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👩‍🎤 | Nijikon will perform a special live in the rice fields with gratitude! "Zen-Noh presents delivery!Fa ...

Photo Nijikon shows a special live in the rice field with gratitude! "Zen-Noh presents delivery!Fan Farm ”final episode released

Nijikon will perform a special live in the rice fields with gratitude! "Zen-Noh presents delivery!Fa ...

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Please check out the different facial expressions from those who have been seriously farming.

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Agriculture:(Nougyo,British: agriculture,Korea: 농업,Turkish: Tarım,Arabic: الزراعة)landUseful with the power ofplantTheCultivationdo.Also usefulAnimalTheFeedingOrganic生産Work[1].


What is agriculture?landUseful to utilizeplant-AnimalNurturing,ProductIs an activity to get[2]..広義には、農産加工やIn a broad sense, agricultural processingforestryIncluding[1]..このうち林業についてはOf these, for forestryforestrySee.

For those who have a profession in agricultureFarmerOr called a farmer.

As of 2007, one-third of the total working population is centered on agriculturePrimary industryEngaged in.世界全体ではIn the whole worldTertiary industryThe population engaged in is surpassing the primary industry[3].

Agriculture is a traditional classificationforestry-Fishery:Same asPrimary industryare categorized.農業・林業・Agriculture / forestry /Fishing industry-Animal husbandryResearch related toAgricultureIt forms a field of study.


It is believed that humans originally lived exclusively by hunting and gathering (Hunting and gathering society), It is believed that agriculture "started" at some stage.There are various theories about the origin of agriculture,Harvard University,Tel Aviv UniversityUniversity of HaifaJoint teamIsrael OfSea of ​​GalileeOn the shore, 23,000 years agoAgricultureTraces ofBarley,Rye,Oat,(English edition) Was discovered,New York TimesIt is reported in[4][5].

Also, about 10000 years ago, in ChinaYangtze RiverIn the basinRice cultivationCentered onAgricultureIt has been confirmed by archaeological excavation that was started.またAlsoLevant((I.e.Around,Fertile crescentIn the western half of)Tell Abu FreilaThe oldest agricultural trace (11050BP, c. 9050 BC)Rye) Has been discovered.In Papua New Guinea, the remains of a 9000-year-old agricultural irrigation facility, "Kuk's Early Agricultural Ruins," have been discovered by Australian academic research.農耕の開始と同時期にAt the same time as the start of farmingLivestockAlso started.

The start of farming and livestock farming after mid-latitude hunters settled was called the "Agricultural Revolution" and had a major impact on human society thereafter.[6].

In order to grow plants, it was necessary to remove the natural vegetation, and the method of sowing seeds after burning the land was used.[7]..I don't know if the primitive man was aware of it, but the ash of the plants contained nutrients and was a kind of fertilization (slash-and-burn).[7]..しかし、これだけでは十分な養分の供給は難しく、完全な定着農業が実現したのはヨーロッパで発達した輪作や積極的な施肥(ヨーロッパでは主に厩肥、日本では主に刈草敷)といった方法が行われるようになったことによってであるHowever, it is difficult to supply sufficient nutrients by this alone, and crop rotation and active fertilization (mainly manure in Europe and mainly grass-cutting in Japan) developed in Europe have realized fully established agriculture. By becoming[7].

With the division of labor in society, agriculture for self-sufficiency and barter has shifted to commercial agriculture.[7].

Agricultural field

The industry classification and product classification are roughly divided into cultivated agriculture and livestock agriculture (in addition to agricultural services and horticultural services).[8]..耕種部門と畜産部門の連携を耕畜連携というCooperation between the cultivation department and the livestock department is called farming cooperation.[9].

Cultivation farming

Cultivated agriculture refers to agriculture that produces rice, wheat, vegetables, etc.[10].

Cultivation system

Cultivation systems have available resources and constraints (terrain,climate,the weather, Governmentpolicy, Economical / social /PoliticsPressure, farmer'smanagementChanges depending on policies and customs)[11][12].

Swidden agricultureIs a system that burns forests almost every year and uses the released nutrients for cultivation, and thenPerennialCultivate crops for several years[13]..The plot is then turned into a fallow and returned to the forest naturally, where it will be reburned and used 10 to 20 years later.Since the fallow period becomes shorter as the population density increases, it is necessary to introduce fertilizer and manage pests.

The next stage is a cultivation system with no fallow periods, which requires additional nutritional and pest management.After that, when industrialization progressed further,Single cropLarge-scale cultivation system will appear.特定のspecificCultivarIf you plant onlybiodiversityIs reduced, necessary nutrients are homogenized, and pests are more likely to occur.for that reason,PesticideAnd more reliance on fertilizers[12].HairyIs a system for cultivating multiple types of crops one after another in a year, and is a system for cultivating multiple types of crops at the same time.他にもという類似のシステムもあるThere are other similar systems[13].

熱 帯So, all these cultivation systems are actually in place.Subtropical,Desert climateThen, the cultivation of crops is limited to the rainy season (rainy season) and can not be cultivated many times in a year, or elseIrrigationNeeds.Perennials in those environmentscoffee,チ ョ コ レ ー ト) Is cultivated,AgroforestryCultivation system such as is also carried out.TemperateThen.Prairie,PrairieThe predominantly productive cultivation system is harvested only once a year.[13].

20th centuryIntensive farming, Concentration in agricultureDivision of laborIs an advanced era, and new technology in agricultural chemistry (chemistry)fertilizer,Pesticide),Agricultural machines,Breed improvement(Cross,Genetically modified crops) Supported it.ここ数十年間、社会経済学的な公正さと資源保全の考え方や耕作システムにおける環境の考え方と結びついたOver the last few decades, it has been linked to socio-economic fairness and the idea of ​​resource conservation and the idea of ​​the environment in cultivation systems.Sustainable agricultureThere is also a move to[14][15]..From this movement, various forms of agriculture different from conventional agriculture were born.For exampleOrganic farming,Suburban agriculture,community supported agriculture(Agriculture supported by the region), eco-agriculture,integrated farming And so on, the tendency toward the whole is becoming clear.

Products from cultivated agriculture

There are multiple product categories, but mainly cultivated agricultural products穀物(Wheat, corn, rice, sorghum, barley, rye, oats, millet, and other grains),Vegetables,fruitas well as the nut, Fat seeds and fatty fruits (soybeans, peanuts, cotton, olives, coconuts, etc.), spice plants and scented crops (coffee, tea, pepper, sugar cane), legumes, sugar crops (sugar beet, sugar cane, etc.), other plants Classified as raw materials (feed plants, fiber plants, tobacco), etc.[8].

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization The following is an estimate of the amount of production for each type of crop by (FAO).

Production by type of crop
(Unit: 2004 million tons) XNUMX
rootAnd tubers715
Vegetable oil133
Fishes(2001 estimator)130
Chicken eggs63
Vegetable fiber30
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Production of agricultural products by crop
(Unit: 2004 million tons) XNUMX
sugar cane1,324
Sugar beet249
Oil palmFruit162
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Livestock farming

LivestockIs basicallymeat-Chicken eggs,milk,woolIt is to raise animals to obtain such things.

If you trace the history, it was originally everythingwildHowever, we found a kind that is relatively easy to keep (a kind that attaches to humans) and one that has high utility value, and human beings are gradually using it as livestock.

Livestock system

Feed is first supplied to the "livestock system"PrairieSome are based on, mixed systems, landless systems, etc.[17].

Livestock based on the meadowRuminationFeeding animals ...牧草地likeGrasslandDepends on.家畜のLivestockManureEven if it is sprinkled directly on the grassland as fertilizer, other than thatfertilizerMay also be used.畜産というのは、気候や土壌のせいで農作物の栽培が現実的でない地域では特に重要であり、世界には3,000万から4,000万人のLivestock is especially important in areas where crop cultivation is not practical due to climate and soil, with XNUMX-XNUMX million people worldwide.HerdersThere is[13]..In a mixed systemfeedProduce crops and grains to feed ruminants and monogastric animals (mainly chickens and pigs).厩肥は農作物の肥料としてManure is used as fertilizer for cropsReuseWill be done.統計的に見ると、実は、農地の約68%は飼料作物栽培地として畜産向けに使われているStatistically, about XNUMX% of the farmland is actually used for livestock as forage crop cultivation.[18]..人々がPeopleMealWhen the foods eaten in Japan shift from vegetable foods (grains and vegetables) to animal foods (meat) due to the tendency of carnivorous foods that tend to occur in developed countries, as a result, the grains and vegetables produced with great care It has been pointed out that most of the species go into the mouth of livestock for meat (not in the human mouth).Comparing eating plants directly with eating them as meat after feeding them to livestock, comparing the case where people get the same level of nutrition, it is necessary to have about 10 times more plants to eat after making meat. It is pointed out that it will be.In other words, if you take the trouble to convert it into meat and then put it in your mouth, the efficiency of the route of "plant production → human nutrition" will drop to about 1/10. )

In landless systems, feed is supplied from outside the farm.つまり飼料作物の生産と家畜の飼育を別々に行うもので、特にIn other words, forage crop production and livestock breeding are carried out separately, especiallyEconomic Cooperation Development Organization Commonly found in (OECD) member countries.Especially in the United States (carnivorous), 70% of the grain produced is consumed (consumed) as feed.[13]..Chemical fertilizers are often used in the production of forage crops, and what to do with manure is also an issue.

Breeding of working animals

Livestock is basicallymeat-Chicken eggs,milk,woolIt is to raise animals to obtain such things, but animals for "livestock" to use (in a broad sense)Working animal) Is sometimes referred to as including giving birth and raising. A horse,Mule,cow,camel,Llama,alpaca,DogAnimals such as farmlandCultivation, Of crops収穫, HarvestTransportation, Other livestock's turn (Shepherd dogEtc.) have been used for such purposes.

Agricultural production

Crop management

Cultivation is the work of cultivating the soil to plant crops, mixing fertilizer with the soil, and exterminating pests.No-till farmingThere is also a farming method that hardly cultivates the land.Plowing warms the soil, fertilizes it, and removes weeds to improve productivity, but it also makes the topsoil more susceptible to erosion and promotes the decomposition of organic matter.2Is released, which also causes a decrease in biodiversity in the soil.[19][20].
Pest management
weed,昆虫,sickPreventing such things is called pest management.Chemical extermination (Pesticide),Biological control, Mechanical extermination (cultivation), farming customs, etc.[21]..As a farming practice,Crop rotation,Thinning,,,Composting, There are techniques such as increasing the resistance of crops[22].Integrated pest managementThe goal is to use these techniques to limit pests to the extent that they do not cause economic loss, and the use of pesticides is a last resort.[23].
Nutrition management (fertilization)
Nutritional management manages the nutrients that are input in the production of agricultural products and livestock products, and is produced by livestock.ManureIncluding usage of.As nutrition to givefertilizer,Manure,Green manure,compost,mineraland so on[24].Crop rotationThe custom of having a fallow period is also one aspect of nutritional management.[25][26]..Manure is centrally managed rotation grazing (en) Can be used by grazing livestock on pasture, or solid or liquid manure can be used on cultivated land.grassIt is used by sprinkling it on the ground.
Water management
Water management is essential in areas with inadequate precipitation and areas with volatile precipitation, and most parts of the world require some degree of water management.[13]..地域によっては降水量を補うためにTo make up for precipitation in some areasIrrigationIt is carried out.アメリカやカナダのAmerica and CanadaGreat planesThen, there are some areas where water is stored in the soil by having a fallow period.[27]..世界の淡水利用の70%は農業用水であるXNUMX% of the world's freshwater use is agricultural water[28].

Individual farming method

Energy and agriculture

Mainly energy intensive since the 1940sMechanization,fertilizer,PesticideAgricultural productivity has increased sharply.それらのエネルギー源のほとんどがMost of those energy sourcesFossil fuelIs due to[29].. 1950年から1984年にかけてのFrom XNUMX to XNUMXGreen revolutionAgricultural changes around the world have changed dramaticallyWorld populationGrain production increased by 250% while doubling[30]..Modern agriculture relies heavily on petrochemicals and mechanization, raising concerns that oil shortages may increase costs, reduce agricultural production and cause food crises.

Agriculture and food systems in three developed countries
Percentage of energy consumed (%)
(Direct & Indirect)
United Kingdom[31]2005 1.911
The United States of America[32]1996 2.110
The United States of America[33]2002 2.014
Sweden[34]2000 2.513

Modern mechanized agriculture relies on fossil fuels in two ways. One is used directly as fuel on the farm and the other is used indirectly in the process of manufacturing what is used on the farm.As for direct consumption, not only is it used as fuel and lubricating oil for agricultural machinery, but also gas and electricity are used for dryers, pumps, heaters, air conditioners, etc. As of 2, US farmers directly consumed about 1 energy.ExaJulesSo, it's about 1% of the total energy consumption in the United States.[35].

Indirect consumption is mainly oil and natural gas used in the production of fertilizers and pesticides, which was 2002 exajule in 0.6.[35]..The energy used to manufacture agricultural machinery is also a type of indirect consumption,United States Department of AgricultureIt is not included in the statistics of.In total, the energy consumed directly and indirectly by agriculture in the United States accounts for about 2% of the total.アメリカでの農業の直接・間接のエネルギー消費量は1979年をピークとして、その後30年間は徐々に減少傾向にあるDirect and indirect energy consumption of agriculture in the United States peaked in XNUMX and has been gradually declining for the next XNUMX years.[35].

When we talk about food systems, we include not only agricultural production, but everything related to food, such as subsequent processing, packing, transportation, sales, consumption, and disposal.アメリカでは食料システム全体のエネルギー消費に対して農業が占める割合は5分の1以下であるAgriculture accounts for less than one-fifth of the energy consumption of the entire food system in the United States[32][33].

If there is an oil shortage, food supply will be affected.Farmers using modern organic farming report that they can maintain high production without the use of fertilizers and pesticides.しかし、石油に基づいた技術で可能になった単作栽培で失われた土壌の栄養素の復元には時間がかかるHowever, it takes time to restore soil nutrients lost in single-crop cultivation made possible by petroleum-based technology.[36][37][38][39].

2007 years,Bio fuelCultivation of crops attracts farmers[40], Other factors (rising transportation costs, extreme weather, increasing food demand in China and India, global population growth, etc.)[41]In Asia, Central Europe, Africa, Mexico, etc.Food supply is tight, Around the worldFoodThe price soared[42][43].. As of December 2007, there were food crises in 12 countries and some food price controls in 37 countries.このthis2007-2008 World Food Price CrisisThere is also a riot[44][45][46].

The largest consumer of fossil fuels in relation to agricultureHarbor Bosch methodNatural gas is used to obtain hydrogen as a raw material when making chemical fertilizers in Japan.[47]..天然ガスが使われているのは、水素の原料として今のところ最も安価だからであるNatural gas is used because it is currently the cheapest source of hydrogen.[48][49]..As oil declines, natural gas will be temporarily used as an alternative,Supply and demandNatural gas becomes even more expensive due to this.If no other hydrogen source is found, the production of chemical fertilizers by the Haber-Bosch process will be expensive, and it is expected that it will be difficult to obtain chemical fertilizers.This could lead to a sharp rise in food prices and a global food crisis.

Mitigating the effects of oil shortages

As a measure against oil shortageOrganic farmingIt is possible to switch to.Organic farming does not use petrochemical pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers.現代的有機農法で生産量が減少しないことを実証した農家もあるSome farmers have demonstrated that modern organic farming does not reduce production.[36][37][38][39]..しかし有機農業は手間がかかるため、労働力の都市から地方へのシフトを必要とするHowever, organic farming is laborious and requires a shift of labor from urban to rural areas.[50].

From waste in rural areasBio charcoalA method of making a yam and using it as fuel has also been proposed.合成燃料の場合、その場で作って使用することが可能であるためより効率的であり、新たな有機農業には十分な燃料を供給できる可能性があるSynthetic fuels are more efficient because they can be made and used on the fly, and may provide sufficient fuel for new organic farming.[51][52].

Production does not decrease even with less fertilizerGenetically modified cropsIs also under development[53]..しかし遺伝子組み換え作物については生態学者や経済学者から疑問が呈されておりHowever, ecologists and economists have questioned genetically modified crops.[54][55]In January 2008, it was reported that genetically modified crops were "environmentally, socially, and economically unsuccessful."[56].

MonsantoWhile there are studies on the sustainability of genetically modified crops as in the case of failure, the sustainability of crops is being improved by conventional breeding.[57]..さらにアフリカの自給自足農家についてのバイオテクノロジー業界による調査によると、農家の抱える問題への対策のほとんどは遺伝子組み換えとは無関係のものだったとしているIn addition, a biotechnology industry survey of self-sufficient farmers in Africa found that most of the farmers' solutions to their problems were unrelated to genetic modification.[58]..それにも関わらず、アフリカのいくつかの政府は遺伝子組み換え技術への投資が持続可能性を高めるのに必須だとしているNonetheless, some African governments say investing in GM technology is essential for sustainability.[59].

Economic calculations

Agricultural production value
The value obtained by adding the products obtained as a result of domestic agricultural production activities to the valuation of the producer price and the sales of agricultural services (co-cultivation of rice seedlings, co-selection of fruits and vegetables, etc.)[60]..広義の農業の国内生産額を表す数値Numerical value representing the gross domestic product of agriculture in a broad sense[60].
Agricultural gross domestic product
Agricultural production value minus intermediate input, equivalent to added value[60]..中間投入とは種苗、肥料、飼料、農薬・医薬品、農機具修繕、農用建物修繕、光熱動力、賃借料など農業生産のために投入された財・サービスの費用であるIntermediate input is the cost of goods and services input for agricultural production such as seedlings, fertilizers, feed, pesticides / pharmaceuticals, agricultural equipment repairs, agricultural building repairs, utility power, and rent.[60].
Agricultural gross domestic product
Fixed capital depletion, etc. (fixed capital depletion + indirect tax-ordinary subsidy) deducted from total agricultural production[60]..固定資本減耗とは固定資産の通常の使用での価値減耗(減価償却)及び資本偶発損の評価額であるFixed capital depletion is the valuation of value depreciation (depreciation) and contingent loss on capital in normal use of fixed assets.[60].

Agricultural management


Modern society is a monetary economy, and while agriculture also retains the aspect of production for self-consumption, most farmers earn money from the sale of agricultural products.[61]..農家の場合は会社から賃金を得る場合とは異なり、農家自体が経営体で家族労働に依存していることも多く所得の算出がやや複雑になるIn the case of a farmer, unlike the case of getting wages from a company, the farmer itself is often a management entity and depends on family labor, which makes the calculation of income a little complicated.[61].

Agricultural income is the income from the sale of agricultural products (strictly speaking, including agricultural products consumed by farmers) minus agricultural management costs.[61]..農業経営費には、肥料や農薬等の物財費、地代、雇用労働費、農業機械等の減価償却費などがあるAgricultural management costs include material costs such as fertilizers and pesticides, land rents, employment labor costs, and depreciation costs for agricultural machinery.[61]..農業経営費は家族労働費、自作地地代、自己資本利子などを含む「生産費」とは異なるAgricultural management costs are different from "production costs" including family labor costs, self-produced land rents, capital interest, etc.[61]..また、農産物の販売による収入のほか、政府から受け取る助成金が重要な収入源になっている場合もあるIn addition to income from the sale of agricultural products, subsidies received from the government may be an important source of income.[61].

Agriculture produces animals and plants in the natural environment, so there are risks such as natural disasters and poor crops, and there are multifaceted elements in agricultural management, such as the inability to maintain land fertility when trying to maximize short-term profits.[61].

In the case of crop cultivation, basicallyNATURETo targetsunshine,temperature,Precipitation amountSuch asweatherIt is easily affected by the condition, and it depends on the supply-demand relationship and the influence of investment.MarketThere is also a lack of stable income due to price fluctuations in Japan.

In addition,LivestockThen, in addition to price fluctuations in the market, for livestock to be raisedWed,feedYou need to take care of yourself from early morning to late night, such as feeding and exercising.Days OffIt is difficult to take, and the physical burden on the worker (overwork) ・ Mental burden (stress) Is large, and also due to livestock manureStench,Environmental pollutionHave problems such as[62].


On the scale of agricultural management, there has been a long-standing controversy over large and small farmers in agricultural economics and agricultural management.[61]..小農は賃労働者のいない小規模の家族経営の農家をいい、生産活動は自家労働(家族労働)で行い農産物の一部は自家消費され、家計と生産(経営)が未分離という特徴があるSmall farms are small-scale family-owned farmers who do not have wage laborers. Production activities are carried out by self-labor (family labor), some of the agricultural products are consumed by themselves, and the household budget and production (management) are not separated.[61]..家族経営と企業的農業経営に分けられることもあるSometimes divided into family business and corporate farming[61].

Agricultural policy

Agricultural policyDeales with agricultural production goals and methods.The main agricultural goals at the policy level are:

Many governments have subsidized and subsidized agriculture to ensure proper food supply.Such agricultural subsidiesWheat,corn,Rice,Soybean,milkIt is often given to specific foods such as.Developed countryIf you implement such a subsidy systemProtection tradeIt is often described as inefficient and adversely affecting the environment.[65].

In recent years, the negative impact of intensive agriculture on the environment (Externality), Especially from the backlash against water pollutionOrganic farmingThere was a movement to promote.例えばFor exampleEuropean UnionWas in 1991Organic produceStarted certification in 2005Common agricultural policy (CAP) Revised[66]Decided to introduce a so-called "decoupling method" that separates production volume and subsidies in stages.

In late 2007, a combination of several factors led to a surge in grain prices (58% for wheat, 32% for soybeans and 11% for corn), and also boosted prices for grain-fed livestock products.[67][68]..世界中のいくつかの国でIn some countries around the worldRiotOccurred up to[44][45][46]..The factors behind the soaring price were drought in Australia and other countries, increased demand for meat in the fast-growing middle class such as China and India, the start to convert grains to biofuel production, and some countries restricting trade. is there.

In recent years, Ug99 strainWheatWheat rust (en)EpidemicIs widespread in Africa and Asia, raising concerns[69][70][71]..また、全世界の農地の約40%で土壌の荒廃が深刻な問題となっているIn addition, soil devastation is a serious problem in about XNUMX% of the world's farmland.[72].United Nations UniversityThe Ghana-based African Institute for Natural Resources says that if soil continues to be devastated in Africa, food could reach only 2025% of Africa's population by 25.[73].

Farmers around the world work under completely different conditions, including economic development, population density, and culture.

America'sCottonFarmers receive a $ 1 subsidy per acre of planted area (as of 230), whileRepublic of MaliThere are no such subsidies for farmers in developing countries such as[74]..Even if prices fall, American cotton farmers do not need to reduce their production because they are subsidized, but Mali cotton farmers may go bankrupt due to the effects of price declines.

South KoreaLivestock farmers are protected by the government and can be expected to sell for US $ 1 per calf.南米のSouth AmericanMercosurFor farm owners in member countries, calves sell for US $ 120- $ 200 (both 2008 values).[75]..The former compensates for land shortages and high costs with public subsidies, and the latter compensates for the lack of subsidies due to the size and low cost of land.

People's Republic of ChinaThe average farmer's cultivated land is said to be 1 hectare.[76].Brazil,パラグアイIn countries where foreigners can freely purchase land, thousands of hectares of farmland and undeveloped land are sold internationally for hundreds of US dollars per hectare.[77][78].

Agricultural production value

The agricultural output of each country in the world in 2011 is shown below.

Agricultural production value in 2011
RankingCountryProduction value (US $ 10 billion)GDP ratio (%)World share (%)
  Whole world4,249.2376.1%100.0%
1Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku737.11310.1%17.3%
European Union flag European Union316.3981.8%7.4%
2Indian flag India303.38218.1%7.1%
3United States flag America181.1281.2%4.3%
4Brazilian flag Brazil144.5895.8%3.4%
5Indonesian flag Indonesia126.00614.9%3.0%
6Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu93.17939.0%2.2%
7Japanese flag Japan82.1731.4%1.9%
8Russian flag Russia77.7174.2%1.9%
9Turkish flag Turkey71.5849.2%1.7%
10Australian flag Australia59.5294.0%1.4%
11Iran flag (I.e.54.03411.2%1.3%
12Spanish flag Spain49.2863.3%1.2%
13French flag France47.1981.7%1.1%
14Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand45.97113.3%1.1%
15Mexican flag Mexico45.0373.9%1.1%
16Argentina flag Argentine44.76410.0%1.1%
17Pakistan flag Pakistan44.00820.9%1.0%
18Italian flag Italy41.7761.9%1.0%
19Egyptian flag Egypt33.94414.4%0.8%
20Malaysia flag Malaysia33.44212.0%0.8%
-Other countries1,933.37745.5%

Distribution of agricultural products

Food safety, labeling and regulation

Food safety,Food labelingThe problem is related to food safety.国際的にはInternationallyCartagena Protocol on BiosafetyByGenetically modified cropsTrade is regulated.European UnionAlthough labeling is required for foods made from genetically modified crops, it is not required in the United States.遺伝子組み換え作物の安全性についてはまだ疑問が残るため、遺伝子組み換え作物を使用の有無を食品に表示し、一般大衆が選択できるようにすることが必須だ、と考える者もいるAs questions remain about the safety of GM crops, some believe it is essential to label foods with or without GM crops so that the general public can choose.[79].

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) aims to "eradicate hunger" and member states gather on an equal footingFood policyIt provides a place to discuss and consensus on agricultural regulations. FAO's director of livestock production and hygiene, Samuel Jutzi, said lobbying by giant food companies has hampered reforms aimed at improving health and the environment.彼はHe Compassion in World Farming At the (CIWF) annual meeting, "The real problem of reality is against the backdrop of mighty power.lobbyistIt cannot be solved by the political process affected by. "For example, as a self-regulation plan for the livestock industry, environmental measures such as limiting the number of livestock per unit area to reduce long-term damage to the land were proposed, but it is huge.Food company OfpressureIt was abandoned by[80].

Processing / Distribution / Marketing

In the United States, the ratio of agricultural costs to household food costs is declining, and food processing, distribution and marketing costs are increasing.This not only improves agricultural productivity, but also increases the number of high-value-added foods. From 1960 to 1980, agricultural costs accounted for around 40% of food costs, but fell to 1990% in 30 and 1998% in 22.2.Oligopoly is also progressing, and in 1995, the products of the top 20 food companies accounted for half of the total, doubling compared to 1954.流通面でも寡占化が進んでおり、アメリカのThe distribution side is also becoming oligopolistic, and the United StatessupermarketThe top six chains accounted for 6% of food sales in 1992, but increased to 32% in 2000.寡占化はある意味で効率向上にもなっているが、農村にとっては悪影響があるかもしれないOligopoly is also an efficiency boost in a way, but it may have a negative impact on rural areas.[81].

Breeding and biotechnology

Mankind has been around for thousands of years before civilization beganBreed improvementI went to.The genetic structure of plants has been modified by humans to make crops with better characteristics.For example, improvements such as making fruits and seeds larger, making them resistant to drought, and making them more resistant to pests.Gregor Johann MendelSince then, breeding technology has made remarkable progress.Mendel's work on genetic traits has given him a better understanding of heredity, which has led to the development of breeding techniques.望ましい特徴を持つ植物を選択し、自家Choose plants with the desired characteristics and homePollinationAnd by making full use of cross-pollination, eventually genetic modification was started.[82].

Breeding of plants gradually increased yields, improved resistance to disease and drought, facilitated harvesting, and increased the taste and nutritional value of crops.Careful selection and breeding have significantly changed the characteristics of crops.For example, from the 1920s to the 1930s, pasture and clover were improved by selection and breeding in New Zealand. 1950年代にはIn the XNUMXsX-ray,UVPrimitive genetic engineering was born to increase the mutation rate, and breeding of wheat, corn, barley, etc. was carried out.[83][84].

Green revolutionSo traditionalCrossThe use of techniques has become commonplace, and cultivating highly productive varieties has increased yields many times over.例えば、アメリカでのFor example, in the United Statescornの収穫量は1900年ごろには1ヘクタール当たり2.5トンだったが、2001年ごろには1ヘクタール当たり9.4トンになっている。同様に小麦の収穫量の世界平均は、1900年ごろには1ヘクタール当たり1トンだったものが、1990年には1ヘクタール当たり2.5トンになっている。南アメリカでの平均小麦収穫量は1ヘクタール当たり2トン、アフリカでは1トン以下だが、EgyptThere are 3.5 to 4 tonnes of harvest in areas where irrigation is carried out in Arabia and Arabia.In contrast, France, where technology is advanced, yields more than 1 tons per hectare.収穫量の地域差は主に気候、品種、耕作技法(肥料、害虫駆除、倒伏防止など)の差が原因であるRegional differences in yields are mainly due to differences in climate, varieties, and cultivation techniques (fertilizer, pest control, lodging prevention, etc.).[85][86].

Genetic engineering

Genetically modified crops (GMO) is a crop (plant) whose genes have been modified using genetic engineering techniques.Genetic engineering has expanded the range of genes that can be used to produce new breeds of germline. With the development of mechanical tomato harvesters in the early 1960s, agronomists produced genetically modified tomatoes that were more suitable for mechanical harvesting.Recently, genetically modified technology has been used to develop new varieties of various crops.

Genetically modified crops resistant to herbicides

Roundup Ready The species, called, has a gene that is resistant to herbicides so that it is not affected by exposure to glyphosate.RoundupIs the trade name of a glyphosate-based herbicide that kills all weeds non-selectively.つまりIn other words Roundup Ready With seeds, spraying glyphosate does not affect only the crop and can kill all weeds.Herbicide-tolerant crops are grown all over the world.アメリカの大豆は作付面積の92%が除草剤に耐性のある品種(遺伝子組み換え作物)になっているXNUMX% of the planted area of ​​American soybeans are herbicide-tolerant varieties (genetically modified crops)[87].

As more herbicide-tolerant crops grow, glyphosate-based herbicides are, of course, more often sprayed.中にはグリホサート剤に耐性のある雑草も出てきたため、別の除草剤への切り替えを余儀なくされた地域もあるSome weeds are resistant to glyphosate, forcing some areas to switch to different herbicides.[88][89]..広範囲なグリホサート剤の使用が収穫量や作物の栄養価に与える影響、さらには経済や健康に与える影響について研究が行われているStudies are being conducted on the effects of widespread glyphosate use on yields, crop nutritional value, as well as economic and health effects.[90].

Genetically modified crops resistant to pests

Genetically modified crops that are resistant to pests have also been developed and are soil bacteria that produce toxins that act on insects.Bacillus thuringiensisIncorporates the gene of.Such crops are not devoured by insects.For example, there is a corn called Starlink.また、綿花でも同様の品種が作られており、アメリカでは綿花の63%がそういった品種になっているSimilar varieties are also made in cotton, and XNUMX% of cotton is such varieties in the United States.[87].

Some say that pest-resistant varieties can be produced by traditional breeding, especially crossing with wild species or cross-pollination, without genetic modification.Wild species can also be a source of various tolerances.野生種との交雑によって19の病害に耐性のあるトマトの栽培品種を作った例もあるIn some cases, crosses with wild species have produced XNUMX disease-resistant tomato cultivars.[91].

Costs and benefits of GM crops

The genetic engineer will eventuallyIrrigationAnd drainagepreservationIt may produce crops that can be cultivated without worrying about such things.Such crops will be important in barren areas that rely on large-scale irrigation.However, there are many criticisms about genetic modification.Problems have been raised about genetically modified crops from the two aspects of food safety and the environment.例えば、作物の次世代の種が発芽しないようにした「ターミネーター種」は環境学者や経済学者によって疑問を呈されているFor example, "terminator species" that prevent the next generation of crops from germinating have been questioned by environmental scientists and economists.[92][93]..ターミネーター種には国際的に反対の声が強く、今のところ実際の作物には適用されていないThere is strong international opposition to Terminator species, which has not yet been applied to actual crops.[94].

Another issue is how to protect new types of patents developed with genetically modified technology.The developer owns the intellectual property rights of such species and has the right to set conditions for the crops cultivated using the species.現在10の種苗会社が世界的な種の販売の3分の2を制御しているCurrently XNUMX seed companies control two-thirds of global seed sales[95]..環境活動家Environmental activistVandana ShivaAre trying to make a profit from those companies patenting life, and the crime of biological theft (Bioprospecting) Claims to be violating[96]..Farmers using patented seeds must purchase new seeds each year, even if the seeds for the next year can be obtained from the harvest.収穫から翌年の種を得ることは普通に行われてきた習慣だが、特許侵害に問われないようにするためには、その習慣を変える必要があるGetting seeds the following year from harvest is a common practice, but it needs to be changed to avoid patent infringement.[88][96].

Species adapted to limited areas (indigenous species) are endangered by breeding and genetically modified crops.そのような種は長い年月をかけてその地域の気候、土壌、その他の環境条件、田畑の設計、現地の民族の好みに適応してきたという意味で重要であるSuch species are important in the sense that they have adapted over the years to the local climate, soil and other environmental conditions, field design and local ethnic preferences.[97]..Bringing in GM crops and hybrids risks crossing with indigenous species.In short, genetically modified crops can pose a threat to the sustainability of indigenous species and the culture of the region.交雑によって土着種が遺伝子組み換え作物の形質を獲得したら、その種は特許を保持している企業の設定する条件の対象となりうるOnce the indigenous species has acquired the trait of a genetically modified crop by crossing, the species may be subject to the conditions set by the patented company.[98].

Agricultural sustainability

Simply for agricultureCultivationNot only suitable for cultivating large landFarmlandTo (Clearing) And making waterwaysIrrigationVarious specialized techniques such as are included.農業の基本は、依然としてThe basics of agriculture are stillFarmlandOf crops inCultivation牧草地AtLivestock.

Thomas Robert MalthusPredicted that the earth could not support population growth,Green revolutionAnd other technologies have made it possible to meet increasing food demand[99].

Since the end of the 20th century, due to concerns about existing agricultureSustainable agricultureThere is growing interest in.Breed improvement-Pesticide-Chemical fertilizerAlthough the yield has increased sharply due to technological innovations such as, it has an adverse effect on the environment (Environmental pollution) And adverse effects on the human body[100]..畜産においてもAlso in livestockBreed improvementAnd "intensive" pig and poultry farming has dramatically increased meat production,Animal crueltyProblem of,Antibiotics,Growth hormoneSuch asChemical substanceBy administeringhuman bodyThere is concern about adverse effects on[101].

Biopharmaceutical, (Even in Europe and America) Drugs (Crude drug),Bio plastic,Bio fuel[Note 1][102], Etc. are often used as raw materials[103]..However, in the first place, there are many people and regions in the world who are dying from hunger due to lack of food.Burning plants to convert them into fuel will result in a further shortage of food and an increase in the value of basic crops.世界人口で多くの割合を占める、低収入で食べ物が十分に入手できてはいない人々の生命を奪う結果をまねくことが懸念されているThere are concerns that it could result in the death of low-income, under-stocked people, who make up a large proportion of the world's population.[104][105].

Environmental impact

Agriculture is against society due to problems such as pesticides, nutrient spillage, and overuse of water.External costsImposing (pollution). 2000年に発表された研究で、イギリスにおける総A study published in XNUMX, total in the United KingdomExternal costsEstimated to be £ 1996 million in 23, £ 4300 per hectare.[106]..アメリカ合衆国の2005年時点の耕作に関わる外部費用はおよそ50億ドルから160億ドル(1ヘクタールあたり30ドルから96ドル)と見積もられており、畜産に関わる外部費用は7億1400万ドルと見積もられているExternal costs for cultivation in the United States as of XNUMX are estimated at approximately $ XNUMX to $ XNUMX billion ($ XNUMX to $ XNUMX per hectare), and external costs for livestock production are estimated at $ XNUMX million. Being leaked[107]..Both studies point to the need for internalization of external costs, but do not analyze subsidies and note that subsidies also affect the cost of agriculture to society.Both studies describe purely economic implications. The 2000 study included reports of pesticide contamination but did not consider the effects of regular pesticide use, and the 2004 study relied on the 1992 pesticide impact estimates.

Norman BorlogIs a key figure who developed revolutionary agricultural technology and saved billions of lives.The varieties he developed have significantly increased grain production in developing countries and have become known as the "Father of the Green Revolution."

Livestock problems

"Livestock is one of the most important causes of environmental problems today," said Henning Steinfeld, a UN official and co-author of the UN report on the issue.[108]..Livestock occupies 70% of the total area used by agriculture and occupies 30% of the earth's land.It is also the largest source of greenhouse gases and CO2 When converted to, 18% of the total greenhouse gas generation comes from livestock.By the way, CO emitted by transportation and transportation2The total is 13.5% of the total.人間の活動で排出されるExhausted by human activityNitrous oxide65% is from livestock (CO2296 times more greenhouse effect),methane37% is from livestock (CO)2Has a greenhouse effect 23 times that of).In addition, 64% of ammonia comes from livestock,(I.e.It is said to be the cause of acidification of ecosystems.Livestock is a major factor in deforestation, with 70% of the land cleared in the Amazon being pasture (the rest is cultivated land).[109]..It can be said that livestock is reducing biodiversity through deforestation and clearing.

Land reclamation and devastation

Reclaiming land and using it for agriculture and livestock is the activity of humankind that has the greatest impact on the earth's ecosystem, and is the greatest driving force for reducing biodiversity.人類がこれまでに開墾した土地の見積もりは39%から50%まで様々であるEstimates of land that humans have cleared so far vary from XNUMX% to XNUMX%[110]..Land degradation (en) Means a long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, estimated to occur on 24% of the world's land (mostly farmland).[111].United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization The (FAO) argues that land management is the main cause of land degradation and reports that 15 billion people live on devastated land.The devastation here isdeforestation,Desertification,Erosion, Mineral depletion, soil acidificationSalt damagePoint to[13].


eutrophicationAs the aquatic ecosystem becomes over-nutrient, algae grow and the oxygen concentration in the water decreases.As a result, fish cannot live, biodiversity is lost, and the water is not suitable for drinking or industrial use.耕作地への過剰な栄養(肥料)投与や家畜に過剰な飼料を与えることがExcessive nutrition (fertilizer) administration to cultivated land and excessive feed to livestocknitrogen,RinOf nutrients such asSurface runoffAnd leaching.これらの栄養素は水中生態系の富栄養化を引き起こす主要なThese nutrients are the major causes of eutrophication of aquatic ecosystemsNonpoint source loadIs[112].


The amount of pesticides used worldwide has increased by 1950 million tons every year since 250, but the pest damage to crops has remained almost constant.[113].. 1992,who (WHO) released estimates that 300 million people get pesticide poisoning each year and about 22 die from it.[114]..農薬を使用し続けることでその農薬に耐性のある害虫だけが生き延び、さらに強力な農薬が必要になるというサイクルが生まれているBy continuing to use pesticides, only pests that are resistant to the pesticides survive, creating a cycle in which more powerful pesticides are needed.[115].

As a logic to justify intensive farming using pesticides to prevent famine and protect the environment, the Center for Global Food Issues website quoted "By increasing the yield per acre, more There is also the idea that a lot of land can be left untouched. "[116][117]..批評家は環境と食料需要のトレードオフは必ずしも必然的ではないとしCritics say the trade-off between environment and food demand is not always inevitable[118]Insists that pesticides should be reduced and good farming habits such as crop rotation should take root.[115].

Climate change

Agriculturetemperature,Precipitation amountAnd when it rains,CO2,Sun light, Or a combination of theseClimate changeAffected by[13][119]..農業にはFor agricultureGlobal warmingThere is a side to prevent it, and there is a side to make it worse.atmosphereInCO2As a factor in the increasesoilOrganic matter incorruptionIs released into the atmospheremethaneMost of the waterRice fieldThis is due to the decomposition of organic matter in moist soil such as[120]..さらに湿ったMore dampAnaerobicIn the soilDenitrificationBynitrogenLostGreenhouse gasIs a type ofNitric oxideReleased into the atmosphere in the form of[121]..Good soil management can reduce these greenhouse gas outgasses and cause the soil to contain atmospheric CO.2TheStorageIt is also possible to let[120].

Agricultural organisms

There are several types of agricultural organisms on earth.

 For ants and termitesAgricultureThere are species that do[122][123].

  • ア リA kind ofLeafcutter antA fungus called ha is cultivated and eaten.
  • FishesStegastes nigricans grows and eats algae called.At this time, other typesSeaweedPeel and throw it out of the territory.There, sea urchins and fish drive away intruders who are trying to eat the algae they have grown.
  • Fish grow and eat various types of algae with a territory that is about 20 times wider than the Stegastes nigricans.
  • A type of slime moldDictyostelium dust moldSome strains take in bacteria and disperse them at the destination when they make a moving body because the number of bacteria that feed on them decreases, and the bacteria propagate at the destination, so there is no problem with feeding.


[How to use footnotes]


  1. ^ For biofuelbiomassMade frommethane,ethanol,BiodieselThere is fuel and so on.


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