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🤝 | Volunteers searching for passengers of the Shiretoko sightseeing boat sinking accident found skulls and clothing


Volunteers searching for victims of Shiretoko sightseeing boat sinking accident find skull and clothing

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After receiving this information, the Japan Coast Guard dispatched patrol boats and aircraft to the vicinity of the site, and is confirming that the bones and clothing found may be those of the passengers of the "KAZU I".

Men who were volunteering to search the area around the sinking site in the accident where a tourist boat sank off the coast of Shiretoko, Hokkaido, were found today in the morning. → Continue reading


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    Patrol boat

    Patrol boat(Junshisen) isJapan Coast GuardOwned byShipThose engaged in duties such as security and rescue[1].Smaller ones that engage in similar missions in the waters around the base arePatrol boatIs distinguished as[1][2].The official English name isPatrol vesselsIs[3], and in the pressPatrol boatSometimes the translation of[4].


    Founding period (Occupation: 1940s and 50s)

    19485/1,Japan under Allied occupationResponsible for maritime security and rescue and traffic maintenance incivilianThe Japan Coast Guard was established as an organization[5].Of the ships owned at the time of its inauguration, the patrol boat was made of wood.Special submarine cruiser (ASC type)It was only 28 ships, 1 ships and 29 laying special duty boat[6].Expansion of the fleet is an urgent task,Allied Supreme Commander General Command(GHQ/SCAP) authorities and others, as a result of which they succeeded in acquiring seven patrol boats in 23. I had no choice but to be discharged during the same year because I could not stand it.[6].

    Showa 24 (1949), of the former naval vessels under the control of the GHQ/SCAP authorities, 7 ASC-type and 11 air rescue boats (ARB-type) were permitted to use, and 4 former navy tugboats were acquired. A total of 23 ships were incorporated into the patrol ships.[6].In addition, while receiving a transfer of control from the Ministry of Finance, the former Navy's special duty boats that were under construction at the end of the war were acquired, construction resumed, completed as 'Kabashima', and these were also incorporated into the patrol ships.[6].

    In the same fiscal year, 6 yen was established as the first ship new operating expenses, and the new ship building was realized.[6][7]. In April 1949, the Japan Coast Guard Ship Design Council was established, centered on engineers from 4 shipyards, and with the full cooperation of domestic shipyards, studies on ships began.[7].However, at this point, GHQ/SCAP is strongly intervening, for example against armed coast guard organizations.Far East CommitteeIn order to make it clear that the patrol boat was not for military use in consideration of the backlash in the 1,500s, restrictions were imposed on the displacement of no more than 15 tons and the maximum speed of no more than XNUMX knots.[8][Note 1].Also, while the Japanese side had a policy to build ships of their own design,US Coast Guard(USCG) ships, and Japan's policy was to focus on the development of PL/PM, which was extremely inadequate. did[7].

    As a result, first from the 24 plan(English editionas a typeship 700-ton type PL (Daio type)and typeship450-ton type PM (Awaji type)Construction of the 25-ton type was discontinued after 700, while the 450-ton type was revised.Lebun typeand(English editionas a typeship270-ton type PS (bear type)Construction started[7]. AlsoKorean WarOn July 1950, 7, the "MacArthur Letter" was issued with the outbreak of the It was decided that the overall structure of the Japan Coast Guard would be strengthened.[7].The patrol boats were also reinforced twice, with the addition of 2 450-ton vessels and 13 270-ton vessels.[6].

    Period of Renewal and Enhancement (after restoration of sovereignty: 1950s-70s)

    1952 OfSan Francisco Peace TreatyBy the entry into force, Japan willsovereigntyRecovered[9].Due to difficulties in coordinating the division of roles between the organization in charge of national defense and the coast guard organization, the construction of ships in the budget for 27 was postponed, but in August of the same year.Guards28 (1953) Ship construction resumed from the plan[9].However, in addition to the long-awaited PL of 1,200 tons, 450-ton and 270-ton patrol ships were also planned as substitutes for the 600-ton and 350-ton types as patrol ships in the plan for the same year, but they exceeded the expectations of the Japan Coast Guard. However, the 1,200-ton and 600-ton models were all eliminated, and only the 350-ton model was significantly reduced in specs.Tokachi typeBuilt as[10].Also in the same year,Central Meteorological Observatory OfWeather stationThe former Navy operated asMarine defense shipFive ships were transferred to the Japan Coast Guard,Head type PLcommissioned as[6].

    Showa 29 (1954) In the plan, we aimed to improve the vibration performance as a revised 350-ton model.Teshio” was built, but the same type ship was not built, and in 30 (1955) from the degree planYahagi type, and then in 35 (1960) As a modified 2-350 ton type from the degree planMatsuura typeWas built[9].In addition, all of the former naval coastal defense ships mentioned above were remarkably deteriorated, so they will be replaced at an early stage.Showa 36-37度で900-ton type (Nojima type), Showa 38 (Showa XNUMX)1963) in degrees1,100-ton type (Kojima), and in 39 and 40Modified 900-ton type (Erimo type)Was built[9]. AndShowa 41-42in degreesMariana Sea Fishing Boat Group Distress CaseTriggered by2,000-ton type (Izu type)2 ships were built[11][9].

    A large number of initial construction ships maintained under occupation are also requested to fade out early,Showa 47-48In the plan, it will be a substitute for the 700-ton typeKai 2-900 ton type (Daio type)2 ships were built[9][7].On the other hand, for the 350-ton type, in 43 (1968) started construction according to the planKai 3 type (Kunashiri type)Since it was enlarged to a size comparable to the conventional 450-ton type, it was reclassified to PM together with the existing 350-ton type.[9].These are gradually replacing the 270-ton and 450-ton types, and from the 48 plan, the advanced typeKai 4 type (Bihoro type)The construction of the 270-ton type was almost eliminated.[9].

    On the other hand, the performance of patrol boats is insufficient, but since 270, the130-ton type (Hidaka type)has been started, and a special 130-ton type for harbors with special wave conditions was also built in parallel.[9][11]. Also1974 OfTenth Yuyomaru IncidentIn 52 and 53, as a patrol ship for special purposes based on the lessons ofSpecial 350-ton type (Takatori type)Was built[9][11].

    New Maritime Order Era (1970s-90s)

    Aiming to establish a new maritime order1973ToThird United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seais opening, and while the interests of each country are complicated,1977200 nautical miles from major countries in the worldExclusive economic zonewas enacted, and Japan followed suit.Territory lawand the Temporary Measures Act on Fisheries Areas[7][12].As a result, the maritime area to be guarded by the Japan Coast Guard has expanded to about four times the size of the territorial waters alone, and 4 times when including the fisheries waters.[7][12].Meanwhile, in April 1978, an armed Chinese fishing fleet suddenly尖 閣 諸島An incident occurs in which a part of the ship appears in the surrounding waters and intrudes into the territorial waters.[13],AlsoTakeshimaeven in the surrounding watersSouth KoreaThere have been incidents in which the authorities have advised Japanese fishing boats to leave.[9][14].

    Highly mobile in response to this situationhelicopterA patrol ship (PLH) equipped with aSoya"as a substitute ship"Yes” was introduced, from the supplementary budget for the same yearTsugaru typeConstruction started[9][14]. afterwards,1979 OfSAR agreementwith the adoption of[7], especially because it became necessary to develop a wide-area patrol system in the North Pacific waters,Showa 58-61At the time, the hull shape was expanded and the number of aircraft mounted was increased to two.2 aircraft type (Mizuho type)2 were built[9][14].As expansion of the large patrol fleet became an urgent matter, the modified 52-2 ton class was developed from the 900 revised plan.1,000-ton type (Shiretoko type)was started, but it also served as a substitute for the 450-ton type.[9][14]. PM was also developed based on the modified 54-4 ton type from the 350 plan.500-ton type (Teshio type)Construction started[9][14].

    territorial waters intrusion vesselPoachingIn addition to speeding up ships,1985 OfHyuga Nada Suspicious Boat IncidentAs a result, it was decided to develop high-speed patrol boats for territorial waters security.[14].First, in 130 as a special 62-ton type substitute ship (1987) degrees180-ton type (Mihashi type)construction began, and in 4 (1992) degree extended the hull slightlybizan typeIn addition to moving to , in 3 (1991) from the degree350-ton type (Amami type)also started construction of[9][14].

    On the other hand, the 62-ton type built in 1,000 (Nojima), even though PLHelicopter deckhas been installed, and consideration has been given to enable advanced maritime rescue operations in cooperation with helicopters, and minor revisions have been made since XNUMXhead typeConstruction started[14]. AlsoCoast Guard College OfTraining shipBuilt in 2 as a plan3,000-ton type (Kojima)Or 1995 yearsGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeBuilt in 7 (Heisei 1995) as a disaster response type based on the lessons of the first supplementary plan3,500-ton type (Izu)Both are equipped with a helicopter deck while being PL[9].

    Also in XNUMX (1989) in the supplementary budget, a two-helicopter-carrying type to escort the returned plutonium transport from Europe "Shikishimawas built[9][14].

    Countermeasures against spy ships and the security of the Senkaku Islands (1990s-)

    1999 OfSuspicious ship off Noto Peninsula2001 OfKyushu Southwest Seacraft Ship Incidenthad a considerable impact on the design concept of patrol vessels.[9].Immediately after the suspicious ship incident off the coast of Noto Peninsula, the 180-ton type PS was developed and equipped with speed and maneuverability that surpassed the suspicious ship.High-speed special patrol boat (Tsurugi type)In addition to the start of construction, after the Kyushu southwest sea area spy boat incident, it was equipped with even better seaworthiness and equipment.High-speed, high-performance large patrol boatAs,1,000-ton type (Aso type)and2,000-ton type (fold type)Was built[15].Also, the 350-ton type PM has been further accelerated from the 13 plan.Tokara typeMoved to[16].

    As a 1,000-ton type, it occurred in March 2004Chinese activist OfUotsuri IslandTriggered by the incident of illegal landing in Japan, since 17, emphasis has been placed on security functions.Hateruma typeWas built[15].After that, in the 21 revision plan, general-purposeKunigami typeAfter it was built, it was somewhat smaller than the 22 revision plan.Iwami typehas started construction, and in 2011Great East Japan EarthquakeBased on the lessons learned, the disaster prevention function was strengthened from the third ship of the same type onwards.[15].In addition to the Senkaku issue,Malacca Strait-Piracy off the coast of SomaliaConsidering problems, etc., in the 22 plan, as a PLH designed according to "Shikishima"Akitsushimawas built[17].

    But even after thatIncidents such as loitering of Chinese government vessels and intrusion into territorial waterswas frequent, andYamato BankIn December 2016, the Cabinet approved the "Policy on Strengthening the Coast Guard System" due to numerous incidents in other waters, such as illegal fishing operations by foreign fishing vessels in the surrounding waters.[15].As a patrol vessel, PLH is a 6,500-ton type belonging to the genealogy of "Akitsushima".Reimei typeand a 6,000-ton model that is one size smallerSpring type, and as a PL, a 3,500-ton typeMiyako typeIn addition to being included, the construction of the Kunigami type was resumed[15].Also in 26 (2014) From the plan, it is necessary to replace the aging 500-ton typeKatori typeHowever, in preparation for an important incident such as the escalation of the Senkaku situation, as a result of seeking seaworthiness and high speed comparable to PL, it is comparable to Shiretoko type. became a large PM[16].

    crew job title

    captain and operations manager

    In a patrol boat, it isCaptainIs[18].to move the shipMaritime diplomaBecause it is necessary, it is a reserved seat for those who have graduated from the navigation department, and in the case of a large patrol vessel of 1,000 tons or more, the second class coast guard officer serves as the captain.[18].It is often the last post for those who graduated from the special training course of the Japan Coast Guard University or the Coast Guard School, and does not aspire to work on land.Maritime Sheriffis also one of the ways to end the life of a coast guard[18].

    On large and medium-sized patrol vessels (PLH, PL, PM), the duty manager is the number two ship next to the captain, and carries out the heavy responsibility of duties and ship affairs.[19].This system was introduced in 1986 as a measure to deal with the increasing burden on captains due to the diversification of duties.[19], also known as "Gyokan"[18].The same rank as the captain is assigned, but unlike the captain, it is not linked to qualifications, so there are cases where people from the engine department, communication department, and even aircraft pilots are appointed.[18].Partly for this reason, when the captain is having difficulty with his duties, it is the navigator, not the operations manager, who takes over the duties.[19].

    shipping and business

    Under the captain/operations manager, the heads of navigation, engine, communications, accounting, and operational command departments are assigned.船務Bear the[18].In the case of PLH, an aviation chief is also placed, and pilots and mechanics are also placed.[18].The Operations Command Division is a new section established in April 2011. It assists the captain in collecting and analyzing information that is not directly related to ship operations, and in planning and coordinating incident response policies.[18].It is a post that can be placed on large patrol ships, but not all ships have it.[18].On the other hand, there used to be many patrol boats with gunnery departments, but these days they are rarely seen, and handling of weapons is often under the jurisdiction of the navigation department.[18].However, there are ships that have assistant gunners assigned to them.[18].

    On the patrol boat during general patrol, the staff of each department except the main accounting department is divided into 3 groups, and each group spends 1 hours each.On duty(Watch) In principle, repeat duty (three shifts)[20].However, due to the unique circumstances of patrol vessels, in addition to ship duties, there are on-site inspections, salvage, investigations, etc.BusinessThere are many tasks such as meetings and document preparation for this, so there are cases where these tasks are performed during off-duty as a fourth shift duty.[20].On the other hand, when entering/leaving a port or passing through a narrow channel, all personnel are deployed in preparation for unforeseen circumstances.[20].Also, when conducting security and rescue operations such as maritime salvage and on-site inspections, each department is temporarily dissolved and a work processing team is formed to handle the work with all personnel. You will have to repeat intricately the two roles of one person working in a team.[20].In addition, as followsSpecial patrol boatThere are divers and special guards on board, but these personnel are also considered to be operating personnel.[18].

    Special patrol boat

    Designated submersible ship
    It is a patrol boat for conducting diving work such as searching for missing persons under the surface and investigating the situation of capsized ships.DiverIs located[21].In addition, one of the designated submersible vessels in each region has strengthened its system so that it can deal with special marine accidents that require more advanced knowledge and technology.Rescue enhancement patrol boatIs said to be[21].
    Strengthening patrol boats such as security implementation
    Equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills and equipment to respond to maritime demonstrations by illegal and radical groups, dangerous and vicious incidents, terrorism alerts, etc.Special guardIs located[22].
    Training ship
    Coast Guard College-Coast Guard Schoolis operated as a training ship by dispatching patrol ships assigned to the nearby Coast Guard Office, but they are stationed near the Japan Coast Guard College and Japan Coast Guard School.[23].


    hull display

    The name of the patrol boat ishiraganaAs a rule, it is written in[24].The ship name and number are written horizontally on both sides of the bow.Munsell symbol5PB 3/8), the name of the port of registry is painted black[24].In the past, there was only a white hull with black lettering and a white compass mark on the chimney.1984On July 7, the S-shaped emblem was adopted, and it was decided to be printed near the bow.[24].In addition, the name of the stern ship is a brass dial plate (thickness 5 mm) polished base metal, and a liner (SUS304 6t to 9t) are welded to the stern shell plate and installed[24].


    A patrol boat is given a number at the time of ordering.[25], which consists of a symbol as a classification indicator and a number as a serial number[26].

    As for the symbols, we initially followed those established by the Illegal Immigration Ship Inspection Headquarters, and all patrol vessels were collectively designated as PB (Patrol Boat), but the classification of PL (large), PM (medium), and PS (small) was newly established by the Japan Coast Guard No. 1949 dated October 10, 24.[9][26].This will be applied from the 15th of the same month.[25], Classification changes were made sequentially, and the PB classification was abolished on July 1950, 7[9]。また当初はPLは1,000トン以上、PMは500トン以上、PSは500トン未満とされていたが、700トン型がPLに区分されているなど制定直後から死文化していたことから、1951年8月17日の海上保安庁達第34号によって番号の付与標準が改正されて、同年4月1日よりPLは700トン型以上となり、またPMとPSの境界線も450トン型に変更された[9][26][27].On September 1968, 9, Japan Coast Guard Directive No. 28 changed the boundary line between PM and PS to 20-ton type, and a new type of firefighting ship (FL) was established, which was applied from November 350st. rice field[9][28].

    Initially, the numbers were given only in the order of incorporation into the patrol vessel flag, but on May 1954, 5, the number was systematically arranged, and the newly built ships by the Japan Coast Guard were numbered in two digits from 1 to 01. Conventional ships (including those modified by the Japan Coast Guard) are indicated by a three-digit number starting from 99, and within each classification code, numbers are added to form groups of certain ship types. came to be[26].However, after fiscal 52, when the preparations for the new maritime order response system were started, in anticipation of the disappearance of conventional ships and crafts, quite drastic numbers were assigned.[26], with many exceptions[29].For example, the 1,000-ton PL starts at number 900 to distinguish it from the conventional 101-ton PLH, and the two-plane PLH starts at number 1 to distinguish it from the conventional one-plane PLH.[29].

    Origin of ship name

    The name of the patrol boats in the period of establishment was inherited from the name of the bird that was named when the ASC type became a patrol boat of the Illegal Immigration Ship Inspection Headquarters, and the conventional ships incorporated after the establishment of the Japan Coast Guard were The ARB type was tentatively named "Chidori", and the ASC type was also used as it was before the incorporation, except that it imitated the already commissioned ships.[26].

    After that, along with the start of newbuildings from the 24 plan, the above-mentioned Japan Coast Guard Regulations No. 1949 of October 10 established the standards for assigning ship names, PL type is river, PM type is cape, The PS type was named after the name of the island.[25].However, as mentioned above, the numbering standard stipulated by the Japan Coast Guard was obsolete, but the ship name was also obsolete, such as the 270-ton type PS being named after the name of the river. , August 1951, the naming standard was abolished at the time of revision by the Japan Coast Guard No. 8.[27], in general, the previous examples became customary and used[26].

    Currently, names are basically based on the principles in the table below, taking into consideration regional characteristics such as good pronunciation, name recognition, and familiarity in the assigned place.[30].ship name isShip LawIt is supposed to be registered based on and cannot be changed without permission, but in the case of a ship name with regional characteristics like this, it may be changed due to a change of assignment.[31].

    Vessel Name Standard for Patrol Vessels by Vessel Type[32]
    symbolShip typeShip name standard
    PLH2 helicoptersFormer country name (general term for Japan)
    1 helicoptersStraits/Mountains/Former Country Names
    PL3,500 ton typePeninsula/Cape
    3,000 ton type
    2,000 ton typepeninsula, cape, bay
    1,000-ton model, etc.
    PM500 ton typeRiver
    350-ton model, etc.River/Island
    PS220 ton type(I.e.
    180 ton type
    130 ton type
    FLfire boatDragon

    legal status

    Japan Coast Guard ActAccording to Article 25, the Japan Coast GuardConstitutionupper軍隊not onlyInternational lawIt is said that it is not even a higher military[33].Armed Conflict LawAbove, organizations other than the armed forces of the parties to the conflict under international lawcivilianagency, and the Japan Coast Guard is automatically treated in this way[33].

    Thus, while patrol vessels operated by the Japan Coast Guard enjoy the same general protection from attack as civilian vessels, they are legitimate targets if they directly participate in hostilities or meet the definition of a military objective.[33].naval law, hostile acts are understood to include the transmission of military information, and it should be noted that patrol ships are constantly tasked with patrol.[33].Also, during World War I and II, the arming of merchant ships was regarded as a refusal to conduct inspections and was one of the reasons for attacks on merchant ships. It has been pointed out that it can be argued that[33].

    Self Defense Force ActAccording to Article 80, Paragraph 1, all or part of the Japan Coast GuardMinister of DefenseAlthough there is a provision to incorporate it under the control of the Japan Coast Guard, it is necessary to consider the duties assigned to the Japan Coast Guard as to whether or not this should be interpreted as incorporation into the military.[33].Even though they are under the control of the Minister of Defense, there is still room to think that they will remain non-military if they are dedicating themselves to their traditional maritime police duties.[33].However, regardless of the assigned duties,Geneva Conventions First Additional ProtocolIf you notify us of your enlistment in the military in accordance with the provisions of , you will not be able to deny the militarization of the Japan Coast Guard under international law.[33].

    Grant to overseas

    Japan Coast GuardSea laneIn relation to ensuring the security ofJapan Coast GuardVarious measures are being taken to improve the capabilities of the[34].Bulletproof patrol vessels are classified as "military vessels" under the Export Trade Control Ordinance.Three principles of arms exportwas in conflict withTherefore, on the condition that it is not diverted to military purposes,Official development assistanceShips will be provided as part of the[35].

    Owned and operated by the Indonesian Maritime Police.Among them, three patrol boats donated by the Japanese government are 3 tons and have a performance of 98 knots or more.It is named after the birds of both countries, the hawk, the falcon, and the anis madu, and as of 30Pirates of the Straits of Malaccaused as countermeasures[36].
    In 2015, two new 20 m class patrol boats were donated.[34].
    Sri Lanka
    In 2018, two new 30 m class patrol boats were donated.[34].
    In 2018, provided one new 40 m class patrol boat[37].
    In 2018, Japan announced the provision of four new 20 m class patrol boats.[34].
    The Philippines
    From 2016 to 18, 40 new 10 m class patrol boats were donated.[34].In 2016, it announced that it would provide two newly built large patrol vessels of the 90 m class.[34].An ODA loan agreement for this purpose was concluded in 2016.[38]Granted in 2022[39][40][41].
    Announced in 6 to provide six new patrol vessels[34].An ODA loan agreement for this purpose was concluded in 2020.
    In 2017, two decommissioned patrol boats (Erimo and Oki) were disarmed and provided.[34].


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Initially, the condition that ``one single gun with a caliber not exceeding 3 inches (76 mm) can be mounted'' was also considered, but this clause was deleted because the information was leaked and reported before the decision was made. However, the general interpretation was that ``no patrol boats are allowed to equip guns''.[8].


    1. ^ a b "Japan Coast Guard Notification No. 1949", "Japan Coast Guard Bulletin" Extra 10, October 19, XNUMX.NDLJP:9646276/1. 
    2. ^ "Japan Coast Guard Notification No. 356", "Japan Coast Guard Bulletin" No. 1957, January 1, 9.NDLJP:9646566. 
    3. ^ Japan Coast Guard. "Vessels, craft and aircraft of JCG" (English). April 2013, 3Browse.
    4. ^ “Boat collisions spark Japan-China diplomatic row”. BBC News(July 2010, 9). http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-11225522 April 2012, 7Browse. 
    5. ^ Tokunaga & Otsuka 1995, pp. 1–2.
    6. ^ a b c d e f g Japan Coast Guard Association 1990, pp. 2–8.
    7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tokunaga & Otsuka 1995, pp. 19–33.
    8. ^ a b Middle School 2015a.
    9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Mayama 2003.
    10. ^ Mayama 1998.
    11. ^ a b c Tokunaga & Otsuka 1995, pp. 62–91.
    12. ^ a b Japan Coast Guard Association 1990, pp. 15–21.
    13. ^ "From April 1978, 4 Intrusion into territorial waters by Chinese fishing boats(report), The Ocean Policy Research Institute, Island Research Center, February 2018, 2.
    14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tokunaga & Otsuka 1995, pp. 120–136.
    15. ^ a b c d e Japan Coast Guard Equipment Engineering Department Ship Division 2020.
    16. ^ a b Gaijinsha 2020.
    17. ^ Ishibashi 2012.
    18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Yoneda 2019.
    19. ^ a b c Tachibana 2009, p. 38.
    20. ^ a b c d Hemi 1993, pp. 46–55.
    21. ^ a b Japan Coast Guard 2000.
    22. ^ Japan Coast Guard 2019.
    23. ^ Gaijinsha 2019, pp. 54–65.
    24. ^ a b c d 2012th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters (March 12, 4). “About hull markings of Japan Coast Guard vessels". April 2022, 6Browse.
    25. ^ a b c "Japan Coast Guard No. 51" "Japan Coast Guard Bulletin" No. 1949, November 11, 2.NDLJP:9646278/5. 
    26. ^ a b c d e f g Mori & Mayama 1978, p. 113.
    27. ^ a b "Japan Coast Guard No. 142" "Japan Coast Guard Bulletin" No. 1951, September 9, 5.NDLJP:9646371/2. 
    28. ^ "Japan Coast Guard Directive No. 20" "Japan Coast Guard Bulletin" No. 907, October 1968, 10.NDLJP:9646899/1. 
    29. ^ a b Hemi 1993, pp. 19–25.
    30. ^ General Affairs Division, 2010th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters (June 6, 7).Frequently Asked Questions and Answers - How do you name your patrol boats?". April 2022, 6Browse.
    31. ^ Hemi 1993, pp. 31–37.
    32. ^ 2012th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters (March 5, 7). “Standards for Assigning Ship Names by Type to Patrol Vessels". April 2022, 6Browse.
    33. ^ a b c d e f g h Kurosaki et al. 2021, pp. 479–484.
    34. ^ a b c d e f g h Kobayashi & Takigawa 2019, p. 110.
    35. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs "Provision of patrol boats to Indonesia2006 Official Development Assistance White Paper. NCID AA1165228X.https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/hakusyo/06_hakusho/ODA2006/html/honbun/hp202040400.htm. 
    36. ^ "Active in anti-piracy measures and rescue The first patrol boat provided by Japan Reported by Coast Guard expert Mr. Nishibun"The Daily Jakarta Shimbun], January 2014, 6.April 2014, 9Browse.
    37. ^ Go NojimaCountering Threats to the Sea: Palau Deploys New Patrol Vessels with Japanese Aid"Nippon.com" Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Nippon.com, February 2018, 2.
    38. ^ “Exchange of Notes Concerning Yen Loans to the Philippines”Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 2016, 10.https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/press4_003860.html. 
    39. ^ "Japan provides large patrol boat to Philippines for South China Sea security, etc."NHK NEWS WEB], January 2022, 5.April 2022, 6Browse.
    40. ^ "Based on Japan Coast Guard's newest Nigami-type patrol vessel for the Philippines Departs Japan for Manila"Vehicle News"Media Vague, August 2022, 2.April 2022, 6Browse.
    41. ^ "Japan-born patrol boat "Merchora Aquino" commissioned in the Philippines Helicopters and unmanned boats can also be operated” Riding News, Media Vague, June 2022, 6.April 2022, 6Browse.


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    • Masami Nakanao, "Patrol Ship Armament Steps (Part 825)", World Warships, No. 2015, Kaijinsha, November 11 (2015b), pp. 168-173, NOT 40020597434.
    • Masakazu Hemi "Activities of Japan Coast Guard Patrol Ships" Seizando Shoten <Kotsu Books>, 1993.ISBN 4-425-77001-3. 
    • Yoshifumi Mayama, "History of Japan Coast Guard Ships," "Ships of the World," No. 538, Kaijinsha, pp. 90-99, May 1998. 
    • Yoshifumi Mayama, "History of Ship Maintenance by the Japan Coast Guard," Sekai no Kansen, No. 613, Kaijinsha, pp. 193-205, July 2003. NOT 40005855317. 
    • Hitoshi Mori; Yoshifumi Mayama, "Northern Patrol Ships - Kushiro Coast Guard Ships -" Kushiro Sogo Printing, 1978.National Diet Library Search : R100000001-I108294082-00. 
    • Kenmochi Yoneda, "Japan Coast Guard Ships and Aircraft Crews", World Warships, No. 902, Kaijinsha, pp. 168-171, June 2019. NOT 40021918394. 

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