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・Please refrain from slandering an individual or group, anything contrary to public order and morals, business obstruction, or anything that significantly confuses the image.

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Wikipedia related words

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Slander(Hibouchiyusho) has no basis for degrading the social reputation of people and companies.Abusive,False rumorOr[1][2][3], Post them[4]By doing so, you can hurt your family and other people, including your affiliation.[1][5],Personality attackIs an act to do[3][4][5][6].ParentsIf so,CivilSpecifically,PalimonyBilling ",DetectiveSpecifically,Credit damage and obstruction of business""Libel"Or"InsultMay be asked[7][8][9].


Differences from criticism

The judicial judgment of accusation or criticism is often judged by "presence or absence of personality attack".[10].. With false accusation with "personal attack"CriticismIs different[4][11]However, whether it is regarded as a "personal attack" depends on the relationship with the person being told.timing, It may change depending on the context, so you need to be careful about how you use the words.[12].

LinguistHiroaki IimaAccording to the gathering of researchers学会So, even if you think that "this research presentation is low level", the questioner does not make a false accusation of personality attack such as "You are stupid" or "It is a research like garbage" to the presenter, and the questioner Is properly criticized asking the appropriateness / inappropriateness of the other party's logic while respecting the other party.[11].

It is easy to be confused with criticism, but criticism is "evaluation of the other party's actions and claims, counterargument to the other party".[7], "To point out the grounds, logically point out, and ask for improvement for the wrong part or bad part of the other party."[10]Or, constructive suggestions and advice that should be fixed in this way.In other words, it is not always necessary to "provide evidence, logically point out, and ask for improvement for the wrong part or bad part of the other party".minusHas no meaning.On the basis itselfdefectIf there is, even if it is a criticism that includes objective factsIntimidationOr, if it contains content that should not be criticized, such as a negative indication of appearance, the other party'sParentsMay be charged with charges[13][14][10].

Differences from blame

BlameMeans "not to suggest improvements, but to simply blame the other person for failure"[10]..Point out and blame the other party's faults, negligence, defects, etc. without accompanying constructive proposals such as advice.[Annotation 1]Is[14][13]..When indicted by the other party's parentIf the degree of blame is too highWas convicted of defamation[15], If it is not factual information, from companies etc.Credit damage and business disruption[16], Individuals may be charged with defamation in civil lawsuits[15]. 

Legal aspect

Defamation, insult, credit damage, obstruction of business
Criminalally, in the case of false accusation against an individual, "Libel charges""Insult", For companies and organizations,"Credit damage and business disruptionIs applicable.On the other hand, in civil law, damages and consolation fees based on illegal acts may be claimed.For example, if you write a false accusation, you may get a compensation of hundreds of thousands of yen, and if you continue to write it relentlessly, you may get a compensation of 100 to 200 million yen.
Name slander about the other person's appearance, such as "little", "bald", "ugly", "fat", "very skinny", "thin", "old", or comment on the other person's SNS You may be held liable if you post on
Even if it is called criticism or criticism, it is the basis itselfdefectIf there is, if the criticism is too high, or if the content is objective and should not be threatened or criticized (such as a negative indication of appearance), it was prosecuted. Occasionally charged with intimidation[13].
Suicide involvement crime (suicide assistance / incitement)
In the case of false accusation such as "die", "should die", and "disappear", "Suicide incitementMay be applicable[17].
Threatening crime / extortion crime
If you say "kill" and announce harm to human life, body, property, or honor,Threatening crimeIs established.In addition, if you announce harm and gain money or property benefitsBlackmail, If you let someone else do something that you are not obliged to doExtortionHolds[18][19].
Crime of injury
Injury charges also have the property of being a weighted offense as a result of assault, but their actions are not limited to assault (exercise of tangible force).[20].
In addition, it is a case law that the meaning of "injury" is understood as a disorder of physiological function.[21]
Therefore, if verbal violence causes a mental illness,Crime of injuryIs applied[22][23].
However, injuries are, in principle, intentional offenses (if negligent, they are negligent injuries) and require willfulness to drive a person into a mental illness, which is not as easy to prove as general injured violence.[24].


"Slandering" is a word that combines "slandering" and "slandering."

  • "Slandling"-To say bad things to others. Procuring[25].
  • ``Slandering''-to hurt the honor of another person by saying something unfounded[26].

These two words may be expressed side by side as "slanders." "Slobbing" is a verb (StrangeIt can also be used as a "verb").

False accusation by the mass media

False accusation on the Internet and SNS

インターネットWriting onAnonymousThey are more motivated and easier to express their opinions than other media. This may lead to acts such as carelessly writing a message containing slander or defamation on a bulletin board or a home page without considering the feeling of the reader.

Not only when these actions are incorrect, even if they are trueLibelIs an act that can be established. About slander on the netJapanese policeThe number of damage consultations sent to20012267 cases,2006Has increased 3.5 times to 8037, and the damage is increasing rapidly year by year. Some of the victims are in emotional distresssuicide・Some people attempt suicide. In many cases, the caller cannot be identified.

On the other hand, there are cases in which compensation was made after the sender was specified. Of the actress in 2020Spring flowersHaruna announced that the person who slandered her and her parents agreed to pay a settlement fee of about 300 million yen to Haruna.[27][28].

Impact of false accusation on SNS and countermeasures

20204/23, Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsDisclosure of personal information of the person who posted slander on the InternetProvider Liability Limitation LawThe first meeting of a study group (a study group on the ideal way of disclosing sender information) was held[29].. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications indicated that it plans to compile an interim report by the summer of the same year.[30].

The Japanese government announced on the public relations online# NoHeartNoSNS(If you don't have a heart, it's not SNS!) "[31].

Movement after the death of Hana Kimura

Fuji Television Network, IncOf seriesReality show"Terraced HouseWas appearing inProfessional wrestler OfKimura flower 20205/23In response to being criticized and slandered through SNS etc. based on the contents of the broadcastMinister of Internal Affairs and Communications-Sanae Takaichi The5/26At the press conference, he said, "As a person, the act of slandering anonymity is cowardly and unforgivable." Showed the intention to carry it out[32][33].. Also on the same day,LINEAnd TwitterSocial MediaCreated by businessSocial media use environment maintenance mechanism TheUrgent statementAnnounced and harassed on SNSLibelIt was stipulated in the Terms of Use as a prohibited matter, and if such behavior was understood, it was decided to take thorough measures such as suspension of use. If required by law to disclose information, we will provide necessary information within an appropriate range. PMDA has set up a special committee to consider further measures.[34].note that,After Kimura's death, the accounts that posted slander on Kimura on SNS were deleted one after another.Has been[35].

At the press conference on the 25thChief Cabinet Secretary-Yoshii KanAbout the information disclosure of the caller over slander on the InternetProvider Liability Limitation LawCiting what is stipulated inMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHas started discussions since last month. Based on that, we will take appropriate measures." There is a view that this statement is related to Kimura's death and slandering slander to Kimura on the SNS, and the opposition party side as well.Constitutional Democratic PartyDiet Countermeasure ChairmanAtsushi AzumiSaid to the reporters in the Diet that "anonymous, slanderous slander can hurt many people and lead to life-threatening situations."[36].

In response to this news, federated SNS ·MastodonIn Japan, "msdtn.jp", which is the second largest instance in Japan, and "mastodon.cloud", which is the third largest instance in the same company (operated by the joint venture decentralized social network organization), will continue to file lawsuits and disclosure requests against slander on the Internet. It is expected that it will become more general and that government agencies will give instructions to strengthen responses and strengthen legislation.20206/30Announced that it will end the service. The reason for the closure is that it was judged that it was difficult to take appropriate measures due to the increased administrative burden.[29][37].

In December, it was revealed that a man will be sent documents on Twitter for insulting postings that slander Kimura.[38]..The content of the slander was "Is it worth living?" "When will I die?", All of which were in the form of a reply to Kimura on Twitter.[39]..In response to this incident, in June 2022InsultToImprisonmentIntroduced orLegal sentenceAmendment to raise the upper limit ofCriminal lawWas passed and passed[40].

Finger murder / evil pull

South KoreaThen, there is a slang term "finger murder" that indicates that a celebrity who is particularly likely to be the target of slander is written on SNS and is driven to death.Malicious writing has this term because it is easy to operate the keyboard of a computer or a mobile phone with a "finger".[41]..In addition, the word "evil pull", which means a malicious reply, is also well established.[42].

Case of detection

In many cases, the responsibility of the caller was questioned.Smiley Kikuchi Schoolgirl concrete murder case19 of the 7 men and women who wrote slanderous comments in the comment section of the blog on the assumption that they were involved inLibelIn doubtDocument inspectionHas been (Smiley Kikuchi trauma damage case).In addition, there are lawyers who state that "those who agree with slander must also pay a compensation fee."[43]..Regarding the posting of slander on Twitter, it has been clarified that the man will be sent documents on suspicion of insulting posting content that slander Kimura Hana as mentioned above.[38].

Proceedings hurdle

In the article in 2020, a lawyer who is familiar with slanderous cases on the Internet said, "It takes about two years to identify the other party and finish the trial." "Even if you win the trial, the amount of damages should be 2 million yen. By the way, it costs hundreds of thousands of yen for legal fees. "" In reality, there are many cases where people who are unemployed and incapable of paying or underage write, and there are many cases where damages cannot be recovered. " Considering that you can register an anonymous account for free and write as many slanderous injuries as you like in a matter of seconds, the legal system is too unbalanced and unfair. "[44].

Awareness survey / analysis

There are the following reports as an awareness survey on the damage and harm of false accusation on the Internet.

  • In 2013Japanese regulations informationIn a questionnaire survey conducted on 1721 people (676 men and 1045 women), more than 70% of the respondents answered that they had seen accusation, and those who wrote that they had written accusation. Was 3%[45].
  • In 2020NTT DoCoMoIn a questionnaire survey of 13 smartphone owners aged 18 to 200 years old, 14% (9% of girls and 19% of boys) answered that they had been accusated on SNS. 28% of respondents said they had posted criticisms or complaints about others.[46].
  • In a questionnaire survey conducted by NEXER (Japan Trend Research) in 2020 on 1252 SNS / online bulletin board users, 14.5% of the respondents answered that they had written criticisms or bad words (of which 21.4% answered that they were false accusations). XNUMX%)[47].
  • In 2020Nippon FoundationIn a questionnaire survey conducted by 17 people aged 19 to 1000 (500 men and 500 women) on the theme of SNS, 12% of the respondents answered that they had been accusated, and the grounds are weak. 5.2% of respondents said they had written criticisms or slander.[48].
  • In 2020Big robeIn a questionnaire survey of 20 people in their 60s and 1000s, 770% of the 4.5 SNS users answered that they had been accusated by SNS, and "occasionally". Was 13%, "common" was 20%, and "occasional" was 10% in the 18.9s, which was the most common.[49]..In addition, 7% of the respondents answered that they had accusation to the general public, and 6.3% answered that they had accusation to celebrities.
  • In 2022Lawyer dot comが一般会員1355人(男性792人、女性551人、その他12人)を対象に実施したアンケート調査では、誹謗中傷の被害を受けたことがあると回答した者は43.8%、誹謗中傷をしたことがあると回答した者は13%(うち24.4%が50代男性、22.7%が40代男性)であった[50].

The Nippon Foundation survey (2020) responded that the crackdown on false accusation on SNS should be tightened and that legislation should be put in place.[48], Big Lobe Survey (2020)[49]And Bengo2022.com Survey (XNUMX)[50]So, all of them went up to around 8%.

On the netAlthough there are multiple research reports on the participation rate in, the number of users who make radical discourses, piggyback criticisms, and multiple writings is only about 0.5% to 1% of Internet users in many reports. It is also reported that a small number of users have posted a large number of posts to form "net public opinion" on fire.[51].

Opinions on those who are likely to be perpetrators vary among experts, but "low-income people who have time and have a grudge against society, such as those who are unemployed or on leave" (Mitsuteru Tashiro・ Akira Hattori "Information Ethics" 2013)[52], "Although there are various attributes and social positions, there are many people who are free and inferior in common" (Ken Ogiso, 2021)[53]There is such a thing.A lawyer who handles false accusation casesYohei Shimizu"Although there are a few men, many women have a considerable number of accusations, and many of them have low annual income and are not stable, such as not having a regular job, and many have mental illness."[52].. on the other hand,EconometricsPerson ofTatsuo TanakaShinichi YamaguchiFrom the data analysis of the participants on the internet, the attributes such as "male", "young", "living with children", "high annual income", "radio usage time", and "social media usage time" are statisticallySignificantShown[54]Also, Yamaguchi shows that there are many people in the chief / chief class or above (31% for burning participants, 18% for non-participants).[55]..Hiroko Yoshino, a sociologist, commented on the gap between these reports: "Participants at the level of having posted about the flames and participants who are doing malicious accusation that forces victims to take legal action. It is thought that it is different from the person. "[52].

Investigative cooperation refusal problem of overseas SNS companies

Damage caused by accusation due to easy dissemination of hoaxesインターネットHas been expanding since the general spread ofhuman rightsIn question[56]..Jiji Press said, "Giant SNS is"Extraterritorial law"Is it?", Especially headquartered in the United StatesTwitterHowever, it is problematic that it ignores even the disclosure request by the Japanese police.[57]..Jiji Press said that even if Japan demands a response with threats and defamation,FacebookAt the same time, he was powerless to the American SNS operating company, saying, "It is equivalent to recognizing extraterritoriality to these giant companies." is doing.Furthermore, Jiji Press revealed to twitter that the response to the "Opinion on the actual situation of damage and ignoring the cooperation request from the Japanese investigative agency" was also ignored, and the crime was committed on Twitter in Japan. He criticizes him for doing whatever he wants.Even for the Japanese government, it has been delayed in supervising and cracking down on huge overseas SNS companies that are concerned about the lives and democracy of the Japanese people. It can even be said that it is. "[57].

Psychological analysis of false accusation

ColumnistKatsuyuki BitoIs an American sociologistPeter saloveyHe explained that slander is caused by envy.[58]


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Unlike criticism, criticism does not include suggestive content such as why it is a problem and how it can be improved.In some cases, what is pointed out as a problem is not actually a problem, but is merely a belief of the person who pointed out.


  1. ^ a b Digital Daijisen. “What is slanderous defamation”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2020, 5Browse. “To hurt others by slandering unfounded.”
  2. ^ "A manga explaining "the difference between criticism and slander" became a hot topic on Twitter (posted March 2016, 3)”(Japanese). Livedoor news. April 2021, 1Browse.
  3. ^ a b softbank_news (1597731917).Why does accusation occur in the internet society?Comment manners to ask experts and the forefront of AI utilization of Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Bringing IT closer to you.Softbank news. April 2022, 4Browse. “To deny personality and hurt others, or to reduce the social reputation of people and businesses through unfounded hoax fake news.”
  4. ^ a b c "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Promotion of educational informatization | #NoHeartNoSNS (It is not SNS without a heart!)”(Japanese). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. April 2022, 3Browse. “False accusation ≠ criticism” Many SNS services have a terms of use that prohibits false accusation.Words and phrases that deny the other person's personality are not criticisms but accusations.Make sure you know what you are doing, and don't post or repost easily. If you post unfounded slander on SNS, you may be charged with defamation or insult, or you may be charged a large amount of compensation. ”
  5. ^ a b "What is the difference between false accusation and criticism?I asked a Japanese scholar "whether to respect the personality of the other person"”(Japanese). Huff post (September 2020, 6). April 2022, 4Browse. “False accusation is, in a nutshell, a personality attack. It implies denying, insulting, and in some cases harming the other person's personality. Attacks not only on the other person, but also on family and affiliations. included."
  6. ^ "SNS false accusation What you take or lose ~ # NoHeartNoSNS (It's not SNS without a heart!) ~ | Information useful for daily life”(Japanese). Government public relations online.Government Public Relations Office, Cabinet Office Minister's Office. April 2022, 3Browse. “Contents that deny or attack the other person's personality are false accusations. If you post or spread false accusations on SNS, you may be liable for civil or criminal liability.”
  7. ^ a b "What is the difference between "accusation" and "criticism"?"Line drawing" and solutions to eliminate malicious posts asked by legal experts”(Japanese). ENCOUNT. April 2022, 4Browse.
  8. ^ ""Weapon" that is infested with false accusation on the Internet, strict punishment is unavoidable”(Japanese). ITmedia NEWS (September 2022, 3). April 2022, 3Browse. "According to investigators, defamation charges have higher hurdles, so insults may be applied for certain cases. However, all of them are prosecution charges and cannot be filed without a complaint. Even if defamation charges are severely punished, there is a long and long way to go for victims to reduce their drinking. "
  9. ^ "Can SNS "stupid", "die", and "hate" be guilty?The difference between "criticism" and "accusation" I heard from a lawyer (Rie Oshima) @moneygendai”(Japanese). Money modern. April 2022, 3Browse.
  10. ^ a b c d "What is the difference between accusation and criticism / accusation on the Internet?About legal delineation". Amada Law Office (belonging to the Tokyo Bar Association). April 2022, 3Browse.
  11. ^ a b "What is the difference between false accusation and criticism?I asked a Japanese scholar "whether to respect the personality of the other person"”(Japanese). Huff post (September 2020, 6). April 2022, 3Browse.
  12. ^ "Be aware of the difference between "accusation" and "criticism" -Knowledge of Mobapri! [119]”(Japanese). Ryukyu Shimpo StyleRyukyu Shimposha. April 2022, 3Browse. "* XNUMX False accusation ..." Slanders such as "disappear" and "waste" that hurt the other party. You may also be charged with "defamation" or "insult."Although accusation and "criticism" are different, you must be careful about how you use the words because they change depending on the relationship, timing, and context. ”
  13. ^ a b c "What is the difference between "slandering" and "criticism"?"Line drawing" and a solution to eliminate malicious posts (ENCOUNT) asked by a legal expert”(Japanese). ENCOUNTs. April 2021, 12Browse.
  14. ^ a b "What is the difference between "criticism" and "blame"? The latter only points out shortcomings”(Japanese). Livedoor news. April 2021, 1Browse.
  15. ^ a b "What is the difference between "accusation" and "criticism"?From the perspective of art criticism”(Japanese). Art notebook. April 2022, 4Browse. "Is the" commentary "that states the critic's value judgment completely free? It is not.In the case of defamation as the subject of criminal punishment, only "factual information" is a problem, but in the case of defamation as the subject of a civil trial, commentary is also a matter of defamation.In that case, look at the facts that the commentary presupposes, and if it is false, the entire commentary will be defamation, and if it is true, it will be defamation only if the expression of the commentary is a personal attack. ..Therefore, even if you accuseally criticize a work that appears to be plagiarism or plagiarism, even if the content is true, you will be accused of defamation or insult if the words of condemnation go too far. As an example of an expression that has been overly criticized, there is an example of defamation of expressions such as "dani", "chibi", "busy", "stupid", and "devil". "Killing" and "arson" may be threatening, and "dying" may be a suicide instigation, and it is not legally permissible to comment on art. ”
  16. ^ "Credit damage (Article 2, Paragraph 1, Item 21 of the Non-Competition Law) --Craftman, a law firm that is strong in IT, technology, patents, and trademarks (Tokyo Marunouchi, Yokohama) ". www.ishioroshi.com. April 2022, 4Browse. “Furthermore, if the actor knew that the content of the announcement or dissemination was false, of course, the misunderstanding that it was true does not mean that the act of credit damage would be established. ”
  17. ^ "Internet and suicide problems from the perspective of "arrest of college students on suspicion of inducing suicide (LINE)" (Mafumi Usui) --Individual”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. April 2022, 7Browse.
  18. ^ ""I attacked indiscriminately from one end" Chiemi Hori Insult / Intimidation Trial Why a 29-year-old man aimed at other entertainers". FNN Prime Online. April 2022, 7Browse.
  19. ^ "Shoko Nakagawa learns about false accusation from a lawyer "Don't put up with it and talk to the police properly"”(Japanese). Netorabo. April 2022, 7Browse.
  20. ^ Masahide Maeda, Lecture on Criminal Law, 7th Edition, University of Tokyo Press, January 2020, p. 1. 
  21. ^ Masahide Maeda, Lecture on Criminal Law, 7th Edition, University of Tokyo Press, January 2020, p. 1. 
  22. ^ "Verbal violence is a crime! ??Explain the crimes that are established! !! | I see, Rokuho – Legal information and consultation site operated by Suzuki Sogo Law Office, a lawyer corporation in Ebisu”(Japanese). I see, Rokuho – A legal information and consultation site operated by Suzuki Sogo Law Office, a lawyer corporation in Ebisu.. April 2022, 7Browse.
  23. ^ Masahide Maeda, Lecture on Criminal Law, 7th Edition, University of Tokyo Press, January 2020, p. 1. 
  24. ^ "Verbal Violence and Injury Sin | Authense Law Firm”(Japanese). Criminal / juvenile delinquency case. April 2022, 7Browse.
  25. ^ "What is a slander”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2020, 5Browse.
  26. ^ "What is defamation”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2020, 5Browse.
  27. ^ Aya Deguchi (July 2020, 7). "Fuka Haruna concludes an agreement with the contributor of "Internet slandering". Consent fee: 315 yen". Lawyer dot com. originalArchived as of October 2020, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200720020605/https://www.bengo4.com/c_23/n_11484/ April 2020, 7Browse. 
  28. ^ “Fuka Haruna talks with the detractor and withdraws criminal charges”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2020, 7). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN7N5S6TN7NUTIL01L.html April 2020, 7Browse. 
  29. ^ a b "SNS “mstdn.jp” decides that it cannot withstand the increased administrative burden of dealing with slander and slander and will close on June 6 (Shuji Shinohara)-Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. April 2020, 5Browse.
  30. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Holding of "Study Group on Ideal Disclosure of Sender Information"”(Japanese). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. April 2020, 5Browse.
  31. ^ "SNS false accusation What you take or lose # NoHeartNoSNS (It's not SNS without a heart!) | Information useful for daily life”(Japanese). Government public relations online. April 2022, 7Browse.
  32. ^ "Net slander "Correspondence by system revision" Takashi General Affairs Minister, "Teraha" Kimura dies: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. April 2020, 5Browse.
  33. ^ "Internet slander and simplification of identifying the contributor Takaichi, Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. April 2020, 5Browse.
  34. ^ "SNS operator makes an urgent statement after Hana Kimura's death". TBS NEWS. April 2020, 5Browse.
  35. ^ "Hana Kimura's slanderous account deleted one after another after death --Pro-wrestling: Nikkan Sports”(Japanese). nikkansports.com. April 2020, 5Browse.
  36. ^ "Net slanders, "appropriate response" Chief Cabinet Secretary: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. April 2020, 5Browse.
  37. ^ "mstdn.jp Information [Official] (@mstdn_jp@mstdn.jp)”(Japanese). mstdn.jp. April 2020, 5Browse.
  38. ^ a b "Hana Kimura slandered, posted by a man in his twenties to a document inspection, suspected of insult-Metropolitan Police Department: Jiji.com”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. April 2020, 12Browse.
  39. ^ "[Original] "Teraha" Hana Kimura commits suicide, "When will you die?" To send documents to a slandered man: Society: News”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 12). April 2020, 12Browse.
  40. ^ "Severe punishment for insults, revised criminal law enacted "imprisonment" established". Newsletter (September 2022, 6). April 2022, 6Browse.
  41. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2020, 5). “"Cyberbullying" "Finger murder" There are also voices calling for the development of problematic methods in the world”(Japanese). SankeiBiz. April 2022, 1Browse.
  42. ^ "Hara's sacrifice "finger murder" "evil pull" The darkness of South Korea, the slanderous "net powerhouse" that drove him to death --Sponichi Annex Entertainment”(Japanese). Sponichi Annex. April 2022, 1Browse.
  43. ^ "Do you pay a solitude just for agreeing to write on the net?""Legal counseling service』(NTV series) (Retrieved December 2015, 12)
  44. ^ Internet slander What I want people who think "I will appeal to you" to know Hyundai Business 2020.06.02 (viewed September 2020, 9)
  45. ^ "More than 70% of the people who "have seen the writing of false accusation" and about 3% of the users experienced "writing of false accusation by themselves", and about half of the users are aware of the method of reporting and reporting damage.”. Japanese Law Information (December 2013, 12). April 2022, 3Browse.
  46. ^ "There is also a risk that personal information will be identified! More than 4% of junior and senior high school students "post their faces and uniforms on SNS" slander in class chat, criticize others on SNS and complain, earn pocket money on flea market ... parents do not know, "Net trouble" risk for junior and senior high school students”. NTT DoCoMo (September 2020, 3). April 2022, 3Browse.
  47. ^ "14.5% of the respondents have written criticisms or slander”. Japan Trend Research (June 2020, 6). April 2022, 3Browse.
  48. ^ a b "The 18th Theme of The Nippon Foundation "28-year-old Awareness Survey": About SNS”. The Nippon Foundation (December 2020, 7). April 2022, 3Browse.
  49. ^ a b "Penalties for accusation on SNS "should be strengthened" over 8% / BIGLOBE announces the second "Stress in the Corona Era"”. Big Robe (August 2020, 8). April 2022, 3Browse.
  50. ^ a b "More than 5% of the perpetrators of false accusation "I thought it was a legitimate criticism / commentary" Investigated by BengoXNUMX.com”. Bengo2022.com (May 3, 9). April 2022, 3Browse.
  51. ^ "Part 1 Chapter 1 Section 4 3 (1) Who is in the flames' "White Paper on Information and Communication for the First Year of Reiwa"Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 2019.https://www.soumu.go.jp/johotsusintokei/whitepaper/ja/r01/html/nd114310.html. 
  52. ^ a b c Hiroko Yoshino (2018), “1.3.2 Who is participating and why”, A study of the media environment that creates online flames and the characteristics of the participants in flames, pp. 19-20, NDLJP:11167888 
  53. ^ Ken Ogiso "In order not to lose to the SNS "accusation""National Life," No. 110, National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan, October 2021, pp. 10-5.
  54. ^ Shinichi Yamaguchi (2016). “Research on online flames: "Classification / Cases of flames and attributes of participants in flames"". April 2022, 3Browse.
  55. ^ "Astonishing fact that participants on the Internet are "actually high income"". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン.Toyo Keizai Inc. (December 2020, 10). April 2022, 3Browse.
  56. ^ "The great price of slander on the net that can not be done with conscience”(Japanese). Security communication. April 2020, 5Browse.
  57. ^ a b "Internet slander (Jiji Press) that is left unattended even with the revision of the Provider Law”(Japanese). Jiji dot com news. April 2021, 12Browse.
  58. ^ Why can't people stop "bad talk"? (Otonanser).Retrieved February 2021, 10.

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    Since it is not a legal concept, there is no firm definition.

    Civil lawStipulated byTortIf it falls under any of the following, an injunction request orRestitution for DamagesSubject to billing.

    Also, for examplePower obstruction,Counterfeit business interruption crimecorrespond to orUnfair Competition Prevention Lawif the act violatescrimeIs consideredCriminal penaltySubject to.

    However, at present,Is it a term that only refers to acts that fall under those categories?” is uncertain.


    • Dissemination of false rumors Obstruction of business
    • False business interruption
    • Power interruption
    • Obstruction of business such as computer damage

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