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💼 | The number of graduates who have a job offer is 42.4%, approaching the level before the Corona disaster.


写真 

42.4% of graduates have a job offer, approaching the pre-corona level

 
If you write the contents roughly
Regarding "I think it was difficult for me to do activities after graduation", "There are few recruitment of graduates" was the most common at 49.9%, and the second place was "Why are you looking for a job as a graduate?" (2) %) ”, followed by“ I didn't know how to work as a graduate (47.4%) ”.
 

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job hunting

job huntingIs theOccupationA collective term for activities to get a job. For short,Job huntingAlso called (shukatsu)[1].

In particularStudent-unemploymentWhether or not you have a jobPart-time workerな どNon-regular employmentPeople,Company,Government officeEtcRegular employmentRefers to activities to be done. The activity for retirees to get a new job is sometimes called "re-employment activity"[2].

Overview

Job hunting varies by country and company[3].

The percentage of people who have decided to work while attending school is 42.3% in South Korea, 46.3% in the United States, 48.8% in Australia, 56.9% in Russia, and 81.4% in Japan.[3].

Japan is also developing as a market, as there is a business for students who are looking for a job.[3].

Japan

Overview of job hunting in Japan

Job hunting in Japan is also broadly divided into new graduates and graduates.The categories are as follows.

New graduate
Junior high schoolからUniversityUntil·Graduate Schools Ofgraduate-CompletionProspective person does.
When graduated
Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAfter graduation, those who are not working do it. thisJob wandererSay. Have a working historyCareer changeFor applicantsMid-career hiringIs also included. In addition, especially those who are within 3 years after graduation (in principle, those who are not seeking dreams of getting a job with social insurance and have become job wanderers and are still looking for a job. It may also include people who are looking for a desired job type because they were unwilling to work because of a job type mismatch, or those who were newly graduated but immediately retired due to a job employment disagreement or job type mismatch. ),Second graduateSometimes it is said.

Employment as a public employee

government official-Local civil servantIn principle, recruitment will be based on competition tests. For the examination system and the flow up to recruitment,National civil service recruitment test-Recruitment test for local government employeeschecking ...

Employment at a private company

Job hunting activities for students of secondary education

See belowJob hunting activities for students at higher education institutions, special training schools, and various schoolsUnlike new junior high and high school graduates,Employment Security ActBased on everythingPublic Employment Security Office(Hello Work) is obliged to post at school (middle school and high school studentsMinorAnd, from the perspective of suppressing the disruption of academics due to unregulated job hunting). Therefore, the actual application will be contacted with the company via the school.

Job hunting for junior high school students

in Japan,Labor Standards ActAccording to Article 56, Paragraph 1, "The first day after reaching the age of 15May 3You must not use this until the end ofAdvancementSystem is strongAgeism and course principleIn many cases, the due date and the end date of the final year of junior high school are the same. Therefore, junior high school students who want to find a job3st yearMay 1(In some areasMay 12The first opportunity for job hunting will be from the day when the employment screening is lifted. From early JanuaryEntrance examIt is held, but there are some places where only an interview is required and a departmental examination is also imposed.

For workers under the age of 18, pursuant to Chapter 6 of the Labor Standards ActyouthAs a result, it is necessary to equip offices with documents proving that they are young, and overtime work (overtime and holiday work) and late night work for girls under 18 and boys under 16 (night shift) Cannot be done or hazardous work is limited,National qualification-Business monopoly qualificationThis means that there will be enormous restrictions on labor and acquisition of qualifications, such as the inability to receive most of the

High school student job hunting

The characteristic of high school students' job hunting is "One company per personIt is a employment practice called.This limits high school students to one company to apply first, and applies to each company in the form of school recommendation.[4]..The reality is that there are few recruitment selections for high school students who do not rely on a one-to-one company system.[5].

The National High School Employment Issues Review Council has set a nationwide unified recruitment selection date for the third year.May 7After that, the companyPublic Employment Security OfficeTo each high school through (Hello Work)VacanciesDuring the summer vacation, high school students will visit the workplace, and the actual employment selection for high school students will beMay 9It is stipulated from.Prefectures that do not introduce a one-person company system (Akita,Okinawa)[6]From September 9th, high school students can apply to multiple companies.On the other hand, in prefectures that introduce a one-person company system,May 9High school teachers and high school students / guardians will consult with each other to determine the first company to apply for, taking into consideration their aspirations, aptitude, academic performance, etc. Recruitment selection will start on September 1th, but for a certain period of time (depending on the prefecture, in eastern JapanMay 9Until in western JapanMay 10High school students cannot apply for companies other than this one company.Within this periodUnofficial offerHigh school students who could not get it will be able to apply for multiple companies after the period has passed.[7].

The one-to-one company system prevents the lengthening of job hunting and secures a period in which high school students can concentrate on their studies, and the high school intervenes in job hunting.Black companiesIt is easy to match in a short period of time, such as elimination ofDecline the offerIs not possible).On the other hand, there are many students who give up applying to the company they originally wanted due to the intervention of high school, and there are many early turnovers due to mismatches (Seven hundred fifty-three phenomena) And other issues have also emerged.Educational revitalization meetingProposed a review of the one-to-one company system in May 2019[8], Receive thisMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareとMinistry of educationIn February 2020, reviewed the one-to-one company system and compiled a report encouraging applications to be accepted by multiple companies depending on the actual conditions of the region.[9].WakayamaDecided to accept applications from multiple companies from 2021[10]In addition,OsakaAlso had a policy of accepting applications from multiple companies from 2021.[5],CoronaTherefore, the implementation is scheduled to be postponed by one year and started in 1.[11].

Job hunting activities for students at higher education institutions, special training schools, and various schools

Vocational schoolsRaw,Technical collegeRaw,Junior collegeRaw,UniversityFacultyRaw,Graduate SchoolsRaw etc.Higher educationWith studentsVocational schoolRaw,Various schoolsThere is no big difference in live activity.

Avoiding small and medium-sized enterprises and being interested only in large enterprises in the industry is called "major illness" and is one of the conditions that should be avoided in job hunting.It is said that many students have a high degree of education and pride, but there are many cases where parents, not the students themselves, have a "major illness." It is said that "major illness" may lead to employment ronin due to not being able to get a single job offer, early retirement or job change due to mismatch with the place of employment.[12][13].

Job hunting from unemployed people, freeters, civil servants, vocational training facilities

Unemployed (including bankruptcies and restructuring due to the deterioration of business conditions at work) (employees, job seekers) andPart-time workerIs usuallyHello WorkTo get a job orJob trainingCan be recruited. If you wish to receive vocational training, enter the vocational training facility (Turnover trainingCarry outVocational development school,Vocational Development Promotion CenterEtc.) employment placement and employment consultation related to the training content (Career consulting) Can be received.

Regarding awareness about freeters,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2004 Employment management survey compiled in (16)[14]Although most of the company managers and personnel managers answered that it did not affect the adoption or rejection, the freeter experience was positively evaluated and the abundant experience, the spirit of challenge, and the skills cultivated in other industries were evaluated. Only 3.6% chose to hire. On the other hand, 30.3% of the respondents disliked Freeter's style due to its suspicious reaction, with a tendency to easily quit (7% of the negatively answered groups) and a sense of responsibility. There is also an opinion that there is doubt about long-term employment or that lack of leadership is a problem, such as “No (5%)”.

However, as a policy for the employment support for freeters,Job card system,Job Seeker Support TrainingWe are also encouraging companies to find employment there, but since this means employment with social insurance and it is related to the increase in labor costs, there are few movements to hire using these. Is. However, the hiring sufficiency rate of companies has not risen yet, and the demand for part-time workers is increasing year by year, and employment support by private companies has become active since 2016. Job hunting activities of part-time workers have changed significantly, such as employment support that incorporates a hiring flow without document screening.[15]

Job hunting for people with disabilities

handicappedJob hunting can be broadly divided into two types. One is to announce that you are a disabled person and get a job (that is, to use the disabled person quota, so-calledopen), The other is not to announce that you are disabled (so-calledclosed) Get a job (use the same frame as ordinary people).Employment quotas for persons with disabilities in companiesEmployment Promotion Act for Persons with DisabilitiesIt is based on the statutory employment rate defined by, and there are joint employment interviews and other events that target only persons with disabilities.

Problems of job hunting activities

Unless otherwise noted in this article,Bulk recruitment of new graduatesDescribe the case based on.

Pressure on university life due to early and long term

Between 1973 (Showa 48) and 1996 (Heisei 8), companies and schools (mainlyUniversity-Junior collegeDuring this period, companies will not approach prospective graduates until a certain period of time so as not to hinder their studies.Employment agreementwas there. Some of them, such as “Aota-buy”, broke through the agreement and rushed to approach students, but they did show some deterrent effect.

However, after the agreement was abolished at the request of companies, job hunting tended to become earlier and longer. In many universities, in the 1,2st and XNUMXnd grades, students need to acquire the basic knowledge before entering the specialized fields.講義Mainly from the 3rd year, specializing in lectures andSeminarSince it will be started, lectures andgraduation researchI had to get out and do some activities. Based on this, there is an opinion that "the company should consider the timing of recruitment activities".[16][17][18].

In recent years, this tendency has also been increasing for technical occupations. On the contrary,Hokkaido University,Tohoku University,Tokyo University,Tokyo Institute of Technology,Nagoya University,Kyoto University,Osaka University,Kyushu UniversityIs organized by the Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering and the Dean of the Faculty of EngineeringKeidanrenWe strongly request that major companies such as graduate schools and major foreign-affiliated companies be able to regain an environment in which excessive recruitment activities and pre-employment training of companies are corrected and education and research at graduate schools are normally promoted. Requests for early and long-term job hunting and correction of student restraint by pre-employment training.[19].

In response to such requests from the university side, Keidanren responded to many companies including member companies in 2013 (Heisei 25).Shinzo AbePrime MinisterAt the request of (at that time), the ban on employment for graduates after 2016 (28) was postponed by 3 months, and the ban was lifted in March of the 3rd year of university, and the employment examination was decided after August 3 of 4th year of university.However, considering the pressure on the hiring schedule of companies and the physical burden of students due to the summer employment examination, the ban date has not changed for graduates since 8, and the employment examination has been started two months ahead of schedule since June 1, 2017th year of university. It became.As a result, after studying for three years, job hunting will be carried out in parallel with the thesis and graduation research, and it is expected that the early and long term will be suppressed and the pressure on university life will be relieved more than before. Is done.

However, while the ban and hiring have been delayed, before the ban (around August of the third year of university)InternshipHas been in the limelight because job hunting in Japan will be advantageous for employment.[20], 2016 (Heisei 28) For job hunting targeting graduates, the number of applicants for internships is rapidly increasing, coupled with the seller market[21].. Regarding this situation, I think you are using the internship to keep students underwater. Some people are worried that the students who are refraining from job hunting may be confused about the internship before the ban is lifted.[22].. On the other hand, there is also an opinion that the educational background will be more important due to the shortened period. Furthermore, as this agreement is only for companies belonging to Keidanren, there are some survey results that most companies do not comply with this new agreement (see table below).[23]There are even predictions that small and medium-sized venture companies will move ahead of schedule. Also, some people warn that job hunting has already started from such a flow[24].

Scheduled start time (%) of recruitment activities in 2016 (28)[25]
seasonWithin 2014
(Within 26)
OctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberAfter October
Interview start time2.71.43.010.724.817.08.67.520.52.31.6
Scheduled start time1.60.70.43.611.516.016.59.325.97.47.2

In addition, when carrying out job hunting while living a university life, the financial burden on students is large because the expenses must be paid in parallel with school expenses and living expenses. In particular, when employment from a local university to a large city company, for example, when trying to find a job from a Hokkaido company to a Tokyo company, the transportation cost alone will be enormous. Therefore, in recent years, there is a movement that the university side subsidizes transportation expenses for students who are looking for jobs.[26].

Commercialization of job hunting

For job hunting in the Showa period, it was common for people without special recommendations or relationships to apply by looking at the recruitment vote posted on the job hunting section of the school. The thing that completely overturned this situation in job hunting was the university newspaper advertisement company (laterRecruitment) Is a magazine "Invitation to Companies" published in 1962[27][28].

In "Invitation to Companies" (renamed to "Recruit Book" in 1969), only job advertisements collected from companies were posted and distributed to students for free. There is a postcard for requesting materials, and students can easily express their willingness to take the examination to the company by sending it. Companies can easily recruit students by paying a low publication fee to Recruit. As a result, Recruit succeeded in commercializing employment and recruitment activities. In 1996, Recruit's "RECRUIT BOOK on the NET" (currentlyRikunabi) Has started, and the stage of job hunting and hiring activities gradually starts from paper mediaインターネットHowever, the basic mechanism is the same.the current[When?]Then similar employment from multiple companiesPortal siteHas been established, and it has become common to register as a member there, express the intention to take an examination to a company (called an entry) via those sites, and make a reservation for a company information session or an entrance examination.the current[When?]Then, there are many major companies that only publish job information on the job hunting site, and registering on the job hunting site is a common sense for students who want to work as a clerical worker.Employment information business has been longKeidanrenBecame the infrastructure that supports the recruitment of new graduates, which is the entrance to the Japanese style employment system[27].

Discovered in 1988Recruit caseHas been pointed out in the ruling, saying that the purpose of the company's political work is to work to maintain and comply with employment agreements.[27].

Bias of aspiration

From 2011RecruitmentHas announced that it will stop publishing the "Ranking for Employment of University Students". The reason is that "the meaning of announcing a uniform ranking has diminished due to the diversification of students' values." "There is a big difference in attributes such as gender, humanities/science, and general/general positions. Is becoming more misleading for students."[29].

Job wanderer

Due to the prolonged activity period, it is not uncommon for students to lose the meaning of working (or fail to find it) and to give up employment during the activity. Regardless of going on to senior high school, some of these students do nothing (cannot do anything) even after graduation (neat,Social withdrawalEtc.) and many become part-time workers.

And once you become a job wanderer, it becomes more difficult to get out of it as you get older. As a result, those who have recently reached a highly educated neat or freeter (Educational refugees) Is not a few. In recent years, in order to avoid the position of job wanderer, those who have not been able to get a job offer will repeat the year to secure a frame for new graduates, or go on to vocational school, junior college, university, graduate school, etc. to find a job again. Is also increasing. However, this phenomenon has already begun to be seen in the late 1990s.[30].

Large companies tend to be more popular than small and medium-sized companies, and those who cannot enter the large companies may choose employment ronin.SME employeesMarket valueIt is extremely important to join a major company when you graduate, because the number of employees is low and you often cannot expect to improve your treatment when you change jobs.[31].

Hiring female students

1999 After (11),Equal Employment ActHas been significantly revised,Disadvantageous treatment of female studentsThings were forbidden.

However, at present, there are more males than males in the employer ratio.[32].. As a reason to avoid female employees,marriage,birthDue toretirement,Childcare leaveIt is argued that the cost-effectiveness such as education costs will be lower than men because they are more likely to leave the workplace due to[33].

To increase the ratio of women in employers,Positive actionIncreasingly, companies are adopting such as. Legally, it is likely that it is illegal to not hire female employees for the reasons mentioned above.[34].

Cancellation of offer

Deterioration of the business condition of the company after the offer offer due to the economic downturn, and even the companybankruptcy(bankruptcy,Civil Rehabilitation Law(Until the 1990sReconciliation lawIs almost equivalent toCorporate rehabilitation lawIn some cases, the offer may be canceled due to (such as application for).

In the middle of the 2010s, there were even cases where companies were forced to finish job hunting in return for giving a job offer to students (Owahara)[35].

世界

France

FranceCalled inInternshipThe system is well-developed, which gives you work experience.Gaining experience in this internship is a prerequisite for employment (otherwise you will not be able to get a job)[3]..Even if you can get a job after the internship, the majority of people have a pattern of being dismissed by non-regular employment at first and then becoming full-time employees.[3]..7% of new graduates in France are looking for a jobNon-regular employmentThere is data (fixed-term employment and dispatch)[3].

Germany

GermanyapprenticeDerived from the systemMeisterDue to the influence of the system, early entrance to employment is separated from employmentDual systemThere is[3].

Compulsory educationLater, aiming to acquire a MeisterTrade and Technical SchoolChoose to go on to college or go on to college[3].

United Kingdom

United KingdomIn Japan, with the penetration of university rankings, companies that are trying to recruit only students from higher schools have begun to appear.[36].

The United States of America

The United States of AmericaSo, while college students rarely find employment while they are at school,InternOften participated in to promote the achievements, joint research between universities and companies and introduced by academic advisors, and there is no concept such as the rule of when to start job hunting. Students will apply to companies after graduating from university, but many students can leave a blank after graduation until they get a job. However, once it starts moving toward hiring, the subsequent movements are quick, and within a week to several months after the interview.オ フ ァ ーHowever, it is typical that a response is received within one week from the offer, and if hired, the employee joins within two weeks.

When applying,インターネット OfJob offerIt is mainly found through websites, job advertisements, and connections between friends, acquaintances, and families. In many cases, companies are hiring all year round, and when vacancies occur, they are recruited or recruited for expansion of work, and recruitment of new graduates according to the graduation time of a university like Japan And there is no concept of mid-career recruitment.

In the case of the United States, regardless of new graduates and mid-career, many companies are looking for human resources as immediate competence, and with regard to recruitment, past experience and majors at universities are emphasized. Also, because we have specific positions and we hire them to fill them, it is unlikely that we will be hired only by the number of heads like in Japan and will be assigned after training after joining the company.

Large companies sometimes fill out the required information on the web, but most companies use a fixed format.entry sheetThere is no such thing as, the most important thing is free-formResumeIt is a degree / major that shows the ability.In addition, personnel personnel are devoted to paperwork such as checking employment qualifications and criminal record investigations, and do not say whether or not to hire (even interviews are rare).The decision to hire is based on the results of individual interviews with employees who will be future colleagues and superiors (big bosses) who will be their direct supervisors (if they are hired). It is common.Offer letters (required by the law of the country) that include salary (annual, monthly, hourly, etc.), job outline (manufacturing management, personnel, sales, etc.), job title, nomination of direct supervisor, etc. It is usually issued in the name of a manager, but in rare cases, it is issued in the name of a higher position such as a division manager or president.

Chugoku

ChugokuThen, once the nation was taking care of employment after graduation from school,Reform and opening upAfter that, the students had to do their own job hunting. Due to the large number of students, job wanderers have become a social problem (see detailsEmployment ice ageSee).

Relationships are a powerful tool for job hunting. For this reason, there are also acts of buying and selling connections that are advantageous for job hunting. A popular job is a civil servant, which is said to be on sale for 8 RMB (about 120 million yen at the rate at the time of the press).[37].. Educational background discrimination is rampant[38].

StudentsAs for the former, it was once called “Kaigame” and was able to find employment under favorable conditions using a foreign language, but with the generalization of study abroad, it became impossible to find employment by itself, and it became necessary to do job hunting. .. Those who could not get a job after studying abroad are called "sea belts" (see detailsStudy Abroad #ChinaSee).

Initially, state-owned enterprises were popular as employment destinations, but when foreign-affiliated enterprises made inroads in succession, foreign-affiliated enterprises became more popular because of their potential. However, the popularity of state-owned enterprises has since increased.[39].. This tendency is influenced by the fact that when students consider their future potential, it is easier for them to succeed by making connections at a state-owned company and then re-employment at a private company.[39].

South Korea

South KoreaSo, about 40 college graduates are looking for a job every year, and most of themChaebolAspiring to be a major company including affiliates.

The background is that there is a nearly double difference in salary between large companies and SMEs.[40]..TraditionallyConfucianismIn South Korea, where the idea is strong, it is commonplace to have filial piety even after adulthood, so joining a large company is a trend of filial piety, and the existence of the examination industry that supports it also contributes to the bias of aspirations. There is.It is said that young people have a strong sense of being a loser unless they are included in the major players.[40].

Since 2010, the employment situation has deteriorated, and employment in large companies has become an unprecedented narrow gate.Unlike Japanese job hunting, although there is a batch recruitment of new graduates, when recruiting new employees due to the Age Discrimination Prohibition Law that came into effect in 2009Age discriminationThe ban has become mandatory, and it has become relatively easy to continue activities even if you become a job hunter, and as a result, there are many cases where activities are long-term.For this reasonSeoul National University,Yonsei University,Korea UniversityEven if you are a new graduate of a top school in Japan, you cannot easily get a job at a large company.[40].. The unemployment rate in 2020 is 4% overall, but chronic employment difficulties continue, with the number of people aged 15 to 29 more than doubling to 9%.[40].

In South Korea, in addition to academic background and achievements while attending school, achievements called "specs" such as English proficiency, internship at a company, study abroad experience, etc. are required, so in order to accumulate specifications, job hunting actually started from the first grade. Is[40]..It is a burden for students because it takes time and money to carry out activities to accumulate specifications.[40]..Also, in recent years, there has been a growing tendency for constant hiring and immediate action, and it is predicted that it will become even more difficult in the future.[40]..The internships that are particularly important are becoming obsolete due to intensifying competition for specs, and the internship ratio exceeds 200 times, and it is common for internships to take leave of absence.[1].

The rate of enrollment is higher than that of Japan, but the percentage of major companies is small.[40], The number of employees hired in Japan has been reduced due to internationalization, and the emphasis on immediate work force has spurred employment difficulties.[1]..Therefore, only about 11 people can actually get a job.It is known to young people that there is strong retirement pressure from the company even after employment from the 40s.[40], Some of the top school graduates find employment in Japanese companies with less pressure[40]..The government also supports employment overseas as a measure against employment difficulties[40].

Young people who give up the seven things of "love," "marriage," "childbirth," "my home," "human relations," and "dream" after failing to find a job are called the "sampo generation."[41].

Reemployment support

Reemployment support may be added to the retirement condition when the number of employees is reduced[2].. The re-employment support service (outplacement service) was originally developed as a counseling service when Western companies dismissed employees.[2].

Reemployment support services (outplacement services) have also been introduced in Japan, but in Japan there is an idea that counseling is not enough in terms of corporate employment responsibility, so it is necessary to develop reemployment opportunities and to provide external services. Developed into a service that includes consignment[42].. In Europe and the United States, counseling and education are provided, but it is often not done until the finding of new jobs or mediation.[43].

Document

Japan

The following table is for high school graduatesRecruitment ratioas well as the Employment rateIs the transition of. For details, see Labor Policy Research and Training Organization.New Indicator Utilizing Business Statistics-2006See.

Ratio of job openings to new graduates by prefecture by March
Years1992
(H4)
1993
(H5)
1994
(H6)
1995
(H7)
1996
(H8)
1997
(H9)
1998
(H10)
1999
(H11)
2000
(H12)
2001
(H13)
2002
(H14)
2003
(H15)
2004
(H16)
Hokkaido1.81.71.51.31.41.41.31.21.21.21.31.31.2
Aomori1.51.31.21.01.11.11.00.80.80.80.70.70.7
Iwate1.81.71.41.31.31.31.31.00.90.90.70.70.8
Miyagi2.82.51.91.71.51.51.41.11.01.11.11.11.1
Akita2.01.81.51.41.51.51.41.11.21.10.90.90.9
Yamagata2.72.42.01.71.61.61.51.20.91.00.90.90.9
Fukushima2.62.21.71.41.41.31.31.01.01.00.90.91.0
Ibaraki3.32.92.31.61.51.51.71.31.11.11.11.01.3
Tochigi3.33.02.21.71.61.61.71.41.31.31.31.21.4
Gunma4.03.93.12.32.02.02.21.91.71.51.51.41.6
埼 玉2.72.52.11.71.51.41.61.41.21.21.31.21.2
千葉2.62.52.01.51.41.31.31.31.01.11.21.11.2
Tokyo10.29.47.25.34.64.75.35.14.34.44.85.04.7
Kanagawa3.93.62.82.11.81.92.21.81.51.71.81.71.5
Niigata3.02.72.32.22.12.12.11.51.31.21.31.21.2
Toyama3.93.73.02.52.22.32.71.91.61.61.71.31.2
石川3.33.22.62.11.92.02.11.51.41.31.31.21.3
Fukui3.53.43.02.42.32.42.51.91.61.41.31.21.2
Yamanashi3.83.52.72.01.92.01.91.51.31.51.41.31.3
Nagano3.73.53.12.52.42.42.42.01.71.71.51.41.5
Gifu3.13.02.62.01.92.02.11.71.41.31.31.31.3
Shizuoka3.93.92.92.01.81.82.11.71.41.41.41.31.3
Aichi4.94.83.82.72.42.53.02.52.02.12.01.92.0
Triple3.12.92.41.81.71.82.01.51.21.21.11.11.1
Shiga3.83.22.51.91.81.72.01.41.01.11.00.91.0
京都3.53.32.52.01.82.02.21.81.51.51.41.41.5
Osaka4.64.33.52.62.22.52.92.51.91.91.91.72.0
Hyogo3.13.12.42.01.92.12.31.71.41.31.31.11.1
Nara2.11.91.91.61.41.61.51.31.21.21.01.11.0
Wakayama2.22.11.71.41.51.31.41.00.80.80.70.80.8
Tottori2.12.01.71.51.41.61.61.21.11.10.80.90.8
Shimane1.81.71.61.51.51.51.41.11.01.00.90.80.8
Okayama2.62.42.11.61.61.61.71.31.11.11.01.11.1
Hiroshima3.63.52.82.31.92.02.21.71.51.41.41.51.5
Yamaguchi2.01.91.61.31.21.31.31.11.01.10.91.01.0
Tokushima2.22.12.01.81.81.61.71.31.21.21.00.90.9
Kagawa3.83.53.02.62.62.72.62.31.91.61.61.41.5
Atago2.62.42.11.81.81.81.91.51.31.21.11.11.1
Kochi1.41.31.21.11.01.11.00.90.80.80.80.60.6
Fukuoka2.42.51.91.51.41.51.51.21.01.11.01.01.0
佐賀1.81.81.61.41.31.21.10.90.70.70.70.70.7
Nagasaki1.41.41.11.00.90.90.80.70.70.70.60.50.6
Kumamoto1.91.81.71.31.21.11.00.70.70.80.70.80.8
Oita1.51.51.31.21.21.21.21.00.91.00.90.91.0
Miyazaki1.31.11.01.00.90.90.80.60.70.60.60.60.6
Kagoshima1.21.00.91.00.90.80.80.61.00.70.60.60.6
Okinawa1.10.80.60.40.30.30.40.30.30.40.40.50.6
National average3.33.12.51.91.81.81.91.61.31.31.31.31.3

Source: Labor market for new graduates (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)

Employment rate of new graduates by prefecture in March (Source: Labor market of new graduates)
Years1992
(H4)
1993
(H5)
1994
(H6)
1995
(H7)
1996
(H8)
1997
(H9)
1998
(H10)
1999
(H11)
2000
(H12)
2001
(H13)
2002
(H14)
2003
(H15)
2004
(H16)
Hokkaido99.999.899.899.699.199.399.098.098.198.197.096.395.8
Aomori100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.899.198.496.594.495.4
Iwate100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.499.399.198.297.597.9
Miyagi99.999.798.597.295.897.295.190.691.492.690.890.893.1
Akita100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.798.699.496.697.899.2
Yamagata100.0100.099.999.599.699.298.898.598.398.196.395.797.2
Fukushima100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.8100.0100.099.097.998.5
Ibaraki100.0100.0100.0100.099.899.997.693.688.289.289.391.096.9
Tochigi100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.899.098.597.995.995.696.0
Gunma100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.699.699.791.998.498.8
埼 玉100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.598.798.197.3
千葉99.999.599.698.099.095.696.095.894.296.994.896.397.4
Tokyo98.097.094.795.794.094.693.192.688.189.992.396.497.0
Kanagawa100.099.8100.0100.098.699.399.794.399.698.996.597.692.5
Niigata100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.9100.099.999.999.9
Toyama100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.198.598.597.898.798.5
石川100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.096.799.499.597.998.298.1
Fukui100.0100.099.9100.099.8100.0100.0100.099.799.298.198.799.6
Yamanashi100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.097.095.598.494.9
Nagano99.9100.099.999.9100.0100.0100.0100.099.6100.0100.0100.0100.0
Gifu100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.999.698.098.197.097.899.0
Shizuoka100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.199.899.799.099.5
Aichi100.0100.0100.099.999.299.398.997.995.295.995.494.596.2
Triple100.0100.0100.099.8100.099.899.899.999.999.698.997.097.6
Shiga100.0100.0100.099.999.999.899.397.195.592.297.994.593.2
京都100.0100.097.897.997.198.297.595.093.795.295.495.096.9
Osaka99.799.999.999.999.899.899.698.296.396.695.794.795.3
Hyogo99.399.999.699.399.799.899.698.396.998.696.895.394.5
Nara100.0100.099.399.999.899.398.499.494.397.996.397.197.7
Wakayama100.0100.097.798.297.297.996.795.293.393.491.589.994.3
Tottori100.0100.0100.0100.099.6100.0100.099.898.498.791.795.796.0
Shimane100.0100.0100.099.9100.099.9100.0100.0100.099.999.699.399.3
Okayama100.0100.0100.099.899.199.799.8100.097.396.293.293.397.6
Hiroshima99.798.996.794.994.293.293.788.788.383.287.287.492.9
Yamaguchi100.0100.099.999.799.699.799.999.999.999.898.098.699.0
Tokushima100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.894.794.896.6
Kagawa100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.8100.098.1100.0
Atago100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.999.499.998.297.6
Kochi99.599.798.997.497.596.591.587.086.687.590.191.191.3
Fukuoka98.696.991.195.195.895.693.992.588.689.088.288.886.8
佐賀100.0100.099.999.699.599.699.098.694.295.894.393.496.6
Nagasaki100.0100.099.898.899.197.998.095.992.090.991.891.293.8
Kumamoto99.899.397.197.496.797.295.691.690.692.588.393.194.3
Oita99.399.899.999.899.599.599.497.696.997.794.593.395.4
Miyazaki100.0100.0100.0100.099.499.799.899.599.498.898.097.899.1
Kagoshima99.699.898.297.997.896.297.295.991.590.689.192.494.1
Okinawa91.285.780.562.356.568.472.765.558.369.862.473.878.6
National average99.799.598.998.798.498.598.296.895.695.994.895.195.9

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[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Korea Endless Internship-Job Hunting Circumstances That Continue to Overheat-". NHK News. 2021/7/1Browse.
  2. ^ a b c Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, p. 6
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Let's compare the Japan Trade Union Confederation!Job hunting situation in the world
  4. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun December 2021, 12 Morning edition Educational side
  5. ^ a b Osaka Prefecture, review of job hunting "one person one company system" of high school students from next yearSankei ShimbunJune 2020, 10
  6. ^ TottoriInitially did not introduce a one-person company system, but has introduced it since 2017.
  7. ^ Review of high school graduate employment practices such as one-person-one-company systemCabinet Office
  8. ^ Job hunting practices for high school students Reviewing the "one-person, one-company system"Komeito
  9. ^ High school graduate recruitment "one person one company" system review, report by the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareNihon Keizai ShimbunJune 2020, 2
  10. ^ Review of "one person, one company system" Job hunting for high school students is now a multiple application systemKii MinpoJune 2021, 4
  11. ^ Decided to review and freeze the job hunting "one person, one company system" for high school students in Osaka PrefectureSankei Shimbun February 2021, 2
  12. ^ [Professionals are the secrets of job hunting] Dangers hidden in "major diseases" (1/2 page) Sankei Shimbun 2021.1.28 16:00 (viewed August 2021, 4)
  13. ^ [Professionals are the secrets of job hunting] Dangers hidden in "major diseases" (2/2 page)
  14. ^ Summary of results Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  15. ^ Freeter employment support service
  16. ^ J-CAST News "Job hunting Tabare demo" held in Tokyo 2 and Google connected students
  17. ^ DIAMOND ONLINE The reason why people don't grow is because of job hunting!
  18. ^ Every day jp job hunting: Student "Hunting from class" Started in the fall of 3rd year
  19. ^ Announcement on the statement of 8 University Engineering Dean Meeting
  20. ^ Directly adopted! ? Internships that are advantageous for employment
  21. ^ Intern rising rapidly in the job market Archived June 2014, 6, at Archive.is
  22. ^ Intern rising rapidly in the job market Archived June 2014, 6, at Archive.is
  23. ^ [University and employment] "Postponing" when employment starts, companies do not follow the schedule
  24. ^ Job hunting has already begun Warning to the XNUMX graduates whose selection time has been delayed
  25. ^ 2015/Company Survey on New Graduate Recruitment-Job Offer Trend Survey
  26. ^ Fukushima University: Granting XNUMX yen for job hunting transportation expenses to reduce student burden from this month / FukushimaDaily jp June 2011, 5
  27. ^ a b c The Yomiuri Shimbun February 2019, 2, morning edition Economics "Anatomy Business World Job Hunting Edition 9"
  28. ^ History of recruiting careers
  29. ^ Recruiting Welcome to the popular employment rankings listBusiness Media
  30. ^ Asahi Shimbun November 1997, 3
  31. ^ Inc, Shogakukan. “Reasons why you shouldn't bother to make a difficult choice in job hunting | @DIME At Dime”(Japanese). @DIME at Dime. 2021/6/20Browse.
  32. ^ "Labor Force Survey"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  33. ^ "Women's Statistical Discrimination and the Way to Eliminate It"Kazuo Yamaguchi2008/5
  34. ^ Sumitomo Electric damages claim case judgment (Osaka District Court, November 14, 11), etc.
  35. ^ What is "Owahara" that is rampant in the seller market? Real information and job hunting quarterly news plus one for job hunting students | 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン | Business site for new generation leaders
  36. ^ "University rank "Caution for overtrust" Expert alerts OECD, National Impact Study" "Yomiuri Shimbun, delivered June 2008, 6
  37. ^ "The civilian examination fee is 120 million yen! "Connect and network" is very popular." "Record China" delivered on July 2008, 7
  38. ^ "The most common is "discrimination against educational background" and "No interviews except at famous universities" at the time of job hunting" "Record China" distributed on March 2008, 3
  39. ^ a b Rika Kashiwagi “[5] More students want a state-owned company to connect with others” “Nikkei Business Online” Nikkei Business Publications, May 2008, 5
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “I can't get a job even if I have a high degree of education.". NHK News. 2021/3/16Browse.
  41. ^ Yahoo! News Despair of Korea's seven generations who can not reach dreams, work, romance
  42. ^ Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, pages 6-217
  43. ^ Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, p. 6

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