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🎁 | Kindle books are virtually half price on Amazon! 50% point reduction sale in progress


Kindle books are virtually half price on Amazon! 50% point reduction sale in progress

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In addition, Kodansha's special effects books, which are out of print in physics, are also eligible for 50% point reduction.

Amazon will return 50% points for the target Kindle book purchase "50% point reduction Kindl ... → Continue reading


It is a site "PHILE WEB" (file web) that delivers daily news, reviews, bargain information, etc. on AV / audio / gadgets. First published in 1999.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Point program

Point program, ま た はPoint service(Japanglish: point service) And variousProducts・Points calculated under certain conditions according to the purchase amount of services or the number of visits to the store (Point) Service to give to customers. The customer can use the points as a part of the purchase price from the next time onward or exchange the points for goods. Businesses that give points can use this serviceMarketingTo utilize.

Many businesses use a unit called "points", but there are cases where units other than points such as "miles", "money", "coins", "dollars", and "stamps" are used.In this section, they are included in the description.


Points are often issued in exchange for purchasing goods, but may also be issued in exchange for viewing advertisements on the Internet or holding shares.[1]..Medium for recording the points (dedicated cards such as point cards andmember IDRecord points in (etc.) and accumulate them.The accumulated points can be used (in many cases) when purchasing goods and services from the next time onward, or a certain amount of points can be exchanged for gift certificates.Retail tradeAnd service industry (specialty storesChain storeAndHotel,Credit cardEtc.). These daysShopping bagMay give points to unwanted customers.

Nielsen World Retail Loyalty Sentiment Survey[2]Divides point rewards into monetary and non-monetary rewards, which include product discounts, refunds, cash packs, free or discounted shipping, and free product offerings. do[3]..Non-monetary rewards include high-priority services, exclusive access to bargains, certification as a special customer, provision of personalized goods and services, and donations to philanthropy.[3].

The point is that companies promise discounts on their products and services, which is used as a strategy for companies to retain customers from competitors to their own companies (Lock-in effect[4].. On the other hand,Consumer electronics storeIn point redemption services that exceed 1% of the selling price in the above, the point is that the point redemption is actually added to the price that should be sold, beyond the frame of sales promotion, customers can It is also pointed out that they are merely enclosed at their own expense. At some mass retailers, the customer may choose whether to allocate the point reward to the point service or to sell the reward after discounting it (which means on the spot).K's DenkiThere is also a home electronics mass retailer that does not introduce a point system like the above, but has a motto of "cash discount on the spot".

The point program includes points issued by individual companies only for in-house products and services and "points issued by platformer-type companies" in which many member stores participate.[4]..Enclosure at platformer-type company-issued points is used to expand the company's platform by making many customers members, and it is said that this will lead to the emergence of multiple point economic zones.[4].Suica,PASMOWaitIC boarding cardA regional point card system has also been developed and operated so that everything can be used as a point card as it is. There is a widespread movement to introduce this system for reasons such as reducing the burden of issuing new cards.[5].

The point program is a type of sales promotion, but unlike coupons, it can collect consumer purchase history.[1]..By making consumers members by points, we are also advancing the customization of consumption that conducts marketing that suits consumers through the purchase history of customers.[4]..From the viewpoint of behavioral economics, it has been pointed out that the point economicization, in which points are given to many products, may induce a divergence from rational behavior.[4]..The discount rate based on points is about 0.5% to 1%, which is not high at all, but customers do not always calculate and judge the discount rate rationally.There is also a view that the effect of accumulating points on the customer's psychology cannot be ignored.[6].

In addition, from the perspective of prices, the purchase price has fallen by the amount of the point return rate, but it does not appear statistically, so it is assumed that the price index will be difficult to reflect the purchase price of consumers.[4].

In the case of points issued by individual companies, the general acceptance was low because the purpose was to lock in, but there are some points issued by platformer-type companies that can be cashed or invested, and are generally accepted. Highly monetary elements are becoming stronger (pseudo-monetization)[4].

Points often have an expiration date,terrorism-Riot-InfectionIf it is difficult to use the service within the expiration date, the expiration date may be extended.


History in the United States

The birthplace of the point system is said to be the United States[1].. It is said that around 1850, a retailer who mistakenly purchased a large amount of laundry soap put a coupon on the wrapping paper and offered a service that can be exchanged for paintings when collecting it[1].. Such services spread to retailers, and in 1896, a stamp specialized company that commercialized the stamp service itself and sold it to multiple retailers and systematized also appeared (trading stamp).[1].

In the 20th century, the point system wasgas stationIn the 1920ssupermarketStarted to be introduced in[1].. The spread continued until the 1960s, but in the 1970s, severe inflation plunged into a decline.[1].. Due to further technological innovation, credit card companies have issued new Rewards Program, etc., so that traditional trading stamps have been replaced.[1].

History in Japan

The first issue of points in Japan1916/ToKitakyushuThere is a theory that the Kuga kimono store has started, but details are not well understood[1].1928/Ezaki Glico has started a campaign to redeem gifts for 20 coupons in the sweets package[1].

However, since the introduction of supermarkets in Japan was at the end of the 1950s, the introduction of American-style trading stamps was also after that time, and the green stamp appeared in 1958 and the blue chip appeared in 1962.[1].

In 1984, Washington Hotel introduced Japan's first card-type reward card[1].. In 1985, Yodobashi Camera issued a point card for the purpose of reducing discount negotiations, and since then, point service has spread rapidly.[1].

Timeline in Japan
  • 1958-Common stamp serviceGreen stampFounded.
  • 1962-Common stamp serviceBlue chipFounded.
  • 1979- National Federation of Record Trade AssociationsIs banned from issuing service tickets for member stores (providing discounts according to the number of coupons saved), which is accused of violating the Antimonopoly Act, and the point service of music software has been virtually lifted after this incident. R.
  • 1980s-By this time, point service based on the amount of credit card usage (if there is hope depending on the number of pointsGift certificatesHave been done already.
  • 1985- Yodobashi CameraIssued a point card[1].
  • February 1988- Shopping Town Pier(Fukui OfShopping center) Issued a point card.
  • Around 1995, American airlines started mileage services in Japan.
  • Around 1997, Japanese airlines started mileage services. What was behind AmericaFreebie display methodIt is said that there was a regulation of.
  • From around 2000, the airline group (Alliance) was formed, and mutual addition and use of points earned within the group will be performed.
  • From around 2004Yamada DenkiStarting withConsumer electronics storeThe act of targeting books and magazines as point cardsMaintain resale priceHe insisted that he was in breach of the contract and asked for points to be reduced. However,Fair Trade CommissionHowever, the Nisshinren changed its position and announced in February 2005 that it would accept point cards.
    • After that, including TSUTAYArental videoIssuance of new point cards and subscription of point cards to department stores and shopping malls are spreading rapidly at stores and electric railway bookstores.
    • However, even after the Japan Bookstore Federation of Commercial Associations announced its acceptance, the company will not lose its "point card absolute opposition" stance, and the contracted publishers will be excluded from the point service of their own publications. We encourage you to specify.
  • 2008-Established Japan Internet Point Council to promote awareness and healthy development of the Internet Point Marketing industry.

Operation form

Some credit cards, such as credit cards, automatically give points at the time of payment, while others create a special point card or rental video membership card and present it at the time of payment to give points.There are also point cards and membership cards that combine credit card functions.

Credit card

In both cases of payment at the store and payment on the Internet, in the case of payment using a credit card, points corresponding to the payment amount are automatically added and recorded. There are also cases where benefits such as points are added when payment is made by revolving payment. When a certain number of points are reached, the prize is exchanged for a prize or a gift certificate prepared in advance. In addition, some points can be used for payment for shopping on the Internet. A fixed expiration date is often set for each acquired point.

There are some cards for which specific payment is not subject to the point service, and some cards for which the point service itself does not exist.

Exclusive reward card

Dedicated by a vendorPoint CardIs eligible for the point service by presenting it when purchasing the product.As a form, consumers are often members who participate in the point service system operated by the trader, and the membership card is often in the form of a point card.There are companies that issue free of charge and companies that issue at a predetermined fee.Points generated according to the purchase price are added and recorded.There is a format in which points are applied to payment when the next product is purchased and a substantial discount is given, and a format in which points are exchanged for gift certificates when a certain number of points are reached.Regarding the expiration date, there are those that have a predetermined expiration date for each acquired point and those that can carry over the expiration date by presenting the card within a certain period and putting in and out of points, for example, there is a point in and out at the end. It is valid for one year from, etc., and depends on the publisher.In addition, the type that exchanges for gift certificates or discounts when a certain number of points is reached is the point accumulated so far in consideration of customers who will not have the opportunity to use the point card due to the closing of the store when the store is closed. Depending on the situation, discounts or exchanges for products may be offered.

When presenting the conversion rate and conditions of points to be added, the rate at the time of payment by cash or debit card is often displayed. In credit card payments, the points rate may be reduced or points may not be added. In addition, the percentage of points may be increased during the sale period.

Issued by a traderAffiliated credit card(House card) is often the point service. Alternatively, a credit card function may be added to the membership card of the point service. This can also be regarded as a house card in a broad sense.

member ID

rental videoUse the membership card as it is as a point card (Example.TSUTAYASuch). Since the membership card itself becomes a point card, there is no particular charge, but since it has an expiration date (often one year), points will be lost unless continued.


This is a method of receiving a service by putting a stamp (a stamp-like thing) or sticker that you can get at the time of shopping on a special mount. Stamps and stickers can be transferred as long as they are not attached, so there is an advantage that points can be accumulated more flexibly than membership cards and point cards, such as adding up with family and groups. Long time agoLotus coupon,Blue chip (company)It was done by, but now it is moving to the point card type.

Mileage service

In particularAirlinesA similar service done atMileage serviceSay. Since the mileage service gives points in proportion to the boarding distance, the points used are generallyMilesCalled. Miles are granted by the airline issuing a special card or by having the house card carry the point service and presenting these at the time of boarding. Group with multiple companies (Aviation union), it is possible to redeem miles and prizes in common among companies in the group.

The word "mileage service" is also Japanese-made English, and in English-speaking countries "Frequent-flyer program"(FFP, the meaning of "Frequent flight passengers' program").

Operational status

United Kingdom

In the UK, there is no legal system specific to the point program, but points that fall under electronic money are subject to the electronic money rule 2000, so businesses must approve or register.[3]..In addition, points corresponding to electronic money subject to the electronic money rule 2000 are treated as collateralized claims for user protection.[3].

  • Nector points (Nectar loyalty card) --AIMA operates the UK's largest loyalty program, which went into operation in 2002.[3].
  • Tesco Clubcard --Developing supermarkets, etc.TescoIn addition to the United Kingdom, we also offer services in Ireland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.[3].
  • Boots Advantage Card-Drugstore ChainBootsPoint program[3].
  • Top Cashback-Operates a point program that can be cashed in partnership with more than 3500 physical stores[3].


In the United States, there is a point program called the Loyalty program, which is mainly operated by the financial services industry.[3].

There is no law regarding the act of issuing points in the United States[3]..The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act) has been enacted to protect consumers, and credit cards, debit cards, prepaid cards, etc. are regulated, but loyalty programs are not covered.[3]..However, although it is not a decree, the airline's Frequent flyers program (mileage program in Japan) has guidelines established by the United States Attorney Generals Association (NAAG) in 1988.[3].

  • Uber Rewards-March 2019, 3UberThe point program that the service started in the United States[3].
  • Target Red-Operates a discount department store chainTarget corporationPoint program[3].


Estimates of the amount of points issued in Japan vary considerably due to differences in estimation methods, etc., and Nomura Research Institute estimates 2018 billion yen in FY9546, and Yano Research Institute estimates about 2017 trillion yen in 1.8. To[4].

For wrapping paper and packaging of products, or volunteer points attached to corporate servicesBell markThere is.Cut out the points attached to products and collect them in educational facilities such as schools.Bell markBy sending to the Education Grant Foundation, you can receive subsidies for purchasing equipment according to the points, and 10% of the points allocated by the educational facilities for purchasing equipment will be used as aid funds for various education.


Corporate transactions

The point service is basically a service for individuals, but depending on the issuer, it is possible to create a card in the name of a corporation. By the way, when purchasing goods and services with corporate funds in accordance with business, the points to be granted should belong to the corporate, and if there is a corporate card, it may be granted to it. However, if you cannot make a corporate card, you have to put it in a card in the name of an individual. It is also possible for the person in charge to intentionally add points to his or her card, and handling such a case becomes a problem. If you allow points to be placed on your personal card, people who travel a lot, purchasers of goods, etc. will earn miles and points with the company's money and personalize it, and it is also said that it is unfair is there. On the other hand, in the case where workers are required to pay for travel expenses during business trips, there are also cases in which the amount paid up to settlement is regarded as a claim and the interest rate is requested.[7]In some cases, miles are attributed to individuals as compensation for the interest rate. No social agreement has been reached regarding the handling of points in such cases, and each corporation/organization will have to deal with it differently.

For example, of government officesAccounting Office,Ministry of JusticeStipulates that the mileage accrual associated with a business trip must not be received, but other ministries and agencies are up to the individual judgment. Even in general companies, if the handling is clearly defined, it is necessary to follow it. Furthermore, in the case of mileage, in most cases you can receive special services by earning a certain amount of boarding miles within a certain period (JAL Global ClubIt can be said that it is becoming difficult to separate the points of corporations and individuals, considering that this is also part of the point service.

Accounting treatment

The point is that the issuing company

  1. When we see it as a promise for future discounts
  2. When considering as a promise of future gifts
  3. When the point management company and the issuing company are different (so-called common points), when they are treated as deposits from member stores

There is. According to the report of the corporate point study group sponsored by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry,liabilitiesTherefore,Current liabilitiesorFixed debtIn the formBalance sheetIt is described in. For companies with a large amount of points issued,AllowanceMay be set up as an independent item, but is not obligatory[8].. The amount of allowance to be recorded as a liability is usually the cost of the outstanding balance multiplied by the assumed usage rate. For example, when recording as a current liability, the amount of points used within the next fiscal year is calculated from past usage records, and the cost is recorded as a liability. Therefore, the cost of points that disappear without being used is usually not recorded, and it is an exception that companies with a high usage rate such as home electronics mass retailers allocate the full amount. This is because companies that have low assumed utilization rates have the effect of reducing their profits by excessively recording provisions.

In addition, in the future international accounting standards, deferred income treatment, which is completely different from the above liability treatment, may be introduced. This divides the amount of revenue received when points are issued into products and points, and records the amount of points as deferred revenue (see 13). Deferred revenue is recorded as realized in the future when the points are used, expired, or transferred to another company.

The handling of points when the issuer goes bankrupt is unclear at this point. In the mileage service, there are cases in which miles were preserved by the company that inherited the business when the airline went bankrupt. In other point services, there are no actual cases, and it is uncertain whether or not they will be treated in the same way as other credits, and if they are recognized as credits, what will be their priority. for that reason,2007/May 1ToMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryClarified the policy to proceed with the rule making regarding the point service.


At present (September 2007), whether or not there is a specific taxation and its method are not specified, but whether the points that have been earned should be subject to taxation, and the taxation on settlement using points (consumption taxThere is a debate about what to do with the double taxation relationship with.

Use of purchase history and personal information

A consumer who wants to accumulate points on a point card first brings the product to be purchased to a cashier and deposits his or her own point card at a cashier. The cashier reads the card information at the terminal of the online system provided to the store by the card issuer. At the same time, or with little time, the cashier scans the item's bar code with the POS bar code reader installed in the store.

As a result, it is customary that the purchase history associated with the personal information is stored in the card issuer. The purchase history can be used by the issuer itself, as well as by the company/organization authorized by the issuer, when the issuer makes a contract with the subscriber when the point card is created.

However, there are a few consumers who are not aware of the above, and some of them are regarded as a problem.[9] [10]

Other issues

Increasing the number of loyalty cards that have limited opportunities for use locally will make the wallet bulky[11].. As a result, the number of cards increases, and it takes time to find them, which makes management difficult.SmartphoneYou can solve these problems by using the official point apps, such as "Stocard" and "LINE Wallet" that collect point cards.[12][13].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Keisuke Omoto "Evolving Point Cards and Their Future" Retrieved from Nissay Research Institute REPORT 2007.2, June 2020, 6.
  2. ^ British: Nielsen Global Retail Loyalty-Sentiment Survey
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n NTT Data Institute of Management Consulting "Survey on financial systems and their operational status in other countries" Financial Services Agency, browsed February 2021, 9.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Yuri Okina "Point Economicization-Exploring Implications for Macroeconomics and Financial Systems-" Japan Research Institute, viewed September 2021, 9.
  5. ^ ITpro (October 2008, 3). “Utilizing Suica as a local loyalty card, introducing it in the shopping area in front of the station in Tokyo". 2008/7/20Browse.
  6. ^ ITpro (October 2009, 5). “Why doesn't the "20% point return" ever disappear? --Knowing behavioral economics". 2009/5/7Browse.
  7. ^ Especially seen in educational institutions such as universities. Due to the execution of the annual budget, there are cases in which the travel expenses for business trips in April are delayed until July.
  8. ^ Example: Mobile phone companies are independent items, but airline companies do not.
  9. ^ Hiromitsu Takagi @ Home Diary-I asked the street corner if "3 in 1 T-point cards has"
  10. ^ Privacy Freak Group (Ichiro Yamamoto, Hiromitsu Takagi, Masanori Suzuki)-1st Privacy Freak Cafe To all those who believe that "information that identifies an individual is personal information""What is the difference between this common point card and such general point cards? The common point cards are A companies, B companies, C companies, D companies... However, eventually there are 10 companies and 400 companies, and each company sells various specialized products, but the history of them is all linked horizontally. The consumer's lifestyle is understood. Cross-sectoral privacy infringement may occur, but that is stated in the terms and conditions.There will be no points for free"I have no IT literacy" for consumersFrustrationSome people blame you for saying, "Is it bad?" about it. Is it possible for anyone to understand such business models and information system structures? It is often called “asymmetry” after doing that, but it is expanding every day. Even with the consent of the consumer, that premise is breaking down. And Japan is an elderly society. Can I leave this as it is? That is the awareness of the problem. "
  11. ^ Small society There are various cards inside the wallet. …
  12. ^ You can't miss the points anymore! Mass point card management
  13. ^ [LINE] New and convenient new features "My Card" and "LINE Coupon" added to "LINE Wallet" "LINE Wallet" from today

Related item


Kodansha Inc.(This isBritish: Kodansha Ltd.) IsTokyoBunkyoOtowa [2]Headquartered inJapanThe major comprehensiveInfomationIs.Affiliated company group "Otowa GroupThe core company.


Founder'sSeiji NomaBy1909/(Meiji42 years)11"Dainippon YutakaEstablished as (Dai Nippon Yubenkai). at firstargumentThe magazine "Yuu"PublicationWas. The name of "Kodansha" is as it is named "TalkIs derived fromKodan ClubWas published1911/Used in combination with Dainippon Yutsukai from (Meiji 44)[3].critic OfTokutomi SohoIt is,PrewarKodansha, which had a great influence on boys and young people inMinistry of Education[4].

1938/(Showa13 years) in FebruaryHisashi NomaBecame the second presidentLtd.Reorganized in November of the same yearSae NomaBecame the third president.1945/(Showa 20)Shoichi NomaBecame the fourth president,1958/(Showa 33) renamed as "Kodansha Co., Ltd." afterwards1981/(Showa 56)Noma RyoudoIs the fifth president,1987/(Showa 62)Sawako NomaIs the fifth president,2011/(Heisei23 years)Nobuno NobunobuBecame the 7th president and continues to the present[3].

"Interesting and informativeFrom before the war, with the corporate philosophy of "Massesmagazine"キ ン グ"Shonen clubVarious magazines andBookWas published. 『Eiji YoshikawaComplete works"・"Japanese dictionaryWhile publishing such asLiterature AwardPreside over.

Shogakukan-Shueisha(Both companiesHitotsubashi GroupIt is the largest publishing industry in Japan along with (belonging to), and at one point its annual sales exceeded 2000 billion yen.However, in recent years, the so-called "Publication depressionSales decreased due to2002/In (14), it became the first deficit settlement after the war. In addition, although Shogakukan had a difference of about 500 billion yen at its peak,2006/(18) sales fell to 1456 billion yen and was overtaken by Shogakukan, which sold 1470 billion yen.[5].2007/It exceeded that Shogakukan in (19),2009/After (21), it was overtaken by Shueisha.2016/Since 28, the sales of both companies have again exceeded.

2002 (Heisei 14) and 2006 (Heisei 18)FIFA World CupAt the time of each, as a FIFA official book,2002 FIFA World Cup"Official Guidebook", "Official Program", "Official Photobook" (omnibus),2006 FIFA World CupWe publish "official guidebook" and "official omnibus".

1982/Since then, it's a gravure miss contestMiss MagazineWas held with several cancellations in between,2012/From now on, women not limited to gravureIdolauditionIsMiss iDIs being held.

デ ィ ズ ニ ーI have the right to publish books that use characters,Tokyo Disney ResortOfficialsponsorAsTokyo DisneylandToToontown,Tokyo Disney SeaToLegend of Mishka(Discontinued due to the end of the show on September 2014, 9),Turtle talk(From September 2014, 9)[6][7].

In addition, 2021/(ReiwaFrom 3 years)United Kingdom Ofサ ッ カ ーteam·Liverpool FCAnd Official GlobalpartnershipHave a contract[8].

In front of the main buildingTokyo MetroGokokuji StationThere is No. 6 entrance.


  • 1909/(Meiji42)-First presidentSeiji NomaEstablished Dai Nippon Yukai in Komagome-Sakashita-cho, Hongo-ku (currently Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku).
  • 1910/(43th year of Meiji)- Dainippon BooksFirst issue of "Oben" as the publisher.
  • 1911/(44th year of Meiji)-Raised KodanshaKodan Club] Is published.
  • 1914/(Taisho3 years) - "Shonen club] Is published.
  • 1920/(Taisho 9)-"Modern" "Ladies' Club] Is published.
  • 1924/(13th year of Taisho)-"キ ン グ] Is published.
  • 1925/(14th year of Taisho)-Renamed the company name to Yundan Kodansha Japan.
  • 1931/(Showa6 years)-Record section (currentlyKing recordEstablished).
  • 1933/(Showa 8)-Head office moved to Otowa Town, Koishikawa Ward (currently Otowa, Bunkyo Ward).
  • 1938/(Showa 13)- Hisashi NomaAppointed as the 2nd president (December in November).Sae Noma, Became the third president. OrganizationLtd.And
  • 1945/(20)-Nihon Press changed its articles of incorporation,Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.Established.Shoichi Noma, Became the 4th president.
  • 1946/(Showa 21)-Established Toyokuni Printing.
  • 1952/(Showa 27)-Established Daiichi Paper Industry.
  • 1954/(Showa 29)-Established Daiichi News Agency.
  • 1958/(33)-Changed the trade name to Kodansha Co., Ltd.
  • 1961/(36)-Established Otowa Service Center (currently Kodansha Business Partners). Shoichi Noma is appointed president, and the chairman of the International Association for Publishing Culture.
  • 1963/(Showa 38)-Established Kodansha International.
  • 1964/(39)-Established Otowa Building.
  • 1970/(Showa 45)-Established Kodansha Scientific.
  • 1972/(47)-Established Peck (currently Kodansha Editorial). Shoichi Noma became president and Vice Chairman of the International Union of Publishing.
  • 1975/(50)-Established Nikkan Gendai.
  • 1977/(Showa 52)-Established Sansusha (currently Kodansha BC).
  • 1981/(Showa 56)- Noma Ryoudo, Became the 5th president.
  • 1987/(62)-With the death of Nomichi Sora,Sawako NomaBecame the 6th president.
  • 2005/(Heisei17 years)-Kodansha (Beijing) Culture Co., Ltd. established.
  • 2008/(20)-Kodansha USA, established Kodansha USA Publishing.
  • 2009/(21)-100th anniversary. December 100th, the 12th anniversary, comes from the founder's birthday, Seiji Noma.[9].
  • 2010/(22)-Established Seikaisha.
  • 2011/(23)-With the death of Sawako Noma,Nobuno NobunobuIs appointed as the 7th president.Established Taiwan Kodansha Media Co., Ltd.
  • 2015/(27)-Established Kodansha Gakugei Create.Hurst Women's PictorialFormed a business alliance with and became the publisher of the magazine issued by the company.
  • 2016/(28) June- IchijinshaBecame a wholly owned subsidiary. 70th anniversary of the first appearance of the group. Head office, 50th anniversary in the United States.
  • 2017/(29) June- Polygon PicturesEstablished a joint venture, Kodansha VR Lab.
  • 2018/(30)
    • 3 month - pixivIn collaboration with the manga app "PalcyLaunched.
    • April-Matching manga posting site "DAYS NEO" opens[10].
  • 2019/(31) June- Weekly Shonen Magazine,Weekly Hyundai60th anniversary of the first issue.
  • 2020/(2nd year of Reiwa)
    • March --Started operation of Mixalive TOKYO[11]
    • September --Started "Kodansha Game Creators Lab", a project to support indie game creators[12]
  • 2021/(3nd year of Reiwa)
    • April --Started producing and using the first corporate logo for Kodansha, with the main purpose of making people aware that it is "Kodansha's work" when disseminating content overseas.The logo was createdNetflix,National geographic"Gretel", an American company that created logos such as.
    • September-A major online shopping companyAmazonAgency companyStart direct transactions without going through[13].
  • 2022/(4nd year of Reiwa)
    • April-KPS Holdings Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary, merges with Toyokuni Printing Co., Ltd. and Daiichi Paper Industry Co., Ltd.[14][15]..Transferred all businesses other than the personal information handling business and real estate business of Kodansha Business Partners to KPS Holdings[16]
    • April-Established KPS Fulfillment Co., Ltd., KPS Systems Co., Ltd., KPS Solutions Co., Ltd., and KPS Products Co., Ltd. through the business split of KPS Holdings Co., Ltd.[17]


Settlement period (period)amount of salesOperating incomeOrdinary profitProfit before taxNet income
63rd period (December 2000, 12-November 1, 2001)176900 million yen3100 million yen700 million yen
64rd period (December 2001, 12-November 1, 2002)1712 million yen7 million yen▲1600 million yen
65rd period (December 2002, 12-November 1, 2003)1672 million yen14 million yen
66rd period (December 2003, 12-November 1, 2004)1598 million yen▲5 million yen▲7300 million yen
67rd period (December 2004, 12-November 1, 2005)1545 million yen77 million yen52 million yen
68rd period (December 2005, 12-November 1, 2006)1455 million yen31 million yen15 million yen
69rd period (December 2006, 12-November 1, 2007)1443 million yen▲3 million yen24 million yen2600 million yen10 million yen
70rd period (December 2007, 12-November 1, 2008)1350 million yen▲About 62 billion yen▲About 52 billion yen▲48 million yen▲76 million yen
71rd period (December 2008, 12-November 1, 2009)1245 million yen▲About 73 billion yen▲About 49 billion yen▲57 million yen
72rd period (December 2009, 12-November 1, 2010)1223 million yen▲18 billion600 million yen5 million yen
73rd period (December 2010, 12-November 1, 2011)1219 million yen200 million yen7 million yen1 million yen
74rd period (December 2011, 12-November 1, 2012)1178 million yen▲6 million yen10 million yen15 million yen
75rd period (December 2012, 12-November 1, 2013)1202 million yen24 million yen48 million yen32 million yen
76rd period (December 2013, 12-November 1, 2014)1190 million yen5300 million yen3800 million yen27 million yen
77rd period (December 2014, 12-November 1, 2015)1168 million yen34 million yen14 million yen
78rd period (December 2015, 12-November 1, 2016)1172 million yen27 million yen27 million yen
79rd period (December 2016, 12-November 1, 2017)1179 million yenApproximately 19 billion yen17 million yen17 million yen
80rd period (December 2017, 12-November 1, 2018)1204 million yen2200 million yen4700 million yen28 million yen
81rd period (December 2018, 12-November 1, 2019)1358 million yen8900 million yen11200 million yen72 million yen
82rd period (December 2019, 12-November 1, 2020)1449 million yen16000 million yen16300 million yen108 million yen
83rd period (December 2020, 12-November 1, 2021)1707 million yen21700 million yen24000 million yen23100 million yen155 million yen

Major published magazines

Women's magazine

Men's magazine/information magazine

Infant magazine

Women's comic magazine

Men comic magazine

Literary magazine

Other magazines

Magazines that were once published and sold

Main publications/labels

Literature/light novel


Children's book

Utility book

  • Health library

Complete works

  • All 50 volumes (1959-1962)


  • KodanshaJapanese dictionary Third edition
  • Kodansha color version Japanese dictionary second edition
  • Academic Bunko Japanese Dictionary Revised New Edition
  • Dictionary of correct Japanese notation and terms Second Edition


  • World Famous Liquor Encyclopedia
  • Cooking household account book
  • Simple pension household notes
  • Ramen Grand Prize
  • Separate Best Car

Comic book

Web media

Web services that have ended

LIVE entertainment

  • Mixalive TOKYO

Literature Award

The above is called the Noma Sansho.

Finished awards

Major bestsellers


After the war

Business withdrawn


Early Showa period,Doriko(Soft drinks, in modern timesNutrition Drink), And pharmaceuticals and nutritional foods such as ynol (gastrointestinal drug), trasin (common treatment), and pamir (eye drops) were sold through the agency.

Game software

  • Blue Almanac (1991 June 6,Mega drive) (Kodansha Research Institute)
  • Knight Legend (Mega Drive, July 1993, 7) (Kodansha Research Institute)
  • Destruction of the devil[24](Mega Drive, December 1993, 12) (Kodansha Research Institute)
  • UltramanPicture book (September 1996, 9,Sega Saturn
  • Kindaichi Shonen Case Files Sorrow Island A new tragedy (November 1996, 11,PlayStation
  • BOYS BE... (March 1997, 3, PlayStation)
  • The first step (March 1997, 7, PlayStation)
  • Alice on line B (March 1997, 9, PlayStation)
  • Ultraman Illustrated Book 2 (December 1997, 12, Sega Saturn)
  • Initial DGaiden (March 1998, 3,Game boy
  • Kindaichi Shonen Case Files 2 Hell Amusement Park Murder Case (March 1998, 3, PlayStation)
  • Shura Gate (March 1998, 4, PlayStation)
  • Ultraman Illustrated Book 3 (December 1998, 6, Sega Saturn)
  • Initial D (Sega Saturn, June 1998, 6)
  • Shigeru Mizuki's youkai picture book Summary (1998 June 6, Sega Saturn)
  • Tsuntsugumi Suujide Puni Puni (September 1998, 9, PlayStation)
  • Danjyo Shotenkai-The legendary sword started! (March 1998, 10, PlayStation)
  • Tsun Tsungumi 2 Moji Moji Pakkun (November 1998, 11, PlayStation)
  • Initial D (January 1999, 1, PlayStation)
  • Tsuntongumi 3 Kanji Vader (January 1999, 1, PlayStation)
  • Psychomettler EIJI (March 1999, 2, PlayStation)
  • Spicaro Sentaro Puzzle Rice (February 1999, 2, PlayStation)
  • Premonition of excitement Hiroki YagamiGame-Taste (May 1999, 5, PlayStation)
  • Kindaichi Shonen's Case Files 3 -Seiryuu Legend Murder Case- (August 1999, 8, PlayStation)
  • BOYS BE… 2nd Season (September 1999, 9, PlayStation)
  • Onijo Castle (December 1999, 12, PlayStation)
  • Gaming Apocalypse Kaiji (March 2000, 5, PlayStation)
  • Silence fleet (March 2000, 9, PlayStation)
  • Naniwa Financial Road~Yuji AokiFor public breast computing ~ (July 2001, 7, PlayStation)
  • Magical Teacher Negima!FUN DISC Maho Ryo Festival (March 2006, 3,Microsoft Windows

Relationship with broadcasting industry

Published by KodanshaWeekly HyundaiAnd 'FridayByNHKAnd eachCommercial station, OtherMedia(Mass media) Are often bashed, but they are published in magazines and publications issued by the company.Novel,ComicRegarding the relationship with the work itself, the relationship is not bad. After all, Kodansha has a large scale, and between departments (of novels and manga workscontentExcavationCopyrightIt is thought that the reason is that it is difficult to unify the tone due to the lack of horizontal connections between the management department and the news departments of "Weekly Hyundai" and "Friday".

Kodansha is also very active in visualizing popular works in collaboration with each broadcasting station (rival OfShogakukan,ShueishaThe same).


Main publications
Educational TV programs for infants (magazines)
* "With mom"("With NHK's mother])
* "peek-a-boo!("The first TV picture book isn't there!")
Information education program of general television
* "Explore roman world heritage"ofDVDProduction-Sale
* "It's a bit bad" (Naonori Isomura
Others (Essay books by NHK announcer and caster at that time, including photos during program recording)
* "Recommendation" (Kenji Suzuki
* "Studio 102Drama ”(Eiichi Takanashi)
* "How to enjoy NHK 10 times" (Miyazaki Midori

Nippon TV

Hakone EkidenA relay guidebook has been published.


Kodansha isTBS TVIs the parent company ofTokyo Broadcasting HoldingsIs a major shareholder with a 1.98% stake in the company (as of March 2012, 3, the 9th largest shareholder ranking).

2000/In collaboration with both editorial departments of "Weekly Shonen Magazine" and "Weekly Young Magazine" published by Kodansha,Miss MagazineWas held until 2012[25].

2005/Is a record company affiliated with KodanshaKing recordHas a business tie-up.

2006/From April, with KodanshaTBSIs "Drama Original AwardWe are co-founding and discovering new dramas and writers[26].

2019/March, TBS affiliated stationEvery day broadcasting,DMM picturesIn partnership with the same station,Anime ismAnnounced that it will broadcast the anime based on Kodansha for two years.[27].

TV Asahi

KodanshaAsahi Shimbun,Toei,Kyushu Asahi BroadcastingNext toTV Asahi HoldingsIs a shareholder with a 1.36% stake. Former president Sawako Noma was outside of TV Asahi from June 1988 to June 6.Statutory AuditorWas serving.

Fuji Television Network, Inc

Literary work awardEdogawa Ranpo AwardBoth companies are listed as sponsors[28].

Live doorFuji Television Network, IncWithNippon Broadcasting Stock Acquisition BattleIn doing so, Kodansha supported Fuji Television,Takeover bidIn (TOB)Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc.Sold the shares to Fuji Television.

Serialized in various magazines published by Kodansha (such as "Weekly Shonen Magazine" and "Morning")ComicBut on Fuji TVTV dramaIn many cases,

Nippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.

AffiliateKobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.Is invested with. The third president of the company was from Kodansha.

Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.

Kodansha's manga worksTelevision AnimationWhen theStar child)ButSoundtrackOften involved in production.

Suspicious news reports, scandals, etc.

Cases that became a problem by posting articles

Plagiarism problem

  • In 2016Yoichi TakahashiAbout "The Great Lies of China's GDP" (Kodansha) published by KodanshaToshiki KanamoriPointed out that there are parts that are significantly similar to the description in his serialized article.[32]..In response, Kodansha apologized for failing to specify the source due to Kodansha's inadequacy under the name of the director in charge of the Planning Department of the First Business Bureau.[33].

Incidents and scandals that do not involve article publication

  • Questionnaire investigation case by a Kodansha employee who misrepresented himself as a college student (2007/May 11
Kodansha employeesMarketDoing researchUniversity students(Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University)”インターネット OfBlogTo the operators,ComicaboutquestionnaireIt turned out that a survey was being conducted. After the discovery, Kodansha apologized to the victim (the questionnaire destination) and Keio University, but was sent to the questionnaire destination.E-mailThere was a description in the statement, "If you give us permission (for this questionnaire), we will use it for our future sales and promotion measures."This made me even more angry, saying, "Do you say'yes' here?"[34].

Otowa Group (affiliated company)

  • Kobunsha Co., Ltd. - 1945/Founded.Established Kodansha subsidiary Japan Press by amending the articles of incorporation.
    • Kobunsha Service Co., Ltd.-Operation management of Kobunsha Photo Studio and Kobunsha Theater Studio.
  • King Records Co., Ltd. - 1931/Founded.1951/Separated from Kodansha's record department.
    • Seven Seas Music Co., Ltd.-Music-related publisher.
    • Bellwood Records Co., Ltd.
    • King International Co., Ltd.-Import and sale of overseas CDs.
    • King Enterprise Co., Ltd.-Dispatch business to King Records.
    • King Sekiguchidai Studio Co., Ltd.-Operation management of music and video rental studios.
    • Dazed Co., Ltd.
  • Nikkanzai Co., Ltd. - 1975/Founded. ""Weekly Hyundai』Editor-in-chief Takafumi Kawanabe and later became the fifth president of KodanshaNoma RyoudoWas established.
    • Nikkan Gendai Osaka Co., Ltd.
    • Noncom Co., Ltd.
  • Kodansha Editorial Co., Ltd.-Editing of practical books and general books, commissioned publishing (own expense publishing, custom publishing).The publisher is Kodansha itself.
  • Kodansha Scientific Co., Ltd.-Planning and editing of natural science books.
  • Ltd.Kodansha B sea --Publishing and editing of automobile-related magazines and books.The publisher is Kodansha itself. The company name was changed from Sanshosha on June 2009, 6.
  • Ltd.Seikaisha - 2010/Founded.In addition to manga and light novels, "Seikaisha new book] Etc. are issued. ""Kodansha BOX』\ The first directorKatsushi OtaEstablished with 100% investment by Kodansha.The publisher is Kodansha itself.
  • Ltd.Tanka Kenkyusha --Publishing "Short Song Study".Planning proposals and editing contracts for humanities books and magazines of Kodansha and other publishers.
  • Ltd.Ichijinsha - 1992/Founded.A publisher centered on manga and light novels.2016/Kodansha became a wholly owned subsidiary in November[35]..The release is jointly with Kodansha, and the current management team is also composed of Kodansha's manga department alumni.
  • Kodansha PAL Co., Ltd.-Kodansha Children's Classroom (Infant classroom) Management.
  • KODANSHAtech GK-Web media and digital content development company.
  • Kodansha VR Lab Co., Ltd. --Planning, production, manufacturing, wholesale, lending, sales, copyright business and import / export of digital contents such as VR contents, video, games, audio and music.Polygon PicturesJoint venture with.
  • Content Data Marketing Co., Ltd .-Content marketing business, media monetization business, content data solution business.
  • KPS Holdings Co., Ltd.
    • KPS Fulfillment Co., Ltd.-Publishing and distribution business, sales business for each channel such as product sales at special events and exhibitions, sales at children's book specialty stores, recycled paper business, storage and shipping business of other goods
    • KPS Products Co., Ltd.-Content data production, printing / bookbinding, content production support, paper procurement, application and website management / SNS distribution support, data archiving business
    • KPS Solutions Co., Ltd.-Publishing-related business support / contract, business improvement proposal BPR, human resources support, back office business
    • KPS Systems Co., Ltd.-System development / maintenance / operation work, personal information management work
  • Kodansha Business Partners Co., Ltd.-Personal information handling business and real estate business. 2011/In 7 monthSelf-published"Kodansha Publishing Service Center" and bookslogistics-insuranceEstablished by the merger of Kodansha Logicom, which handles agency business.
  • Daiichi Tsushinsha Co., Ltd.- 1954/Founded.100% owned by KodanshaGeneral advertising agency.
    • Kodansha IP-Media Business Business, Rights Business Business, Media Management Support, Advertising / Promotion Business.
  • Otowa Building Co., Ltd. building-Real estateManagement and operation, landscaping business.
  • Kodansha Human Network Co., Ltd. Temporary staffing company.
  • Kodansha Bizco Co., Ltd.-Accounting work for each Otowa Group company.
  • Kodansha (Beijing) Culture Co., Ltd.
  • Taiwan Kodansha Media Co., Ltd.
  • Beijing Yinfusha Culture Co., Ltd.
  • KODANSHA USA, INC.-Headquarters of American business.

Related corporation

  • Noma Cultural Foundation
  • International Cultural Forum
  • Noma Educational Research Institute


  • Kodansha Hokkaido Branch - 1945/In May, the paper industry flourished due to the deterioration of the war situation.Tomakomai-KushiroClose toSapporoA branch was set up in the form of being evacuated to the Tomikido bookstore.We also undertook the printing of stamps, postcards, and stamps, which was difficult in Tokyo.After the war, the Tokyo head office became a war criminal company, which caused problems such as printing paper allocation, so I returned from Manchuria.Sakamoto Stronghold"Tank / Tank Tankuro』Published a sequel, etc.1950/Until around that time, he carried out his own publishing activities.
  • Midori-sha-Similar to Kobunsha, a subsidiary established within Kodansha to deal with the problem of printing paper allocation after the war.Unlike Kobunsha, it disappeared around the 1950s.
  • My Health-Leaved Kodansha in 1974Takero MakinoEstablished as a joint investment with.Handles health magazines for middle-aged and older people.laterMakino Publishing, Founded Wakasa Publishing and became independent as a unique corporate group.
  • Scola - 1981/Established as a subsidiary of Kodansha. In July 1988, the company's publisher symbol was transferred from Kodansha. It disappeared in the form of special liquidation in March 7.
  • Ask - 1981/Established as "Ask Kodansha" with a XNUMX:XNUMX investment between Kodansha and Ask.1998/The capital relationship was dissolved and the trade name was changed to Ask. In October 2017Ask publicationAbsorbed and dissolved.
  • Kodansha International- 1963/Established.He handled foreign books, language books, and general books, and also translated and published Japanese works into English. Disbanded at the end of April 2011[36].
  • Random House Kodansha-In 2003Random houseEstablished in partnership with. With the termination of the partnership in 2010Takeda Random House JapanRenamed to.2012/Bankruptcy in December[37].
  • 2 & 4 Motoring --Vehicle-related video media production business.
  • Kodansha Famous Schools Co., Ltd.Distance learningWas dealing with. Liquidation completed in October 2020[38].
  • Vertical -2011Dai Nippon PrintingAcquired jointly with[39].
  • Kodansha Advanced Media LLC.- Digital garageJoint venture with.
  • Kodansha FS Co., Ltd.
  • Kodansha Comic Create Co., Ltd.[40] ――Planning and editing of "Resurrection Bonbon Series" and special effects books. Dissolved at the end of August 2021.
  • Toyokuni Printing Co., Ltd.- 1946/Founded.Text printing of books and comic books, digital plate making, digital content management. In April 2022, it was absorbed and merged with KPS Holdings and dissolved.
    • Toyokuni Comic Production Co., Ltd. --DTP production business.
  • Daiichi Paper Industry Co., Ltd. --Founded in 1952.A trading company specializing in paper materials such as publishing and printing paper. In April 2022, it was absorbed and merged with KPS Holdings and dissolved.

Other investment companies


  • Junichi Shimbun --Although it was acquired in 1930 and put under the umbrella, it was sold in 1938 after the death of Seiji Noma.It was in 1942 that it became part of the Yomiuri Shimbun.
  • Aipec-Kodansha,pioneerAlthough it was invested by, etc., it went bankrupt in 1992 after the appearance of store decorations was discovered after it was opened to the public.
  • Asmik Ace -Asuku (As), Sumitomo Corporation (smi), Kodansha (k) jointly established as "Asmic", through Kadokawa Shoten, a subsidiary of Sumitomo Corporation, now a subsidiary of Jupiter Telecom.
  • LINE Book Distribution (LINE52%,Media Do(24%, 4 joint venture companies of Kodansha and Shogakukan)

business partnership

  • Hurst Women's Pictorial --Kodansha is entrusted with sales operations through retailers such as bookstores for all publications such as magazines and mooks.[41].
  • Cygames --Kodansha has been entrusted with sales of the comic label "Cycomics" since 2017.[42]However, it moved to Shogakukan from 2019, and all of them have been out of print since April 2020.

Member Organization


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f The 83st term financial announcement, “Gazette” (Extra issue No. 2022) dated March 4, 3 (18nd year of Reiwa), p.
  2. ^ "Transportation / Map: Kodansha". www.kodansha.co.jp. 2022/1/21Browse.
  3. ^ a b "History of Kodansha”. Kodansha. 2021/9/4Browse.
  4. ^ "Reference cooperative database". 2021/9/4Browse.
  5. ^ Shogakukan tops Kodansha's total sales for the first time,Asahi Shimbun,2007/May 6
  6. ^ Official sponsor,Tokyo Disney Resort
  7. ^ Kodansha is an official sponsor of Tokyo DisneySea® / Tokyo Disneyland®., Kodansha official website
  8. ^ "Announcement of Official Global Partnership Agreement with Liverpool FC (PDF)”. Kodansha (June 2021, 6). 2021/9/4Browse.
  9. ^ I want to read: Frontline "100 newly written books", XNUMX years old,Mainichi Newspapers, August 2009, 12[Broken link]
  10. ^ "In just three weeks after opening, the catch phrase was broken.Kodansha's manga posting site "DAYS NEO", "a place where you can meet more than 100 editors of XNUMX Kodansha magazines" ...?". Press Release/News Release Distribution Share No.1|PR TIMES. 2022/4/9Browse.
  11. ^ ""Mixa Live Tokyo" has opened a channel dedicated to VR content such as 1D actors and voice actors to commemorate the 2.5st anniversary!". PR TIMES. 2022/4/9Browse.
  12. ^ "Kodansha provides indie game developers up to XNUMX million yen a year and provides full support!". PR TIMES. 2022/4/9Browse.
  13. ^ "Kodansha and Amazon," unusual "direct transaction background is distribution reform without waiting". Asahi Shimbun(July 2019, 9). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASP9J5CJVP8NUTIL051.html 2021/9/17Browse. 
  14. ^ "Kodansha Group companies reorganized Toyokuni Printing, Daiichi Paper Industry dissolved”(Japanese). Cultural Communication Digital (September 2022, 2). 2022/2/23Browse.
  15. ^ "KPS Holdings merged with Toyokuni Printing and Daiichi Paper Industry”(Japanese). Mar Online. 2022/2/23Browse.
  16. ^ "Transferred all businesses other than personal information handling business and real estate business to Kodansha Business Partners and KPS Holdings”(Japanese). Mar Online. 2022/2/23Browse.
  17. ^ "February 4, 2th year of Reiwa (No. 16 of this paper), page 676, public notice of new division". Official gazette(July 2022, 2) 
  18. ^ "First published in 20 copies and talked about!What chef Harumi Kurihara wants to convey in a new magazine | mi-mollet NEWS FLASH Lifestyle | mi-mollet | A small step towards me tomorrow! (1/2)”(Japanese). mi-mollet. 2022/4/9Browse.
  19. ^ "The first issue of electronic BL/honey milk from Kodansha, the concept is "only healing!"". Comic Natalie(July 2016, 5). https://natalie.mu/comic/news/188431 2016/5/25Browse. 
  20. ^ “[Love it, you dye it] Sweet and stimulating digital comic magazine “comic tint”, launched April 4 (Friday)”. PR TIMES. (2018-03-2 15). https://prtimes.jp/main/html/rd/p/000001631.000001719.html 2018/7/8Browse. 
  21. ^ "Publisher of "Rura Japan" from Kodansha to Magazine House". WWD JAPAN. 2019/3/31Browse.
  22. ^ ""Pichi Pichi Pitch" Image Song Contest Results Announcement & "Anyway, I'm in love. ] Image song contest started!". PR TIMES. 2022/4/9Browse.
  23. ^ "The movie "AKIRA" will be released on YouTube for free, until the 28th to commemorate the release of Kodansha's "Katsuhiro Otomo Complete Works"”(Japanese). ITmedia NEWS. 2022/4/9Browse.
  24. ^ Because it is a specification that does not encounter with an enemy weaker than the party, it will be difficult to earn experience value, and if you proceed in the wrong way, you will not be able to clear it. Due to such a broken system, the difficulty level is extremely high, and the evaluation of the game is low. On the back of the package, there is a catch phrase saying "This game is more realistic than reality!", which makes me doubt whether the copywriter who wrote it actually played it.
    QBQ Co., Ltd.Hen "Nostalgic Mega Drive Revive Mega Driver !!" Published by My Way Publishing, 2018.ISBN +978-4-86511-870-4 p73
  25. ^ "Miss Magazine" has been suspended since 2012. In addition, the audition sponsored by Kodansha since 2013 is "Miss iD] Will be.
  26. ^ TBS/Kodansha Drama Original Award
  27. ^ "MBS: New midnight anime frame Super Animeism established in July Animationism continues". MANTANWEB (September 2019, 3). 2021/8/10Browse.
  28. ^ Kodansha BOOK Club: Literary Book Novel Contemporary Edogawa Ranpo Award Application Guidelines
  29. ^ Plagiarism from "Death Note"... Shonen Magazine apologizes - Sankei Shimbun,2007/May 12
  30. ^ Takeshi Wada (September 2010, 9). “Compensation Litigation: Korean “Diet Housewives” Sustains Japanese Translation and Suspends Kodansha Compensation". Daily jp.As of August 2010, 10original[Broken link]More archives.2010/10/2Browse.
  31. ^ "Tomomi Kasai's chest, hide the boy... Yanmaga release postponed". YOMIURI ONLINE (February 2013, 1). As of February 11, 2013original[Broken link]More archives.2013/1/20Browse.
  32. ^ Toshiki Kanamori (October 2016, 10). “About the book "The Great Lies of China's GDP" by Yoichi Takahashi". Gentosha GOLD ONLINE. Gentosha. 2021/10/31Browse.
  33. ^ Takashi Mabuchi (October 2016, 10). “Progress report". Kaetsu University. 2021/10/31Browse.
  34. ^ Kodansha employee sends a questionnaire to the manga blog operator, calling himself Keio University,INTERNET Watch,2007/May 11
  35. ^ Kodansha made Ichijinsha a wholly owned subsidiary, Comic Natalie, October 2016, 10
  36. ^ Kodansha International dissolved at the end of April, Shinka Culture Online, March 2011, 3
  37. ^ "Publisher Takeda Random House goes bankrupt, debt totals 9 million yen". MSN Sankei News (February 2012, 12). As of February 17, 2013original[Broken link]More archives.2013/3/9Browse.
  38. ^ Kodansha Famous Schools Co., Ltd.National Tax Agency Corporate Number Publication Site
  39. ^ "Kodansha and DNP US translation manga publishing vertical buying.Revenue". 2021/8/13Browse.
  40. ^ "Kodansha Comic Create disbanded”(Japanese). Cultural Communication Digital (September 2021, 9). 2021/9/19Browse.
  41. ^ Business partnership between Hurst Women's Pictorial and Kodansha (PDF(March 2015, 3 Hurst Women's Pictorial Inc./Kodansha Inc.)
  42. ^ "Cygames Co., Ltd. and Kodansha Co., Ltd. form a business alliance announced the launch of the comic label "Psycomi".". 2017/7/30Browse.

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