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📱 | 12 minutes vs. 1 hour ... A Chinese company that overwhelms Samsung with battery technology = Korea Net "Chinese smartphone is a bomb"


12 minutes vs. 1 hour... Chinese company overwhelms Samsung with battery technology = Korea Net "Chinese smartphone is a bomb"

If you write the contents roughly
On the other hand, the fastest Samsung smartphones charge only 45W.

On August 2022, 8, Herald Economy, South Korea, said, "While Chinese smartphones can be charged to 4% in just 12 minutes... → Continue reading

 Record China

Record China for news on China, South Korea and East Asia. We will provide information about each country in Japanese.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


Smartphone(British: Smartphone,JapanAbbreviation insmartphone))Mobile operating systemEquipped withMobile phoneIs a general term for.

Traditional mobile phones, including foldable ones, are now commonly used.feature phone) Etc. are used separately.1996 OfNokiaBeginning with the release of PDA terminals with telephone function by2007 OfiPhoneLaunch and2008 OfAndroidIt has become widespread worldwide since the launch of the terminal.

If your smartphone has a large screen,Tablet, About the size of a smartphone and tabletPhabletSay. Smartphone, tablet,Smart watchSuch asインターネットConnection functionElectronic paymentA smart device with functions etc.Smart deviceThat.


Generally, conventional high-performance mobile phones (feature phone, Compared to the so-called "Calla" in Japan), more emphasis on apps,Personal computerWhat is close to (PC, PC) is called a smartphone. For conventional high-performance mobile phones,Handheld computer(One of the forms of portable personal computers that was commonly used in the world before the advent of smartphones),Mobile information terminal(PDA) function is incorporated. "A clear definition of the term "smartphone"DefinitionThere is also a theory that there is no[1][2].

Feature phones, which were popular from the latter half of the 1980s to the 1990s, were used as digital methods, as opposed to analog mobile phones in the 1990s and 2000s, which could only make calls.SMSAlthough the functions have improved, such as having functions and Internet browsing functions,E-mailAnd calendar and other basicsApp or Application or Sakurabook AppOther than that, there are few apps that can be used, and the Internet was only limited. In the feature phone eraBasic software(OS)hardwareAnd the basic application is also integrated with the OS, so you can freely use the application like a smartphone.DownloadI couldn't turn it on, erase it, or upgrade it (Middleware).

Meanwhile, it was announced in 2007First iPhoneModern smartphones that started from the Internet can be used freely, apps can be freely downloaded, deleted, and upgraded, and the OS can also be upgraded.AlsoWi-FiThe ones that can also use the functions are general. On smartphones from the middle of the 2010s, high-speed communication (LTE) Function,Artificial intelligence(AI) was usedvoice recognitionbyVirtual assistantMany have functions. OS isApple OfiPhoneUsed iniOSAnd used in most other productsGoogleCompanyAndroidIs common, but there are others, and each mobile phone company also has an OS that customizes Android uniquely.[Annotation 1].. However, in order to implement various functions as applications, demands for hardware and line speed become strict in order to realize sufficient response.

Global smartphone penetration exceeded feature phone penetration in 2013[3].. In Japan, smartphones exceeded the feature phone penetration rate in 2013, and the smartphone penetration rate in 2016 reached 71.3% in all ages, especially 20% in the 96.8s.[4]The smartphone is the most common form of mobile phone in the 2010s.

Built-in due to the worldwide spread of smartphonessemiconductorAnd various sensors, motors, liquid crystal displays and other small electronic devicesMass production effectThe price is getting lower due to the above, and the benefit is that it is smaller.Drone,3D printerThe prices of digital devices such as these are being reduced.

About abbreviation

"Smartphone" is often abbreviated as "sumafo", which is further transliterated as "smartphone".Although it is very rare, it may be written as a smartphone even in the 2020s.

By the way, the abbreviation "smartphone" was first used in 2007 (this year,The United States of AmericaFirst iPhoneWas released)Weekly ASCIIIt is said that the article was created by the deputy editor-in-chief of Weekly ASCII at that time.[5].. Some people abbreviated "smartphone" and "smartphone" until the abbreviation of "smartphone" was established, but they were gradually unified into "smartphone" because of the pronunciation of words.

Definition or classification

#OverviewAs described in, the classification is made without a uniform and clear standard. For example of a groupauKDDIThere are different views on the definition of smartphones.

  • Cabinet Cyber ​​Security Center -iOS and Android and other smartphone OSInstallThe designated terminal as a smartphone (thing with smartphone OS installed)[6].
  • NTT DoCoMo -"Google Pixel"Docomo smartphones" refer to devices with Android installed excluding ". Others are classified as "docomo mobile", "iPhone" and "Google Pixel".
  • au -The terminal on which Android is installed is called "smartphone". Others are classified as "mobile" and "iPhone".
  • Softbank -Android devices other than "Google Pixel" are considered "smartphones". Others are classified as "mobile", "iPhone" and "Google Pixel".
  • Rakuten Mobile ――All of "iPhone", "Rakuten original" and "Android" are collectively classified as "smartphone".
  • Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare -In the guidance of "The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare website is now compatible with smartphones," "iOS4/5,iPhone 3GS "After" "Android 2.1 or later" is "supported and recommended"[7].
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications -An information device that has properties similar to those of a personal computer compared to conventional mobile phones. For PCWEB SITE,MovieBrowsing, adding applications,Touch panelIntroduced as something that can be operated intuitively by[8].
  • KDDI -"There is no clear definition, but it is a mobile phone terminal that can use various functions other than telephone and email". IPhones that are not classified as smartphones by au under its umbrella are classified as smartphones[2].
  • NTT Communications -In "a multifunctional mobile phone that has the functions of a personal computer and has a high affinity with the Internet," he said that smart means "wise." NTT Docomo in the group defines iOS devices that are not smartphones and Google Pixel as smartphones[9].

This item also describes smartphones before the iPhone in consideration of historical background.

operating system

世界shareIt is,AndroidIs overwhelming in the 80% range[11].


2007, Apple announced in the United StatesiPhoneIt was installed in.Mac OS XIPhone OS derived from (currentlyiOS), Install the application on the official websiteApp StoreIt is characterized by specifications similar to those of Japanese high-performance mobile phones, which are different from conventional smartphones due to restrictions such as via only via.

XNUKernel orCocoa touch, WebKit, etc.MacOSIt consists of components common toUIAre very different and are not binary compatible.

July 2008, 7XNUMXrd generation mobile phoneCorresponding toiPhone 3GIs also in JapanSoftbank mobileWas released by. Sales of 3 million iPhone 3G units worldwide, release of over 100 software, download of 800 million iPhone software, etc. within 1000 days of release[12], Attracted attention from the beginning of the sale, and expanded the Japanese smartphone market. Released on October 2011, 10iPhone 4sFromKDDI / Okinawa Cellular PhoneUnion (Each au brand), released on September 2013, 9iPhone 5s/iPhone 5cFromNTT DoCoMoAlso entered[13].


Acquired AndroidGoogleAn OS developed around the Android Open Source Project (AOSP).Linuxkernel,W,ARTIt is composed of its own execution environment called.

At a third partyOpen Handset Alliance(Open Handset Alliance) Development is proceeding mainly on (OHA). OHA includes KDDI, NTT DoCoMo, Qualcomm,IntelMobile phone companies, such as Motorola, Motorola, and HTC, are making their name.

Since Google is the center, Gmail, which is a smartphone OS centered around Google applications,Google calendar,YouTubeGoogle services such as are available. AlsoAndroid StudioYou can easily develop applications on Windows and Mac usingAPK(Application file) can be read to install the application on the Android smartphone. AlsoGoogle Play(Old name Android Market), which is said to have launched an application portal.

Devices equipped with Android areGalaxy,Huawei,pixelIt is sold by various manufacturers, including, among others. Equipped with Android OS in the US in 2008T-Mobile G1Was released and on July 2009, 7 in Japan from NTT DocomoHT-03AThe Android-equipped smartphone has been released and has been attracting attention. From NTT Docomo in April 2010SO-01BWas released, and then from DocomoSH-10BFrom SoftBank MobileSoftBank X06HTFrom auIS01Etc. were released in sequence.

It gained market share in the early 2010s and occupies the majority of the smartphone market, especially in Eurasian continental countries.The market has become an oligopoly with the top two Android and iOS.

Android based OS

Custom ROMs based on Android are available from many third parties. Some terminals are shipped with the custom ROM installed as a standard OS. The main custom ROMs are as follows.


HarmonyOS(Harmony OS)HuaweiDeveloped and partlyOpen SourceIt is a platform.MicrokernelAs an OS for smartphones, it has been deployed in China and Europe since 2021, and is mainly installed in Huawei terminals.It is also installed in tablets, smart watches, and automobiles. As of the end of 2021, the number of terminals equipped with HarmonyOS has exceeded 2 million units worldwide.[14].. Compatible with Android apps.


Past operating system

Windows Mobile

The UI is similar to the desktop version of Windows, but not binary compatible.

2002, the publisher of SideKickT-Mobile USA (VoiceStream Wireless) has released a mobile phone with an operating system for US$549.99. As of 2002, the US market was still receiving it as "PDA Pocket PC has a call function" (there is no view that it is not a smartphone even today, and there is no definition). However, Windows Mobile basedW-ZERO3Etc. were one of the big product groups in terms of user interface and file system because of their compatibility with PCs.

In 2009, Windows Mobile 6.5 was announced, and the terminal was released. The Today screen, which hasn't changed much until now, has been revamped, and now has a revolutionary one that uses inertia scrolling called Titanium, large icons, and transparent controls. This is a combination of the function of the launcher and the function of the gadget, and there was a feature not found on other platforms, but in general, this change was taken as a blade-like improvement. In addition, the intention was to make it finger-friendly, such as a honeycomb-structured start menu and a large-sized standard menu control. It was also compatible with capacitive touch panels, and terminals were also released.

Windows Phone

Thus, while Windows Mobile was ahead of the market, it couldn't resist the momentum of Android and iOS.Therefore, in 2010, riceMicrosoftWindows Phone 7 was announced by and released in September of the same year.Unlike previous Windows Mobile, application installation is limited to the Marketplace. In 9, the UI etc. have been revamped, and in 7,NT kernel, Multi-core CPU, SD card,DirectXSupport such as has been strengthened.

Windows Phone 7 is an important part of Microsoft's three-screen (PC, TV, mobile) strategy, with new development environments running common programs on PC, Xbox, and Windows Phone.This is also a feature not found in other camps.

The main series equipped with Windows Phone isMicrosoft Lumia(Former: Nokia Lumia).

Windows Phone 2012 announced in 8 was launched in earnest in major markets such as North America (excluding Japan) in the year-end sales season of the same year.Lumia 920Have achieved some success. However, in terms of platform share, it can make a big difference to Android and iOS[17], Less than in the Windows Mobile era.

10 Windows Mobile

The successor OS to Windows Phone 8.Desktop version Windows 10platformWas completely unified.2015Since the official release at the end, compatible terminals have been released in Japan, but it was a difficult time, and support for Windows 2019 Mobile will end on December 12, 10.[18].


  • bada -Samsung Electronics' unique mobile platform.KoreanIt was named after the word "sea". Development end[19].
  • BlackBerry OS -An operating system that focuses on remote management, access, and messaging with corporate use in mind. In earlier versions I couldn't make a call.
  • BlackBerry Tablet OS - Tablet terminal"BlackBerry PlayBook"Dedicated OS.QNXBased on, it is possible to run Android applications as well as BlackBerry applications.
  • BlackBerry 10 -New OS developed by BlackBerry. Like the BlackBerry Tablet OS, it was based on QNX. Although it is still being updated, the new BlackBerry device has an Android OS.
  • Firefox OS - MDeveloped by.The development environment isweb(HTML) It is the base.Only a few models were released. Development ended in 2016.in JapanKDDIWas in the market.
  • Garnet OS(Formerly Palm OS)- PalmOS used for PDA ofACCESS Intellectual property rightOwns. Used in the early days of PDAs and smartphones. Built-inW-CDMADoes not correspond to. The successor is Access Linux Platform.
  • Access Linux Platform -ACCESS is a smartphone OS, the successor to Palm OS. Development ended in 2011 due to business withdrawal[20].
  • Symbian OS - S60,MOAP-SUsed in combination with a UI layer such as. In Japan, NTT Docomo mobile phones (feature phone) Was adopted a lot.NokiaAdoption for smartphones was virtually suspended in 2011 in line with the policy.
  • webOS - HP(Old Palm, now a division of HP)Palm PreAlthough it was an OS for smart TVs, it was acquired by LG and is now for smart TVs.GNU / LinuxAnd is mainly composed of WebKit.
  • MeeGo -IntelMoblinAnd NokiaMaemoSuccessor OS. Development is finished, but open source artifacts(English editionWas taken over by.
  • - QualcommOS for low specification smartphones for developing and emerging countries developed by. It is not expected to be launched in developed countries. The BREW MP SDK was last updated in 2012.
  • Cyanogen OS -Android derivative OS. It was installed on some smartphones.
  • Tizen -Linux basedSamsung electronics,Intel,NTT DoCoMoEtc. participate in the development.Although DoCoMo was planning to release the terminal, on January 2014, 1, although it officially announced that it would withdraw from the terminal, saying that it was "inappropriate time".(English editionIt was installed in. It consists of Linux kernel, Wayland, etc. 2021, GoogleWear OSThe integration into was announced.


Like PCs, smartphones can use all functions as long as they meet the hardware and software requirements.You can also expand the functionality by installing additional applications.The list shown below is an example, and there are many functions other than those described here.

Unless otherwise noted, brackets have the highest share of the world share.

  • Receive emergency bulletins (Earthquake early warning,Amber alertSuch)
  • communication(Tel,E-mail
  • Content browsing
    • Full browserbywebBrowse (Chrome,SafariSuch)
    • Document file (PDF,Word,ExcelEtc.) viewing/editing
    • View/edit slide show (etc.)
    • E-book(Amazon KindleSuch)
    • Music play
      • Equalizer(Google Play Music for Android, AudioFX for Cyanogen OS, etc.)
      • Playing high-resolution sound sources (supported models)
      • External speaker connection
      • Audio amplifier (USB-DAC) connection (Android 5.0 or later)[22]Such)
      • Use of music distribution services (Apple Music, Google Play Music, etc.)
    • Viewing still images and videos
      • External monitor connection
      • AV amplifier connection
      • Video distribution service (Netflix,Amazon Prime Video,HuluSuch)
      • Video sharing service (YouTube,YoukuSuch)
        • Browsing game status (YouTube Gaming etc.)
      • Use of photo storage and sharing services (iCloud Photo Library,Google PhotosSuch)
      • Viewing TV (XNUMXSeg and FullSeg) (Android smartphones for Japan, South Korea, Brazil, etc.)
      • Listening to FM radio
  • Creation and recording of information
    • Notes (Google Keep, etc.)
      • Share notes
    • Writing
    • paint
    • Digital camera
      • High speed photography[23]
      • Time-lapse shooting
      • RAW shooting(Android 5.0 or later, iOS 10 or later[24]Such)
      • Auto bracket shooting(Kyocera's DIGNO R[25]Such)
      • Remote shooting from smartwatch or selfie stick
      • RAW development (Android Snapseed[26], IOS 10 or later[24]Such)
      • Depth of field measurement (a function that produces a bokeh like a single-lens reflex camera in a model equipped with a depth camera)
      • Photo processing
      • Facial camera
      • Face recognition-Grouping photos by object recognition (Memories function of Photos app on iOS 10 or later)[27], Google Photos, etc.)
      • Shutter sound -Many smartphone cameras emit electronic shutter sound to let them know that they have taken a picture. You can turn off the sound in silent mode (*Models for JapanOnly, the shutter sound cannot be turned off.)[28].
      • QR codeScans (such as those that can be scanned as standard and those that use a separate app)
    • Movie camera
      • Video editing (iMovie on iOS, Google Photos, etc.)
    • Sound recorder
      • 360 degree recording (eg Dolby Audio Capture 2 with Lenovo Phab 5.1)
    • Music performance/creation
      • Low-latency audio I/O (iOS Audio Unit[29], Android's OpenSL ES (always improved but still inferior to iOS[30]), Samsung Professional Audio SDK (backendJACKUse)))
      • MIDI device connection via USB (Android 6.0+)[31]Such)
      • Connection of MIDI device via Bluetooth LE (iOS8 or later)[32], Android 6.0 or later[31]Such)
      • Metronome (Google search[33]Such)
      • Musical keyboard(Samsung Soundcamp Keyboard[34]Such)
      • Virtualdrum set(Drum of Samsung Soundcamp[34]Such)
      • Virtual Guitar/Virtual Bass Guitar (Guitars and Bass guitars such as Samsung Soundcamp v6.3.1 or later)
      • Music sequencer(Samsung Soundcamp Looper[34]And Midi Editor)
      • XY Pad (Looper of Samsung Soundcamp[34]Such)
      • sampler(Sampler of Samsung Soundcamp[34]Such)
      • mixer(Samsung Soundcamp Mixer view[34]Such)
  • Personal information managementFeatures
    • Schedule management/calendar (Android Google Calendar app etc.)
    • ToDo (reservation) management
    • Address book
    • Business card management (such as Samsung's ScanBizCards)
    • Prescription and medication status of medical institutions
  • 懐 中 电灯
  • clock
  • calculator
    • Scientific calculator
  • Identification / driver's license (iOS 15 or later)Wallet AppSuch)
  • Healthcare
    • Smart watch, Smart bands, etc.Wearable device, Cooperation with smart scales, etc. (The following functions can be enhanced)
    • Centralized management of health information (iOS health care app,Google FitSuch)
      • Preservation of medical records (integration after iOS 15)
    • pedometer(IOS8 or later[35],Google FitSuch)
    • Heart rate monitor (Samsung Galaxy S5[36]Such. *Since many models are not equipped, it can be covered by linking with a smart watch.)
    • Registration of emergency information (Android Nougat or later)
    • Sleep support (bedtime function of the clock application on iOS 10 or later[37]Such)
  • Map/Traffic
  • Investigate
    • Electronic dictionary
    • Web search
      • News search
      • Portrait search
        • (Such)
      • video search
    • Lyrics search[39]
    • Full-text search for e-books
    • Song name search from music/humming (Siri on iOS 8 or later[40], Android Sound Search for Google Play etc.)
  • Tag reading
    • Two-dimensional codereading
    • IC tagreading
    • Contactless IC cardRead (such as Edy card balance confirmation function of "Rakuten Edy" application preinstalled on some Japanese smartphones)
    • Barcode search (Fire OS FIREFLY function etc.)
  • Machine translation(Google Translate,Baidu translation, Translation app for iOS 14 or later, etc.)
  • Learning ("Education" of iOS 9.3 or later, NTT DoCoMo, etc.)
  • Game
    • AR games (Google Play Developer Services (AR) (supports AR-related APIs), etc.)
  • Intelligent Personal Assistant (iOSCrab, AndroidGoogle AssistantSuch)
  • Accessibility
    • Screen keyboard(Gboard,in JapanATOK,Google Japanese inputSuch)
    • Handwriting input (Android's "Google Handwriting" application, etc.)
    • Physical keyboard (some come standard, some can be used with a Bluetooth connection)
    • Text-to-speech (Android "Google Text-to-speech" app,Google TalkBackSuch)
    • Voice input (such as Android "voice search" app)
    • Speech transcription (speech conversion (Google) etc.)
    • Blue light reduction ("Night Shift" after iOS 9.3, Android, etc.)
    • Dark mode (iOS 13 or later, Android 10 or later)
  • Mobile payment, finance, etc.
    • Contactless payment (NFC or FeliCa) (Apple's "Apple Pay", Android's "Google Pay", Samsung Electronics' "Samsung Pay", LG Electronics' "LG Pay". In Japan, FeliCa technology was applied.Mobile suica,iD,Rakuten Edy,QUICPaySuch)
    • QR/Bar code payment(Alipay,WeChat payment,in Japan,PayPay,LINE PaySuch)
    • Online bank (applications released by each bank)
    • Remittance between individuals (Treasure payment, WeChat support, iMessage, etc. In Japan, PayPay, LINE Pay, pring, etc.)
    • Unit conversion/currency conversion (Google search, iOS Siri and Spotlight search[41]Such)
    • Stock price display (such as Android's Google Finance app)
  • Measurement/measurement
    • Level(Compass after iOS7[42], Google Search on "Bubble Level"[43]Such)
    • Radiometer (SoftBank 107SHSuch)
    • (Huawei Mate S[44]Such)
    • Depth of field camera (mainstream in models with dual lenses or more that began to appear in the latter half of the 2010s)
    • Thermal camera(Caterpillar (English editionSuch)
    • Barometric altimeter (Siri on iOS[45]Such. (Some models equipped with an atmospheric pressure sensor such as iPhone 6 or later)
  • Cooperation with other devices
    • mobileWi-FiUse as a router (Tethering
    • Cooperation with PC (iOS and Mac cooperation function[46][47], Samsung SideSync, etc.)
    • File exchange with PC (iOSiTunesLink with, Android can be connected via USB)
    • Home appliances operation
      • Use as an infrared remote control (Android 4.4 or later)
      • Home automation controller (HomeKit for iOS 8.1 or later)
    • Cooperation with cars
      • Link with car dashboard (iOS 7 and aboveC, AndroidAndroid AutoApps etc.)
      • Cooperation with car keys (iOS 14After that, etc.)
    • Cooperation with the house
      • Linkage with home key (Home Key after iOS 15 etc.)
    • Cloud printing (eg "Google Cloud Print" on Android)
    • Projection to external display
      • Wired connection to external display
      • Wireless connection to external display (Android 4.2 or later, Windows Phone 8.1 or later etc. supports Miracast, and multiple Android apps such as Google support Chromecast.)
      • Use as a PC (Windows 10 Mobile Continuum, Ubuntu Touch desktop mode, Maru OS, etc.)
  • communication
    • Multiple SIMUse of (Android 5.1 or later)
    • Saving communication volume (Data saver such as Android Nougat or later)
  • Power saving mode (Doze mode for Android 6.0 or later, etc.)
    • Dark mode (iOS 13 or later, Android 10 or later)
  • Security management
    • (English edition(Apple's Find My iPhone service, Google'sFind My Device, "Device Protection" for Android 5.1 or later)
    • Support for Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM) (Managed App Config for iOS 7 or later, Android for Work for Android, etc.)
    • Data protection
      • passcode
      • PIN code
      • Pattern lock
      • Bluetooth unlock (Android smart lock)
      • Biometrics
        • Face recognition (Face ID on iOS, Face unlock on Android, Windows Hello on Windows 10 Mobile, etc.)
        • Fingerprint authentication (Touch ID for iOS, Android 6.0 or later, Windows Hello for Windows 10 Mobile, etc.)
        • Iris authentication (Windows Hello for Windows 10 Mobile, etc.)
        • Voiceprint authentication[Annotation 3][48]
    • Security when logging in to each service
      • Voice call to phone number or SMSMulti-factor authenticationSend code
      • Security code creation other than phone number (Google authentication system etc.)
      • Other unauthorized access avoidance (GooglereCAPTCHASuch)
  • Data management
    • Use of online storage[Annotation 4](ICloud Drive app for iOS, Google Drive app for Android, One Drive app for Windows Phone, etc.)
    • Backup to cloud[Annotation 5][49][50]
    • Migration from other OS (Apple's "Move to iOS" app for Android, etc.)
  • Change theme[Annotation 6]
  • Third partyAdd an app developed by



In 1992AppleIn the United StatesNewton MessagePadAt the time of the announcement, this device was a Personal Digital Assistant, PDA (Mobile information terminal) Was called. This word/concept became popular in 1996PalmReleased byPalmPilotAfter the hit. At this point, no communication function was added to the terminal.

In 1994IBMDeveloped byIBM SimonIt is,Mobile phonePDAIt was a terminal that was integrated with, and mainly operated on a touch screen, and it was a terminal similar to a modern smartphone that can also operate by downloading a third-party application to the internal memory.

In 1994General MagicThe Magic Cap terminal Magic Link, which was developed by Sony and released by SONY, was originally planned and developed as a mobile phone-sized communication terminal.[51], Personal Intelligent Communicator (PIC).

In 1996NokiaAnnounced byNokia 9000Is a vertically long straight type mobile phone in the closed state, but when the (folding type housing) is opened, a 640 x 200 pixel screen and a QWERTY keyboard appear.

in JapanpioneerIn 1996, a mobile phone with full-screen LCD displayDP-211, Next yearDP-211SWHas been released. It was a terminal that could be called Japan's original smartphone/PDA that handles memos, schedules, games, emails, etc., but in Japan, each company is developing more compact and easy-to-use "normal" mobile phone terminals, In other words, because the technology and market for "information terminals with full-screen liquid crystal and touch panel operation" have not matured yet, no other company will follow, and Pioneer will be in a form to meet this market need and enhance functions. It was a successor to the company afterJ-PE03(2000) became a product that pushed high functionality into the general mobile phone terminal format of those days. Also, with the minor change version of J-PE03, J-PE03II, Pioneer withdrew from the mobile phone terminal PDA.

Business information terminals that integrate these mobile phones and PDAs are said to be the beginning of smartphones. However, at that time, the word "Smartphone" did not exist yet, and it was called "PDA that can make telephone calls" or "PDA that can communicate using telephone lines". It was recognized as "a very high-performance and terrific mobile phone", and it was not the kind that the general public market demands. In addition, in IBM and Nokia, not PDACommunicator』I was called.


1999,in JapanNTT DoCoMoByi-modeServiced in.

September 1999, 1Canada OfResearch in Motion (RIM) isBlackBerryWas released.When it first went on sale, it was a pager with a keyboard that could be used for e-mail.

September 1999, Japan's first camera-equipped mobile phone (PHS) VP-210Appeared, and an important element of later smartphones was born here.Overseas, in 2002 in EuropeVodafoneNokia shipped the "Nokia 7650 Imaging Phone" to the company, and in December of the same year, the "Sanyo SCP-12" was released as the first mobile phone with a built-in camera in the United States.

In 2000, Ericsson is a Symbian smartphone with a touch screen(English editionReleased[52].NokiaAdopts touch screen(English editionLaunched Symbian smartphone[52].. 2002,Sony EricssonIs a successor to the R380, with a touch panel based software platform.UIQAdopt(English editionReleased[52].. UIQ SDK required for software development for UIQ was provided free of charge via the Web[53]Therefore, the development of non-official apps has become popular.

Until then, I had used the original hand-drawn input "Graffiti" as a keywordhandspringIs the first PDA equipped with a call function as standard equipment in January 2002.TreoThe series was released, and the first Treo180 (unmarked) was equipped with a small QWERTY keyboard like BlackBerry.At the same time, "(HipTop)" announced at the trade fair in January 2002 was a low-priced product under US $ 1, and since it was possible to make voice calls, it was welcomed as "BlackBerry capable of voice communication". rice field.The Treo series, which was strong in the United States, appeared in 200 as the first Treo 2003 with a built-in camera function, a mobile phone capable of calling and messaging with a camera capable of VGA shooting, and a device that integrates PDA functions equipped with a QWERTY keyboard. ing.

BlackBerry also supported voice calls at the end of 2002, and with subsequent improvements, PIM functionGroupwareSecure remote collaboration withPush email, Browsing websites on the Internet, and depending on the model, Microsoft Office application filesPDFIt has transformed into a smartphone that also has a viewing / editing function.Blackberries are mainly for corporations, and since around 2004, they have become popular among American businessmen and boasted the top share of smartphones in the United States.

In 2006, NTT DoCoMo became a dedicated server (BlackBerry Enterprise Server) And setBlackBerry 8707hStarted domestic sales for corporations.


2007In 1 monthAppleBut"iOSAnnounced the smartphone "iPhone" equipped with ".It determined the shape of modern smartphones.Launched in the US in June of the same year.It was also released in the UK, France and Germany in November of the same year.


First for Japan by SoftBankiPhoneAsiPhone 3GWill be released[54].. Initially sales were sluggish,Tadashi OnoderaCriticized that "iPhone is not attractive to general users"[55], Softbank's aggressive sales measures will boost sales. Since then, smartphones have become rapidly popular in Japan.

This year,GoogleBy OS for smartphones"Android"Developed by the United StatesT-MobileAndroid smartphoneT-Mobile G1Was released.


In 2011,Google Motorola mobilityAnd acquired a patent related to modular mobile phones. by thismoduleAssembled smartphone (code name:Project Ara) Development has begun. Project Ara is a platform that allows you to create your own smartphone by combining the base parts of the display and metal frame with the modules you like. With this, the minimum configuration without the cellular communication module will start from $50. These were planned for market launch in 2015[56].. In 2015, trial sales were suspended and the launch was postponed, and in 2016 it was announced that the development would be discontinued.


January 2013AcerIs the first in the world4K6 inches for video recordingFHDdisplayEquipped with[57][58]Was announced, and it was launched in Europe in October of the same year.


January 2015SONYIs the first in the world4Kliquid crystalEquipped with(English edition[59]Was announced, and it was released in October of the same year.


Equipped with a vertical full-screen display "Infinity Display" that is "easy to hold and large screen"Galaxy S8 │ S8 +Recorded a worldwide hit. This product is a bezelless smartphone, full screenBig trendsAnd each company will release a bezel-less full-screen smartphone[60][61][62][63][64][65].

In addition, the world's smartphone shipments declined for the first time in 2017[66].


2018After entering,Flexible smartphoneThe development of (bending, folding smartphones) proceeded rapidly. In this year, Chinese venture company Royole released the world's first commercially available flexible smartphone, FlexPai.[67].

OPPOAnnounced that it realized a full screen with a pop-up camera[68].

Samsung ElectronicsBrings Bezel-cess and Full-screen Flow to the Industry at Private Event "SDC18" for DevelopersGalaxy S8 │ S8 +As the next phase of "Infinity Display", "Infinity-V Display", "Infinity-U Display", "Infinity-O Display", "New Infinity Display" were announced. Infinity-V and Infinity-UEssentialDeveloped byiPhone XThe notches (cutouts) that have spread due to the existence of each have been branded by arranging them in V type or U type respectively, and mainlyMid range OfA Galaxy,Galaxy MHas been adopted by. Infinity-O is equipped with a punch hole camera that opens a hole for the sub camera in the display to further expand the screen, and after thatGalaxy S10 e │ S10 │ S10 +It has been adopted in. The New Infinity Display is the name of a full-screen display, but how it would be realized was not announced at this time.2019It was adopted for the first time since it was announced, and it was realized with a pop-up rotating camera (by rotating the main camera, the same camera is used for the sub camera).[69].

Huawei also released the world's first punch-hole display smartphone, which has a hole for the camera in the display and eliminates the notch.[70].. ChineseLivingReleased the world's first fingerprint sensor with a built-in display[71].


Finally, a folding smartphone is announced by a major manufacturer. KoreanSamsung electronics OfGalaxy fold,ChineseHuaweiEven after that, announced the folding smartphone.

Next-generation communication systems in each country5GWhile announcing the start time of the service of each company and the initiatives, services, and plans regarding 5G from each company,Qualcomm5G for smartphones (5rd generation mobile communication system) Smartphone makers announced 5G compatible smartphones by releasing compatible chips. The world's first commercial 5G smartphone is20192/20Announced in20194/5Was released inGalaxy S10 5GIs[72][73][74][75].

Samsung Electronics can authenticate fingerprints on the display with the world's first fingerprint sensor with a built-in display that uses ultrasonic waves.Galaxy S10 │ S10 +announced[76].

20194/3In the americanVerizonHas launched the world's first 5G communication service. Followed by4/5In the koreanKTStarted 5G communication service[77].. The full-scale 5G service in Japan is scheduled to start in 2020, which is behind other countries.[78].

Also in ChinaXiaomi,OPPOAnnounced a prototype of a smartphone with a camera embedded in the screen using transparent display technology that allows light to pass through. This technology eliminates the notches and punch holes provided for the front-facing camera, resulting in a complete full screen[79].

MotorolaAnnounced the "razr", a "vertical" folding smartphone.

Around the United States, the movement to eliminate parts such as stopping the supply of parts to Huawei has accelerated, and the services provided by Google cannot be installed on new Huawei devices. (Huawei # Movements of countries around HuaweiSee. )


20202/11(Local time),Samsung electronicsIs a vertical folding smartphoneSamsung galaxy z flipannounced[80][81].. This allowsGalaxyBecame the world's first brand to release both a horizontal folding smartphone and a vertical folding smartphone[82]. Also,Galaxy z flipIs the world's first folding smartphone to display on the screenGlassIt was adopted.In addition, this bendable type glass is called Ultra Thin Glass (UTG), and it has been announced that it will be sold outside.High-end products announced at the same time Galaxy S20 Ultra 5G Has attracted attention because it has an ultra-high pixel count camera with about 1 million pixels and a camera function that can zoom 800 times, which greatly exceeds all conventional smartphones (called a smartphone).Categoryカメラ OfNumber of pixelsThis product is the first to exceed 1 million).

The international trade fair for mobile technology that was scheduled to be heldMWC 2020"But,Impact of spread of new coronavirusSince the companies that are going to exhibit have announced the suspension of exhibition one after another, the event itself has also been canceled. As a result, manufacturers that were planning to announce products at MWC held their own press conferences,YouTubeCorrespondence such as the announcement above.

Due to the sanctions of each country on Huawei, the "HUAWEI nova lite 5+" released on May 29 in Japan became the last smartphone that Google can use.Google services are no longer available on Huawei devices released after this[83].

Global market situation

Global smartphone share by manufacturer
2021 Source: Canalys[84]
1 bitRepublic of Korea flag South KoreaSamsung19%
2 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaXiaomi17%
3 bitUnited States flag The United States of AmericaApple14%
4 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaOPPO10%
5 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaLiving10%

Before the iPhone appearedNokia,HTC, RIM, palm,Samsung electronicsMany models formed a certain market. Symbian OSWindows Mobile for Smart PhonesDedicated toOSSince it was also made, Palm OS andWindows Mobile for Pocket PCThere was also a model equipped with a partial improvement of the PDA OS. Made for smartphonesApplication softwareWere also provided. This is also because when the OS for PDA was installed, there was an advantage that application software created up to that point could be used.

the 2020sAs of the first half, Samsung, Apple, which had the top two shares of global smartphones by company in the second quarter of 2018 by US research firm Strategy Analytics,Rice-China trade frictionHuawei, which was affected by the above, significantly reduced its market share, and instead, the rise of Xiaomi, Oppo, etc. was noticeable.[85][86].

According to data released by IT market research firm Gartner, only 2017% of platforms other than Android and iOS as of December 12[87].

Even in areas where manufacturers were not well known in the pastIndia OfMicromax,Indonesiaof,The Philippinesof,AfricaManufacturers such as in the market came out[88]..Especially in India, which is a huge market, Micromax increased its share to 2013% in the second quarter of 2 (IDC), and although Samsung (22%) was the leader, it dropped the figure and expanded the power of Micromax and (26%). Stands out.According to the company's research, the smartphone market share ranking in India for the same period is 13st Samsung 1nd Micromax 2rd Karbonn 3th Nokia 4th Sony Mobile and local manufacturers are strong.Local companies are expanding smartphone production in Vietnam[89].

Domestic smartphone manufacturer in Russia(English edition'[90]Independent mobile OS platform(English editionBusiness-use smartphone that adopts(English edition'[91][92]Sold, the same modelRussian postHas purchased 1 units. The company's commercial tablet terminal "INOI T5000"[93]Is the largest Russian communication company(English editionHave been purchased.

The United States Google is the world's first modular smartphone in the first half of 2015Project AraWas scheduled to be released. This is a tile type design and each part is modularized. In the case of the minimum configuration, the price was aimed at $50, but development has been discontinued.

Mobile base station world share

Huawei has the top share of the world market for mobile base stations.


Designing semiconductors for smartphones,ARM HoldingsHas a 9% share.For example, AppleA seriesAndQualcomm OfSnapdragon,ChineseHuaweiThe basic technology of the core semiconductor "Kirin" used in smartphones is licensed from ARM, and it is difficult for each manufacturer to develop and sell new products without the cooperation of ARM.

Comparison of communication charges with major countries

According to the 2019 data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the communication charges (data capacity 1GB / month) of the operator with the largest market share in each country are as follows, and Tokyo is by far the highest.

Tokyo8175 JPY
NY7990 JPY
Seoul6004 JPY
Dusseldorf4179 JPY
Paris3768 JPY
UK2700 JPY

Japan situation

The situation in the 2G era

In Japan before the 1990sToshiba"GENIUS"Kyocera"DataScope"DataScope for DoCoMo",PanasonicSome "mobile phones/PHSs with PDA-like elements" such as "Pinocchio" have been released, but they have not spread widely, but rather ordinary mobile phones (feature phoneThe increase in the user base that accepts the higher functionality of) was conspicuous.

The situation in the 3G era

With the spread of 3G (third generation mobile phones), it became possible to translate smartphones, a category born outside Japan, into Japanese and release them in 2004.VodafoneNokia “from a Japanese corporation (current SoftBank Mobile)Vodafone 702NKBut in 2005 from NTT DocomoMotorola"FOMA M1000Was released.Some users personally imported 3G-compatible smartphones made outside Japan.Also in 2005,sharpWILLCOM Windows Mobile 5.0 for Pocket PCThere are movements such as the release of the "W-ZERO3" series, which was originally developed in Japan, and around this time, there were signs that full-scale smartphones would become widespread in Japan as well.

However, it was sophisticatedUser interfaceDue to the landing of the iPhone with the iPhone and the overseas Androids that followed it, domestic manufacturers were in trouble. First for Japan by Softbank in 2008iPhoneAsiPhone 3GWhen is released[94]Initially, sales were sluggish, and the competing KDDI president (at that time)Tadashi OnoderaCriticized that "iPhone is not attractive to general users"[95], Softbank's aggressive sales measures will boost sales. Since then, smartphones have become rapidly popular in Japan.

Since then, smartphones have gradually become accepted by the general public other than businessmen and enthusiasts, and conventional multifunctional mobile phones have been ridiculed as "Galapagos mobile phones" and have become obsolete at once, and conventional smartphones are also treated as old-fashioned. I was supposed to receive it.

The Windows Mobile camp, which was overtaken by the later iPhone, showed a move to follow suit, such as launching a new Windows Phone platform and installing an interface that makes use of multi-touch.The Android camp is also moving in the same way as the Windows Mobile camp.

BlackberryAlso sought to expand to Japan, in 2008POP-IMAPEmail orgmailWaitWeb mailPersonalized service for push emailBlackBerry Internet ServiceStarted. In 2010i-mode mailFor BlackBerry's email addresssp modeIs provided.

Before 2009, it was blocking smartphones in Japan.CareersWeb and email services for mobile phones (i-mode andEZweb,Yahoo! Keitai), So it remained a "gadget for enthusiasts".Push-delivery email services, especially on mobile phones, and similar to existing PCsPOP3There is a big difference in usability of the mail function of smartphones based on IMAP and IMAP.This is a smartphone,Ultra-small PC with phoneAndSomething similar to a mobile phone(From the PCOfficial site (mobile phone)And someSelfish siteCannot be accessed).In addition, there were some users who could not utilize smartphones on the user side and returned to the conventional feature phones or moved to the combination of netbook and data communication.[96].

From the latter half of 2010, push type carrier mail support on smartphones such as sp mode,FeliCa,One Seg,Infrared,Earthquake early warningSmartphones incorporating the elements of Japanese-style high-performance mobile phones have been announced one after another by Japanese manufacturers.Such a model with a feature phone function is called "GalaKlikeSmartphone"Phone"Glassware". In this case, a model that does not have such a function as an antonymGlobal smartphone, Called "gross"[97].

In addition, some of them are intended to improve operability and promote the migration of feature phone users to smartphones.AQUOS PHONE(IS11SH (CDMA SHI11) andIS14SH (CDMA SHI14), 007SH, etc., andINFOBAR C01 A "smartphone shaped like a Galapagos mobile phone" equipped with a numeric keypad such as the (CDMA SHX12)007SHToSmartphonePhoneKin Thailand"Smartphone") has appeared, but support has been short-lived due to instability of operation and loss of good battery life that was supported by feature phones.

In the first half of 2011, about half of the new mobile phone sales will be smartphones, and in 2012 it will grow further to account for about 75%.

Due to the rapid spread of smartphones that use many communication bands, each carrier will be able to use it for the time being.無線 LANBy off-loading (route data communication of mobile phone to optical line via wireless LAN),LTE,Mobile WiMAXWe have shifted to the next-generation communication method with good radio wave efficiency.

The situation in the LTE era

According to a survey by Impress R & D, the smartphone penetration rate in Japan was 2012% as of October 10, and the penetration rate increased by 39.9% in 5 months.[98].

2013 --In 2014, shipments began to decline for the second consecutive year, and especially in 2, feature phones showed a slight increase for the first time in seven years.This is thought to be due to the slowdown in the transition from feature phones to smartphones, and the increased satisfaction with smartphone users' functions and performance, which reduced the frequency of replacements.

Although it is a domestic manufacturer that has shifted the development of terminals to smartphones, Apple and Samsung Electronics accounted for half of the global market share at that time, competing for the remaining market share, and it was struggling to secure parts.The usage rate of Japanese manufacturers was still high for parts that required high machining accuracy, but semiconductor chips were made in the United States.QualcommWas monopolizing.Supply will be given priority to Apple and Samsung Electronics[99], Japanese manufacturers that entered the market with a lap delay have no choice but to squeeze the number of units sold.Since releasing popular terminals is involved in business strategy for each carrier, it was not possible to maintain close relationships with domestic manufacturers as before, and it was decided to focus on popular overseas smartphones.

SonyLTEWhere the net has spread to a practical rangeSonyUntil then, the carrier side (NTT docomo) Was handed over to "XperiaCommonly used as its own brand (until thenauIs a carrier-specific trademark or "Cyber-shot"Keitai" or no trademark,Softbank mobileIn 2014, in the domestic market, it took share from Samsung Electronics, which has the same OS, and emerged as the second largest in the domestic market after Apple.This is equipped with a mobile phone that has become a matter of course overseasDigital still cameraAndFace recognition-Fingerprint authenticationrequired forImage sensorInSonyIs the background of the fact that is leading the world market.

2015 years,OptageIs Japan's first cheapVirtual mobile operator(MVNO) When the "mineo" service was launched, in Japan, carriers used to provide lines and mobile communication terminals in a lump, but the liberalization of terminals, so-calledSIM freeEnter the era of.In response to this trend, Sony, among the manufacturers that had sold terminals through carrier companies until then,sharp,Fujitsu,KyoceraReleased SIM-free maker brand terminals one after another.Each company tried to make it unique.However, after the LTE era, many manufacturers withdrew from domestic smartphones, which had been struggling due to lap delay. By the end of the 2010s, the purely domestic manufacturers would be Sony and the niche market Kyocera (Casio "G'zOneThe spiritual successor of ""[100]),FCNT(Inheriting Fujitsu's business, "for the elderly"Easy phone”), Both of which are low in the global market share.And even in the domestic market, Apple has secured a majority share[101].

Usage restrictions for minors

With the use of smartphones,Internet addiction,BullyingIt is easy to meet strangers and disturb your life.MinorRestrictions on use are being promoted.20144IsAichiKariya cityAll 21 elementary and junior high schools called to prohibit use after 21:XNUMX[102].. 20148ToFukuokaKasuga CityBut the same applies, and it was banned after 22:XNUMX[103][104][105].

In order to cover this problem when using underage, some smartphones assume that the underage will use it. Docomo is a typical exampleSmartphone for juniorTo serve asSH-03FSH-05E.PolaroidDeveloped by. Toy makersMega houseDeveloped byFairiciaand so on.

Business model problems

The problems common to Japanese telecommunications carriers, such as binding for 2 years, virtually 0 yen, expensive fee system, specifications with original regulations,Problems with mobile phone # business model in JapanSee.


iPhone (iOS) AndAndroidSmartphones such asSoftware development kit (SDK) is open to the publicApplication software(App) can be developed and distributed.

For iPhone, the developerApple Developer ConnectionJoin[106]In addition, when an app is published, it must be reviewed by Apple, and apps that do not pass the review cannot be published.jailbreakAllows you to install unlicensed apps, but doing so is not covered by the warranty.Windows Phone 7However, the installation source of the software isWindows Phone MarketplaceIt is restricted to only developers and requires developers to go through the Windows Phone Marketplace and be screened.

BlackBerry,Android,Windows Mobile(Before 6.5)Application storeOther apps can be installed, but in order to distribute apps efficiently, AndroidGoogle PlayAnd BlackBerryBlackBerry App WorldFor application publication centered on the OS providerplatformExists.

Major manufacturers

Manufacturers that were manufactured in the past


Microphone terminal,USBTerminal,Bluetooth, NFC (Short-range wireless communication), etc., hardware that can work with smartphones is sold.

Effects on the human body

Smartphone syndrome
With the spread of smartphones, an increasing number of women are complaining about "straight neck" symptoms (neck pain, stiff shoulders, and in severe cases, dizziness and nausea). The normal neck bone bends forward to support the heavy head, but the “straight neck” loses its curve and becomes straight due to posture collapse and chronic fatigue.[117].Squintand so on.
Text thumb damage
Depending on how you hold your smartphone, your fingers may deform,筋肉However, it may cause symptom such as sticking and bending of fingers or pain. This case is called text thumb injury outside Japan. The most common way of holding this case is to hold the lower part of the body with the little finger. It is believed that the weight burden is concentrated on the little finger, causing deformation only in that area.[118].
By using for a long time,focusHas the function of adjustmentCrystalline lensThe muscles that movevisionMay fall. Becoming chronicPresbyopiaCause of.
Smartphone neck
Being a manipulatorChung NobuyoshiThe word named by.When the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the front side of the neck is pulled forward and causes hypertension, various disorders such as stiff neck, headache, and dizziness are caused.The state of a person who keeps using a smartphone in a depressed position and the neck comes out forward.[119][120].
Effects on sleep
The effect on sleep is the light emitted from the main bodyElectromagnetic waveThere are physical ones by the content and mental ones that get excited by the content.In the case of light, from many displays, including smartphones,Blue lightと 呼 ば れ るVisible lightIs out. If you take this blue light for a long time,MelatoninCan be suppressed, which can lead to awakening and adversely affect sleep. In particular, smartphones tend to have more blue light than other devices.[121].. If these symptoms become chronic and become more severe,depression,autism,Anxiety disorder,Attachment disorderSuch asMental illnessCan trigger[122].. It can be reduced to some extent by using the blue light cut function and special glasses.
Another spiritual thing is the impact of content. For example, listening to intense music or playing a game with a lot of movement disturbs the balance of the autonomic nerves, and sleep disorders are likely to occur. There are other cases where you may not be able to sleep because you are worried about notification sounds from SNS and emails during the night. The workaround is to avoid touching your smartphone before sleep and turn off notifications.
Impact on children
Since the brain grows to about 0 times the size between the ages of 2 and 3, there is concern that using a smartphone at this time will have a large effect. Excessive stimulation of the brain with a smartphoneAttention deficit, Cognitive delay,Learning disabilityMay cause[122].
Even when used by elementary, middle and high school students, about 3% of them tend to affect their lives. Mainly, the symptoms such as lack of motivation for studying or lack of sufficient sleep are increasing due to being absorbed in games and the Internet once touched.[123].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ America'sAmazon.comDeveloped byFire OSOr ChineseOPPODeveloped bycolorosetc.
  2. ^ (Android Google Map, etc.)
  3. ^ ZTE Axon Elite, Android 5.0 or later smart lock, etc.
  4. ^ (ICloud Drive app for iOS, Google Drive app for Android, One Drive app for Windows Phone, etc.)
  5. ^ iOS, Android 6 or later
  6. ^ (Cyanogen OS etc.)


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  6. ^ Guidebook for establishing procedures for implementing information security measures for business use of smartphones, etc.-- Cabinet Cyber ​​Security Center
  7. ^ The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare website is now compatible with smartphones. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (read January 2020, 1)
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  105. ^ Junior high school students are prohibited from smartphones after 10:XNUMX pm, Kasuga City, Fukuoka Prefecture is decided
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  111. ^ We compared Omron and Panasonic blood pressure monitors that cooperate with smartphones [Part XNUMX] Home Appliance Watch March 2013, 3
  112. ^ My Spiroo aiming to develop a peak flow meter for asthma control TechCrunch Japan June 2014, 4
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  114. ^ This Doctor Diagnosed His Own Cancer with an iPhone Ultrasound MIT Technology Review October 2017, 10
  115. ^ The gadget that scans for CALORIES: $249 Scio uses beams of light to analyze the amount of fat, carbs and proteins in food Daily Mail Online September 2015, 10
  116. ^ I tried using ``Wishbone'' which can measure the temperature, body temperature, surface temperature of objects in just 2 seconds by inserting it in the earphone jack of the smartphone GIGAZINE April 2015, 7
  117. ^ Do you have "smartphone syndrome"? Nikkei Woman (April 2012, 4)
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  123. ^ Smartphone high school students "impacting life" 3%... Okayama YOMIURI ONLINE

113 Watch iPhone 12 Pro Full Specification mobileogram.com/apple-phone/apple-iphone-12-pro.html

Related item

Samsung electronics

Samsung electronics(Hangul삼성 전자; HanchaSamsung Electronics; RRSamseong Jeonja, British: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.) Is South KoreaTechnology company and the world's largest manufacturer of comprehensive home appliances, electronic components, and electronic productsSamsung groupIt is a core company.2019Sales and market capitalization in Asia are the largest as a single private company in Asia,Smartphone-Flat screen tv-NAND flash memory-DRAM, Small and mediumOLED displayNo. 1 in the world market share[3][4][5].2020R & D expenses are the highest in the world[6].2021The corporate brand power in the world is 5th in the world, and it is the 14st in Asia for 1 consecutive years.[7].


Samsung Electronics has 2010 sales South Korea OfGDP22% ofMarket capitalizationIs 25% of the Korean stock market (foreign shareholding rate is around 50%)[8]), Receiving more than 20% of South Korea's export value[9], Assets are koreanational wealthIt is the largest company in South Korea, approaching one-third of the total.

A company that symbolizes KoreaFortune global 500Then, the 12th place in the world company ranking (2018)[10].. Brand rankings from a British research firm show a brand value of $ 923 billion[Note 2]4th in the world (2018)[11].. 100th in the "26 Reputable Companies" survey conducted by an American consulting firm targeting global companies (2018)[Note 3][12].. Hong Kong-based communications marketing company and research firmNielsen[Avoid ambiguity]In the "Top 1000 Brands in Asia" jointly researched and announced by, ranked first for seven consecutive years (7)[Note 4][13].

With 30 employees, it has 65 production corporations and 130 sales corporations all over the world, and manufactures a wide range of electronic devices from home appliances to industrial products and military products.


From founding to around 1980

1938 OfKorea under Japanese ruleSamsung Electronics' parent company, Samsung Electronics, was founded in Japan, and its main business was food and clothing.

1969Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. was established in January, and was established in December to enter the electronics industry.1970Was established in January to produce white goods and AV equipment.They are,Saccharin smuggling caseSamsung General's attempting to rejuvenate fromLee Byung-chul(Lee Byung-chul)Sanyo Electric OfToshio Iue,NEC-Sumitomo CorporationLed by the cooperation of[14][15]The decision was made targeting the rapidly expanding demand market in South Korea at that time.

1977To enter the semiconductor business by acquiring Korean semiconductors1980Acquired Korea Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute in March. From around 3, local sales corporations were established one after another overseas,Portugal,AmericaA factory was established in.

From around 1980 to the 2000s

Semiconductor business

1983In February, founder Lee Byung-chul said, "There are few resources.South KoreaThe only way to make a second leap is to develop products that meet the natural conditions of Japan and require high value-added and advanced technology. "DRAMEntered the business. Announced the "Tokyo Declaration" aiming for Japan to lead in semiconductors, and the Tokyo branch of Samsung Electronics was opened in the same year, from JapanSouth KoreasemiconductorStarted importing manufacturing equipment[16]..Manufacturing technology has been a partner since the 1970ssharpReceived support from.Next time1984ToMicronWith the support of design technology transfer, after a development period of 6 monthsMicronToshibaDeveloped the third 3k DRAM in the world following[17].. In the same year, the company name was changed from Samsung Electronics Industry to Samsung Electronics by merging Gwangju Electronics.

It will soon succeed in developing 256K DRAM. Meanwhile in JapanToshiba(Toshiba's DRAM division was later acquired by Micron) in 1984Fujio MasuokaIs the first in the worldNOR flash memoryDeveloped, developed the world's first 1985M DRAM in 1, the world's first in 1987NAND flash memoryWas actively developing next-generation memory, such as developing[18]However, due to the shortage of old-generation memory caused by the shift of top companies such as Toshiba and Micron to next-generation memory, Samsung, which dared to focus on 256K DRAM, made a huge net profit of 1988 billion won in 3200 alone. , The company expanded at once[19].. This management decision was made by Vice Chairman of the Samsung Group, the third son of Lee QiLee Kun HeeSo, after Lee Byung-chul died in 1987, Lee Kun-hee became the second chairman of Samsung Group. In 2, it succeeded in developing the world's first 1992M DRAM, and in 64 it secured a 1993% share of the DRAM market, surpassing Japan's Toshiba, which had only 13.5%, and finally became the world's largest share. It has maintained the top position ever since. In 12.8, it was the number one NAND-type flash memory in the world.

In 1988Mobile phoneThe foundation, which has become the main product since the 1992s, was also developed around this time, such as the development of a 10.4 inch TFT LCD monitor in 2000. However, many Samsung products at that time were inferior, and in businesses other than semiconductors, they were not successful in the global market, so in 1988, Lee Kun-hee, who became the new chairman, emphasized quality over quantity and pursued change and reform. Declared the philosophy "2nd founding". In 1993, it issued a "new management" declaration.

Relationship with Japan

  • 1986,ToshibaTsuyoshi Kawanishi General Manager Semiconductor Business Division[Note 5]Is the mediator of the managing director in charge of international affairsVIPWe received a welcome visit to a semiconductor factory under construction, and in return, the world's largest capacity at that time 1MegabitDRAMState-of-the-art under developmentOitaTour the factory[20]I'm letting you. In 1986, Samsung Electronics also developed a 1-megabit DRAM and became the manufacturing manager in charge of the production line at the Toshiba Oita Factory.scoutAnd is constructing a manufacturing factory with the same equipment as the Oita factory.[18].
  • 1987Established research institutes in the United States and Japan in May1988Semiconductor business sales 9 millionDollarRanked 18th in the semiconductor manufacturer sales ranking.
  • In 1988, Japanese semiconductor companies accounted for 10 of the top 6 semiconductor companies,1991Bubble burstDue to the deterioration of funds due toRestructuringThen, Samsung Electronics received the backup of the Korean government, Toshiba,Matsushita Electric,Sanyo Electric,sharp,NECFromRestructuringHighly paid Japanese engineersHead huntingJapanese technologyAdviserAcquires the latest technology as a result of accounting for 77 of the foreign engineers[18].
  • 1992, Toshiba and Samsung Electronics will conclude a joint development of flash memory and a contract to provide technical specifications and product information.1993, Samsung Electronics will develop Korea's first 6MB flash memory.1995, Toshiba and Samsung Electronics to collaborate on joint development of 64 megabit flash memory technology[18].
  • 1994In March, NEC and Samsung Electronics signed a joint development and information provision agreement for the world's largest capacity 3-megabit DRAM at that time.At that time, the manufacturers that developed 256 megabit DRAM were in the world.Hitachi, Ltd.And NEC only.1994In August, Samsung Electronics declares "world's first" 8-megabit DRAM development[21].
  • 1993,Semiconductor manufacturing equipmentIs a manufacturerDainippon Screen,TOWAInvested in local subsidiaries (DNS Korea and Towa Korea, respectively) to acquire semiconductor manufacturing equipment technology. Since the 2000s, the company name has changed while making both companies subsidiaries through a capital increase.2012Will merge the two companies.Current SEMES[22].
  • MITITo continue the leading edge of Hinomaru semiconductor1996In addition to the 10 Japanese manufacturers, Samsung Electronics will be accepted into the consortium "Semiconductor Advanced Technologies" that started in Japan in view of the trend of the global semiconductor industry.However, as a result, it will not be the revival of Japanese manufacturers, but will lead to the internationalization of Samsung and the acquisition of advanced manufacturing technology, and if Japanese manufacturers such as NEC withdraw from semiconductors one after another after the 2000s, many engineers will flow to Samsung again. become[23].
  • In 1991, the semiconductor manufacturer's sales ranking was 14th with $ 7 million.199583th place with $ 2 million2002から2016Up to usaIntelIt is second only to second place.
  • Japan's last DRAM makerElpidaHowever, when the company went bankrupt in 2012, the business conditions of the remaining three major DRAM companies (Samsung Electronics, Hynicks, and Micron) picked up, especially.2017I like the unprecedented view of the DRAM industry, and in 20172018Samsung Electronics' ranking is No. 1.

From the 2000s to the present

the 1990sThe position of Samsung Electronics in Korea until now was only one of the major companies, but due to the breakthrough in the semiconductor business mentioned above, etc.the 2000sSince then, the scale of business in South Korea and its impact on the Korean economy have become overwhelming, and it has grown into one of the largest electronics manufacturers in the world.

In particular1997 OfAsian currency crisisBecame an opportunity to grow Samsung Electronics into a powerful company, contrary to the crisis of the national economy. Due to the currency crisis, 30 out of 16 large Korean companies have collapsed, and Samsung Electronics will be injected with public funds from the South Korean government.bankruptcyAlthough it was pushed to the brink, Samsung Electronics became a global company as a semi-governmental and semi-private company for the future of South Korea due to extensive structural reforms and efficient management plan execution to avoid bankruptcy. Accelerated the growth of[24].Internet bubbleAfter the collapse2000 - 2003Samsung Electronics also recorded a net profit growth rate of 5%.

In addition, Samsung Electronics was a next-generation industry in the first half of the 1990s, with huge profits gained from semiconductors from the 2000s.LCDWe made large-scale investments in the business and mobile phone business, and increased our share in the global market for various products. AlsoMarketingActivity andcommercialThe activity is carried out on a large scale. For example, in 1996 through the “TOP Sponsor Plan”OlympicBecame an official partner ofNagano Winter OlympicsHas been the official sponsor of the Olympic Games and has been the Olympic sponsor since 2000s[25].

2009In addition, Samsung Electronics is based on salesGermany OfSiemensAnd the USHewlett PackardThe world's largestIT・Became a home appliance manufacturer[26][27].. Samsung's share in 2009 is the world's number one in flat-screen TVs and semiconductor memory[28][29]Mobile phone is second in the world[30], Also ranks high in white goods. In the same year,2020Vision 4,000 aiming to achieve sales of 2020 billion dollars[31].. In order to achieve this, we will improve the quality of life such as medical/biotechnology, environment/energy, convenience/healing centered on software and solutions in existing information/communication, AV business (Infotainment) centering on set/parts. Lifecare is included in a new business domain to transform into a "21st century business structure."

2010Produced in-houseExynosMicroprocessorTheSmartphoneMounted on. NewerCPUStarted original development of core (mongoose).TexasAustin,CaliforniaSan JoseR&D was being carried out based in Japan, but it was announced that development will be discontinued in 2019.[32].

SonyAnd Samsung Electronics jointly manufacture LCD panelsS-LCDKoreanChungcheongnam-doWas established in2011, Sony end the joint venture by selling all the shares of the joint venture to Samsung[33].

  • 2018
    • In May, the Korean prosecutor's officeSamsung biologics OfFinancial resultsStarted investigating allegations. By June 2019, 6,Evidence obliterationThree vice presidents of Samsung Electronics were arrested one after another on charges of instructing[34].
    • In August, it announced that it will invest 8 trillion won in the total of capital investment and R&D expenses for the three years to 2020. In addition to existing memory and organic EL panels, it was suggested that the company would also start developing new businesses such as communication infrastructure equipment, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, and automobile parts that support next-generation communication standards (3G).[35].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,NEC5GOfficially announced that it will partner with the technical development and sales of base stations for[36].
  • On September 2019, 9, we closed the Huizhou factory, a smartphone manufacturing base in China. Declining share in China and increasing manufacturing costs were problems. By the time the smartphone is closedIndia,VietnamWas being distributed to factories in countries with low manufacturing costs such as[37].


  • 1969
    • 1 -Established Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    • 12 -Sanyo Electric in Koreajoint ventureEstablished Samsung Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (merged with Samsung Electronics in 1977).
  • 1970
    • January --Established Samsung NEC as a joint venture of NEC in South Korea.
    • 11 -Trial production of monochrome TV "P-3202".
  • 1973
    • ? Moon --Established Samsung Electro-Mechanics (currently Samsung Electro-Mechanics).
    • December --Completion of Samsung Home Appliance Factory.
  • 1974 -Samsung Electronics Tokyo office opened
  • 1975 -Established Samsung Japan Co., Ltd.
  • 1977-Samsung Electric Co., Ltd. absorption merger.
  • 19787 -Established a local sales corporation "SEA" in the United States.
  • 1980
    • March --Acquired Korea Electronics Co., Ltd.
    • 9 -Completion of the first local production corporation "SEP" in Portugal.
  • 1982
    • 6 -Established a local sales corporation "SEG" in Germany.
    • September-Completion of Portugal's first local production corporation "SEP".
    • December-Korea Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute changed its trade name to Samsung Semiconductor Research Institute.
  • 1983-Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Tokyo branch opened
  • 1984
    • 2 --Renamed to Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    • ? Moon-Merged with Gwangju Electronics Co., Ltd.
  • 1984
    • 11 month - United KingdomEstablished a local sales corporation "SEUK" in Japan.
    • December --Established a local production corporation "SII" in the United States.
  • 1987
    • May-Overseas laboratories (USA, USA)Santa Clara, Tokyo, Japan).
    • 9 month - AustraliaEstablished a local sales corporation "SEAU" inCanadaEstablished a local sales corporation "SECA" in Japan.
    • October-Completion of a local production corporation in the United Kingdom and start of production.
    • ?Month - Lee Kun Hee(Lee Kun Hee) becomes the second chairman.
  • 1988
    • ? Moon-Merged with Samsung Semiconductor Communications Co., Ltd., Declaration of Second Founding "Become a top-class company in the 21st century".
    • 10 month - FranceEstablished sales company "SEF" atThailandEstablished a local production corporation "TSE" inMexicoCompleted the local production corporation "SAMEX" and started production.
    • Merged with Samsung Semiconductor Communications in November.
  • 19898 - MalaysiaEstablished a local corporation in.
  • 1992
    • 2 month - CzechoslovakiaEstablished a local production corporation at that time.
    • 7 month - Chugoku・ Established VTR production corporation in Tianjin.
  • 1993 --Chairman LeeFrankfurtDeclaration of "new management" From quantity to quality management.
  • November 1994-Established Mugunghwa Electronics, a factory for people with disabilities.
  • March 1996-USATexasAustinStarted construction of a semiconductor factory in Japan.
  • 1997
  • 1998- Samsung japanEstablished.
  • October 2000-Established Communication Technology Research Institute in China.
  • 2004
    • 4
      • LCD panel manufacturing company as a joint venture with SonyS-LCDEstablished.
      • Established Toshiba Samsung Storage Technology, a joint venture between Toshiba and optical disc equipment.
    • December-Samsung Electronics and Sony conclude mutual patent use agreement.
  • 2007November --Withdrawal from the Japanese market for home appliance sales. Manufacturing and sales of mobile phones for SoftBank Mobile will continue.
  • 2008
    • April-Responsible for multiple illegal activitiesLee Kun HeeChairman and CEO resigned.
    • November-Headquarters moved from Taepyeongno, Jung-gu, Seoul to Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul
  • 20103 month - Lee Myung-bo OfpardonLee Kun-hee returns to chairman
  • 2016November-Audio equipment and in-vehicle infotainment-related companiesHerman InternationalWas acquired for about US $ 80 billion.
  • 20172 month - The Federation of Korean Industries (Federation of Korean Industries)Submit a withdrawal notice to.


Main businesses and products


TV / audio


Consumer electronics


Samsung Electronics in Japan

Japanese corporation

Headquartered in Tokyo in JapanSamsung japanExpand, Samsung Electronics andSamsung groupThe company is engaged in import / export and Samsung-related business. Sales in 2018 are 3,855 billion yen.

Also, Samsun Nihon Research Institute[39]It has multiple bases such as Nagoya branch office and Nagoya branch office. In addition to Japanese research institutes, not only Korea but also the United KingdomPoland,Italy,Israel,Russia,India, China, America,BrazilWe have research laboratories in 18 countries around the world[40].

In terms of production, in addition to the Korean factory, it owns factories in more than 11 countries around the world and is developing a global strategy.

However, sales of Samsung home appliances in Japan were extremely sluggish, and withdrew from sales of white goods around 2000. After that, it continued to sell AV equipment such as flat-screen TVs, but in November 2007, Samsung Electronics announced that it would withdraw from the Japanese market for home appliances.[41].. Profit is low in Japan, and it is thought that this is because management resources are concentrated in the US and European markets.[42].. However, it sold corporate products, personal LCD monitors, HDDs, SSDs, electronic components, semiconductor memories, etc. in Japan. The Samsung mobile phones sold in Japan were treated as Samsung Telecom Japan, not Samsung Japan.

Due to the organizational restructuring carried out in 2012, the handling of parts such as semiconductors and LCD panels was left to Samsung Japan, and the finished products such as mobile phones were renamed from Samsung Telecom Japan.Samsung Electronics JapanTransferred to[43].. Currently, Samsung Electronics Japan sells smartphones, wearables and their peripherals.[44].

Galaxy Studio / Showcase

From 2016, Samsung Electronics' latest smartphonesVREtcSamsung GalaxyLaunched "Galaxy Studio", where you can experience the world view of free of charge. So far, it has been held at more than 50 locations throughout Japan, and a cumulative total of over 200 million people have visited.[45].

After January 2018HarajukuIt has been decided to continue with "BANK GALLERY", and the name will be renewed as "Galaxy Showcase" to further enhance the content.[45].

Main booth

S Pen Gallery

S pen[Note 6]You can use to decorate SELPHY. The image is output to the monitor and can be shared with a QR code. The decorated finished work will be printed and presented as a gift.[45].

Portrait pool

Decorate the image with the S pen on the selfie you took, and when you immerse the terminal in the aquarium, the image will appear on the underwater display. You can experience while enjoying the waterproof performance of your smartphone. The drawn image can be handed over by email[45][46].

Galaxy Fitness

Wearable terminalWear and challenge the bicycle race. Measure calories burned and heart rate, and compete for points in a ranking format. Besides, you can enjoy tennis and swimming[45][47].

VR attractions (pulsars, skeletons, mountain bikes, kayaks) 

Wearing "Galaxy Gear VR", 360 degreesvirtual realityAn attraction zone where you can experience 4 attractions. In "Pulsar", where you can enjoy VR content while the chair rotates in all directions, you can experience a transcendental flight or a time slip in the dinosaur era. In "Skeleton", you can experience downhill on ice. In "Mountain Bike", you can experience "Future Ride" where you can enjoy aerial driving in the city of the near future.[45][48][49].

Gear VR 4D Theater

An attraction where you can enjoy a shooting game using "Galaxy Gear VR" and a controller, using a chair that sits in groups of four as a spaceship. Eight people form a team and enjoy space battles[45][50].

Galaxy Virtual Studio

You can experience "Galaxy Studio" online virtually. Turn 360 degrees, Samsung ElectronicsSmartphoneYou can check your design from various angles. Also, of Samsung ElectronicsWearable terminalYou can also experience virtual[51].


In the original sound, "Samsung Jonja(= Samsung Electronics:삼성 전자) ”. In Japan, it is called "Samsung". This is believed to be based on the Roman alphabet in Japanese, as there were already several companies claiming to be Samsung when they entered Japan. ChugokuIn, the company name is written in kanji and "Samsung Electronics(sān xīng di àn zi, Sun Cindiens) ".

Related company


Relationship with the Olympics

1988 Seoul OlympicsStarted to be involved in the Olympics as a local sponsor of. afterwards,1998 Nagano OlympicsAs a worldwide official partner (wireless communication equipment category), it contributes to the Olympic movement. Also,2016 Rio de Janeiro OlympicsIn limited countries including Japan Galaxy edge S7"Olympic Games Edition" was sold specially[52].. At the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, "Galaxy S21 5G Olympic Games Edition "was sold.


Currently, Samsung Electronics is aiming for "green management" by setting a goal of reducing sales-based greenhouse gases by 2013% compared to 2008 and improving the energy efficiency of products by 50% by 40. In 2009, Samsung Electronics announced the "Green Management" vision "Planet First", and presented its core promotion issues such as reduction of greenhouse gases when using products and business establishments, and expansion of sales of eco-friendly products. did[53][54].

Especially in domestic officesGreenhouse gasBy introducing reduction equipment, greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 2010% compared to 2008 based on the first half of 31. The Liquid Crystal Display Division will open on July 7th.Sulfur hexafluorideOf CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) businessUnited NationsWe are implementing initiatives for sustainable greenhouse gas reduction, such as obtaining approval.[55].


Samsung has been strengthening design management since the early 90's. A design center has been set up in the head office building, and the number of designers, which was two at the time of establishment, increased from 2 in 2005 to more than 510 as of 2010. Samsung reviews the design every two years. In the first year, we analyze trends, plan product strategies, and in the second year, create new designs.[56].


"Samsung," the company name of Samsung Electronics, means "three big, bright, and shining stars." The number "three" in the company name means "big and strong" in Chinese, and "star" includes the company's prayer of "bright, high and shining."[57].. Samsung's logo design emphasizes flexibility and simplicity,SpaceThe ellipse, which symbolizes the world stage, is slightly slanted to express a dynamic and innovative image. It is a common color of SamsungblueAs a color that gives a sense of stability and trust, it has the intention of becoming a company that is familiar to customers, and symbolizes a sense of responsibility to society. The English logo design expresses the customer-oriented intention through technology and the image of a high-tech company in a modern sense.[58][59].

Patent proceedings with Apple

Since 2011, with SamsungApple OfLawsuitA battle is taking place and Samsung Electronics' products are from AppleiPad,iPhoneSamsung Electronics is suing for infringing its design and patent rights.But on the contrary, Samsung Electronics has also filed a lawsuit alleging that Apple products infringe Samsung Electronics' patents.[60].. About this issueSteve Jobs"Android kills, because it's a stolen product," he said with anger.[61].

In the US District Court for the State of California on August 2012, 8, Apple won a patent litigation victory that could be called "the best scenario Apple could have expected."[62], Samsung ordered to pay $ 9 million[62]However, he appealed and decided to pay under the conditions described below.Samsung is described by the US and European media as a "fast follower," while Apple also describes it as a "pioneer" or a "creative follower." We had a difference in individuality between the two companies[63].. As the CEO said, "We are a fast follower who concentrates resources on our areas of expertise and aims at the global market," Samsung said, "Even if the products of rival companies are excellent," good things are good. " Start development immediately. It was a business structure that took off the latecomer business in a short period of time and quickly took off the market share. "[64]..At the trial, Samsung confessed that it developed a smartphone inspired by the success of the iPhone, and said that the iPhone is influenced by the design of Sony products, and Apple is not much different from Samsung. Claim.On the other hand, Apple explained that Jobs was secretive about the reason why Samsung products with similar concept and appearance were called "copycat", such as "Never talk about this development team". Was[64].

The Apple Samsung trial in the United Kingdom was noted in part after Apple lost the case and posted an apology on the top of the Apple website saying "Samsung does not imitate."Meanwhile, Judge Robin Jacob, who was in charge of the Apple Samsung trial, has since been appointed as Samsung's patent officer.[65]

201512/3Announces Samsung has agreed to pay Apple $ 5 million in damages[66][67].

Labor problems

Samsung has many factories,Han Gyore Vietnam,India,IndonesiaAccording to interviews with 136 Samsung Electronics workers in Samsung Electronics, the Samsung factories in these three countries worked workers at almost the minimum wage, or at an amount that did not reach the minimum wage.The work was long and there was almost no break.An official of an international labor organization said, "Samsung's management is between global companies."Competition towards the bottom"A method of pursuing" was adopted.Samsung's factories have applied a method of working workers beyond the country's lowest line, and since it has spread to other companies, it is called "samsung labor".[68].


[How to use footnotes]
注 釈
  1. ^ Korean pronunciation is "SamSohmm".Japanese "SamA"N" is the English word "Sam"suBased on "ng".
  2. ^ About 10 trillion yen.
  3. ^ Apple, which has a long-standing rivalry in smartphone sales, is ranked 58th (2018).
  4. ^ 2nd place is Apple and 3rd place is Panasonic (2018).
  5. ^ Later, he became Vice President and Representative Director.
  6. ^ The pen that comes with the Galaxy Note8.
  1. ^ a b c d e f "Samsung Electronics Financial Statements"
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Strategy Analytics: Apple Grabs Share as Global Smartphone Shipments Dip to 345 Million in Q1 2018”. Strategy Analytics. April 2018, 6Browse.
  4. ^ “Samsung, world leader in TV market for 13 consecutive years”. Chosun Ilbo(July 2019, 2). http://www.chosunonline.com/m/svc/article.html?contid=2019022580007 April 2019, 5Browse. 
  5. ^ "Toshiba Memory: Difficulty ahead, sold for one day, fear of falling semiconductor prices". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2018, 5). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20180601/k00/00m/020/106000c April 2018, 6Browse. 
  6. ^ "Samsung Electronics No. XNUMX in R & D investment in the world | Joongang Ilbo | JoongAng Ilbo". s.japanese.joins.com. April 2019, 5Browse.
  7. ^ "Brand power ranking". April 2019, 5Browse.
  8. ^ “Samsung Electronics Foreigners' shareholding ratio declines”. WoW! Korea(July 2012, 7). http://s.wowkorea.jp/news/read/100071/ April 2018, 2Browse. 
  9. ^ [Editorial] President Moon's visit to Samsung factory is big news in South Korea
  10. ^ “World Company Banzuke Fortune Global 500, 2018 Edition”. (July 2018, 8). https://memorva.jp/ranking/forbes/fortune_global_500.php April 2018, 11Browse. 
  11. ^ “Samsung Korea's brand value rises to XNUMXth place in the world = British research company”. Union News(July 2018, 2). https://jp.yna.co.kr/view/AJP20180201004400882 April 2020, 10Browse. 
  12. ^ “Samsung“ Reputable Company ”Rises XNUMX Ranks to XNUMXth Apple Slump”. Union News(July 2018, 3). https://jp.yna.co.kr/view/AJP20180318000200882 April 2020, 10Browse. 
  13. ^ “Asia consumer brand evaluation Samsung Electronics ranked first for XNUMX consecutive years”. Union News(July 2018, 6). https://jp.yna.co.kr/view/AJP20180606000500882 April 2020, 10Browse. 
  14. ^ Isao Yanagimachi "New business development of Samsung conglomerate in South Korea in the 1960s: Fertilizer project setback and entry into electronic business"Mita Commerce Studies," Vol. 49, No. 6, Keio University Press, January 2007, pp. 1-147, ISSN 0544-571X, NOT 120000801694.
  15. ^ Emi Lee "<Article> Impact of Japan on the formation and growth of Samsung Group: For the period from 1938 to 1987"International Japanese Studies" No. 8, Department of International Japanese Studies, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba, March 2016, pp. 3-125, two:10.15068/00145457, NOT 120006023299.
  16. ^ http://www.samsung.com/jp/aboutsamsung/japan/history/1980.html
  17. ^ XNUMXK DRAM, which took XNUMX years in Japan, developed in XNUMX months in South Korea Chosun Ilbo
  18. ^ a b c d Broadcast on December 2005, 12 "NHK Special Japan's Gunzo, 25 Years to Revive"
  19. ^ XNUMXK DRAM, which took XNUMX years in Japan, developed in XNUMX months in South Korea (XNUMX)Chosun Ilbo
  20. ^ Broadcast on December 2005, 12 "NHK Special Japan's Gunzo, 25 Years to Revive"
  21. ^ [Column] Let's win the day with parent company policy = JoongAng Ilbo
  22. ^ "Semiconductor / single-wafer cleaning equipment market, tremendous growth of Koreans Korea SEMES that pulled out the screen by the number of shipments". JBpress. April 2019, 11Browse.
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  47. ^ #GalaxyStudio: Galaxy FITNESS – YouTube
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  65. ^ Judge who ordered Apple to apologize on website, now Samsung patent officer Gizmodo February 2013, 2
  66. ^ Samsung Electronics Korea pays Apple $ 5.48 million in patent proceedings
  67. ^ Samsung agrees to pay Apple $ 5 million in damages--Intellectual property proceedings
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