Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

💼 | Job hunting after the burst of the bubble


Job hunting after the burst of the bubble

If you write the contents roughly
In addition, we are providing job information for the employment ice age generation at Hello Work in various parts of the prefecture, and from January next year, we plan to hold an online company information session for the same generation.

A free consultation meeting for the employment ice age generation who did job hunting during the harsh employment environment was held in Ise City, Mie Prefecture on the 16th. → Continue reading

 Mie television

We will tell you a wide range of information such as incidents and accidents that occurred in Furusato Mie, delicious dishes that have reached the season and topics that make you feel at ease.
Mie's events are on Mie TV♪

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Employment ice age

Employment ice age(Ice age) isJapanInBubble burstAnd laterJob shortageRefers to the time when it became.RecruitmentEmployment of the companymagazine"Job Journal"1992/Proposed in the November issueCoined wordAndBubble economyThe severity of employment difficulties that suddenly dropped fromIce ageIt is likened to.At this timeNew graduateIt became difficult to get a job atgeneration TheEmployment Ice Age generationIt is called, and later abbreviated as "Ice Age GenerationIt came to be called.

In Japan at the following times,Youth unemployment rateHas risen to the 10% level.

1994/The 11thNew Word/Buzzword AwardWon the jury's special coined word award[2].

Financial crisis from the burst of the bubble (graduated from 1993-2000)

Bubble burstlaterFinancial crisisLaterDifficult to find[Annotation 1]When was (Graduated from 1993 to 2005Some experts think that[3]) Refers to. Lost generation(Because I was disappointed),Lost generationSometimes called.


For detailed recruitment status# Recruitment statusSee

Employment status before the bubble burst

Second oil crisisAfter1970 eraFrom the middle1985/Up to the Japanese labor marketNew job opening ratioIs 0.9 to 1 times,Effective job openings-to-applicants ratioRemained between 0.6 times and 0.7 times. But in September 1985Plaza agreementAnd with itAppreciation of the yenAs a result, the Japanese economy is led by domestic demand with a low interest rate policy.Bubble economySince the company has made excessive capital investment and employment, the ratio of job offers to applicants has jumped to 1.4 times, and the bubble economy has begun in earnest.1988/から1992/The situation has exceeded 1 times.

Entering the employment ice age

1990/Stock prices, land prices, etc. have fallen since January, causing a situation called "bubble burst".1991/After FebruaryStable growth period(Bubble period(Including) also ended. Amid the recession, companies began to curb new hires across the board to curb labor costs due to excessive employment during the bubble economy. Furthermore, it was difficult for the government to tackle the economic stimulus seriously in the midst of the turmoil in which the framework fluctuated significantly in the short term in the political world of the same period.

Still,1993/With the bottom as the bottom, the economy gradually recovered,1997/Although the employment status of new graduates once recovered,consumption taxIn addition to austerity measures such as raising,Asian currency crisisFrom bad debt disposal failure from the second half of 19971998/The economy rapidly cooled due to the successive collapse of major financial institutions, and the employment situation deteriorated again. During this period, in addition to drastically reducing the number of job offers, there is no room to train new graduates as corporate employees due to the deterioration of corporate performance and intensifying competition with emerging countries, and there is a trend for new graduates to have “ready-to-use power” that can be immediately put into the field. Appeared. This allowsEmployment mismatchThe unemployment rate does not easily decrease even if the number of job offers increases, and it becomes necessary to enter a workplace that is far from the person's ability and expertise in order to secure a stable income and life. Under the environment, there was a situation in which the employee was forced to dismiss in a short period of time. Also, regarding employment of university graduates,1996/ToEmployment agreementAfter the abolition of the auction, companies bought Aota in order to enclose excellent university students, and due to such changes in the environment, many university students were confused and overloaded with a psychological burden. Furthermore, trial employment started in 1999, and after hiring, if it is during the trial employment period, it is not illegal to immediately dismiss, and if a new graduate does not become ready immediately, new graduates will be dismissed immediately and new graduates will be thrown away became.

Against this background, the ratio of job offers to applicants is1993/から2005/To 1 and the ratio of job openings to applicants fell to 1998 in 0.9. Also, compared to the bubble era, new graduates were forced to do difficult job hunting,Part-time worker,Dispatched labor such asSocial insuranceWithoutNon-regular employment(Pre-kari art) Have increased[4][5].

Temporary end of employment ice age and employment status of graduates

2000 eraWith the improvement of the export industry in the middle, the employment environment recovered,2005/The employment ice age ended once. The ratio of job offers to new graduates has increased,2006/から2008/For three years, it became known as the "seller market", and the ratio of job offers to applicants was2006/から2007/It exceeded 1 over.

In many companies due to the impact of hiring restraints for nearly 13 yearsLack of laborAnd the working environment becomes harshBlack companiesincreased.In addition, as a result of restraining hiring, the age structure of employees was distorted, making it difficult to pass on skills and skills.

For this reason, companies overturned their attitudes and rushed to hire a large number of new graduates, and it was said that the job openings-to-applicants ratio itself was "at or above the bubble period."In particular, there is a strong desire to hire financial-related companies, and some major mega banks have hired thousands of people at once.However, although the recruitment criteria were relaxed compared to the ice age, there was still a tendency for careful selection.While many excellent students got a job offer, some students had a hard time getting one job offer, and the term "informal rating difference" was coined.

However, while the employment environment for new graduates has improved, the employment environment for existing graduates has remained harsh, and there have been growing calls to point out imbalances in employment opportunities between generations.The hiring practice in the Japanese labor market is "Bulk recruitment of new graduates"When"SeniorityBecause it is overemphasizedSecond newbieSince the employment of graduates including those who have already graduated is significantly disadvantageous, job seekers of the glacial age who have already graduated for a considerable number of years, especially those who have never been regularly employed, are under extremely disadvantageous conditions. Have been driven into.

Baby boom generationThe majority of companies may compensate for the reduction in the labor force due to retirement by hiring new graduates and rehiring low-wage foreign workers and retired employees, which is not necessarily a relief for the glacial generation. There is a situation where the ratio of non-regular employment continues to rise until 2008.[6].

Employment status

New graduates hiring

High school graduate

2005/3According to the employment offer status of high school and junior high school graduates, the number of job offers in companies with a scale of 500 or more1992/Peaking at about 34 people,2004/The number of job offers in the manufacturing industry has dropped from 3 in 1992 to 70 in 2004.[7].. It is said that there are several factors, such as the shift of large companies to higher education levels such as university graduates.[8].. It was a boom when new graduatesBaby boom juniorMany high school graduates have been forced into unstable employment due to personnel cuts after the Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the enforcement of the Industrial Revitalization Law in 1999.[9].. With the number of jobs coming to high school drastically decreasing, schools have come to accept jobs that were previously unthinkable, such as consumer finance and pachinko parlors.

However, due to the difficulty in finding employment, the rate of students going on to universities and the like gradually increased, and the rate of employment for high school graduates decreased.[10]Also, unlike university students, many high school students who wanted to find a job who could not find a job changed their course to a vocational school, etc. There is also the aspect that job hunting in Japan was not taken seriously.

University graduate

The employment environment for university graduates also deteriorated severely during this period. According to a Recruit Works survey,1991/To peakRecruitment ratioIs declining,2000/Finally fell below 1x. Although there are some fluctuations,2002/Until the number of job vacancies increased with the recovery of the economy in the valley, the employment environment was difficult for a long time.

as a resultEmployment rateBecame a tragic situation.School basic surveyAccording to the report, it continued to decline after peaking at 1991% in 81.3, and in 2003 it set a new record of 55.1% (employment rate of vocational schools was 76%), which is the lowest employment rate in the employment ice age. became. In 2000, 22.5% of university graduatesUnemployed graduateMet[11].

In addition, since the 1990s, even if you are fortunate enough to be a new graduate or a new graduate and have become a full-time employee, there are situations in which you have no choice but to jump into a completely different industry where there was a job offer. It is unlikely that there will be an opportunity to use the knowledge and abilities acquired in the specialized education of the university, which is far from the specialty (Incomplete employment[Annotation 2], Who could only choose a job that was hard to think of,Comprehensive work,ProfessionThe new graduatePermanentI can not find a job asSimple laborPerson orNon-regular employmentThose who have become highly educated have come to be seen at the end of various industries. After graduating from university due to difficulty in finding employment, attend vocational schools and other educational institutions (Double school) More people[12], Some people do "job hunting year" to continue job hunting by continuing to work without intentionally graduating from university[13].

Mid-career hiring

Mid-career recruitment became more difficult than new graduates. Many of the people who were unable to work as full-time employees at the time of new graduation because companies demand "immediate ability", and even after that, get employment in jobs that are not full-time employees,Undesired neatと 呼 ば れ るjob huntingThose who give up themselves (Unwillingness to work) Also appeared.As for those who left the job, those who could not accumulate sufficient skills became difficult to re-employ.In addition, because the employment policy focuses on new graduates, employment measures for mid-career hires may not be available, and in some cases, they are paid in advance because of their age and gender.

Among companies and organizations with a serious labor shortage (such as agriculture and the welfare industry), there are companies and organizations that hire free-time workers and neat workers who do not have the skills to immediately compete.

The ratio of job offers to applicants gradually decreased from 1993 to 1999 in 0.48. After that, however, it gradually increased, and recovered to a level of 2006 in 1.06. However, after that, it turned to a sharp decline, reaching 2009 in 1999, which was even lower than 0.48, which was the lowest in the previous employment ice age in 0.47. In July 2009, the unemployment rate fell to 7% for the whole country, and the ratio of job offers to applicants fell to 5.7. Among them, the unemployment rate of 0.42-25 years old (born 34-1975) was 1984%, and the unemployment rate of 6.1-15 years old (born 24-1985) was 1994% ( (April 9.6)[14].. The ratio of job offers to applicants has been increasing since then, and was 2011 in 0.65.

Changes in employment attitudes of new members of society after the employment ice age

Born before and after the bubble economy, sent to adolescence in an era of recession after the bubble burst and economic decline of Japan (including advanced countries)Post-ice age generationGrew up looking at the back of the ice age generation, who faced job difficulties, so they are becoming more stable and larger companies[15].. As a result, SMEs face a situation where new graduates do not gather. Of the 2005 broadcastNHK"From now on in JapanIn the studio student discussion in, "Small and medium-sized business owners said, "The town factory lacks manpower at all," and "it is providing jobs." Even large and mid-sized companies are struggling to secure new graduates in unpopular industries such as eating and drinking and nursing care.

Social structure and politics

Plaza agreementBecause of the appreciation of the yen, the cost of the labor force in Japan had already risen even before the burst of the bubble, but Japanese companies were able to cover the disadvantages of the high cost structure with the profits of the bubble economy, changing the traditional employment form. And therefore had too much expensive labor. Since it finally became unsustainable after the bubble burst,RestructuringIt was necessary to reduce surplus personnel and introduce employment flexibility.

As part of this move, in 1999,Keizo ObuchiBy the CabinetDispatched laborAre generally liberalized except for the manufacturing industry, and companies are exempt from corporate tax to reduce the number of employees.Industrial Revitalization LawWas enacted. The background of this "Industrial Revitalization Law" is1995/ToNikkeirenThere is an opinion that it was "a new-era "Japanese management"" announced by (then). In this "new age "Japanese management"", workers are divided into "long-term accumulated capacity utilization type group", "highly specialized ability utilization type group" and "employment flexible type group".Employment flexible groupHits."

As a political thought that seems to have supported the "new Japanese management"Ichiro Ozawaof"Ordinary country"Junichiro Koizumiof"Structural reform without sanctuaryIs mentioned. These routes are "imitation of American society", ""A hierarchical society in which a few strong people take the initiative and the majority of the weak are scared of poverty and death][16]May be criticized.2004/May 3In June, the dispatch of labor to the manufacturing industry was lifted by the Junichiro Koizumi Cabinet, and the number of dispatched workers increased explosively. However, at the time of the deliberations to amend the Worker Dispatch Law,Camouflage contractWas showing signs of becoming a social problem. Behind the explosive increase in dispatched workers is the fact that camouflaged contractors have been sent to general dispatch, and the increase in the amount that has not been counted as a dispatched worker until then has contributed to a considerable proportion.

Lehman shock from the burst of the IT bubble (graduated 2001-2014)

"Post baby boomer junior # employment problem","Yutori generation # job huntingSee also

From 2001 graduation (job hunting in 2000) to 2014 graduation,IT bubble burstlaterLehman shockLaterEspecially when it became difficult for new graduates of the university to find employment.[17].

Background and overview

For more information on the economic situation (1999-2008)IT bubble burst","World financial crisis(Lehman shock) ”, Etc.

It was a "seller market" that continued from 2005 to 2006 after the employment ice age ended in 2008.World financial crisis,Lehman shockDue to such factors, the economy has receded and the employment situation has changed.

It was supposed to be a seller market at the time of job hunting2009/The situation that the informal offer of students who are planning to graduate in spring is canceled[18]In addition, the employment rate of university graduates in 2010 decreased by 7.6% from the previous year's graduates to 60.8%.[19]Marks the largest drop since the survey began in 1948[20].. In this way, in addition to being a temporary employment ice age, in 2014 it became a seller market where the ratio of job offers to applicants exceeded 1.[21]During this period, the employment ice age was not paid much attention, and the Japanese government also made the above-mentioned assistance for the 1993-2005 graduate ice employment a priority issue.[22].

Employment status

2000-2010 graduate[23]Although it was said that it was during the Employment Ice Age, the employment rate, number of job offers, and job openings-to-applicants ratio are higher than those of the previous Employment Ice Age.[Annotation 3]There is also an opinion that it cannot be said that it is the employment ice age[24].. In 2010, 2,000 out of about 700 people who passed the Certified Public Accountant Examination could not find employment, and the ratio of ronin reached 4%, the worst ever.[25]However, compared to around the 2000s, it has recovered.

According to a survey by human resources personnel, many people answered that the employment situation from 2000 graduates to 2010 graduates was "super-ice age or ice age". At the end of 2012First Abe CabinetHolds,AbenomicsAs the yen depreciates and stocks rise against the background, many people answered that they are "neither" in the employment situation of 2014 graduates, and the employment situation improved.[26], 2016 graduate job hunting recovered to what is called the seller market[27].


Changes in recruitment

Japan with limited future growth (Developed country) Than overseasEmerging countriesCompanies seeking a return to life are increasing the number of foreign workers hired each year as they expand their global strategy overseas.[28], Not only the decrease in the number of job vacancies, but also a headwind phenomenon of competition with foreigners, which was not present in the previous ice age. In addition, the university entrance rate exceeds 5%, the number of universities has increased due to the establishment of new universities, etc., and the number of university students has increased. It can be said that companies do not attract job applicants and that the company has a policy of carefully selecting and recruiting excellent students.[29].

In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has issued a guideline to treat new graduates within three years after graduation as measures against those who could not find a job due to the influence of the employment ice age.[30].. In addition, 2015% of the companies accepted graduates from 66.0 graduates, and 14.2% of the companies actually offered job offers to graduates.[31].

Also, from the reflection that the employment activities that have continued since the last Ice Age have become too early, and academics tend to be neglected and that it is difficult to do activities such as studying abroad,Japan Trade AssociationStarted studying how to delay the start of recruitment activities[32],KeidanrenThe same examination was made. Keidanren has continued to take measures to change the period since graduation in 2011, but it is difficult to thoroughly enforce the current rules that continue to be difficult to hire and decided to abolish the rules after graduation in 21[33][34].

Points to remember

Seller market during the ice age

Just because we are in the employment ice age does not mean that the employment situation is severe in all years, industries, and all faculties and departments. For example, there were 1 times more vacancies in the distribution industry even after graduating in 2000, which was less than 3.19 time.[35], The distribution industry was a seller. Also, in the same year, the ratio of job openings to applicants was 0.83, while that of science jobs was 1.26.[36].

In addition, 1998 graduates were 10% as of October 1st and 73.6% as of December 12st, which is higher than the year (1-84.8 graduates) that was said to be the seller's market by filling in the baby boomer generation. Is giving a rate[37].

For high school graduates, the employment rate of industrial courses was higher than that of ordinary courses and commercial courses, and there was an advantage in employment.[38].

Due to such circumstances, there are some people in the glacial age who have not experienced employment difficulties when looking at each sector.

Big cities and regions

The ratio of job offers to applicants tends to be lower in rural areas than in large cities, even during the bubble economy and the temporary termination of the employment ice age.Hokkaido,KyusyuThe current situation is that the ratio of job offers to applicants did not exceed 1.

Effective job openings-to-applicants ratio by region[39]
South Kanto0.801.570.480.551.110.53
North Kanto/Koshin1.262.330.910.861.090.45

Gap between the number of job offers and the actual situation

Except for 2000 graduates, who are in the employment ice age, the job openings-to-applicants ratio for new graduates has remained at 1x or more, but there is a phenomenon in which there are a number of students who cannot get a job offer even after going to dozens of companies. On the contrary, there were some students who got multiple job offers by themselves.The reason for this is the existence of so-called "carefully selected recruitment", which puts strict requirements on applicants, even though they offer jobs, even in the matters mentioned in "Seller market during the ice age" and "Big cities and regions". Be[40]..In addition, some small and medium-sized enterprises hired a large number of new graduates in sales positions, and immediately after hiring them, they jumped in and asked them to do sales or solicit over the phone, and they could not get a contract.Quota"New graduates" and "disposable new graduates" were carried out, such as dismissing those who could not achieve the goal and leaving only a few top-selling people.

It is pointed out that the job openings-to-applicants ratio for 2010 graduates, who have returned to the employment ice age, is 1.64 times, which is higher than 2006 times for 1.60 graduates, who are said to have improved their employment situation, but it is difficult to find employment for 2010 graduates. It is thought that this is because the number of companies that do not hire employees is increasing unless there are human resources who can be ready to work even if job offers are made.[41].. Others point out that this was due to a divergence between the number of job offers and the actual number of hires, as a result of the sudden economic fluctuations that occurred after the company's hiring plans were completed.[42].. Due to the current situation, it is not possible to simply compare the ratio of job offers to applicants during a boom and a recession.

Number of job offers and employment rates

The employment rate of new graduates used in news about the employment rate exceeds 90% every year.[37],this is,Those who want to get a jobThis is because the percentage of those who have been confirmed as a job offer.Therefore, those who wish to go on to graduate school, job hunting school, preparatory school, etc., or those who have given up on job hunting are excluded from the population, and the job offer rate will be 90% or more.[43]..Since the employment rate is the ratio of those who have found employment among the number of graduates, those who have repeated grades (including those who have repeated grades) are not included in the population, but those who have graduated give up employment even if they go on to school. Those who have been included in the population are also included in the population.

Classification of regular employees and non-regular employees

According to the statistics of the School Basic Survey (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), those who got a job until graduating from 2011 were classified into "employed" and "temporary job".However, after graduating in 2012, "employees" have been classified into "regular staff, etc." and "non-regular staff, etc."Each category is as follows[44].

  • Regular staff, etc .: Persons with no fixed employment period
  • Persons who are not regular employees: Persons who have a employment period of one year or more and have a prescribed working time of 1 to 30 hours per week
  • Persons who have a temporary job: Persons with an employment period of less than one year, or persons with a stipulation of an employment period of one year or more, but those who have a prescribed working hour of less than 1 hours per week
  • Employed: Total of regular employees and those who are not in regular employees


The employment-related indicators during the employment ice age are listed below.

  •  : Employment Ice Age (1993-2005)
  •  : New Employment Ice Age (2010-2013)

Recruitment ratio

Changes in the ratio of job offers to applicants[39]
YearsEffective job openings-to-applicants ratioEffective number of jobsNumber of effective job seekersNumber of jobs
Changes in ratio of job offers to university graduates[36]
GraduateVacanciesNumber of job seekersRecruitment ratio

Career after graduation

Changes in career path after college[45][46][47]
GraduateNumber of graduatesGraduate school
Number of students
Number of employmentFor a temporary job
Number of people
Graduate school
Education continuance rate
Employment rateFor a temporary job
Percentage of those who got it
Changes in college employment (regular/non-regular)[45][46][48][Annotation 4]
GraduateNumber of graduatesNumber of employmentRegular staff
Number of employment
Non-regular staff etc.
Number of employment
Employment rateRegular staff
Employment rate
Non-regular staff etc.
Employment rate
Transition of career path after high school graduate (full-time program/part-time program)[45][46]
GraduateNumber of graduatesUniversity
Number of students
Vocational school
Number of students
Number of employmentUniversity
Education continuance rate
Vocational school
Education continuance rate
Employment rate

Offer rate

The job offer rate is the percentage of those who have decided to get a job among the number of applicants for employment.Therefore, those who do not want to get a job or who give up getting a job are not included in the population.

Changes in the unofficial rate (%) of university graduates[37]
GraduateMay 10
May 12
May 2
May 4

Employment front situation

The table below shows the status of the employment front for the year, as answered by the personnel manager. The red part is the category (Ice Age, Neither, Seller Market) that most answered in the year.

Changes in the employment front situation (%)[49][50][51][52][53][54]
GraduateIce ageNeitherSeller market
Super ice ageIce ageStill seller marketPretty seller market
  • Warnings
    • For more information about each termRecruitment ratioPlease refer to.
    • For the transition of the ratio of job offers to applicants before 1990Recruitment ratioPlease refer to.
    • The employment offer rate has increased in recent years, especially in 2010.#New graduate recruitmentSince it is also included in normal repetition years, there is a difference from the actual “ratio of people who have found a job and who has a job”, and it is not possible to make a complete numerical comparison with the employment offer rate in the past. Need to be careful.
    • Employed people include those who went to school while getting a job.

Ice Age Generation

In Japan, I did job hunting during the Ice Agegeneration"Ice Age GenerationCall[55].Cabinet OfficeIn the Cabinet decision `` Basic Policy on Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform 2019'' on June 6, 21[56], "As of (2019), mid-30s to mid-40s"Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIn the announcement on August 2019, 8, "30 (1993)HeiseiIt refers to the generation (5-2004 years old) who reached the school graduation period from 16 years) to 33 (44), and explains that the central group is 35-44 years old.[57].. As of 2021, "mid-30s to late 40s (35-47 years old)" is generally1974/(ShowaFrom 49 years)1986/It corresponds to being born (in 61) (however, based on the person who got a job at the time of graduating from high school).If you are a university graduate, you will be about 4 years older, so the range of the glacial age is 2021 to 39 years old as of 50 (generally).1971/From <46> degree1982/(Born in 57).

From April 1974, 4, when both high school graduates and university graduates were in the ice age1983/(58) Born on April 4st is sometimes called the "super-glacial generation".

In addition, "Poor lottery generation"(Rika Kayama), "Lost generation"("Asahi ShimbunIs used in the special feature on pages 2006-8 dated August 2007, 1 and January 5, 28),AbstinencegenerationIt is also called.I couldn't get a stable job in the glacial age,Temporary worker,Part-time workerPrecarious workers such asPre-kari art) Is very large. Author of "Anti-Poverty"Makoto YuasaAccording to the injured dispatched workers of the glacial age, "Dreams areSuicide bombingI said[58].

Applicable generation

The generation that corresponds to the glacial age is1970/(ShowaFrom 45 years)1982/Born (Showa 57)[59],1970/(Showa45 years)May 4から1983/(58)May 4Until[60][61][62]Born in1990 eraFrom the middle2000 erafirst half[63][64][65]To go out into society2000/Graduated from college before and after[66]As of 2019, around 40 years old[67][68][69][70][71][72]Or late 30s to late 40s[73][74][75][76][77][78]WelcomegenerationIt is said that it is 2021 years old as of 50[79][80][81]There are cases where the above people also apply (#Glacial generationSee also).

Ice age generation division and historical background

High economic growthFrom the end of the periodStable growth periodWas born in theBaby boom junior,Post baby boom juniorDivided intoBaby boom juniorIt is,ShowaCompleted compulsory education in the era,ShowaThe age ofCold WarThe world ofBoomKnow the age of.Post baby boom juniorAt school ageCold WarThe endEastern European Revolution,Bubble burstEncounteredglobalismSwept the world and grew up in an era of "employment difficulties have already been factored in" without knowing the times of the booming economy.The Cabinet Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare regard the post-baby boomer junior (born April 1975, 4-April 2, 1982) as the core layer of the glacial generation, and for this generation, the Employment Ice Age Generation Support Program (4 years). Intensive support program)[56][57].. However, the Cabinet Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare define the generation of ice age generation based on high school graduates, so there is a four-year time lag with university graduates.

Ice Age Social Issues

While job hunting is prolongedSocial withdrawalSome have become in a state.According to the basic and detailed tabulations of the Labor Force Survey (2018 average), about 40 people (35% of the population aged 44 to 2.4) are not working, doing household chores, or going to school.[57]..Also, due to the unstable jobs of the glacial generation,Unmarried-late marriageHappened[82], Decrease in childbirth in 20s[83]And increased births in their 30s[84]Is dispersed by. From 2006 to 2008Total fertility rateIs one of the factors that increased the number of people in the glacial age.Baby boom juniorHave a baby.

Born in the early 1980s, they are also called the "disliked consumer generation" because they have a psychological attitude of not consuming commensurately with their income.[85]..Life of parents who are over 65 years oldpensionDepends onParasite SingleMoori[86]Initially, it was also called the "7040 problem" because of the age of parents and children, but 10 years have passed since then.8050 problemIt came to be called.

Generations before and after the Ice Age

A generation before the Ice Age generationBubble generation(Born April 1963, 4-April 2, 1971),Baby boom juniorAs in the case of high school graduates, many have been forced into precarious employment due to the Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the reduction of personnel following the enforcement of the Industrial Revitalization Law in 1999.[9].

The generation after the glacial age (born after April 1983, 4 for university graduates, born after April 2, 1987 for high school graduates) is the seller market except for a period after the Lehman shock and the Great East Japan Earthquake. Is continuing,Baby boom generation(1947年4月2日~1950年4月1日生まれ)が全員65歳以上になったのもあり、2018年3月の大卒の就職率(卒業者のうちの就職者の割合)は77.1%と、バブル期並みの就職率となっている[87].

But,2020/When you enterEpidemic of new coronavirus infectionDue to the deterioration of the economy and employment environment due to2021/The employment environment for new graduates has changed from the previous seller market, and the job openings-to-applicants ratio and job offer rate have dropped significantly compared to the previous year, and there are concerns about the return of the new employment ice age.


  1. ^ It was difficult to get a job at a large company or a medium-sized company due to the reduction of personnel due to the great recession, but it was not so difficult to get a job at a small and medium-sized company or a small company due to lack of manpower.
  2. ^ For example, a person who graduated from is a new graduate.Nursing welfareOn the job sitecare worker OfNational qualificationFor example, the goal is to obtain a certificate from the state where there is no "work experience" necessary to take the qualification test.
  3. ^ There is an opinion that the hiring of new graduates is due to a employment mismatch.
  4. ^ Regular and non-regular statistics have been published since graduation in 2012


  1. ^ a b c OECD Labor Force Statistics 2020, OECD, (2020), two:10.1787/23083387 
  2. ^ why? Supporting the "employment ice age generation" NHK News,Japan Broadcasting Corporation, August 2019, 12
  3. ^ 【 NHK】why? Supporting the "employment ice age generation"2019/12/13
  4. ^ Changes in the number of freeters and NEETs
  5. ^ Changes in the ratio of non-regular employees
  6. ^ Changes in regular employees and non-regular employees
  7. ^ Employment support for young people of the National Diet Library-Current status and issues-(pdf)
  8. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "Study on Transition of Professional Life of High School Graduates" Interim Report
  9. ^ a b 2006年8月8日に厚生労働省が発表した「労働経済白書 2006年版」によると、35歳〜44歳(1962年〜1971年生まれ)のフリーターが増えている、という結果が出ている。出典:朝日新聞 2006年8月9日付8頁。
  10. ^ "School basic survey". Ministry of education. 2010/10/9Browse.
  11. ^ Makoto Sato, "Unemployed Graduates and Precarious Labor Market," Bulletin of the Center for Educational Practice, Faculty of Education, Iwate University, Vol. 12, 2013, pp. 41-45, NOT 120005348545.
  12. ^ "Asahi Shimbun" March 1997, 3.
  13. ^ July 2010, 7 Yomiuri Shimbun 6 graduates of employment...Yomiuri survey estimate
  14. ^ Nikkan Gendai, June 2009, 6, page 5.
  15. ^ MYCOM Journal "FY2006 University Students' Employment Attitude Survey-Increasing Voices of Corporate Culture and Treatment"
  16. ^ "The Shape of This Country and the Constitution", Weekly Friday, April 2002, 4 (No. 26), pages 409-18.
  17. ^ ""The Ice Age of Employment" is back! Aim for high quality students". 2013/6/29Browse.
  18. ^ “High school employment offer canceled 269 people Aichi 15 people, Nagano 10 people”. Chunichi Shimbun(July 2009, 2). http://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/feature/koyou_houkai/list/200902/CK2009022102000203.html 2009/12/18Browse. 
  19. ^ "Trends in employment rates and graduate employment rates by educational background”(May 2010, 8). 2013/6/29Browse.
  20. ^ 2010年8月6日 東京新聞 大卒就職率 下げ幅最大 7.6ポイント減60.8%、大学院への進学率も1993年卒と並ぶ1.2%上昇した。その後就職率も回復し、大学卒業者の進路調査において、2014年の就職率は69.8%であり、就職氷河期が終了し、リーマンショックが起きる直前の2008年の就職率(69.9%)となった
  21. ^ "About the general employment placement situation (December 30 and 12)". www.mhlw.go.jp. 2019/9/21Browse.
  22. ^ "Measures for employment ice age measures, verification of effects = Warning of financial deterioration of employment insurance-Keidanren's proposal: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2019/9/21Browse.
  23. ^ "In the 2000s and 2010s, there was a significant recession due to the effects of the Lehman shock.”(Japanese). www8.cao.go.jp. 2021/5/10Browse.
  24. ^ "Is the Employment Ice Age coming again?". Mizuho Japan Economic Insight(July 2010, 4). http://www.mizuho-ri.co.jp/research/economics/pdf/japan-insight/NKI100414.pdf 
  25. ^ "Production adjustment" conducted in the highest qualification test in JapanRetrieved October 2018, 10.
  26. ^ A 2014 graduate recruitment survey with HR representatives
  27. ^ Successful companies breaking the agreement in the seller market
  28. ^ "Number of foreign workers”. Social fact data. 2010/11/16Browse., The large students are rushing to find employment due to the large intention of students, and conversely, small and medium-sized enterprises do not gather jobs.
  29. ^ University Times, "Special feature" Real college student employment front reality that can not be understood by the employment offer rate
  30. ^ Guidance of "Youth Employment Opportunity Guidance Guidelines"
  31. ^ “Fiscal 2015 New Corporate Recruitment Survey-Official Trend Survey”
  32. ^ "Trading company, studying delay in hiring, request Keidanren". 47NEWS(July 2010, 10). http://www.47news.jp/news/2010/10/post_20101006190822.html 
  33. ^ "Keidanren abolished job hunting rules: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2019/9/21Browse.
  34. ^ "Keidanren announces the abolition of job hunting rules”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. 2019/9/21Browse.
  35. ^ The 26th Works University-to-Job Ratio Survey (Graduated 2010)
  36. ^ a b Work Research Institute University-to-Job Ratio Survey (Graduated 2000)[Broken link]
  37. ^ a b c Social Situation Data Catalog Transition of Job Offer Rate (University Graduate)
  38. ^ Research result database
  39. ^ a b e-Stat General employment placement status
  40. ^ "Carefully selected employment trends continue. What are the application requirements for companies seeking design and development engineers?". 2013/6/29Browse.
  41. ^ 16 people "I'm out of college" Nikkei Business Online
  42. ^ "Changes in the employment offer rate for pictorial record (university graduates)”. Social fact data. 2011/1/18Browse.
  43. ^ "Recruit “Survey of employment status of college students (2014 graduate)” May 2013 [Preliminary version]] ” 2013/6/29Browse.
  44. ^ Q&A (Higher Education Institution) Ministry of education
  45. ^ a b c e-Stat School Basic Survey
  46. ^ a b c School Basic Survey-Summary of Results
  47. ^ School Basic Survey Annual Statistics
  48. ^ School Basic Survey Annual Statistics
  49. ^ “Ask HR representative” 2010 New Graduate Recruitment Survey
  50. ^ “Ask HR representative” 2011 New Graduate Recruitment Survey
  51. ^ “Ask HR representative” 12 New Graduate Recruitment Survey
  52. ^ A 13 graduate recruitment survey with HR representatives
  53. ^ A 2014 graduate recruitment survey with HR representatives
  54. ^ A 2015 graduate recruitment survey with HR representatives
  55. ^ NIRA Research Report How to deal with the increasing employment risk of the employment ice age generation (PDF) (p.114)- Research and Development Organization (NIRA) April 2008
  56. ^ a b "Basic Policy on Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform 2019”(Japanese). www5.cao.go.jpCabinet Office (September 2019, 6). 2019/12/16Browse.
  57. ^ a b c "About approach of employment ice age support measure”(Japanese). www.mhlw.go.jpMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2019, 8). 2019/10/28Browse.
  58. ^ Nikkan Gendai, June 2008, 7, page 2.
  59. ^ [Mynavi News]The glacial generation is miserable ...? Explaining the characteristics and problems faced in detail2021/5/14
  60. ^ [Nissei Basic Research Laboratories]Competition and individuality that the "Hazama generation" thinks2014/6/25
  61. ^ [NIKKEI STYLE]Ice age generation with low monthly income of 2 yen Is the employment support policy of the government effective?2019/6/18
  62. ^ [University journal ONLINE]Looking back on the recruitment of new graduates from the Shirake generation to the comfortable and Satori generation2020/3/8
  63. ^ [Nippon Putcom]The harsh reality of the aging ice age generation2018/5/7
  64. ^ [AERA dot.]Alafor Employment What is "structural mistreatment" that can not be called "self-responsibility" for the Ice Age generation?2018/10/1
  65. ^ [Lawyer dot com]Japan should reach out to the "employment ice age generation"... Weak worker position, OECD director concerned2019/4/30
  66. ^ [BUSINESS INSIDER JAPAN]Hikikomori employment ice age generation. In the age of 100 million hikikomori, the center is in their 40s. "Money problem" that family suffers2019/4/9
  67. ^ [Nippon Putcom]The harsh reality of the aging ice age generation2018/5/7
  68. ^ [AERA dot.]Alafor Employment What is "structural mistreatment" that can not be called "self-responsibility" for the Ice Age generation?2018/10/1
  69. ^ [Caricone News]Ice age generation "I'm irritated by the bubble generation" "I am happy to work even if I am cold"2019/3/22
  70. ^ [ITmedia Business Online]"I have no choice but to give up" "Negative chain" to drive middle-aged employment ice age generation2019/4/12
  71. ^ [Asahi Shimbun Digital]"Skills and happiness are low" even for regular employees during the employment ice age2019/5/16
  72. ^ [New switch]Rescue of the "Ice Age Generation" holds the key to social security in 20402019/6/2
  73. ^ [Toyo Keizai ONLINE]What do unmarried men in the employment ice age think about now?2019/6/11
  74. ^ [Kahoku Shimpo]Editorial (12/25): Support for ice age generation/long-term follow-up is required2019/12/25
  75. ^ [Money VIVA]#2 Los Generation Generation Real Women's Money2020/1/22
  76. ^ [PRESIDENT]The root cause that many 40s section managers have many people asking, "Why is this guy?"2020/2/7
  77. ^ [Nikkei BP]Is the protagonist of DX promotion the employment ice age generation of Alafor, or the "comfort generation"?2020/2/13
  78. ^ [Caricone News]"43-year-old bachelor. I'm giving up on my life." The life story of the glacial generation Alafor girls is too painful.2020/11/2
  79. ^ [NIKKEI STYLE]Non-regular, isolated ... Crisis of "elderly poverty" in the employment ice age generation2021/1/20
  80. ^ [Mynavi News]The glacial generation is miserable ...? Explaining the characteristics and problems faced in detail2021/5/14
  81. ^ [Mynavi News]No. 1 in the profession I longed for, Gen Z is YouTuber-Millennials, Employment Ice Age, Bubble Generation2021/11/30
  82. ^ "Progress of unmarriage: Child and Parenting Headquarters”(Japanese). www8.cao.go.jp. Cabinet Office. 2019/11/13Browse.
  83. ^ "Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Multifaceted analysis of birth trends". 2011/1/1Browse.
  84. ^ "Changes in total fertility rate of pictorial record (Japan and other countries)”. Social fact data. 2011/1/1Browse.
  85. ^ "MNEXT "I hate consumption" Young people who do not want to shake the economy (full text to members)”(Japanese). MNEXT. 2019/10/28Browse.
  86. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Alafor Crisis". NHK close-up modern +. 2019/10/28Browse.
  87. ^ "School Basic Survey-Summary of 30 Results". www.mext.go.jp. Ministry of education. 2019/9/21Browse. “See Summary of Survey Results (Higher Education Institutions)”

Related item

外部 リンク

Public Employment Security Office

Public Employment Security OfficeWhat is English (Public employment security office)?Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare LawEstablished based on Article 23 "PeopleStableemploymentTo secure opportunities, the country (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) InstalledAdministrative agency.. Abbreviation isOccupational safety(Shokuan), nicknameHello Work[Note 1].. In this item, the name "Hello Work" is used except for parts related to laws and regulations.

International Labor Organization Of1948 Employment Security Organization ConventionRequired to be established in ratifying countries under (ILO No. 88)Public employment security organization(English: Public employment service), Japan ratified this treaty in 1954 (29 Convention No. 19).[1]..Employment for job seekers (Career change) Consultation and guidance, to the workplace that suits your aptitude and hopeJob placement business,employment insurance The procedures for receivingemploymentNational grants onSubsidyApplication window business ofJob offerProvide services such as acceptance of. The Public Employment Security Office does not engage in enforcement or regulation.

The ILO Convention and the Employment Security Act prohibit the collection of commissions and referral fees from job seekers, both private and national (with some exceptions).In addition, it should be noted.Private paid employment placement business(The so-called “human resources bank”, “job change agent”, etc.) collect recruitment fees and referral fees from recruiters, which is the main source of income.

Still moreSailorRegarding (ship crew),Seafarers Employment Security ActBased onMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism OfRegional Transportation Bureau(57 locations nationwide, including transportation bureaus and maritime offices) are supposed to carry out the same operations as public employment security offices.

Basis law

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare establishment law (Law No. 11 of 97) Article 23 Paragraph 1Prefectural Labor BureauAdministrative affairs of (according to the provisions of paragraph 1 of the preceding articleLabor Standards Inspection Office(Except for clerical work divided into 24), a public employment security office is set up in the required place to divide part of the work. ", Article 1 Paragraph XNUMX of the same law"Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareMay divide a part or all of the affairs of the Public Employment Security Office in order to divide the affairs of the Public Employment Security Office in the required place. It is prescribed.

(Ordinance No. 13 of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 1) Annex 5 shows the name, location and jurisdiction of public employment security offices (including branch offices) and the name and location of branch offices of public employment security offices.

Employment Measures Law(Law No. 41 of 132) In Article 2, "Employment placement agency" is part of the work of the Public Employment Security Office under the provisions of the Public Employment Security Office (Job Employment Security Act (Law No. 22 of 141)). (Including the head of the school to which the division shares), and is defined as a person who undertakes a employment placement business with the permission or notification under the provisions of the same law.

Employment Security Act(Showa 22 Law No. 141) In Article 1, one of the purposes of the law is that "public employment security offices that serve the public and other employment security agencies work with the cooperation of relevant administrative agencies or related organizations. Etc.” and the law stipulates the work of public employment security offices.

(Law No. 14, 165) In Article 20, Paragraph 1,mechanismRegarding the operation of its business, the Prefectural Labor Bureau, the Public Employment Security Office andLocal governmentShall be contacted closely. ," Paragraph 2 "Prefectural Labor Bureau, Public Employment Security Offices and local public bodies shall endeavor to cooperate with the Organization in the management of its business."


In the past, the abbreviation "job security" or "stabilization office" was widely used.1990/From now on, the name "Hello Work" selected in the open call is being used mainly. The official name "○○ Public Employment Security Office" is externally written as "Hello Work○○".

In addition to the main government building under the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare law, the following institutions are also available: "○○ Public Employment Security Office □□ Branch Office", "○○ Public Employment Security Office □□ (minutes) Government Building" and "Hello Work Plaza ○○" , "Part bank", "vocational counseling room", "work center" and "Young Hello Work". The services provided may differ depending on the facility.[Note 2].

Other similar and related institutions include "Young Career Center" and "Job cafe, Etc., but that isMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry(OrPrefecturesAnd municipal offices).

Service list

Services for job seekers

Service for business owners (recruiters/users)

  • Introduction of human resources (job application, applicant introduction)
  • employment insurance Application (procedure for acquisition / loss of employment insurance insured qualification)
  • Payment of subsidies and benefits
    • Grants for business owners who have no choice but to adjust employment[2]
    • Subsidies for employers that employ people[3]
    • Grants for business owners who wish to start a business or develop a business in a new field[4]
    • Grants for business owners who develop skills[5]
    • Other grants[6]
  • Employment management services (consultation and assistance regarding recruitment, recruitment, placement, etc., employment management assistance for the elderly and disabled)
  • Other services (labor market, provision of working conditions, etc.)


Open agency time

The open agency time of HelloWork is from 8:30 to 17:15 in principle,Saturday-Sunday-public holiday-New Year's HolidayDoes not do business, but in principlepopulationHello Work located in a city of more than 20 peopleWeekdayThere are days when we work from 8:30 to 19:10 and from 17:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX on Saturdays.[7].. However, please note that during the hours after 17:15 on weekdays and on Saturdays, we only handle employment placement affairs, not employment insurance affairs.

For job placement and consultation services,Address(liveIt is possible to use it even if it is not Hello Work that has jurisdiction over the area (it is also counted in the results of job seeking activities through Hello Work in the employment insurance certification procedure). However, for employment insurance business, job application, placement of vocational training, and various subsidies, it is necessary to apply at Hello Work, which has jurisdiction over the job applicant's address (place of residence) and business location. In addition, the site where the personnel rights are independent (large company Of工場In the case of (or branch offices, etc.), it may be possible to accept job offers (excluding graduate job offers) not only at the applicable business location but also at the Hello Work office under the jurisdiction of the site (where the factory or branch office is located).

April is the busiest month because there are many employees whose contracts end at the end of the fiscal year.MondayIs especially intense[8].

Vocational consultation

Hello Work not only introduces job vacancies, but also provides consultation from job seekers.ResumeHow to write,interviewAnything related to the job is acceptable, from basic things such as points to note when doing so, to how to move when you are not hired or leave your job.However, due to the nature of public services, it is necessary to keep in mind that labor-management issues are outside the jurisdiction, as there are differences in response depending on the staff.

Permission for employment placement

Hello WorkPrivate Employment Placement Office(Paid/free) andWorker dispatch businessIt was also a government agency that permits or approves and manages and supervises, but at present, a specialized department is assigned to each prefecture's labor bureau, and it is supposed to collectively handle businesses related to business establishments in that prefecture. .

Job offer service

Job number

The jobs that Hello Work handles are:PermanentRecruitment, part-time job (full-time part, student long termPart-time job), temporary employment vacancies (about 2-3 hours a day to 8 hours work, including short-term part-time work for students). Numbers are provided for all jobs as shown below.

Recruitment number (described as "reference number" on HelloWork Internet services)
○○○○○ - ●●●●●●●●

The first 5 digits of "○" is the serial number of the stable office that accepted the job offer, and the number of "●" after "-" is the individual job offer identification number. As for the last two digits of the number of "●", the last two digits are the last one digit of the Christian era, the first digit is "2", and in 1 it is "1". With this job number, you can guess the place of work. However, as an exception, due to the size of the business establishment and the location of the head office (head office),Tohoku regionJob listings accepted at the stable office ofChubu regionIn some cases, it may be specified to work at. Alternatively,TokyoToHead office(Main office), a large company has a large number of job offers nationwide, and has a stable office (representative exampleIidabashi : Chiyoda,Chuo,Bunkyo, Etc.) has jurisdiction over the area where the headquarters of many companies, including major companies representing Japan, are concentrated. Elsewhere in Shinjuku (Shinjuku-Nakano-Suginami) And Ikebukuro (Toshima-Itabashi-Nerima),Shinagawa(Minato-ku-ShinagawaPer)) sometimes submitted in batch.


A variety of information is collected in the Hello Work recruitment vote. The business location is basically the center of business[9]Is described.

The work place (work place) is described in the upper center column of the recruitment vote. what ifTemporary worker,Contract workerIn the case of a job offer for recruitment, the business establishment column describes the company (business office) of the dispatch source and its location, and the business establishment and location of the dispatch destination are listed in the work place.

Previously, the search corner was thick with a lot of job data for each job type and region.BinderThere were a lot of jobs, and I was asked to print out the job vacancies in order to find out the job vacancies from this and to find out more about the job vacancies I was interested in. 2004 Hello WorkComputer systemWith the renewal, instead of a thick binder,computerIt is now possible to search, browse, and print as needed by setting the job type and region on the network terminal screen by[10].

The new system has also improved the job listing information. In the old system's job vacancies, there are only three types of employment type, "regular", "part", and "temporary". In many cases, it was not possible to adequately respond to diversifying employment patterns and employment situations.[11].

Comprehensive Employment Information System

Comprehensive employment information system, Hello Work anywhere in Japan,OnlineIt is a system that allows you to browse job offers and job search information accepted by other Hello Work. For example, at Hello Work in Okinawa, you can search and browse online for job vacancies received at Hello Work in Tokyo or Hokkaido.[12].. Of the job information accepted by Hello Work, the ones that the job recruiting office has approved for disclosure are:インターネットYou can also search for job listings at (HelloWork Internet Service)[13].

In addition, a nationwide network has been established for job vacancies for high school new graduates, and it is possible to browse job vacancies for high school new graduates all over Japan at high school career guidance departments throughout Japan. is there.

Letter of introduction

As a general rule, in order to apply for a Hello Work job, a Hello Work referral letter is required.This is because employers can receive subsidies and benefits from the government by hiring job seekers introduced by Hello Work.Once the job offer is decided, the job seeker will inform the staff at the counter and have them issue a letter of introduction.

Employment insurance office

Hello Work handles employment insurance affairs. In order to receive employment insurance, it is obligatory to apply for a job at Hello Work under the provisions of the Employment Insurance Law, and during the period during which it is being received, vocational guidance as Hello Work will do is required.

Even if you say "vocational guidance," it is not obligatory to be forced to apply for a specific job or attend a vocational seminar held by HelloWork, but you can do so yourself.Working conditionsYou may be required to file a statement, be encouraged to take a vocational consultation, or send a vocational seminar guidance document by mail.

With regard to employment insurance, a nationwide network has been established, and it is possible to refer to employment insurance subscription records and receipt records online at Hello Work anywhere in Japan (called the "employment insurance total system").NTT DataUndertakes management and operation of the system). The above-mentioned "Comprehensive Employment Information System" and "Employment Insurance Total System" are internally linked to each other, and the employment placement service and the employment insurance service are operated as one unit.

Placement of vocational training

At Hello WorkJob trainingIs being arranged ((Public vocational training"). Hello WorkVocational schools, PrefecturalVocational development school,Vocational development school for people with disabilitiesThe government will outsource vocational training to the above-mentioned training facilities, and will try to promote employment after having acquired certain vocational abilities at the above-mentioned training facility. The tuition fee is free (the national expense), but the actual expenses such as textbook fees should be borne by the students. If people who are receiving employment insurance (excluding those who are 65 years of age or older at the time of leaving the job, and those who are eligible for "exception") take vocational training in response to "work instruction" of Hello Work, the extension of the number of days of receipt and transportation expenses (Communication allowance) and daily allowance (course allowance) will be paid. The duration of vocational training varies from a few days to a maximum of 2 years, depending on the type of job. Since vocational training is only for employment, vocational training will not be provided to persons who cannot take any profession due to reasons such as severe disability. Therefore, as a requirement for vocational training, it is necessary to meet the requirement "a person who can carry out personal activities without the help of a caregiver and who can attend school by himself". Yes (this is often a problem with disability training).

Subsidies for Employment of the Weakest

At Hello Work, we hire companies that employ so-called "persons with difficulty finding employment" (persons with disabilities, elderly people aged 60 and over, etc.) in order to promote measures necessary for employment measures in the country. Subsidies (partial subsidies for wage equivalents, etc.) are provided. Also, although the target is not necessarily a vulnerable group, in recent years youth with little social experience (eg:Part-time worker, New graduateUnofficial offer(Canceller)PermanentPersons who meet specific requirements, such as "trial employment subsidies" paid to companies hired on a trial basis, mothers of mothers and children, job seekers who do not have a fixed housing (so-called homeless people and Internet cafe refugees) Is paid to a company that employsEmployment Development Grant for Specific Job Seekers, Etc. are being set up to expand usage.In addition, due to the unstable economic situation, various subsidies for business owners who strive to maintain and expand employment, such as the "Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Emergency Employment Stabilization Subsidy" and "Practical Employment Support Subsidy", were established. The variety has increased.These various measures are changed every year due to the review of the system, and in some cases, they may even be changed suddenly in the middle of the year.The procedure for using these grants is complicated for many general business owners.In addition, the formats and attachments that must be prepared for each grant will differ.Therefore, many small and medium-sized business owners come to the consultation desk of the Hello Work office in advance and receive advice on the flow of a series of procedures, and the counter is crowded depending on the day of the week and the time of day.[14]..Therefore, considering the time loss of various procedures,Social insurance laborerThere are many cases where the request is made to. However, advisory fees, successRemunerationNeedless to say, such a margin will occur. After all, it depends on the cost-effectiveness whether to apply by yourself or leave it to the social insurance labor consultant.[15].

About the use of Hello Work for people with disabilities

If a person with a disability uses Hello Work, it is necessary to submit a written opinion from the attending physician stating that he / she can work at least 20 hours a week (Work continuation support type B officeHowever, the reason why the maximum working hours of 1 hours or more per day x 4 times a week = 5 hours or more per week is set is also to determine whether the use of Hello Work is appropriate).The written opinion needs to be updated two years after submission.

Employment support for people with disabilities infected with HIV (AIDS)

Employment Promotion Act for Persons with DisabilitiesBased on the above, the Japanese government, local governments, and private companies have theirDisability certificatehavehandicappedMust be hired.

As an internal dysfunction of immune function,Physical disability certificateBy obtaining the, you will be able to work in the frame of persons with disabilities, and you will be able to receive appropriate advice on employment from specialists. You can also take job evaluation and job training at the Vocational Center for the Disabled, which is linked to Hello Work.

Flow from visit to interview

Although the contact information of the company is stated in the recruitment slip printed by the user himself, the user can directly contact the company.TelEven so, "I want you to go through Hello Work,"interviewYou may be refused. The reason is that "Hello Work introduces job seekers to the company."

Therefore, if you wish to have an interview, you must take the following steps.

  1. If you are visiting for the first time, fill out the application form and submit it to the counter.
  2. When this is done, a Hello Work acceptance vote will be issued.
  3. Search for a job on the job search computer, and print out the job voucher if you find one you like.
  4. Submit the recruitment vote and the Hello Work acceptance vote to the counter.
  5. An employee calls the company to make an appointment for an interview.
  6. The Hello Work acceptance form and recruitment form are returned and a letter of introduction is issued.
  7. Resume-Curriculum vitae・Send the application letter, such as a face photo, with a letter of introduction and send it to the address specified by the interviewee, or bring it to the interviewee.

Not only the applicants but also Hello Work will be notified of the selection results. If hired, go to work from a fixed date, and if unemployed, repeat 3 to 7 until hired.

In recent years, most companies have been flooded with job vacancies against the number of people scheduled to be hired, so until now, at the time of the first interview, a set of documents to bring was mailed in advance. Yes, so-called “document selection” is being conducted. From a large number of applicants, the company side screens the people who should actually be interviewed and narrows down the applicants to interview (Of course, the documents to be sent and the recent selection method like this are Not all).

By the way, the method of communication to unemployed people and the handling of documents vary from company to company, but there are often explanations on how to handle application documents in the recruitment vote. In general, most of the rejected applicants will be sent back together with the application documents accompanied by a document stating that they have been rejected. On the other hand, if you omit to return the application documents, the job listing will be filled with "Application documents our company's responsibility is abandoned" and the result will be reported by phone or the text of the rejection will be sent instead of returning the application documents. Only mailed.



Hello Work is a Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfarePrefectural Labor BureauIt is a branch office that is installed in multiple pipes. The employees are national civil servants, and the official positions are “welfare and labor clerk”. Employees are hired from among those who have passed the “National Civil Service Type II, Type III Examination” (basically administrative positions). At the vocational counseling service in recent years, many job seekers who have had a lot of mental stress due to difficulties in leaving work, etc.Clinical psychologistIn addition to the above-mentioned "full-time staff", we hire retired employees who have experience in human resources and labor at companies, etc. Care is taken to alleviate employment mismatches by giving guidance on points.

Employment Security Office staff

At Hello Work (Public Employment Security Office), apply and pay employment insurance, introduce employment, offer recruitment and acceptance of employment, consult on vocational training, and provide guidance on employment relations to business establishments. The official names of employees (job titles, so-called titles) are "Director", "Deputy Director", "○○ Section Manager", "Supervising Vocational Instructor", "Employment Promotion Instructor", "Foreign Worker Specialist", " "Employment Instructor", "Employment Insurance Benefits Inspector", "Senior Vocational Instructor", "Occupational Instructor", "Chief of Employment Insurance Benefits", "Chief of Employment Insurance Application", etc., depending on the scale of Hello Work and the number of staff. different. There are some places in Tokyo, such as Tokyo, that have adopted a "club system" for large-scale Hello Work.

Employment Insurance Researcher (Employment Insurance Benefits Researcher)

He is in charge of illegitimate receipt of unemployment benefits in employment insurance and fact-finding surveys at employment security offices.

Labor Standards Inspector

At the Labor Bureau, Hello Work (Public Employment Security Office) members and Labor Standards Inspectors are united.Based on the Labor Standards Law and the Industrial Safety and Health Law, on-site inspections are conducted at business establishments and factories, and if there is a violation, fatal accident, or occupational accident,Special judicial police officerAsinvestigationAndInspectiondo.In addition, for high-risk machines and equipment, administrative sanctions will be taken to order the suspension of use on the spot.We also provide consultation on labor, investigate occupational accidents, and provide guidance on preventing recurrence.

Capacity management

Since HelloWork is a national institution, the capacity is controlled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, which is the assessment agency.

Challenges due to capacity reduction policy

Until now, according to the policy of "net reduction of 5% or more in 5 years", a large negative assessment for Hello Work has been carried out to reduce the number of employees and to hire temporary workers with low wages and fixed employment periods.[16], October-December 2008 GDP growth rate (annualized rate) was minus 10%, and the unprecedented economic crisis caused a decrease in corporate orders.DismissalA large number of job seekers are rushing to them because of job separation such as job suspension. In addition, because the government has urgently sought subsidy measures for various companies due to the rapid employment measures of the rapid succession,Manufacturing industryBy companies such asEmployment adjustment subsidySubsidy consultations such as (Small and Medium Enterprise Emergency Employment Stabilization Grant) are flooding Hello Work, and waiting times for both job seekers and companies have increased dramatically. Among them, the 2009 quorumCabinet Office(Plus 191),Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications(Plus 243),Ministry of Foreign AffairsWhile there are ministries and agencies such as (plus 100 people) and the Ministry of Finance (plus 99 people) who enjoy the increase in the number of employees, the number of local labor administration staff such as Hello Work is 306 people compared with the previous fiscal year, which is a large amount continuing from 2007 and 2008. Reductions made[17].

Urgent employment measures have been unequivocally announced and implemented by the government, but have not been positively evaluated by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. In the evening edition of the Mainichi Shimbun on April 2009, 4, "Hello Work Why Now? Staff Reduction Even though a large number of employees were dismissed at the end of the year," they said, "What are you thinking?" Was reported to have risen.Taro AsoPrime Minister(At that time) expressed that employment policy should be prioritized by visiting the consultation center of Hello Work by sending out consultations, but on the other hand, it will be reduced by delegating to local governments, saying "local branch agencies will be delegated to local governments to reduce the number of staff". He is speaking to the direction and the Diet. At present, the employment situation is deteriorating, and the number of jobs, users, and waiting times are increasing rapidly.Small government・・As a result of local delegation, etc., the number of negative assessments has continued.

The number of local labor administration staff such as Hello Work in FY2010 is planned to be significantly reduced by 226 from the previous year, and 186 in Hello Work.[18].

Relationship with policy

Employment policy shrinking

As mentioned in the description in the previous section, the number of people at Hello Work has been reduced (less than 5% of the total capacity in the 6-year plan), and is decreasing every year. Since there is no understanding of the appraisal office and it is not possible to secure a fixed number of people, there are actually Hello Work projects that are integrated, closed, or downgraded to branch offices. Also,TottoriAs a substitute for the integrated and closed Hello Work, the prefecture's operating body is the "Regional Vocational Counseling Room" (Tottori Hometown Hello Work, procedures for receiving employment insurance,employmentThe government (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) and local governments are cooperating in the operation[19].. On the other hand, due to de facto preferential policies of temporary agencies by deregulation, etc.[20]However, the recent situation such as “dispatch of dispatch” has resulted in the pressing of employment measures in Hello Work and local governments, and in fact, Hello Work is urgently implementing a loan system. RecentWorking poor,Internet cafe refugeesThe current situation of “dispatching/stopping employment” and the fact that workers have been forced out of dormitories and have no home to live in have arisen due to the expansion of the power of human resources-related industries such as temporary staffing companies and private placement companies. is there.WesternIn Japan, the labor force population per employee in the same organization as Hello Work in Japan is about 1 per employee,The United States of AmericaAbout 2,000 peopleGermanyThe number of employees in Japan is about 600, and the number of employees in Japan is about one to nine times that in Europe and the United States. Also, the labor force population per institution isUnited KingdomAbout 20,000 people・Germany about 48,000 people・FranceThere are about 36,000 people in Japan, but about 113,000 in Japan, and the number of institutions is less than half that in Europe and America.

Past privatization debate

In 2006, Hello Work related fieldsSocial Insurance AgencyAlong with related tasks,Marketization testWas done. In November 2007, an official conclusion was drawn from the "11 Marketization Test Evaluation Committee", and the public-private confrontation was finally finalized by successive victories in the country.

At that time, at the Administrative Reform and Private Opening Promotion ConferenceNaohiro YatsushiroStarted discussions centered on private lawmakers (at that time). Hello WorkLtd.BecomingIndependent administrative agencyPrivatization, public privatization[21]Hello Work staffCivil servantShould it beEconomic and Fiscal Advisory CouncilEtc. (Naohiro YatsushiroAbe CabinetHowever, since the committee moved to a member of the Economic and Fiscal Advisory Council, the discussion site was also moved.) Finally, a private advisory body held the discussion with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs outside the mosquito net, but the content of the discussion was shelved. It has entered the Nari warehouse and has not been announced. The reason has not been published in the media.

2007/May 7,Yasuo YanagisawaMinister of Health, Labour and Welfare(At that time)CabinetAfterPress conferenceAfter the relevant law was enacted inShibuya-SumidaIt was planned to set up a contact point for a private employment placement company on a trial basis at Hello Work in the company, and it was planned to be co-located with the contact point by the government. Aiming to start from 2008, the target is to further expand Hello Work. The market test of Hello Work itselfNaohiro YatsushiroProfessors and other scholars close to the government were asserting strongly in various government committees at that time, however, this embodiment was quite different from the model they initially assumed. In the other tests conducted by other Hello Work companies including private companies, it was found that Hello Work had an advantage in terms of quality and cost. Also beforeAdachiMade inRecruitmentEven in the public-private joint window trial project of the company and Hello Work, the employment rate was significantly higher for the government even though Recruit used unfair techniques such as intentionally inducing difficult workers to Hello Work. The result has come out.

Among them, the 2006 Marketization Test Evaluation Committee (chairperson: Hiroki Sato, Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo; Professor Naohiro Yatsushiro is also a member of the Evaluation Committee) on November 2007, 11, 26 As a result, we evaluated the performance of the recruitment and development business conducted as a result of the above, and in the private-sector implementation area, the number of development jobs, the number of development jobs, and the number of fulfillments were all significantly lower than the results of the national comparison area. In the private-sector implementation areas, the cost per development in the same area was lower than that of the country implementation in 2006, and the cost per development request per person and satisfaction per person was much higher than the comparison area in the country. I conclude.

According to the July 07, 7 issue of Weekly Toyo Keizai (Toyo Keizai Inc.), the quality and quantity of costs etc. were tested in the previous Hello Work-related business tests and tests conducted by a large private company and Hello Work public-private joint window. The result is that both officials exceeded the number (it was stated that there were cases where a private business operator cheated), and the officials have won consecutive battles. Nevertheless, the fact that he was trying to carry out a further test at the time was evaluated as "Isn't the test itself inefficient?" and "It's a waste of tax." In addition, the interest of private businesses is low, and "The safety net provided by HelloWork should be guaranteed by the government, and there is no government other than that. Maybe we do not have enough understanding of the business model of the private employment placement business." It has been pointed out that the mainstream is a cold opinion such as "A scheme that makes people in love with each other falls." By the way, in 14Sanwa Research InstituteAccording to the estimate, the cost of job security is about 1 yen per employment, and about 6 to 7 yen in urban areas. It was 11 yen.

In the recent high unemployment rate, the staff in charge of the Hello Work contact (Civil servantIn addition to the above)Part-time jobRegarding the fact that the number of vocational counselors, who are staff members, has been urgently evacuated, it seems that the situation is virtually similar to the above-mentioned "privatization of public facilities". However, in this regard, the fiscal authorities are reducing the unemployment rate as they lower it.

Discussion on local delegation

From around 2008, there was discussion about delegation of Hello Work to local governments.Decentralization Reform Promotion Committee,National Governors' AssociationIt has been actively carried out, and it continues even now.

2008 year 12 month 8 dayDecentralization Reform Promotion CommitteeThe second recommendation was issued byLabor BureauAlthough it exists as a subordinate organization of the government, it is recommended that the free employment placement business should be transferred to local areas, and in the future, personnel and organizations should be reduced and transferred to local areas, but the indivisible nature of the employment insurance system is recognized. There is a statement calling for a significant reduction in the organization, while allowing the state to operate a job security agency. This has had an impact on the recent reduction in the number of Hello Work staff members, and this has become one of the causes for the rapid increase in waiting time.

Decentralization Reform Promotion CommitteeTo the second recommendation byLDPOf the Employment and Lifestyle Study Group of December 2008, 12, which stated that the second recommendation was a waiver of state responsibility for employment issues and clearly violated the ILO Convention. The government is in a position to promote decentralization reform, for example, by concluding that the system should be fundamentally strengthened and making a resolution against the second recommendation.Ruling partyCriticism is coming out from inside.

National Governors' AssociationOn November 2009, 11, the project team of 19 national agencies including 8 government agencies, including Hello Work, have their own business classification (Unlike the Japanese and government business classifications, discussions with the person in charge and disclosure of work are not possible. (Not) decided to carry out. The wide area and specialty are not the reason for the government to do the affairs, but the government will consider measures to facilitate the smooth transfer of the staff of the institution to the local government. However, some also said that it would be difficult to determine the accepting entity for the project when transferring to a rural area. The results will be included in the reform proposals to be compiled in March 17 (each newspaper on the same day).

One-stop service for consultation on vocational training and life support provided at the end of 2009Makoto YuasaMany local governments who are negative about one-stop services were able to implement one-stop services with Hello Work, "because Hello Work nationwide was a national administrative service," he said based on actual experience.

2010/7/15Wakayama CityAt the National Governor's Meeting held within, they agreed that they would first request the transfer of Hello Work to the local government regarding the reform of the branch office of the country.

Local delegation promotion group

Local delegation promotion groups are mainly the prefectural governors who expect the delegation of financial resources due to the delegation of Hello Work operations,Prefectural systemScholars promoting business, economic circles and other business circles, originally claimed privatization of Hello WorkNihon Keizai ShimbunThere are mass media who like the image of decentralization, which is mainly decentralization.NeoliberalismThere are many powers that claim.

  • Some local governments also offer employment placement,Double administrationIsn't it inefficient?
  • By delegating to local governments, it may be possible to provide employment support and employment measures tailored to each region, and to revitalize the region.
  • National functions should be limited to national defense, foreign policy, and monetary policy, and social welfare projects, including unemployment measures, should be carried out independently by the regions that know the actual situation of the regions.
  • As the national minimum has already been achieved in Japan, there is no region where administrative services are thin, and it is inefficient and wasteful to deploy national branch offices nationwide.
  • In the United States, public employment security agencies that fall under Japanese Hello Work are organized by state.
  • Under the system prior to the reorganization of ministries in 2000, staff statusLocal clerkAlthough he was a national civil servant by the system, command and supervision was in the prefectural governor, and each prefecture was also in charge of operation, so it was easy to transfer to a local government.
Local delegation opposition

Local delegation oppositionUnionIncludingUnionAnd the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, which is in charge of Hello Work. In addition, some members of the Liberal Democratic Party, which are originally in the position of promoting decentralization reform, officers of economic groups, academics, etc., often stand in opposition to the delegation of Hello Work.

  • "The country must organize a national job security agency run by civil servants."ILODue to a treaty request, local delegation may be a violation of the treaty.
  • Even now, due to financial reasons and the name of administrative reform, the consolidation and abolition of Hello Work and a significant reduction in personnel are in progress.Even if they are transferred as a set with financial resources and personnel, consolidation and abolition of personnel will be further reduced in municipalities with poor financial power. In some regions, the unemployment rights of unemployed people may be threatened.
  • English Classesschool'sNEWWhen a nationwide company went bankrupt like a bankruptcy, it would be impossible to take swift and effective employment measures if the local areas were to deal with each other separately.
  • Employment placements provided by local governments are mainly for the purpose of "regional promotion", while job placements conducted in the country are done for the purpose of "guaranteeing labor rights" which is guaranteed by the constitutional people. ThereforeDecentralization Reform Promotion Committee,National Governors' AssociationIt does not correspond to the "double administration" that he points out. Also, the current movement of labor force is not completed on a prefectural or regional basis, but it is carried out across prefectures and regions, so it is more efficient to construct a nationwide network. Target.
  • When employment insurance is operated in each region, it is inevitable that the employment insurance premium rate will be raised except in some areas, which will increase the burden on both labor and management. Even if only job placement services were separated and transferred to local governments, unemployment benefit expenses would be overwhelmed and the employment insurance finance would deteriorate, as in the case of the UK and France, which failed to separate job placement and unemployment insurance. As a result, the burden on both labor and management may increase.
  • When decentralization progresses, there are fears that large companies may cause local governments to withdraw from it and implement policies that are advantageous to large companies. It is doubtful whether or not it will be steadily carried out, and if it is not done, there is a risk of damage to vulnerable groups such as the elderly and the disabled.
  • The example of the United States is an extremely rare case including the federal system and the size of the national land. Even in Germany, which employs the federal system, the public employment security organization is managed by the state, and the same applies to other developed countries.

Relationship with the law

Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Hello Work

1999/ToEqual Employment ActSince the full enforcement of, new problems have emerged. Jobs suitable for men (eg:bus,TrainWomen apply for transportation-related, technical/skilled jobs, etc., and job offers for women (eg:nurse,ChildminderIt's not uncommon for men to apply for () etc.), but as of 2007, it has not yet been accepted by corporate personnel managers.[22].

Incidentally,Shrine OfA priestessJob offers, job offers for female prison officers (sometimes for physical examination of female prisoners), and stable requests for job offers in special cases due to traditional demands such as sect and social demands related to sexuality. With the approval of the office, there are some jobs that can be recruited for only one gender, "Jobs exempt from the Equal Employment Opportunity Act".[23].

In 2004Elderly Person Employment Stabilization ActAlthough it is enforced, there are still many cases of refusing when contact is made[24].

Regarding the age, the revised Employment Measures Law came into effect from October 2007, and it is no longer possible to set age restrictions when recruiting and hiring workers except for specific reasons.[25].. However, there are cases in which we decline when contact is made, and although we sent a letter of introduction and resume by "Any age (or under the age of retirement)/No need to contact/Advance mail", it is not subject to gender or age. Due to this reason, there are many cases in which newspaper advertisements have been posted that actually limit applicants in newspaper advertisements, and there are many cases where the law is not understood by the private sector except for some cases.[26]However, there are currently no penalties (both criminal and administrative) for violations. Therefore, the explanation for promoting legal understanding regardless of age (currently, it is at the stage of promoting the understanding of companies, not using hard and hard means) is also the role of Hello Work.

Legal contradictions and recent legal responses

The meaning of Hello Work isThe Constitution of JapanOf labor specified inobligation,right(Specifically, all over Japan)equalityThis is a concrete implementation of the request. Therefore, Hello WorkCorporation(CompanyEtc.) orSole proprietorshipIf you apply for a job from a company such aslawUnless there is a special circumstance that the content violates the above or the format of the Hello Work recruitment vote is not followed, it must be accepted. However, for corporate establishments, etc.Social insuranceMandatory business establishmentHealth insurance,Welfare pension insuranceNot subscribed to[27]Even if you are a business establishment that violates the law and the condition (time etc.) of the job offer is that you are required to join social insurance but you do not, you will be accepted and the job listing will be accepted. The letters "health" and "welfare" in the insurance coverage column in the center left are erased and double-lined (""Health""WelfareIt becomes a notation).

Since 17, under the same Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareSocial insurance office(Current:Pension office) Has started, and if the establishment that is obliged to join does not follow the instructions to join the welfare pension insurance, it will be published along with a description such as "In consultation with a social insurance office (pension office)". doing. As a supplement, because employment insurance is under the jurisdiction of Hello Work, if a business that does not have employment insurance issues a job with Hello Work, it will accept the first job for each job, but will not be renewed after a few months. If you do not have employment insurance, you cannot renew.


Legal company introduction

The posted job information shows that there are violations of the Labor Standards Act that often abuse the fixed overtime system, but Hello Work cannot see this because there is no time. A survey of job listings in Kyoto Prefecture found that 77% of the jobs for which fixed-time overtime was advocated were suspected to be illegal by the Black Business Organisation.[28][29].

Recruitment based on illegal activities

It has been confirmed that there is a job listing for amateur radio that is prohibited to use for business purposes as "necessary qualification/license".[30].

Introducing illegal companies

According to the Mainichi Shimbun dated December 2013, 12[31]Hello Work, a job offer from a health food sales company that once existed in Nakano-ku, Tokyo, where four former employees were convicted of violating the Japan Act of Specified Commercial Transactions (notice of falsehood) for selling health foods by lying. Was accepted.According to the Tokyo Labor Bureau, the company's job vacancies were issued a total of four times from March to June 4.A woman who was introduced to a job at Hello Work Iidabashi was handed a manual to telephone recruiters after joining the company, and at the time of solicitation, she told her to lie as if a sales contract that did not originally exist was established. As a result of being extorted, he was charged and sentenced to 2012 year in prison and 3 years suspended sentence.Regarding this matter, Hello Work Iidabashi commented, "We responded appropriately in accordance with the law. I think there was no problem when we introduced the job offer."According to the National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan, as of March 6, when a woman found this job, complaints such as "an unordered product was sent" were received at consumer affairs centers around the world until June 4. Although the number of cases reached 1, the information was not shared between the Consumer Affairs Agency and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, and such information was not transmitted to Hello Work.In addition to women, about 2 people joined the company after seeing Hello Work jobs.

Introduction of dangerous work overseas

According to the Japanese Communist Party newspaper "Shimbun Akahata" dated March 2005, 3.[32], A job vacancies for construction-related companies to recruit Japanese people working in the battlefield Iraq at a high salary by a company in Nagasaki City were released at Hello Work Nagasaki.According to the notation on the job vacancies, it was not a direct employment but a so-called contracting business, and the name of the main contractor was hidden.According to Hello Work Nagasaki, although they were introduced, the job offer was withdrawn around March 3 of the same year at the request of the company.At that time, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had issued an evacuation recommendation for Iraq.

Introduction of gang related companies

GangsterMany dangerous companies, such as affiliated companies, are the source of funds for gangs, but Hello Work cannot overlook or reject them. Group, association, family, federation, federation, industrial, industrial, general, planning, trading, personal name, medical welfareNPO corporationOften referred to as.Younger brotherIt is necessary to be careful because it is not known at all, as it recruits general applicants who are called members of the gangster and are not members of the gang. In addition, there is also a case where a member of a gang or an associate member of a gang is introduced to a general company if he/she cannot reject it because he cannot see through.

Kara Job (Sky Job)

There is a reality called "Kara Job" (empty vacancies), which encourages Hello Work staff to go to local companies and forcibly recommends to companies that are not willing to hire them because they are "free". As a result, the number of effective job openings-to-applicants ratio will rise upward, so from the perspective of those who see only the number, "If you do not choose a job, there are many re-employment opportunities," and the problem is returned to the lack of efforts of the unemployed. While there is a trend, it has been pointed out that there is a gap between the ratio of job offers to applicants and the actual situation, as companies are not willing to adopt it.[33].

Private company policy by the UN government

2009 years45th House of Representatives general electionReceived the result ofDemocratic Party-Social Democratic Party-New National PartyThe coalition government ofPrime MinisterBecameYukio HatoyamaThe "Emergency Employment Measures" was launched at the Emergency Employment Measures Headquarters headed by. In the draft, part of Hello Work from November 2009WelfareTo be able to apply for living, housing and housing financing,Paying for workThere are contents such as the opening of the agency on December 12th and 29th.[34][35]

On November 2009, 11, Hello Work at 30 locations throughout Japan provided livelihood protection, livelihood and housing financing, etc.Consultation about application(Please refer to the contact for actual application)mental healthOne-stop service for consultations and so on was tried for one day only. According to the result of the trial, implementation and regularization at the end of the year and new year will be considered[36].


Protest by workers

At the time of the establishment of the Employment Security Office, it was not uncommon for workers to be upset by work to become a riot.1950/May 9IsTokyoAbout 200 people got up in front of Shibuya Job Security OfficeMetropolitan Police Department ReserveIn addition to being dispatched to the Shinjuku Employment Security Office, about 800 people made noise and some were dispatched.Yodobashi Police StationI was in a fight with the staff. Five workers were injured and five police officers were injured. 5 people were arrested[37].. Also, on December 12, the same year, 11 workers and other workers pushed into the Shinjuku Employment Security Office and demanded that the introduction start time be accelerated. 2,600 people broke into the site and broke the window glass etc.[38].

Work history information leakage incident

In a case of a work history information leak by an employment insurance consultant at Hello Work,National Civil Service Law(confidentiality) On suspicion of violationArrestWas done[39].PolicemenIt is,employment insurance In return for the counselor leaking work history information from employment insurance, from the survey company sidecashReceived consignmentBriberyI was also arrested on suspicion of.The requesting party was also arrested on suspicion of leaking the work history information of three men and women from the employment insurance terminal.He started a business dealing with work history information and established a company specializing in work history information.National Civil Service LawByDisciplinary dismissalbecome.


TokyoOgasawara VillageThen.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism OfSpecial institutionIsOgasawara General OfficeOperates the Public Employment Security Office.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Determined from approximately 4,000 applications,1990/The use of nicknames has started sinceAnalysis of the labor economy in 2(Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
  2. ^ As an example, in the case of Shinjuku Public Employment Security Office (Tokyo), depending on the service, it is finely distributed to either Kabukicho Government Office or Nishi Shinjuku Government Office (Information for Hello Work Shinjuku). In addition, Ueno Public Employment Security Office Tamaki Labor Office (Tokyo) and Airin Labor Public Employment Security Office (Osaka), and Hello Work that specializes in day laborers, and Osaka Port Labor Public Employment Security Office (Osaka), port business There are offices and Hello Work specialized for day laborers, and there are facilities such as Hello Work Plaza that only provide job search and employment placement services.


  1. ^ “Gazette” No. 29, page 10, dated October 20, 8341.
  2. ^ Employment adjustment subsidy, SME emergency employment stabilization subsidy, overtime reduction employment maintenance incentive
  3. ^ Trial employment incentives, labor migration support subsidies (job-seeking activity support benefits), specific job seeker employment development subsidies, SME human resources securing promotion business subsidies, SME human resource performance encouragement subsidies, SMEs Grant for securing basic human resources, grant for capacity development such as job creation for SMEs
  4. ^ Local revitalization SME start-up subsidy, regional revitalization SME start-up subsidy, subsidy start-up support subsidy, subsidy start-up support subsidy, co-employment opportunity creation subsidy for elderly people, re-employment allowance
  5. ^ Career development promotion subsidy, workplace adaptation training fee
  6. ^ Retirement incentives, year-round employment incentives, subsidies for employment management improvement of small and medium-sized enterprises' short-time workers, SME employment stabilization incentives, subsidies for securing inexperienced nursing care workers, subsidies for securing nursing care personnel, nursing care workers Facility maintenance model incentive, nursing care employment management subsidy, nursing care welfare subsidy, childcare/nursing care employment stability subsidy, subsidy for promoting short-term workforce equilibrium treatment, construction employment improvement subsidy, disability employment payment system, etc. Subsidy, Step-up Employment Incentive and Group Employment Addition Incentive
  7. ^ However, facilities such as part banks are excluded. In addition, even if it is not located in a city with a population of 20 or more, it will be under the jurisdiction of the Public Employment Security Office.市町村If a city with a population of 20 or more is included in the above, it may operate from 8:30 to 19:10 on weekdays and from 17:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX on Saturdays.
  8. ^ YOMIURI ONLINE April 2009, 4 13:14
  9. ^ Mostly the head office address. In the case of adoption by a factory, branch office, or sales office, it may be the address of the factory.
  10. ^ However, if a job is accepted by Hello Work in another area and the work location is in a remote area, a job listing may be posted in Hello Work that controls the work location or its surroundings (terminals for general use). Because it may not be possible to search). In addition, recruitment jobs may be picked up and a job posting may be posted in Hello Work.
  11. ^ In fact, in the old system, it is written as "temporary" regardless of full-time work and part-time work within the planned employment period of 4 months, and "full-time" even if it exceeds 4 months when full-time work, When working part-time, it was difficult to identify the employment type because it was written as "part"
  12. ^ In short,U-I-J-turnIt is also possible to search. However, in general open terminals, the searchable area is often limited to the contents accepted by Hello Work in which the terminal is installed and the Hello Work in the surrounding area. It is possible to search and print information nationwide on the terminal handled by the counselor at the counter.
  13. ^ You can search information from all over the country. Whether to print the contentsReference numberIf you submit it to the counter, you will be given a job listing. In addition, even on the publicly available terminal,If the Hello Work data that received the job offer is searchable, You can check and print the recruitment slip by entering the reference number.
  14. ^ The Osaka Labor Bureau jurisdiction does not accept subsidies in principle at Hello Work, which is the jurisdiction of the Osaka Labor Bureau.
  15. ^ Note that it is illegal for a consultant (who does not have a social insurance labor consultant qualification) to carry out work related to grant application documents.
  16. ^ Halowa counselor seeks jobs at Halowa... The reality of "government-made working poor" <AERA> | dot.dot Asahi Shimbun Publications
  17. ^ About examination results of 21 mechanism, capacity(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, December 2008, 12)
  18. ^ Ministry of Labor Labor Union
  19. ^ On April 20, 4, the Hachizu-Sakaiminato City Regional Employment Counseling Office will be opened (Tottori Labor Bureau HP)
  20. ^ In many cases, the temporary agency and the private placement company are part-owned or affiliated companies.
  21. ^ Public privatization meant that Hello Work was a national institution, but the actual operations were outsourced to private companies (organizations).
  22. ^ Still, boys are often limited to sales or technology, and girls are often limited to a small amount of clerical work and sales, nursing and nursing, and services.
  23. ^ In this case, it is necessary to mark "Exemption from application of the Equal Law" in the remarks column of the recruitment vote.
  24. ^ 厚生労働省「国民の皆様の声」(平成23年1月17日公表-本省分(平成23年1月7日~平成23年1月13日受付分 8ページ項番1を参照))
  25. ^ Revision of the Employment Measures Act and the Local Employment Development Promotion Act
  26. ^ At present, when a new person is hired at the age of 60 to less than 65, a specific employment difficult person employment development subsidy is issued, but for other ages, there is no support such as subsidies.[1]
  27. ^ It may be found in a company that is not newly established, such as a private practitioner, or a place of business that does not have a general employee covered by social insurance at the time of job posting. However, for employees' pension insurance, there are cases where business establishments with less than five regular employees are not in use.
  28. ^ [Kyoto Shimbun] June 2014, 6"Fixed overtime fee, XNUMX% of job offers are illegal? Survey of companies in Kyoto Prefecture"
  29. ^ Tokyo Shimbun: "Job scams" different from recruitment Hello Work consultation Over XNUMX: Society (TOKYO Web)
  30. ^ "<Surprising Jobs Appear!?> Go to Hello Work and search for a job with the keyword "amateur radio"...”. Amateur radio comprehensive news site hamlife.com. 2019/7/16Browse.
  31. ^ (* Broken link http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20131231k0000e040127000c.html?inb=ra)
  32. ^ Job vacancies at employment security offices Work place is battlefield Iraq 50 yen or more per month Hide the prime contractor
  33. ^ ``Weekly true story'' (April 2013, 04)The actual situation of "color job offer" hidden in Hello Work'
  34. ^ "10 people" by supporting/creating employment... Government measures draftYomiuri Shimbun, April 2009, 10
  35. ^ Employment support procedures, one-stop service drafts of measuresAsahicom, October 2009, 10
  36. ^ Start of one-stop service trial support for unemployed peopleAsahicom, October 2009, 11
  37. ^ "Fight 8 people, laborers make a noise again," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, September 25, 9, 6 pages
  38. ^ "XNUMX Names Oshikake, Shinjuku Occupational Workers Make Uproar"
  39. ^ Information leakage of work history "from 10 years ago" suspected security officer

Related item

外部 リンク


Back to Top