Chiaki, when she was in elementary school, had a problem with e-commerce, "If you can buy juice with a magic card ...".Financial education for children ...
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In the "Sekirara Voting," which aggregates the voices of viewers, 72% of the respondents answered "I understand" to the question "The feelings of parents who charge a lot of their children's IC cards because they are worried about something." I am.
Children's money education is becoming more complex.Recently, physical money such as "how much should I charge?" → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Prepaid Card(IC card,British: integrated circuit card; ICC) Is情报(Data) Recording and calculationIntegrated circuit (IC)cardThat is. InternationallySmart card (smart card) AndChip card (chip card) Is also calledJapanThen, what has an arithmetic processing function in particular is called a smart card.
In the cardRAM,ROM,EEPROM such asSemiconductor memoryBy incorporating theMagnetic stripe cardIt is several tens of times to several thousand times that of. further,CPU,CoprocessorBy incorporating such as, there is a feature that information processing becomes possible inside the card.Applying this,IntelInserts a dedicated IC card into the dedicated dock,Personal computerDeveloped the Intel Compute Card that can be used as.All information processing and memory are done on the card.
IC cards in Germany1968/ToHelmut Gretorup(Helmut Gröttrup) and Jürgen Dethloff jointly in Japan1970/ToKunitaka ArimuraBut in France1974/Invented by Roland Moreno. Gretorup in 1968PatentI applied for it, but it was approved in 1982.
IC cards can be classified into the following four categories according to their functions.
- Memory card (memory only, fuse memory, etc.): Used for disposable prepaid cards, etc.
- Card with logic (equipped with access control function)
- CPU mounted card
- Other (dedicated coprocessor, etc.)
CPUAn IC card equipped with the1970 eraIt appeared in the second half. As a productBullとMotorolaJointly,1973/から1979/We developed a memory card and a microcomputer card (CPU with built-in EEPROM, EEPROM with built-in CPU, and one chip). This was the beginning of the IC card.BullOf the IC card division company in JapanDai Nippon PrintingAnd a joint venture. The basic technology of the microcomputer card is known as CP8 technology or SPOM (Self Programmable One-chip Microcomputer) patent, and it has been licensed to card manufacturers around the world. Then the currentSTMicroelectronics NV 1982/Has developed a secure memory IC.
in Japan1981/ToDai Nippon PrintingStarted research,1983/ToDai Nippon Printing,Letterpress printingIs the IC chip in card,Toshiba 1984/IC card toHitachi, Ltd.(CurrentRenesas Electronics)But1985/The IC card microcomputer (HD65901) was developed respectively.SonyAlso1988/Had begun research and development of a contactless IC card.
The initial CPU was 4bit-8bitCPU, but then 16bit-32bitCPU was installed. 、、、Z80,H8,AVR,ARM,MIPSNot only those that use the existing architecture such as, but also those that adopt their own private architecture.
The memory size was initially 256bit-8kByte, but gradually increased,2003/Around 32kByte-512kByte, 1MByte.
Non-volatile memoryIn addition to the EEPROMFlash memory,FeRAM Some cards have (FRAM). Initially, rewriting the EEPROM required a dedicated voltage in addition to the Vcc used to drive the IC, but after that it was improved so that it could operate only with Vcc.
The original IC cardProgramWas stored in ROM, but in the latter half of the 1990s, it is called a platform type IC card that has a mechanism to download programs to non-volatile memory.MULTOSCard orJava cardWas developed.MULTOSCard isMasterCard,Dai Nippon Printing,Hitachi, Ltd.Was developed by and became the pioneer of the platform type IC card.MULTOSThe card is a dedicated MELassemblerWrite the program in a language that looks like it. In 1999, it was issued as a credit card on a large scale, and the world's first platform type IC card was put into practical use. Java card in the cardJava VMBuilt in,JavaThe program described in can be executed. For Java cards including the Java execution environment,encryption,Electronic signatureThere are things that can use the technology of.
IC cardPlasticI am usingLetterpress printing TheRecyclingPossiblepaperWas developed using2009/Sales started in April. Collected togetherregenerationFor up toRecyclingAlso establish a system of.
There are a contact type and a non-contact type for reading and writing information on an IC card, and several methods have been standardized and standardized respectively.
Contact IC cards have a mechanism in which external power is supplied from the gold-plated terminals on the surface when inserted into a reader. The minimum required parts from physical specifications to logical aspects such as commandsInternational standard It is standardized in ISO/IEC 7816 (there is Part 1-15). International standard IC card-related standards areCard Standard (ISO) See.
Since only the minimum part is standardized in, a specification specialized for the industry or service is created.
There are Java card specifications and MULTOS specifications as specifications of cards and platforms on which multiple applications can be installed. The Java card has the Visa Open Platform specification by Visa (currently Global Platform).
In Japan, based on ISO/IEC 7816Japanese Industrial Standard JIS X 6300 is available.
Industry standard specifications include specifications andZenginkyoIC cash card standard specifications are available.
As a standard for construction IC cards, there is the Japan Construction Mechanization Association Standard (JCMAS G 001-1 Construction Business IC Cards-Cards-Part 1: Physical Characteristics 1997, JCMAS G 001-2 Construction Business IC Cards-Cards- Part 2: Functional specifications). The industry standard was created to solve the mounting problem that interoperability between cards may not be possible only with ISO compliance, and there were S-type mounting specifications in the early days. To standardize industry standards, JIS/ISO drafts have been created based on the JICSAP specifications.
Non-contact type IC card passes the magnetic field of the readerElectromagnetic inductionIt uses the electromotive force of. International standardISO / IEC 14443There is. Depending on the communication distance between the reader and writer, it is classified into four types, "contact type", "proximity type", "proximity type", and "remote type", and the proximity type is further classified into "Type A" and "Type B". Type A cards in Europe, especially Netherlands OfPhilips electronicsDeveloped byMIFAREIs widespread. In the United StatesMotorolaType B card developed by is also popular.
SonyWas developed in-houseFeliCaWas proposed to ISO/IEC 14443 as Type C, but it was not adopted in this international standard, and the upper communication method of FeliCa and MIFARE was later adopted by ISO/IEC 18092 (NFC, Near Field Communication) (Type D-G was also proposed at the same time as FeliCa, but the discussion on standardization was stopped because the standards were scattered). In January 2005, the extended standard NFC IP-1 was established as an international standard as ISO/IEC 2, and Type B was also supported.
In Japan there is JIS X 6321-6323. Standards for specific applications,Basic Resident Register cardSpecifications (Type B),Japan Railway Cybernetics CouncilAdopted FeliCa technology byIC card ticketStandards (cybernet standard) etc. are widespread. Except for the part related to the application of the cybernet standard, the part is specified in Part 4 of the specification.
IC card application
Introduced in the telecommunications broadcasting field
The first large-scale application of IC cards is1983/France Telecom (currentlyOrange)ButPublic phoneDisposable for payment ofprepaid cardIt is a telephone card adopted as. The French IC telephone card is a contact type..JapanBut International Telegraph and Telephone (KDD, currentKDDI) Has adopted a contact type card.1999/3ToNippon Telegraph and Telephone Magnetic calling cardNon-contact type as a countermeasure againstIC calling card(IC telephone card) introduced, IC card type at the same timePublic phoneAlso introduced.
after that,Public phoneIs worldwideMobile phoneHas been replaced by, and its use as a prepaid card has decreased. Therefore, NTT2005/May 1Announced the abolition of costly IC telephone cards and IC card-type public telephones due to the decrease in the number of users.2006/By March, all IC payphones have been removed and only the places with the most users have been replaced with magnetic card payphones.
GSMMobile phone,NTT docomo Of3rd generation mobile communication systemFOMA OfFOMA card,3.9rd generation mobile communication system OfXias well as the 4rd generation mobile communication system OfPREMIUM 4GUsed inDocomo UIM card,au Ofau VoLTEUsed inau IC card,Softbank OfSoftBank 3GInSoftBank 3G USIM card,E-MobileInEM chipEtc.SIM card/UIM cardAn IC card was recorded with the phone number and so on recorded. The SIM/UIM card can be removed, and by inserting the card into another terminal, it is possible to take over the same number to another terminal, and one call terminal and one data communication terminal. It can be used by inserting and removing the card.
en: VideocryptAn IC card is used in the billing management system.
in Japan,2000/May 12Started inBS digital broadcastingOf a contact IC card as a viewing control cardB-CASThe card was introduced. The B-CAS card stores the ID number and the master key, which are included in the receiver and distributed. Pay broadcasting (WOWOW,Star channel BSEtc.) was used as a means to distribute and manage the private key for descrambling. afterwards,Terrestrial digital television broadcasting(Started in December 2003)110 degree CS digital broadcastingBut the B-CAS card is used. 20035Up to 17 copies have been issued.2004/May 4Of digital broadcastingCopy control(Copy once) started and I could not watch it without inserting the B-CAS card. B-CAS cardBS Conditional Access Systems Co., Ltd.Issued by.
SKY PerfecTV! However, insert an IC card (sky perfect card or perfect card) into the receiver for viewing.
PPVCharge management is also performed.
デ ジ タ ルCable TVA C-CAS card, a contact type IC card, is used for viewing (digitalized cable TV). However, in order to watch various digital broadcasts that are rebroadcast (broadcasts targeted by the general B-CAS card above), a B-CAS card for cable TV is required in addition to the C-CAS card. Therefore, there is also a receiver (STB) that supports both B-CAS/C-CAS. The issue of C-CAS is the difference in specifications between receiver manufacturers. For operations of C-CAS cards and B-CAS cards for cable TV, refer to "General Incorporated Associations". Japan Cable Television Federation (JCTA)”.
Introduction as a payment method
FranceThen,1989/From around that time, IC cards were introduced to bank cards (first in 1984TMJBank cards have appeared). In Japan, credit cards2001/From aroundpachinkoPrepaid IC card for2000/Have been introduced respectively. In 2004, following the use of credit prepaid cards, the use of cash cards as IC cards began.
IC credit card
1993/To a major credit cardEuropay-MasterCard-VisaAgreed to develop common specifications for credit card payment business IC cards, and took the acronyms of the three companies for common specifications.EMV specificationsSince then, all credit cards and cash cards that have adopted contact-type IC chips have been named.世界EMV specification IC cardWorld standardHas become. Then to EMV,JCB-American Express-Chinese UnionPay-Discover cardAlso subscribed.
IC cash card
IC cash cardIs the information required for transactions such as account numbersSecret keyEquipped with an IC chip on whichCash cardThat is. TraditionalMagnetic stripe cardIt is more difficult to counterfeit.
With a magnetic stripe cash card, you can apply magnetic material or use a magnetic card reader / writer to read magnetic information.SkimmingWas easily done, and the damage caused by counterfeit cards occurred frequently, so it would break if you tried to disassemble and analyze it (Tamper resistance) A cash card that uses an IC chip is required.
In the Republic of China, 2006May 3We completely switched to IC cash cards and stopped using conventional magnetic cash cards.
In South Korea, from February 2014TMJWe plan to discontinue the handling of magnetic stripe cash cards in Japan (trial operation started in February 2013).
In Japan, the old in March 2001National Bankers AssociationEstablished "IC cash card standard specifications"2002/Introduction studies and demonstration experiments have been conducted since around that time, but the introduction has accelerated since 2004-2005 when card forgery spread and the damage was reported. In addition to the tamper resistance of the IC chip itself, finger vein recognition, etc.BiometricsBy installing the function, it is strongIdentificationIs possible. According to the current standard,2049/It is available until the end,2050/It is necessary to develop new standards or upgrade software that can be used even after that.
2008/Today, IC cash cards still often have magnetic stripes (as described below).Mizuho Trust & BankingBy March 2012, has taken measures to disable cash cards with IC cards and replaced them with magnetic stripe-only cards). This is because there is a problem of backward compatibility for ATMs and payment terminals that do not support IC chip communication, but many financial institutions offer services that set the withdrawal amount low with magnetic stripes. In addition to contact-type IC chips, those that support contactless IC card communication methods have also appeared, and those that can be used as IC card tickets have also appeared.
- Tokyo Mitsubishi Bank(CurrentMitsubishi UFJ Bank): "Super IC card" Tokyo Mitsubishi-VISA "" (October 10) IC cash card, credit card, electronic money (Edy), Equipped with palm vein authentication. There are two card OSs, Java Card / Visa Global Platform and Felica OS, which are dual contact / non-contact I / F. And "IC cash card" Those that do not have a credit card function. However,2010/May 6After that, Edy will not be installed for new issues or replacements. After that, general cards that were issued only with magnetic stripes (some accounts that are not covered by IC cards, such as cash cards for savings deposits) became the IC card standard, so it became a card with no expiration date, but Disney In designJ-DebitI took a specification that makes it impossible to use.
- UFJ Bank(Currently Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ): "All-one IC card" (November) IC cash card ...2007/May 5Part of the specifications has been changed in order to support IC transactions at ATMs of other banks that support IC from the issued amount (the issued part before that is other than the own ATMJapan Post BankとConvenience store ATM(Seven Bank-E-net) Only supports IC transactions). After the expiration date, all the replacement cards were changed to the specifications of the former Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, as the system was changed to the new system specifications.
- Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation : (February 2st) IC cash card, (December 21th) Finger vein recognition. The finger vein authentication compatible card is a dedicated card that is magnetic stripeless and requires biometric authentication registration, and some of themConvenience store ATMIt was said that it could not be used by other banks except for the above, but later, with the start of immediate issuance support at the counter, cards with or without biometric authentication were issued.Savings depositICs such as dedicated cards are possible, but some cards are not immediately issued). In addition, except for credit card integrated type such as SMBC CARD, double stripe cards etc. basically do not support IC.
- Mizuho Bank : "Mizuho IC cash card" (March 3) IC cash card, (October 7, 2006) Finger vein recognition
- Hiroshima Bank : "<Hirogin> Value One" (April) Credit & IC cash card, palm vein recognition. "<Hirogin> IC cash card" (August 4, 2006) IC cash card, palm vein recognition.
- New Bank Tokyo (Currently: Kiraboshi Bank(Old: SGT store "■』Handling)): (April 4) IC cash card, safety pass function, (July 1)Suicafunction. It will be a stand-alone type that will be issued for a fee and a free issueJAL Mileage Bank(Part of TokyoMitsukoshiExcept for tie-ups (including point card function of stores), all were integrated with credit cards (with integrated Suica function and PASMO separately issued, etc.). After that, it became free of charge, and all of them were switched to those with only an IC cash card (the expiration date was abolished after that, and it was forced to switch). After mergerKiraboshi BankThen oldTokyo Tomin BankIt will be issued by the method and until the system integration, "●■Both marks will be attached. The new bank Tokyo name card can still be used, but each financial institution that the former three banks had individuallyConvenience store ATMSince it is expanded only in the range ofMICSFor use as a treatment, Kiraboshi Bank name (2020/For information issued by April, see●■It is necessary to reissue the card.
- Ikeda Bank(Currently: Ikeda Senshu Bank(Old: Ikeda store "●』Handling)):" + sa-ica "(June 6) IC cash card, palm
- Kansai Urban Bank(Currently: Kansai Mirai Bank(Old: Kansai Urban Store "■』Handling)): (July 7) Authentication by IC cash card, 19-digit PIN, in addition.At the time of system integration, it was changed to the old Kinki Osaka specifications, and the alphabet PIN was abolished.If you wish to use biometrics and Resona debit cards, or if you are a store user who has a history of store integration at the old Biwako store and you are using a card from a discontinued store, you need to issue a card after system integration. ..
- Amagasaki Shinkin Bank : (August 8) IC cash card <First in the credit union industry> (ATM usage will be available from August 22), (April 8, 30) Finger vein recognition
- Seven Bank : (October 10) IC cash card
- Chiba Bank : （10月17日）ICキャッシュカード、（2006年8月7日<ICキャッシュ単体型（但し6店にて先行、それ以外の店舗では2006年9月19日）>、（2006年9月19日<ICキャッシュ+クレジット一体型>）指静脈認証
- Yokohama Bank : (October 10) IC Bank Card/IC Cash Card
- Gifu Shinkin Bank : (November 11) IC cash card, palm vein authentication, (March 1, 2007) Palm vein authentication/finger vein authentication combined
- Kyoto Bank : (November 11) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Juroku Bank : (November 11) IC cash card, (December 28) Finger vein authentication <Only available at some stores>
- Fourth bank(CurrentDaishi Hokuetsu Bank): "Daishi IC Cash Card" (November 11), (July 28, 2006) Finger vein recognition
- This card requires biometrics registration and had to be renewed at each expiration date.However, due to the replacement of the accounting system in January 2017, existing users will be replaced with a new specification card, and subsequent new issues and magnetic cards. The biometric authentication is no longer required for switching from, and the expiration date has also been abolished.
- After the establishment of Daishi Hokuetsu Bank, the name was changed from "Daishi IC cash card" to "IC cash card".
- Nanto Bank : (December 12th) IC cash card, palm vein authentication
- Okazaki Shinkin Bank : (October 12) IC cash card
- Bank of China : "DREAMe-W" (December 12nd) Credit & IC cash card (IC card of cash card alone will be available from March 2, 2006)
- Biwako Bank(CurrentKansai Mirai Bank): (January 1) After system integration, from the old daysKansai Urban BankIssued a card in the style of. If you were using the card as an abandoned store at a store that was integrated during the Biwako Bank era, it was forbidden during system integration after the establishment of the Kansai Mirai Bank, and was subject to forced switching.
- Fukuoka Bank : (January 1) IC cash card, (March 23) Finger vein authentication
- Musashino Bank : (February 2) IC cash card finger vein authentication
- Shizuoka Bank : "Shizugin joyca" (March 3st) Cash & credit IC card (IC cash stand-alone type is also issued at the same time)
- Senshu Bank(Currently: Ikeda Senshu Bank(Old: Senshu store "■』Handling)):" <Sengin> IC cash card "(March 3) IC cash card, (September 1) Palm / finger bidirectional vein authentication
- The issue after the system integration after the merger will be issued with the specifications of the old Ikeda store.
- North Pacific Bank : "Clover" (March 3) Cash & Credit IC Card
- Hokuetsu Bank(CurrentDaishi Hokuetsu Bank): (March 3) IC cash card.After the merger, the oldFourth bankIssue a card with specifications.
- Hachijuni : "3 IC Quick Card" (March 20th) IC cash card, (May 2007th 5) Palm vein authentication
- Joyo Bank : "Joyo IC Ace Card" (March 3) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Shiga Bank : (December 3th) IC cash card, palm vein authentication
- Sumitomo Trust Bank(CurrentSumitomo Mitsui Trust Bank): (March 3) IC cash card, (January 22, 2007) Finger vein authentication → The issuance after the system integration after the merger will be switched to the old Chuo Mitsui issuance style card (no expiration date) If the card is issued before the system integration, it can be used as before).
- Third Bank : (November 3) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Chuo Mitsui Trust Bank(Currently Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Bank): (March 3) "All-in-card" cash & credit IC card (IC cash stand-alone type is also issued at the same time), after the new system of Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Bank started operation With the start of the passbook-less account (your partner) that was being held at, issuance of a dedicated IC cash card that also serves as your partner transaction certificate has started.
- Kiyo Bank : (November 4) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Minato Bank : (October 4) IC cash card
- Kyoto Shinkin Bank : (November 4) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Mizuho Trust & Banking : (April 4) IC cash card, (April 10, 2007) Finger vein authentication → Depending on the user, January 4 or March of the same year, IC function will be stopped regardless of expiration date .. It has been replaced with the old magnetic stripe only card.
- Tajima Bank : (November 5) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Michinoku Bank : "Michinoku Card <Michinoku IC Cash & Credit>" (May 5) IC Cash & Credit Card (IC cash alone is also issued. Renewal fee is charged every 15 years), (5 February 2007) Finger vein authentication
- San-in Godo Bank : (November 5) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Toho Bank : (October 6) IC cash card
- Tottori Bank : "IC TORICA" (June 6) IC cash & credit card
- Bikai Shinkin Bank : (October 7) IC cash card
- Commerce and Industry Association Chuo Bank : (October 7) IC cash card
- Hokkaido Labor Bank : (October 7) IC cash card
- Tohoku Labor Bank : (October 7) IC cash card
- Kofu Shinkin Bank : (October 7) IC cash card
- Shikoku Labor Bank : (October 7) IC cash card
- Hyakuju Bank : (November 8) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- XNUMX Bank : (August 8) IC cash card, palm vein authentication (ATM is available from August 14). Limited to own useConvenience store ATMA type that can be used by other banks is set, and a magnetic stripe is not added to the former (the former cannot be used by other banks with an IC-compatible ATM installed). Initially, there was an expiration date, and the issue/renewal fee was collected,2012/May 3Since then, the card format has been changed with the immediate start of issuing cards at the counter, and emboss-less cards with no expiration date will be issued. Old cards with expiry date will be switched to the new format after the expiry date is reached (in addition, cards with only magnetic stripe will be abolished).
- Higo bank : (November 9) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Tochigi Bank : (September 9) IC cash card, (February 11, 2007) Finger vein authentication
- Tokushima Bank(CurrentTokushima Taisho Bank): (September 9) IC cash card, second password by inputting kana
- Oita Bank : (October 9) IC cash card
- Ashikaga Bank : (October 9) IC cash card
- Kinki Labor Bank : (October 9) IC cash card
- Yamaguchi Bank : (October 9) IC cash card
- Shikoku Bank : (November 9) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- JA Bank(West of Kanto): (October 10) IC cash card, cash card integrated JA card, palm vein authentication (biometric authentication is available only in some prefectures)
- Initially, even a single cash card had an expiry date set, but it was later abolished, and for old users, a card with no expiry date will be used when switching to a replacement card that has expired. Became. Since the general design was changed from the globe design to the leaf design at the expiration date, the replacement of the user was also replaced by the leaf design. Become a character designChokingyoFor design2017/It will be issued by Sazae-san's design when the expiration date comes after the switching timing of each prefecture.
- Daiko Bank : (October 10) IC cash card
- Japan Post(Postal savings, CurrentJapan Post Bank): (October 10) IC cash card, finger vein authentication, electronic money "EdyFunction (issued on February 2010, 2 after application), (April 2009, 4)IC boarding card"Suica"Function (limited to regions)
- Resona Bank-Saitama Resona Bank : (November 10) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Kinki Osaka Bank(CurrentKansai Mirai Bank): (October 10) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Juichi Bank : (October 10) "<10> IC Cash & Credit Card"
- Hamamatsu Shinkin Bank (Currently: Hamamatsu Iwata Shinkin Bank): (October 10) IC cash card, vein authentication.
- Tomato bank : (November 11) "Tomato / MOTTO card" IC cash & credit card (However, the bank's IC-compatible ATM will be installed during FY9)
- Tokyo Tomin Bank (Currently: Kiraboshi Bank(Old: Tomingin store "●』Handling)): (November 11) IC cash card, finger vein authentication.At the time of the mergerNew Bank TokyoSince the system was integrated only with the former, until the system was integrated with the old Yachiyo store, "●■] Both marks will be attached).
- Nagoya Bank : (November 11th) IC cash card, palm vein authentication
- JA Bank(North of Tohoku): (January 1) IC cash card, cash card integrated JA card, palm or finger vein authentication (biometric authentication is available only in some prefectures)
- Initially, even a single cash card had an expiry date set, but it was later abolished, and for old users, a card with no expiry date will be used when switching to a replacement card that has expired. Became. Since the general design was changed from the globe design to the leaf design at the expiration date, the replacement of the user was also replaced by the leaf design. Become a character designChokingyoFor design2017/It will be issued by Sazae-san's design when the expiration date comes after the switching timing of each prefecture.
- Iyo Bank : (January 1th) IC cash card (sales start on February 25st)
- Aichi Bank : (November 2) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Miyazaki Bank : (October 2) IC cash card
- Kagawa Bank : (October 2) IC cash card
- Suruga Bank : (February 2)SURUGA VISA debit card(Issued with finger vein authentication from December)...In the beginning, VISA debit was also possible only when finger authentication was supported, but an IC card that can be used independently without finger authentication registration appeared later. ..
- West Japan City Bank : (November 2) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Yamagata Bank : (November 2) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Gunma Bank : (November 2th) IC cash card, palm vein authentication
- Chiba Kogyo Bank : (November 2) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Ehime Bank : (November 2) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Nagano Bank : (October 3) IC cash card
- Aomori Bank : (March 3) IC cash card, palm vein recognition (September 15, 2010) "aomo" IC cash & credit card (Cash card stand-alone type is renewed every 9 years and is newly issued or It costs 1 yen for each switch or update).
- 2016/It will be issued as a standard at the Aogin Net branch opened in, but the reissue fee will be charged as much as 2160 yen, which is double the amount of ordinary stores.
- Iwate Bank : (March 3th) IC cash card, finger vein authentication (Biometric authentication is available with a gold card issued as a paid option. The default silver card and two types of loan cards do not support biometric authentication). Savings and deposits integrated type (however, magnetic stripes cannot be used for savings) and loan card integrated type are also possible. As for cash cards at the Ihatov branch, biometric authentication gold cards cannot be issued. Along with this, the issuance of magnetic cash cards was suspended (especially with the exception of credit card integrated type, new types of integrated cards that can be used by other banks for subjects other than ordinary deposits can be issued. lost). A customer who had an expiry date at the beginning but was later issued a card with an expiry date after switching to a card that did not expire, replaced the card with an expiry date when the original expiry date came.
- Saga Bank : (March 3) "moteca IC card" IC cash & credit card (IC cash alone is also issued), finger vein authentication
- Toyohashi Shinkin Bank : (November 3th) IC cash card, palm vein authentication
- Fukui Bank : (March 3) IC cash card, finger vein authentication (but use after April 23)
- Kagoshima Bank : (November 3) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Akita Bank : (April 4nd) "Only One" IC cash & credit card (IC cash alone is also issued. However, IC conversion of W card with integrated savings deposit and cash card of Akiginkomachi branch are not allowed. Every 2 years There is an expiration date and a fee for each switch), finger vein authentication
- Chukyo Bank : (October 4) IC cash card
- Shimizu Bank : (October 5) IC cash card
- Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank : (May 5th) IC cash card, electronic money "Edy" function (However, electronic money "Edy" function is installed only in each general account of Gold and Super Gold)
- Tohoku Bank : (May 5) IC cash card, finger vein authentication (also available with double stripe for savings deposit or card loan). Cards issued after the account replacement in July 28 have no expiration date.
- Ryukyu Bank : (October 6) IC cash card
- Yamanashi Central Bank : (November 7th) IC cash card, palm vein authentication
- EBANK (currently: Rakuten Bank): (July 7) "eBank Money Card" (currently Rakuten Bank VISA Debit Card) IC Cash Card,VisaDebit function (existing user's prior issuance procedure start date is June 6). "Rakuten Bank JCB Debit Card" will also be issued after the transfer to Rakuten Bank.
- Yachiyo Bank (Currently: Kiraboshi Bank(Old: Yachiyo store "◆』Handling)): (August 8) IC cash card, finger vein authentication.ZenginkyoIn principle, because of the specification,2049/12Cards will be issued with the embossed cards. After the system was integrated, it was changed to issue the old Tomingin Bank specifications.
- Kyoto Hokuto Shinkin Bank : (September) IC cash card
- Sumishin SBI Net Bank : (October 10th) IC cash card (Reception starts on September 11th). Even if the card has the expiration date embossed on it, the card will continue to be used without replacement even after the expiration date.2016/May 1First in JapanVisa payWaveCorresponding toVISA debit cardWith the issuance of (and later, the issuance will also start), the issuance of the conventional single IC cash card has been suspended (conventional card users can also issue by switching).2020/At that timeJAL branchNo cash cards are issued except for the above cards.
- AEON Bank : (October 10) “AEON Bank Card” IC cash card, own electronic money “WAONFunction (reception starts on October 10th). Since 20, we have been experimentally conducting counters and ATM transactions incorporating fingerprint authentication in a monitor format, limited to when using the Kanda store operated by AEON Credit Service as a bank agency (2020/The handling will be stopped within the time, and the biometric authentication information will be deleted).Later, credit card or JCB debit integrated type will be issued.
- Hokuto Bank : (December 12th) IC cash card, finger vein authentication. Due to this, the issuance of ordinary magnetic only cash cards was suspended (there was an expiration date at the beginning, but it was abolished afterwards, and cards with an expiration date with the year and month since the abolition were also listed without switching. The current card has the same design, but the expiration date column is omitted.)2011/May 4Started issuing "Hokuto Bright One," which is an integrated credit card issued by the bank itself.2020/At the end of September, new registration for biometrics will be canceled, and cards issued thereafter (including cards that replace the expiration date of "Hokuto Bright One") will not support biometrics.2021/May 2With this, the handling of biometric authentication at ATMs will be terminated, and finger vein information will be destroyed.
- Kanazawa Shinkin Bank : (November 2) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Hokoku Bank : (November 3) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Hundred five banks : (March 3) "25 BESTIO" credit & IC cash card, finger vein recognition (From April 105th, we will start handling finger vein recognition IC cards for cash cards alone).
- Shonai Bank : (April 4st) IC cash card, finger vein authentication (Sogin cardIssued byUC cardIntegrated orCredit SaisonThe Saison VISA integrated cash card issued by can also be used as an IC cash card including biometric authentication if issued after the same day. same yearMay 10Than,VJAStarted issuing "<Shonai Bank> Bright One" with integrated credit by joining the main body).A single card is issued free of charge to my branch users, but it is issued for a fee at general branches.2020/At the end of September, new registration for biometrics will be canceled, and cards issued thereafter (including cards that replace the expiration date of "<Shonai Bank> Bright One") will not support biometrics.
- Tsukuba Bank : (October 10) IC cash card, finger vein authentication (old)Kanto Tsukuba BankAs. OldIbaraki BankThe base that was the store was started to be issued after the system integration in May 2010)
- Hokkaido Bank : (April 10st) IC cash card, finger vein authentication (Dogin card"Dogin Cash Credit Cards" issued by will be supported on March 2009, 3)
- Citibank : (November 12) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Since the end of October 2015, the business for individuals as Citibank has ended, the issuance was limited to that point.
- After transferring your account to SMBC Trust Bank2018/After July, of the 7-digit embossed number with the last 7 digits being the account number, the cards with 16 in the first 7 and 8 digits cannot be used afterwards regardless of the presence or absence of IC Was taken.2021/Withdrawal outside Japan will be suspended around September.
- Ishido Shinkin Bank : (November 12) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Sugamo Shinkin Bank : (October 12) IC cash card
- Kumamoto Family Bank (currentlyKumamoto Bank): (January 1) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Glittering bank : (April 4st) IC cash card, no biometric authentication (later,Glittering cardIssuedUC(The brand's glittering cash and credit cards can now be used as IC cash cards.)
- Gamagori Shinkin Bank : (October 6) IC cash card
- Toyokawa Shinkin Bank : (November 10) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Daito Bank : (Unknown date) IC cash card, no biometric authentication
- Nagasaki Bank : (October 1) IC cash card
- South Japan Bank : (October 1) IC cash card
- Kagoshima Mutual Credit Union : (November 3) IC cash card, finger vein authentication
- Taisho Bank(CurrentTokushima Taisho Bank): (April 4st) IC cash card.2020/Issued after the January merger will beTokushima BankChanged to specifications.
- Northern Japan Bank : (August 8) "W-Link card" Credit & IC cash card, no biometric authentication (Cash card alone type is2015/May 7Will be issued to an account opened at an internet branch that opened in
- Sendai Bank : (December 12st) "Sengin Cash / Credit Card" Credit & IC cash card, no biometrics (no cash card alone)
- Tokyo Star Bank : (October 10) Cash card standalone type, no biometrics
- Akita Shinkin Bank : (October 10) Cash card standalone type, no biometrics
- SMBC Trust Bank : (November 11) Cash card standalone type, finger vein authentication. However, the card for exclusive use of dollar deposit does not support IC.2021/From September, due to security reasons, conventional cards (CitibankWithdrawals overseas will not be possible (including the old card inherited from) (which can continue to be used in Japan).2019/From October VISA debit (payWaveCorrespondence) integrated type,PRESTIA "GLOBAL PASS"Started issuing. The existing card is no longer being issued along with this.
- Kyoto Central Shinkin Bank : (October 11) IC cash card
- GMO Aozora Net Bank : (July 7) VISA Debit (payWaveCorrespondence) Integrated IC cash card (no magnetic stripe on cash card). However, VISA debit-free cards will be issued for those under the age of 15.
- Lawson Bank : (October 10) Cash card standalone type.
Introduction to electronic money
IC cardElectronic moneyHas also been introduced.
in Japan,2001/In 10 monthBit wallet(At that time) was an electronic money serviceRakuten Edy(FeliCa),NTT CommunicationsHas started to provide an electronic money service "" equipped with an IC card.2004/In May,East Japan Railway(JR East)Suica electronic moneyHas started.
Fusion of payment methods
Taking advantage of forgery resistance and large capacity memory (compared to magnetic cards), credit cards and prepaid cards from the transportation industry etc.Point CardA composite card that combines the functions of has also appeared. Cards that combine a credit card and a boarding card (such as VIEW Suica or HANA PLUS), or a card that has electronic money on the credit card (My Sony Card) Is also available. Also, the boarding cardconvenience storeThere is also a card (Suica/PiTaPa) that can be used at stores such as. Electronic money(Chocom), an electronic ticket (Pia), and some functions such as identity verification on the Internet (SAFETY PASS), which provides several functions with a single card, have also appeared.
To IC credit card 100%
SkimmingConventional type to prevent fraudulent use of credit cardsMagnetic stripe cardThere is an urgent need to abolish payments and switch to EMV standard-compliant ICs or contactless payments..
2015 years(Heisei27 years)10More secure IC chip compatibleCredit inquiryThe credit card issuer will not be covered by the damage guarantee by the credit card issuer company if the terminal is not installed, and the credit card issuer will be treated as the responsibility of the card member store (the member store and the acquirer will bear the compensation cost). LargestVisaBut,2015/(27)May 5Was notified to the same yearMay 10Compliant with the EMV standard because it was run onCredit reference terminalThere is an urgent need to support IC.
Introduction in public transportation
Non-contact IC cards have standards such as Type-A (NFC-A) and Type-B (NFC-B), making it the first case of introducing an IC boarding card in Japan.Youbus card(ShizuokaToyoda Town <CurrentlyIwata>, October 1997), Type-A was adopted, but at about the same time (September 10)Hong Kong OfOctopusThen.SonyContactless IC cardFeliCaWas adopted, and then FeliCa was introduced by businesses all over the world, such as being adopted by the Cybane standard in Japan.
It goes without saying that IC cards can record more information than magnetic cards, but because they are non-contact type (wireless type), moving parts such as automatic ticket gates and fare boxes can be reduced. The effect of reducing the frequency of maintenance can also be expected.However, in the case of automatic ticket gates, there are actually many machines shared with magnetic tickets, so the frequency of maintenance does not decrease immediately.
At the beginning of its spread in Japan, it was basically introduced by the operator alone, and by the railway sector alone or the bus sector alone (depending on the operator, the route is limited).2002/May 1ThanNagasakiMajor bus operators (Saihi Motor,Sasebo Municipal Transportation Bureau,Shimabara Railway,Nagasaki Transportation Bureau,Nagasaki Motor) Is the first bus IC card common to multiple operators in JapanNagasaki smart cardIntroduced..IC cards that can be used in common on trains and busesEnshu RailwayIn 2002May 3More trial introducedEG1CARDIs the first IC card in Japan, and it is also the company's IC card for railways and buses that has been fully introduced.Nice pass(2004/May 8Introduction) is the first in Japan.
Japanese railwayIn the field, the "General-purpose Electronic Ticket Technology Research Association" was established around 1996, and technical studies and demonstration experiments were conducted.Then in March 2000Japan Railway Cybernetics CouncilIt is a standard for tickets using IC cards.Cybernet standardAfter that, the introduction of IC cards progressed at each business operator.
- Skyrail service"IC commuter pass" (September 1998 → migrated to new system)
- East Japan Railway(JR East) "Suica"(watermelon)(2001 11 年 月 日 18)
- Enshu Railwayof"EG1CARD(Easy One Card) (March 2002, 3 → Nicepass has been transferred)
- Saitama High Speed Rail"IC commuter pass" (March 2002, 3 → PASMO has been transferred)
- Tokyo Monorail"Monorail Suica" (Monorail watermelon)(2002 4 年 月 日 21)
- Tokyu Electric Railway(Setagaya Line)of"Setamaru(July 2002, 7 → PASMO has been transferred)
- Tokyo Seaside High Speed Rail"Rinkai Suica" (December 2002, 12)
- West Japan Railway Company(JR West) "ICOCA(ICOCA)(2003 11 年 月 日 1)
- Surutto KANSAICouncil "PiTaPa(Pitapa)(2004 8 年 月 日 1)
- Randenof"Randen card(November 2004, 8)
- Enshu Railway's "Nice Pass" (Nice pass) (August 2004, 8)
- Hokuriku Railwayof"ICa(Aika) (December 2004, 12)
- Takamatsu Kotohira Electric Railwayof"IruCa(Dolphin) (February 2005, 2)
- Kagoshima City Transportation Bureauof"RapiCa(RapiCa) (April 2005, 4)
- Iyo Railwayof"IC card(November 2005, 8)
- Toyama Light Railof"passca(Paska) (April 2006, 4 → integrated into ecomyca)
- Okayama Electric Trackof"Hareca(Hareca)(2006 10 年 月 日 1)
- Shizuoka Railwayof"LuLuCa(Luluka)(2006 10 年 月 日 28)
- Tokai passenger railway(JR Central) "TOICA(Toica)(2006 11 年 月 日 25)
- Ltd.Pasmoof"PASMO(Pasmo)(2007 3 年 月 日 18)
- Kitakyushu High Speed Rail"Monoca"(January 2008, 1 → Full-scale introduction of mono SUGOCA)
- Tokai passenger railway(JR Central) ・West Japan Railway Company(JR West) "EX-IC card'(2008 3 年 月 日 29)
- West Japan Railwayof"nimoca(Nimoca)(2008 5 年 月 日 18)
- Nagasaki Electric Tramway "Nagasaki smart card(March 2008, 3 → Moved to nagasaki nimoca)
- Hokkaido passenger railway(JR Hokkaido) "Kitaca(Kitaca)(2008 10 年 月 日 25)
- Is it a corporation? "IC card"Are you"" (January 2009, 1)
- Sapporo City Transportation Bureauof"SAPICA(Sapica, published by Sapporo General Information Service) (January 2009, 1) and three other bus companies have entered the market.
- Kyushu passenger railway(JR Kyushu) "SUGOCA"(Sugoca)(2009 3 年 月 日 1)
- Fukuoka City Transportation Bureauof"Hayakaken(November 2009, 3)
- Toyama regional railwayof"ecomyca(Eko Maika) (March 2010, 3)
- Fukushima Transportationof"NORUCA(Norca) (October 2010, 10)
- Nagoya Railway-Nagoya City Transportation Bureauother"sense of(Manaka)(2011 2 年 月 日 11) 
- Kumamoto City Transportation Bureauof"Denden nimoca(Denden Nimoca)(2014 3 年 月 日 28)
- Matsuura Railway's "Nagasaki Smart Card" (March 2011, 3 → nagasaki nimoca has been transferred)
- Sendai City Transportation Bureauof"icsca(Ixca) (December 2014, 12)
- Chikuho Electric Railway"Nimoca"(2015 3 年 月 日 14)
- Kumamoto Electric Railwayof"Kumamoto area promotion IC card(KumamonIC CARD) ”(April 2015, 4)
- Kitakyushu Monorail "mono SUGOCA"(2015 10 年 月 日 1)
- Hakodate City Enterprise Bureau Transportation Departmentof"ICAS nimoca(Ikasunimoka)(2017 3 年 月 日 25)
- Matsuura Railwayof"nagasaki nimoca(Nagasaki Nimoca)(2020 3 年 月 日 1)
- Nagasaki Electric Orbit"Nagasaki nimoca"(2020 3 年 月 日 22)
Japanese busHowever, especially since the beginning of the 21st century, the introduction by businesses in various regions has started in earnest.
- Iwata City Bus (formerly Toyota Town Management) "Yubus"of"Youbus card(October 1997, 10 → Due to obsolete equipment, handling ended on July 1, 2006 and transfer to Nice Pass)
- Tokyu Transceof"Transce card(July 1998, 7 → Due to the introduction of PASMO, handling will end on August 28, 2007)
- Dohoku Bus(Old) "Ducard"(November 1999, 11 → Transferred to new system)
- Yamanashi Transportationof"Bus ic card(February 2000, 2 → PASMO has been migrated)
- Fukushima Transportation(Old) "Bus ic card(April 2001, 4 → NORUCA has been moved)
- Kitakyushu City Transportation Bureauof"Sunflower bus card(September 2001, 9 → Moved to nimoca in 20)
- Nagasaki Prefectural Transportation BureauNagasaki smart card(January 2002, 1 →Nagasaki Motor-TrafficWill introduce the Nutas T card in 2019, and other companies' stations except Shimabara Railway will introduce nimoca in 2020, and Shimabara Railway will also be discontinued in 2020)
- Miyazaki Transportationof"Miyako Busca(October 2002th, 10 → Handling ended on 10st March, 2016 and moved to nimoca)
- Hokkaido Kitami Busof"Bus card(January 2003)
- Omi Railway(Ritsumeikan"Bus IC card" (route) (March 2003 → transitioned to ICOCA in 3)
- Peaceful traffic"Town Bus Card" (March 2003 → finished handling)
- Enshu Railwayof"EG1CARD(Easy One Card) (April 2003 → Transfer to Nice Pass)
- Kanto Railway"IC Bus Card" (Toride Sales Officeonly. December 2003, 12-March 22, 2010 → PASMO has been migrated)
- Minato sightseeing bus(July 2004 → Discontinued)
- Enshu RailwayNicePass(Nice Pass) (August 2004, 8)
- Hokuriku Railwayof"ICa(Aika) (December 2004, 12)
- Nara Kotsuof"CI-CA(Seeker) (December 2004, 12)
- Kotoden Bus,Tokushima West Transportationof"IruCa(Dolphin) (February 2005, 2)
- Kagoshima City Transportation Bureau,Tropical transportation,JR Kyushu Bus (Hokusatsu Line)of"RapiCa(RapiCa) (April 2005, 4)
- Iwasaki Corporation(Kagoshima Transportation,Osumi Transportation Network,Sanshu Motor,Iwasaki Bus Network)of"Iwasaki IC card(November 2005, 4)
- Iyo Railwayof"IC card(November 2005, 8)
- Shinki Bus,Shinki Zone Busof"NicoPa(Nikopa) (January 2006, 1)
- Shizutetsu Just Lineof"LuLuCa(Luluka)(2006 3 年 月 日 24)
- Ryobi Bus,Okayama Electric Track,Shimotsui Electric Railway,Chutetsu Bus,Uno Busof"Hareca(Hareka) (October 2006, 10)
- Gifu shared carof"ayuca(Ayuka) (December 2006, 12)
- Ltd.Pasmoof"PASMO(Pasmo) (March 2007, 3)
- Hitachi Electric Railway Transportation Serviceof"Dentetsu High Card(November 2007, 10)
- Hiroshima Prefecture Bus Associationof"PASPY(Passpy) (Service started on January 2008, 1-Initial introduction plan completed on October 26, 2009)
- Itami City Transportation Bureauof"itappy(Itappy) (April 2008, 4)
- West Japan Railway(May 2008, 5) ・Hita Bus(May 2009, 7) ・Showa Motor(May 2010, 2) ・JR Kyushu Bus (Direct line)(April 2013, 4)-Miyazaki Kotsu (November 1, 2015)-Saga City Transportation Bureau(May 2017, 2) ・Yutoku Bus(March 2019, 3) "nimoca(Nimoca)
- Oita traffic-Oita Bus-Kamenoi Busof"Mejiron nimoca(Oita IC card development) (December 2010, 12)
- Hakodate Busof"ICAS nimoca(Squid Nimoka) (March 2017, 3)
- Kyushu Express Busof"nagasaki nimoca(Nagasaki Nimoka) (March 2020, 3)
- Fukushima Transportationof"NORUCA(Norca) (October 2010, 10)
- Kyushu Sanko Bus / Sanko Bus・Kumamoto Electric Railway・Kumamoto bus-Kumamoto city busof"Kumamoto area promotion IC card(Kumamon's IC CARD)" (silvered card) (April 2015, 4)
- Ibaraki Transportationof"Ippapi(November 2015, 12)
- Sendai City Transportation Bureau,Miyagi Transportation,Miyakobusof"icsca(Ikusuka) (December 2015, 12)
- Mie traffic,Sanko Ise Shima Kotsu,Happu Bus,Mie express carof"emica(Emica) (April 2016, 4)
- Nankai Bus,Nankai Wing Bus Kanaoka,Nankai Wing Bus Southernof"Nacchi(November 2016, 10)
- Takatsuki City Transportation Departmentof"Tsukica(Tsukika) (October 2018, 10)
- Nagasaki Bus, Saikai Kotsu's "Enutas T Card(Enutas Co., Ltd.) (September 2019, 9)
There are also companies that are conducting demonstration experiments.
IC card mutual use
Many cards use chips that comply with JIS X 6319-4 and Cybane standards, and are technically readable and writable by the same terminal device. Taking advantage of this, from March 2013, 3, "Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use service, And 10 types of transportation IC cards nationwide can be used interchangeably as fare cards and electronic money (excluding use as electronic money by PiTaPa). In addition, there are cases where the IC card area introduced in some regional units can be used with 10 types of cards in the "Transportation IC Card National Mutual Use Service" (and vice versa).
In addition, there are cases where IC cards introduced in regional units can be used individually or individually.
- "Asaca CARD"(Asahikawa Electric Orbit) ⇔ "Do card"(Dohoku Bus）
- "icsca''(Sendai City Transportation Bureau) ⇔ "Suica" (Sendai area only. Other than Suica, it is treated as one-sided use)
- "ecomyca"(Toyama Railway) ⇔ "passca"(Toyama Light Rail）
- "RapiCa(Bus in Kagoshima prefecture, etc.) ⇔ "Iwasaki IC card"(Iwasaki Corporation）
- "ICOCA" ⇒ "PASPY"(Hiroshima Electric RailwayAnd in Hiroshima prefecture)
- "ICOCA" "PiTaPa" ⇒ "Hareca"(Okadenas well as,Ryobi Bus,Shimotsui Bus,Chutetsu Bus) "hanica"(Hankyu bus-Hanshin Bus), "CI-CA"(Nara Kotsu) "NicoPa"(Shinki Bus) "" (Randen）
Transportation other than Japan
- (Charlie Card) (Boston, Massachusetts, introduced in 2006, Type-A)
- Smart Link (Path train PATH Transit system New York & NJ MiFare)
- Octopus(OCTPUS) Card (Introduced in September 1997, FeliCa)
- (Introduced in 1998, Type-A)
- Kotoshima Dori(Qingdao, Non-contact type introduction in May 1996, Non-contact type introduction on September 5, 1999)
- Shanghai public transport card(Introduced at the end of December 1999)
- Youjo Dori(Guangzhou, Introduced at the end of December 2001)
- Beijing Municipal Transportation Card(Introduced at the end of December 2003)
- Shenzhen Connect(Introduced in December 2004)
- (Interchangeable with Shanghai Public Transport Card)
- ez-link card(Introduced in April 2002, FeliCa)
- Leisure card(Easy Card,Taipei City, Introduced in June 2002)
Keelung Transportation Card(Keelung CityBus, introduced in 2004) Taichung ecardThrough(Taichung City, Introduced in June 2004) Taiwanese(Taoyuan City-Hsinchu City-Hsinchu Prefecture-Miaoli） Kinmen Transportation Card(Fujian ProvinceKinmen） (2006-2015)
- One card(IPASS,Kaohsiung City,2007-)
- Love money(Icash2.0,Unified company, IC boarding card function added from 2014)
- Money(HappyCash,, 2014 entry)
- (Department of Public RoadsJurisdictiontoll roadfor)
- Oyster card (Oyster Card) (Introduced in February 2003, Type-A)
- Leap card(Leap Card）
- T money(Available on major railways and buses in the Seoul metropolitan area, compatible with U Pass)
- U pass(Available on major trains and buses in the Seoul metropolitan area, compatible with T-money)
- Hanaro card
- (Daegu Metropolitan City）
- A'rex Airport Railroad()
- Rabbit card Successor to Sky Smart Card
- Sky smart card (Bangkok Skytrain, Introduced in 2007, suspended in 2012)
- MRTA card (Bangkok Metro）
- Metrocard (Christchurch·bus)
- (Introduced in September 2009, FeliCa)
Introduction on toll roads
Japan's non-stop toll payment systemETCIn the system, a special IC card called "ETC card" is set in the ETC on-board device in the vehicle and used. Toll payment is due to the nature of the systemCredit cardAlternatively, it will be postpaid (ETC personal card and ETC corporate card) to East Japan, Central Japan, and West Japan Expressways Co., Ltd.
Introduction to the administrative field
In Japan, local governmentslibraryIC cards were introduced as cards, facility reservation cards, etc.Basic Resident Register card(From August 2003, 8. New issue ended at the end of December 25),Biometric passport(I CJapan passport, Since March 2006, 3),Driver's license(IC card license, from January 2007, 1),Residence card(From July 2012, 7),Personal number cardThe adoption of IC cards (IC chips) has advanced in (from January 2016, 1). Also,e-JapanIn relation to strategygovernment officialIdentification"IC card" was introduced in 2006. To policy coordinatorMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIT CITY is advocated by the seconded staffOsakaMinoh CityThen, we introduced an IC card as a staff ID for the first time nationwide.
The United States of AmericaHas adopted an IC card as a US government employee identification card (PIV). AlsoUS Department of Homeland SecurityThe IC card was introduced to the "Real ID" national identity card, which was introduced in November 2009.
MalaysiaIn, IC card is adopted as multipurpose citizen card "MyKad". It was introduced in April 2001, and by July 4, about 2003 million copies had been distributed.ApplicationAs identification card (name, gender, address, date of birth, place of birth, etc.), personal identification (PKI), health information, cash card, electronic money, driver's license, passport (neighborhood)Immigration control), there is a contactless payment system.
In France, an IC card type health insurance card was issued in 1998.Vital CardHas been distributed. In addition, CPS (Carte de Professional de Sante) cards were distributed to doctors. By digitizing the insurance refund procedure, we were able to reduce paperwork costs and shorten the refund period.
Hong KongSo 2003May 6Has issued a Hong Kong ID card with a built-in IC chip. Hong Kong government in 4, four years later6By the time, I want to replace all ID cards with IC cards. This card is for the use of public libraries ande-road It can also be used at an automatic entry/exit gate called (e-channnel) (Hong Kong is not a country, so it is not called "entry/departure"). In 2007, it will be used as a license.
TaiwanIn 2002, we introduced the “Health Insurance IC Card”, which is an IC of the health insurance card of National Health Insurance (National Health Insurance in Taiwan). In addition, the “foreign residence visa”, which is a Taiwanese alien registration card, has been converted to an IC card in 2003, and is planned to be fully converted to an IC card in 2007.
Employee Card/Student Card
IC card is a company employee IDStudent cardIt can also be used as an ID card such as1980 eraIC card was adopted as the employee card in the latter half ofKochi University of TechnologyAdopted an IC card for the student ID card.Not only as an ID card, but also a building admission permit (eg: Docomo tower, NTT Makuhari Building,Lalaport Toyosu,West Japan Railway CompanyHead office building,Tokyo Midtown), attendance management of university lectures, attendance managementtime RecorderStamped card, unlocking card for information terminal,Cafeteria,Stand,vending machineIt is used for payment management.
In 2004, the FeliCa Common Usage Format Promotion Forum [currently is used to promote employee and student cards using FeliCa and expand services]FCF Promotion Forum] (Common name: FCF ) Was established, advocating a common format as an ID card. As of October 2016, 10 card solution companies are participating in the FCF. As of October 153, the FCF advocated common format for student IDs and faculty IDs for educational institutions has been adopted by 2016 educational institutions (university, junior college, high school, junior high school, etc.). Has been issued.
In the construction industry, there are cards that can be commonly used as "Construction IC cards". The standardization of construction business IC cards began around 1995, and the issuance of construction IC cards began around 1996. In 2004, the cumulative number of issued cards exceeded 13. It is used for rationalization such as access control at construction sites and confirmation of machine operation qualifications. Various companies are involved in one process for each process, and it is complicated for people to go in and out, so a card that can be commonly referenced across companies and sites was required. For example, machine (craneWhen driving a car, etc., check the qualification and record the driving history with an IC card. Qualification is judged by the qualification/skill code read from the card, and if OK, the engine start lock is released.
in Japan,2008/May 7More vending machinestobaccoAn IC card that can be said to be a form of identification when purchasingtaspo(Taspo) has been issued, so you cannot purchase cigarettes without reading the taspo card into the sensor (in the case of interpersonal sales, you can purchase without a card). In addition, ``taspo'' also has an electronic money function, and it was possible to purchase cigarettes with the amount of the balance when depositing the amount to the card, but the acceptance of the charge ended on March 2014, 3, February 31 The purchase of cigarettes with electronic money is scheduled to end on the 2015th of each month.
Introduction in shopping streets
TokyoSetagayaAt Karasuyama station square street shopping street,1988/The IC card "IC-CARDIA" has been introduced in to make stamp cards. After that, a prepaid function and a credit function were added and used as a shopping street card. In 2006, we introduced the "Erumor LUCK CARD" equipped with an IC card with a safety pass function provided by NTT Communications that is safer and more comfortable to use.
Recently, the number of places where Edy is introduced in each shopping district is increasing.
Also, Suica, PASMO, etc.IC boarding cardAll can be used as a point card as it isLocal reward cardThe system has been developed and operated, and in the shopping districts along the JR lines and private railway lines in Tokyo, the majority of users own and carry Suica, etc. The movement to introduce the system is widespread.
Use in amusement
In the facilityarcade gameIt is used not only for payment management of machines (prepaid cards), but also for ID cards for record management of play data.SegaとBandai Namco AmusementUsed to require a dedicated IC card for each title, but it is a unified management system.Aime""Bana passportIt moved to. From October 2018, 10, SEGA Interactive, BANDAI NAMCO Amusement,Konami AmusementUnifying the standards of the three companiesAmusement IC"The service is started, and "Aime" "Bana passport" "e-amusement passThe mutual use service of "has been started."TaitoIn March 2019, mutual service with "Aime", "Bana passport" and "e-amusement pass" was started.
- "Bana passport"(Bandai Namco Amusement）
- "e-AMUSEMENT PASS"(Konami Amusement）
Use in public competition
There is no mechanism to prevent unauthorized reading and writing of information on the magnetic stripe, so tampering with relatively inexpensive devices is not possible.CopyOn the other hand, in the case of an IC card, access control can be performed with an IC chip, so in order to perform forgery, you must disassemble the IC chip and analyze the inside using a dedicated device. , It is safe because of the time and cost involved. But,1990 eraSince the middle of the year, research by Paul Kocher and Ross AndersonSide channel attackA number of attack methods have been developed,Secret keyIt turns out that some IC cards are easy to read. The development of IC cards that deal with these new attack methods has become a challenge.
It is expected that fraudulent acts such as camouflage and alteration will be more difficult for IC cards than magnetic cards. The basis is shown below.
- CPU and memory are integrated into one chip, and furtherEpoxy resinIt is hardened with. In the case of the contact type, external terminals (6 I/O, CLK, RST, Vcc, Vpp, GND) are used, and in the case of the non-contact type, only the built-in antenna is a means for accessing the memory.
- Since the internal wiring is not exposed, it is difficult to modify the control signal and monitor the bus signal.
- Expensive dedicated devices are required to disassemble the chip and read the memory directly.
- Access from the external terminal or built-in antenna can be controlled by the CPU (password, etc.), making unauthorized reading and writing difficult.
Therefore, in order to prevent damages caused by counterfeiting of prepaid cards (phone cards, pachinko cards, boarding cards), credit cards and cash cards, replacement with IC cards is in progress.
An IC card equipped with a high-performance CPU can perform complex processing inside the card and is expected to be used as a card with more functions than a magnetic card. For example, store the password on the IC card and enter it by the user.PasswordCan be verified in the IC card.
It is expected that the IC card with the program download mechanism will be able to add new functions to the IC card even after being issued, and can be used as a multipurpose card. In the conventional method of issuing one card for each service, a person who uses multiple services will have multiple cards, but a multi-purpose card can be one card.
As mentioned above, the IC card is expected to be a counterfeit-resistant, multi-functional, multi-purpose card.
In France, by converting a bank card (credit card) into an IC card, we were able to drastically reduce the card forgery crimes that had occurred until then [ECOM99].[Source required].
in Japan,Countermeasures against forgery of magnetic telephone cardAs1999/I introduced an IC card inPublic phoneDue to the decrease in users2006/3IC card was abolished at the end.. A conventional magnetic card (PET card) of JR EastOrange card-Io cardWas introduced on behalf ofSuicaThen,2008/3Forgery and alteration have not been known at present.
There was illegal use of several hundred billion yenpachinkoThe card is also an IC card, but the effect of making it an IC card is unknown because measures against unauthorized use were taken by reducing the service and managing IDs on the server before the IC card.
- 1997/9,MondexInternal information can be read to the card (Hitachi's H8/3101, used in Singdon's experiment)VulnerabilityIt was announced that there is. At least this vulnerability1996/5It was discovered around that time, but it was kept secret until a new chip "H8/3109" that addressed this vulnerability was created. When the fuse inside the IC chip is reconnected using a microprobe, it goes into test mode and the memory contents can be dumped to an external pin. It was a TNO engineer who made a presentation at Eurocrypt '97. In the Sing Dong experiment, it was a shocking report because the system is affected if the secret key is read from one card using electronic money based on common key cryptography.
- 1999/6, A French bankcard was forged, and the forged technician was arrested (January 2000) (because he bought a subway ticket). The reason for the camouflage is used for card authenticationRSA encryptionWas not long enough and was decrypted by the computer (Prime factorizationWas done).
- 1992/12,SiemensSLE44C80S was cracked and ROM code (Chip Managemnt System) was read out (disassembled list is released). SLE44 is an IC chip used in German digital signature cards and Geld kartes. According to Siemens, reading the ROM code of a programmable card does not mean that this information can be used to attack Gerd charts and digital signature cards.
- 2002/5,GSMIt has been announced that there is an attack method that can get the secret key of the SIM card used in. A type of side channel attack called partitioning attack. Eight selected plaintexts are required to obtain the key (1bit) of COMP128 implemented in many SIM cards.
- 2004/3, Showed that Japanese LSI engineers can take out the LSI used in commercial IC cards and observe the internal memory. Although the required equipment is expensive, it is a product for LSI failure analysis that anyone can obtain. It is desirable that the amount of money obtained by attacking an IC card is less than the purchase amount of these devices, or it is important to review security measures as the failure analysis technology evolves.
- In December 2007, at Chaos Communication Congress, it was announced that a vulnerability (lack of entropy of random numbers) was found when analyzing the cryptographic circuit of Mifare Classic chip..
- 2011/It has been pointed out that the program and private key of the B-CAS card may have been analyzed before. The access control method avoidance program "softcas" for digital broadcasting for "Friio" (hereinafter referred to as the one that does not require the physical substance of the IC card) is the official specification that the B-CAS of the IC card is 2 TSID (later 4 It was obvious that softcas is not a real B-CAS card, as softcas is responding to requests from softcas clients all over the world, while the TSID (improved to TSID) is the limit. After 2011, the access key to each block of the B-CAS card is decrypted, and all keys except access to the kernel of the IC card are retrieved. With this, various B-CAS cardscrackingWas done (as a result)I electromagnetic fraudulent production crimeSome people are found guilty in a criminal trial in.. Finally the B-CAS program block is fetchedreverse engineeringAfter that, B-CAS that operates standaloneEmulator softcas (winscard.dll)Source codePublished with, thenLinux-MacOS-Ported to other OS. IC cardPHYSince the key of has not been decrypted, it is not possible to use a blank IC card as a B-CAS card, so this program cannot be applied to a commercially available tuner. Define access control method for digital broadcasting ARIB STD-B25 is 6.3 version(December 2013, 12 To strengthen the security of IC cards, the byte length of some items of related information specified in Part 10 will be expanded) In order to revise and shift to the new method, in November 1 Requested the cooperation of manufacturers to solve this problem, including actual machine experiments..
Correspondence is being studied at various levels such as the tamper resistance of the chip itself, the OS and library implementation method, and the application design. Also, evaluation/certification by a third party is required.
The certification system includesISO / IEC 15408Has FIPS PUB 140-2 and industry-specific certifications (such as certification by Visa).
Evaluation and certification organization
- Founded in October 1998
- Communications-Electronics Security Group and Department of Trade and Industry (CESG) UK IT Security Evaluation & Certification Scheme
- France Direction Centrale de la Securite des Systemes d'Information (DCSSI)
- Germany Bundesamt fur Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik (BSI), TuVIT
- US National Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP)
- Canada Communications Security Establishment (CSE) Canadian Common Criteria Evaluation and Certification Scheme (CCS)
- Participated in October 1999
- Australian Information Security Evaluation Program (AISEP) Defense Signals Directorate (DSD)
- D Government Communications Security Bureau
- Participated in October 2003
- France Soliatis LAB (ISO certified test house for smart cards)
- Participated in 2008
- ISO / IEC WD 19790
- FIPS140-2 (CMVP) base
- Industry-specific evaluation program
Major manufacturers of IC chips for IC cards
- Infineon (Siemens)
- SLE44 /
- SLE66/SLE66CX322P with RSA2048 (EAL5+ @BSI, acquired in May 2002)
- NXP (Philips)
- P8WE5032V0B (EAL3 @BSI, acquired in November 1999)
- P8WE5032V0G (EAL4 @BSI, acquired January 2001)
- P8WE6017V1I (EAL5+ @BSI, acquired in July 2001)
- P83 /
- ST Microelectronics
- ST16 /
- ST19/ST19XR34,ST19XS08,ST19XS04（EAL4+ @DCSSI SERMA、2000年5月取得）
- ST22 / (EAL5)
- Renesas Electronics
- H8/3101・H8/3109（1997年9月発表）、H8/3111・H8/3112（1998年9月発表、E6 1999年9月取得）、H8/3113・H8/3113S・H8/3114（1999年2月発表）、H8/3114S（E6 2001年7月取得）
- AE-3 /
- AE-4/AE45C (E6 acquired in April 2002, EAL4+ @BSI T-Systems ISS GmbH acquired in May 4), AE2002C (EAL5+ @BSI acquired in May 43)
- AE-5 /
- AT90SC19264RC (EAL4+ @DCSSI acquired in November 2002)
- Samsung electronics
- S3CC9PB (EAL4+ @DCSSI acquired in December 2002)
- Matsushita Electric Industrial
- MN63Y1005 (September 2001)
- MN103S41 (2002), MN103S41H (announced in January 2003)
- MN101CY727 (announced development in September 2003, announced in April 9)
- MN67S360 (EAL4+ @TuVIT acquired in October 2004, announced in February 10)
- MN67S140 (EAL4 @BSI acquired in January 2007)
- SM4128 (V3) A5-step module (EAL4+ @BSI acquired in September 2005) VLA.9
- RC-S860 (EAL4 @CESG acquired in March 2002)
- Note that RC-S860 is SoF-basic.
- RC-S853 (EAL4), RC-S854 (EAL4)
- RC-853/854 EAL4 acquisition is confirmed only in the manufacturer's catalog.
- RC-S960/1 (EAL4 @BSI acquired in June 2007)
- The tip isFujitsu MB94RS402
- RC-S860 (EAL4 @CESG acquired in March 2002)
- MC68HC05SC0401 (E3 @ DCSSI June 1998)
- JT6N55 (announced in January 2000)
- Dai Nippon Printing
- Letterpress printing
- Joint printing
- Hitachi Maxell
- Shoei Printing
- Gemalto Gemalto
- Oberthur Card System
- Giesecke & Devrient GmbH
- Sagem Orga
- FUJIFILM Image Tech Co., Ltd.
- Orange Tags Co., Ltd.
- NTT Data
- Xaica-alpha (EAL4 + @DCSSI SERMA, acquired in 2005)
- Xaica-alpha64K (EAL4 + @DCSSI SERMA, acquired in 2007)
Card issuing machine
- Datacard Datacard
- Japan Mechatech Co., Ltd. http://www.j-mecha.com/
- ^ "Developed "KAMICARD", a paper material IC card that can be recycled and reused". Letterpress printing (September 2009, 2). 2009/4/7Browse.
- ^ "Toppan Printing Developed IC cards made of recyclable and reusable paper materials”. Printing Times (February 2009, 2). 2009/4/7Browse.
- ^ Yomiuri ShimbunMarch 2009, 3 26th edition 12th page
- ^ IC card 75 question-1 - NTT Card Solution(Internet archiveCache)
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Started handling biometric authentication "IC cash card": Kyoto Shinkin Bank
- ^ Japan Post Bank Cash card with electronic money From inside
- ^ (PDF, Nagasaki Bank News Release: Announced on January 2010, 1)
- ^ Internet Banking Renewal | au Jibun Bank
- ^ “By 20 years, we will target all ICs, governments, and credit cards”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nihon Keizai Shimbun). (November 2014, 7)
- ^ Commercial Distribution Security Group Commercial Transaction Supervision Division (February 2016, 2), “We have compiled an implementation plan for strengthening security measures in credit card transactions-Promote an international standard credit card payment environment-” (Press release), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 2016/10/25Browse.
- ^ Sonoko Kato (February 2016, 2). “Illegal use of cards exceeds 2 billion yen for 100 consecutive years, purpose of resale? Chinese organization is involved”. Sankei Shimbun (Sankei Shimbun) 2016/10/25Browse.
- ^ Takashi Hara (May 2015, 5). "Visa's Ten Years of Change, Anger and Relief in Smartphone Payment Businesses". ITPro (Nikkei BP) 2016/9/14Browse.
- ^ Currently "Oulu card".
- ^ It used to be called Type-C.Currently, it is classified into NFC-F and NFC-V.
- ^ ソ ー ス
- ^ NicePass Enshu Railway (Wayback）
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IC card ticket for nationwide mutual use service
- ^ Trademark isOkayama Prefecture Bus AssociationAre registered trademarks of
- ^ a b StudentLuluka The2016/May 10UntilbusIt was dedicated, but the same yearMay 11Since then, the train and bus have become common. However, a procedure is required to change to a train/bus common student Luluka.
- ^ Type-B
- ^ This is effective not only as a ticket but also as a limited express ticket.
- ^ Issued by Nagoya City from September 2016, 9Keiro PassHas been gradually switched from the conventional magnetic card to manaca, and from November 11st, it is also issued by Nagoya City.Welfare special ticketAlso changed from magnetic card to manaca.
- ^ Koskilinjat OY
- ^ ITpro (October 2008, 3). “Utilizing Suica as a local loyalty card, introducing it in the shopping area in front of the station in Tokyo". 2008/7/20Browse.
- ^ Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation. “Review of IC card payphones-Unification of IC card payphones into magnetic card payphones-". 2008/3/7Browse.
- ^ 24th Chaos Communication Congress. “Mifare --- Little Security, Despite Obscurity". 2008/3/7Browse.
- ^ Tottori Loop. “B-CAS Accident '8674422' The Truth of 2012 TV Viewing Restriction Collapse [Book] ” 2014/2/24Browse.
- ^ 1998/At the round-table conference, it was announced that all models released after that are compatibleSonyThe logic for one company onlyFPGASofirmwareupdateIt was made possible to correspond with.Meanwhile from SonyOEMOther companies that do not receive the certification do not use the hard-wired encryption/decryption processing including CA-System on some models.ASICAs a result of improving security by building with, the revision was proposed this time as well as before.Dubbing 10It was revealed that there are models that cannot accept changes to security, including.Tamper resistanceFrom the point of view,PanasonicとToshibaRemote security changes to firmware from are not possible and security changes are properly signedSD cardOnly the insertion of was supported. It is estimated that replacement of all cards will be 27 billion yen in material cost, total cost including labor cost, engineering slot usage fee, hardware change / replacement, etc. will exceed 200 billion yen, and there is a problem B- CAS cards and receivers2038 issueSince it will be automatically solved by, the plan includes the option to “leave/ignore” the countermeasures against this problem even if the total damage amount is not required to be dealt with. Rather than repairing the old high-definition television that costs an immense amount of money,4K2KIt has been pointed out that it is better to solve it when moving to
- [ECOM99] Electronic Commerce Demonstration Promotion Council "ECOM European Inspection Team Report on Electronic Commerce" 11, pp. 66–67 (About card counterfeiting)
- "JICSAP homepage”.. 2012/3/12Browse.
- "IT security evaluation and certification system (JISEC)". Information Processing Promotion Organization. 2012/3/12Browse.
- "IT Security Evaluation and Certification System (JISEC): Reference Material”. Information-technology Promotion Agency (October 2011, 10). 2012/3/12Browse.
- FCF Promotion Forum
- IC Tag Total Supporter RFID NFC RealTouchShop