Shoten
- ^ "Kobe University Institute of Economics and Management Newspaper Articles Bunko Politics (34-068) Osaka Asahi Shimbun 1924.6.11 (Taisho 13)". Kobe University Digital library system. 2019/1/5Browse.
- ^   Korean Dictionary (Korean)
- ^ Yukio Mishima regularly uses it in a letter addressed to Ken Token, a five-year-old senior ("Yukio Mishima Teen Letters Collection").
- ^ How to write a letter of introduction during training Mynavi Resident
- ^ "Galant | Meaning and origin of car name | Contact us". Mitsubishi Motors Corporation. 2022/4/6Browse.
- ^ Fusevolod GarcinSee the description in the work "Signal"
- ^ 3rd Edition, Chinese-Japanese Dictionary. “Japanese translation of A (Chinese), how to read --Kotobank Chinese-Japanese dictionary”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2022/6/20Browse.
- ^ Disappearing "Madmoiselle" banned from use in French administrative documents Reuters April 2012, 2