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Japan

Japan[Note 1]
Japan
Japanese flagSixteen-fold table
(National flag(National emblem (by convention)
National motto: None
National anthem : You are
Japan position
Official terminologyJapanese(in fact[Note 2]
capitalTokyo(in fact[Note 3]
Largest cityTokyo Ward[Note 4]
政府
EmperorTokujin
Prime MinisterFumio Kishida
Chairman of the House of RepresentativesHiroyuki Hosoda
Chairman of the House of RepresentativesHidehisa Otsuji
Chief of the Supreme CourtSaburo Tokura
area
Grand total377,973.89km2(62 bit[1][Note 5]
Water area rate0.8%
population
Grand total(20211[2]Man(11 bit
The population density333.7[3]Person/km2
GDP(Display home currency)
total(2020Nominal 538 billion[4]Yen
GDP (MER
total(20205 million[4]Dollar (3 bit
Per person40,088.603 (estimated)[4]Dollar
GDP (PPPs
total(20205 million[4]Dollar (4 bit
Per person42,211.749 (estimated)[4]Dollar
FoundingThere are various opinions
Japanese mythBy the first generationEmperor JimmuCoronation day (RoosterJanuary 1, 1).Gregorian calendarIn conversion660 BC2/11(Era) Was estimated in the Meiji era[5][Note 6].
currencyYen(JPY
Time zoneUTC+9 (STD: None)
ISO 3166-1JP / JPN
ccTLD.jp
International phone number81
  1. ^ “Chapter II Area by Prefecture” (PDF). Reiwa 4nd year Area adjustment by prefecture, city, ward, town, and village (as of January 1).Geographical Survey Institute, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. (March 2022, 3). P. 23. originalArchived as of October 2022, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20220323125218/https://www.gsi.go.jp/KOKUJYOHO/MENCHO/backnumber/GSI-menseki20220101.pdf 2022/3/23Browse. 
  2. ^ "Reiwa 2nd year census”(Japanese). Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2020). 2022/3/23Browse.
  3. ^ "Reiwa 2nd year census”(Japanese). Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2020). 2022/3/23Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF (June 2021). 2021/10/29Browse.
  5. ^ 5th year of Meiji 344th Declaration No. XNUMX After being estimated on January 1th in6th year of Meiji 344th Declaration No. XNUMX Set the era on February 2th

Japan(Japanese, Japanese,British: Japan), orJapan(Japanese, Japanese)East Asiaに 位置 す るDemocracyCountry[1].capital TheTokyo[Note 3][2][3].

Over 3500 kilometers in total lengthlandIs mainlyJapanese archipelago[Note 7]andKuril Islands-Nansei Islands-Izu Islands-Ogasawara IslandsSuch asArc archipelagoConsists of[3][4], MostlyTemperateBelongs to, but in the north and islandsSubarctic,熱 帯There is an area of[5][6]..The terrain is rugged and includes volcanic areas and hills.MountainOccupies about 75% of the country[6], Coastal平野The population is concentrated in the department.In JapanAdministrative divisionAs of 47PrefecturesThere,Japanese(Yamato-Ryukyu people-ア イ ヌ 民族[Note 8]-Foreign systemPeople) andForeignerLives inJapanesePass[2][3].

Meiji RestorationAfter1889(Meiji22 years)Imperial Japanese ConstitutionEstablishedConstitutional nationBecomesPacific WarAfterAllied Occupation Period Of1947(Showa22) is the currentThe Constitution of JapanEnforceDemocracyShift to the system.1952(Showa27 years),San Francisco Peace TreatyBysovereigntyRecovered[3].

Overview

JapaneseIs the mother tongueYamato PeopleOccupy most of the.Physical geographically,EurasiaLocated in the east ofPacific Rim Volcanic ZoneCompose[2].Island countryAndterritory Because it is surrounded by国境Does not exist.Japanese archipelago TheHonshu,Hokkaido,Kyusyu,Shikoku,Okinawa Island6852 including (and above mainland)(I.e.Have[Note 9].Climate classificationIs northSubarcticSouth fromSubtropicalVariousClimate classificationBelongs to[8]..variousNatural disastersEasy to be hit byEnvironmentInEarthquakeIncidence anddisasterThe damage amount is世界Leading[9].

Japan is oldMainland China,Korean PeninsulaHas a deep relationship withAsuka Period-Nara periodToEnvoy,Envoy such astransactionThroughLawsystem·Buddhism-Confucianism-Chinese textEtc. are imported and used for the construction of the national system. Also,ShosoinToPersia-IndiaDerived fromCultural propertyAs an example, it is not limited to Tang and Korea, but Asia through trade.Silk roadCulture is also flowing in.DecreeAfter the establishment of the systemHeian periodFrom the endSamurai governmentIs established, and is replaced many times.Edo PeriodLimiting the country of datingIsolation", But under external pressureOpeningThen,Meiji RestorationIn the process ofGreat command of the royal revivalSamurai governmentIs over.

Southwest War,Abandoned DomainAnd so onCentralizationAfter completingFreedom Civil Rights MovementIn responseImperial Japanese ConstitutionWas enacted,Constitutional monarchyMove to.at the same timeWestern Of資本主義With reference toJapan's first bank,Tokyo Stock ExchangeAnd companies that do business with banks were founded one after another.In parallelIndustrializationAlso progressed hereWesternization-ModernizationWas fulfilled, JapanModern nationMove to.

Sino-Japanese war,Russo-Japanese War,World War IJapan, which won the victory, connected with Western countries at the time of opening the countryInequality treatyTheAbolitionLetterritoryWas extended.League of NationsIn its inauguration, JapanLeague of Nations CodeToRacismI called for abolition (Proposal to eliminate racial discrimination), Did not come to fruition[10][11]..In the League of Nations in the absence of the United StatesPermanent memberJapan, which has secured the status ofTaisho democracyIn response to this, political and cultural development has progressedCommon election lawHolds,DemocracyWill be.but,World DepressionAnd followBlock economyIn front of, JapanMilitary(Japanese army)byMilitarism-Totalitarianism OfDictatorshipRun toManchuriaContinuing from the founding ofSino-Japanese warToSecond World WarToAxis powersParticipated asAllied forcesBut lost to the Pacific War.

occupationBelowAllied Command(GHQ) instructionNational democratic right,Respect for basic human rights,PacifismSing[12]The Constitution of JapanIs enacted, and Japan becomes a democracy again.After the postwar reconstruction,Cold WaramongSDFUS-Japan Security TreatyWhile maintaining national defense centered onthe 1960sからHigh economic growthEnter the period,IndustrializationAccelerated and promoted science and technology nationeconomic superpowerIt becamePlaza agreementThroughBubble economyRush intothe 1980sAfter the burst of the bubble economy at the end, the economy entered a period of stagnation.[2]..After that, the world's largest foreign countryNet worthAlthough it is a country[13], While the wealth of middle- and high-income earners and above is increasing, the traditionalMiddle classIs becoming poorer and the gap is widening[14][15].Comprehensive and Advanced Agreement on Trans-Pacific PartnershipIn general, such as promotingFree tradeSupports the system.

populationWas stable at around 3000 million people until the end of the Edo period, but after the Meiji era, the population entered a period of rapid increase.1967(ShowaIn 42), the number exceeded 1 million for the first time.After that, it peaked at the beginning of the 21st century with the decline in the birth rate, and the population began to decline.[16].. Modern Japanese societyYoungerIs progressing, and the world's top class life expectancy is combined with the low influx of immigrants.Super aging societyHas rushed into.

Human development indexIs highDeveloped countryIs counted as one of[17],Economic Cooperation Development Organization,G7,G8andG20Is a participating country.Nominal GDP is the third largest in the worldAndPurchasing power parity is the 4th largest in the worldIs[18]After the United States and Chinaeconomic superpowerIs. Although it has been pushed by the United States and China since the beginning of the 21st centuryelectronicsIt is the center of industry and automobile industry[19][20],Toyota,Nissan,Honda,Toshiba,Sony,Panasonic,Hitachi, Ltd.Produced many large companies,Science and technologyBecame the leader of[21]. Also,Economic Complexity IndexIn Japan1984(ShowaSince 59, it has consistently maintained the top position in the world.For this reasonStrong lineConsidered a country[22][23].

According to the Institute for Economics and Peace2022(ReiwaJapan ranks fifth in the world after Australia, Switzerland, Canada and the United Kingdom in a healthy business environment ranking (4 years).[24]. Also,2020(ReiwaIn the International Labor Organization (ILO) Labor Rights Ranking (2 years), it belongs to the 6nd group out of 2 levels in the world.Taiwan,SingaporeAt the same time, it occupies a unique position in Asia and is also worldwide.Germany,ItalyAlthough not as good asFrance,CanadaApposition,The United States of America,United KingdomHigher than and considered higher level[25].

cultureIn terms ofJapanese garden,Japanese architecture,Japanese,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Religious(Shinto-Japanese Buddhism) Such asTraditional cultureHoldMultiple World Heritage SitesOwns.AlsoComic,Anime,GameStarting withPop cultureIt is the center.These culturesEurope and AmericaIt is attracting attention from overseas as a unique culture compared to the culture of[Note 10].Home game console OfhardwareThen,the 1990suntilNintendo-Sony-Sega3 companies have gained most of the global market share,2001(Heisei13 years) In JanuarySegaWithdrew.

政府 TheCool JapanExecute a strategy, etc.Promote tourism nationare doing.2021(Reiwa3 years)Tokyo Olympics[Note 11]Is held2025(Reiwa7 years)Osaka ExpoWill be scheduled, etc.internationalWe will also focus on inviting special events.2021,US News & World Report2021 Best Countries Ranking2rd place in[26].. In 2020, Japan ranked second after Canada in the most immigrant country rankings surveyed by remitly, which handles international money transfer services. [6].

Country code

"Japan"漢字byCountry codeIs written in the Japanese archipelagoMainland ChinaSeen from the end of the east, that is, "Book of the dayThere is a theory that it comes from being located in (Hinomoto)[27].. The titles of the two modern constitutions are "The Constitution of Japan"and"Imperial Japanese ConstitutionHowever, there is no law that directly and clearly defines the national code.[28]. However,Japanese Industrial StandardThen, "Japan", English notationJapanAnd regulations. Furthermore,Acquisition of ISO CertificationIn (ISO), use the 3-letter abbreviationJPN, Two-letter codeJPIt is stipulated.Also,Ministry of Foreign AffairsIssued bypassportOn the cover of theSixteen single-faced chrysanthemum[Note 12] Is presented. The notation for pointing to Japan by law is not unified, and "Japan," "Japan," "Japan," "Japan," etc. are mixed.

Japanese expression

pronunciation

"に ほ ん""に っ ぽ んIs read." Both are used a lot, soJapanese govermentDoes not stipulate a formal reading as either one, and either reading is acceptable[30].

It is speculated that the "Japanese" national title that arose from international relations in the latter half of the 7th century was read as "Nippon" (Kureon) or "Zippon" (Kanon) in the international readings (reading aloud) of those days.[31].. I'm not sure when the reading of "Nihon" started. It was written in Japanese in the kana notation. In the Heian period,Hinomoto"And I began to be taught.

In the Muromachi period, the Yokyoku Kyogen was read by the Chinese as "Japan" and by the Japanese as "Nihon".In the Azuchi-Momoyama periodPortugalA compilation of peopleJapanese-Japanese dictionary”And “Nihon Kobunten”, etc., the readings of “Nippon”, “Nihon” and “Zippon” can be seen. Judging from the examples, “Nippon” is used when it is a revised scene or when you want to emphasize it. "Nihon" was used in[32].. From thisSeiji KoikeThe medieval Japanese used "Zippon", which has a Chinese-like sensation, only in external scenes such as Chinese and Westerners. In everyday life, "Nippon" and "Nihon" were used. I was guessing that[33].. In addition, about "Zippon" sound that is not transmitted now,Other languagesSee also

In 1934, while both "Nihon" and "Nippon" were used even after modern times.Ministry of EducationThe Extraordinary Japanese Language Study Group unified the word to "Nippon" and sometimes proposed to abolish the foreign language notation in Japan and use Nippon, but it ended incompletely. same year,Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) has decided that "on the broadcast," Nippon "will be the first reading and" Nihon "will be the second reading."[34].

Since then, both have been used even now, and on June 2009, 6, the government stated that "the readings of" Nippon "and" Nihon "are widely accepted, and it is not necessary to unify them to either one." The answer is decided by the Cabinet[30].

Currently related to foreign countries in terms of trade and exchangebill,stamp"NIPPON" is drawn on such items (the issuer of banknotes is also "Bank of Japan").

"Japan" (NIHON)
"Japan" (NIPPON)

In addition, Nippon Television Network(NTV),East Nippon Telegraph and Telephone(NTT East) ・West Nippon Telegraph and TelephoneAs in (NTT West), the company name is "Nippon" and the nickname is "Nihon".East Japan Expressway(NEXCO East Japan) ・Central Japan Expressway(NEXCO Central Japan) ・West Japan ExpresswayIn some cases, the English company name is "Nippon" and the Japanese company name is "Nihon", such as (NEXCO West Japan).

According to a survey conducted by the Nihon Keizai Shimbun in 2016, the reading of listed companies that include "Japan" in the company name is 60% for "Japan" and 40% for "Japan", and companies that read "Japan". The ratio was on the rise."Nippon" is often used in TV program names.[35].. Regarding the reading of the Japanese Constitution,Cabinet Legal Affairs BureauSays that there is no specific regulation on how to read it, and either is acceptable.[36].. During the debate on reading when the Japanese Constitution was enacted, the Minister for ConstitutionTokujiro Kanamori"It is generally accepted that both Japanese and Japanese readings are used," he said.[34].

Japanese political partyThe reading in the name is as follows (a party that has had multiple seats in the Diet):

"Japan" (NIHON)
"Japan" (NIPPON)

JapaneseOlympicThe team used the English placard notation "JAPAN" at the time of the admission march, but it was their first participation in 1912.Stockholm Olympics OfTeamOnly used the notation "NIPPON"[37].2021Held in your own country2020 Tokyo OlympicsThen, at the time of the admission march, it was announced as "Nihon".

Nihonbashi, which is the name and place name of the bridges in Tokyo and Osaka, is in Tokyo.NihonbashiIs "Nihonbashi" in OsakaNihonbashiIs read as "Nippombashi".

AkihitoEmperorConsistently reads "Nihon"[34].

Designation

It has been diverse since ancient times.

Japanese
  • Akitsushima-"Akitsu" means "dragonfly".Emperor KoanIt is said to be derived from the city name of "Muroakitsushimagu".
    • "Akitsu Island"
    • "Daiwa Toyo Akizushima" (another name for "Kojiki" Honshu)
    • "Dainippon Toyoaki Tsusu" ("Nihonshoki" Kamidai)
  • Ashihara no Nakatsukuni- "Ashihara" is said to represent a fertile place or a former place name.
    • "Ashihara no Nakatsukuni[38](Ashihara no Nakatsukuni, Ashihara no Nakatsu) (Kojiki, Nihon Shoki, Kamiyo)
    • "Toyoashihara"
    • "Toyoashihara Mizuhokuni"
    • “Toyoashihara no Chiaki Chocho XNUMX Hyakuaki Mizuho Kuni (Toyoashi Hara no Chiaki Nagaho Mizuki Nonokuni)” (Kojiki)
    • "Toyoashihara XNUMX Autumn Mizuhokuni (Toyoashi Harano Chiiho Aki Mizuho Nonokuni)" ("Nihonshoki" Kamidai)
  • Enlightenment-The meaning of a peaceful country.
    • "Urayasu" (Nihon Shoki/Kimmuki)
  • Oyashima-A national myth, the meaning of a country composed of eight initially created islands. In Kojiki, Awaji Island: Shikoku: Oki: Kyushu: Iki: Tsushima: Sado: Honshu.
    • "Great Yashima" "Taiyajima"
    • "Daishachi" ("Yoryo")
    • "Great Yasukuni" (Kamidai, "Nihonshoki")
  • Kokushi fluffy-a country equipped with elaborate weapons.
    • "Shinjaku Senjukuni" (Nihon Shoki/Kimtaken)
  • Shikishima-"Shikishima" isEmperor KinmeiIt is said to be derived from the capital city of "Ishirojima Kinsashimiya".
    • "Shikijima" ("Kojiki")
    • "Isojojima" "Shikishima" ("Manyoshu")
    • "Shikishima"
  • Tamaki Uchinokuni
    • "Tama-Kuchikuni" (Nippon Shoki, Jinmuki)
    • "Tamagaki Nation" ("The Emperor Orthodox")
  • Hinoizuru place-A reading of "Hide" written in the national book sent by Envoy Sui to the Emperor.
    • "Hijido" (Suisho)
  • Hinomoto refined dictionSometimes read in[Note 13].
  • Hotsuma no Kuni
    • "Hidekuni Isowakami" (Nippon Shoki, Jinbuki)
  • Mizuho Nonokuni-The meaning of a country with fresh and fresh rice ears.
  • Yamato- Yamato(Nara) Is also used to mean the whole of Japan. In "Kojiki" and "Nihonshoki", it is written as "Wa" and "Japan".Wei ZhajinIn the Chinese history books such as the above, Japan (Yamato) is described as “Yamato” in the borrowed sound. It is also referred to as "Yamori" in "Nihon Shoki". Before the national name of "Japan" was established, the Japanese archipelago had nations or peoples called "wakoku" and "wak" from the Chinese dynasty. In "Nippon Shoki," in ancient Japan, when the forces of "Yamato" were the center of unification, "Yamato" came to be read as "Yamato" with the inflow of Kanji, and "Yamato" changed over time. It becomes "Daiwa" and changes to "Yamato". After that, further change "Yamato" to "Japan" and read this as "Yamato."[39]However, there are also positions that doubt this, such as the "Old Karasho."Emperor Jimmu Iwayo(Kamuyama and Iwabiko), Wakayama and Nekohiko (Wakayama and Nekohiko), etc.again,HayatoFrom the names such as (Hayato), it is possible that people in the mountains were originally called "Yamato".
    • "Looking at the void(SoramiOneJapan(Yamatos country"
Chinese language
In addition to "Wa", "Waikoku", "Waikoku" (Yamato), "Wafu", and "Wajin"HibiscusHorai"Fuso" in line with the legend[40], There is a nomenclature such as "Penglai", but especially as nomenclatureLuzhou(Eiyu)Toei(Touei) is written[41]..In addition to this, "Tokai Hime Kuni", "Tokai Onna Kuni", "Women's Kuni", "Kimiko Kuni", "Wakaki Kuni", "Nippon", "Nitto", "Kusaka", "Kasuo Kuni", and "Amokyo" (A) There were Mt. Mother, Mt. Nami, Mt. Nami).
"Imperial Dynasty" was originallyZhongyuanRefers to the dynasty of TenshiChinese languageHowever, it was used as a Chinese expression to refer to the Emperor's dynasty in Japan,National scholarRead this as "Sumitomikado" or "Sumiramikado." “Kamikoku”, “Emperor”, “Shinshu”, “Tencho”, “Tengokukuni”, etc. are paraphrases of “Imperial”, which is a mnemonic (nickname), and are not the names or names of countries. "This morning" also means "Japan" and is not a country name.Edo Period OfScholarWas sometimes referred to as "Chinese," "Nakahara," "Chu," "mid-range," "China," etc., but this is not a country name either. The name "Dainippon" is attached to the custom of China, which means that it is a Tianzi dynasty by prefixing the country name with Dai, Emperor, Ari, and Holy.[Note 14].. However, the word "Oyamato" is one of the old names. "empireWas originally synonymous with "Shinkoku, Empire, Shinshu", but has been used as a translation of "empire" since modern times.After the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, notations such as "Japan", "Japan", "Empire of Japan", "Empire of Japan", and "Empire of Japan" were used in addition to "Empire of Japan"."Japan" is used exclusively as the postwar country name[Note 15].
Wakan
"Nihonsho Kijindai Kosho" written by Enka Deguchi and Hiroshi Yamamoto, who are Shinto artists in the early Edo period.[42]The country name for the Han dynasty is listed in.
  • "Wakoku"
  • "Waido"
  • "Japanese country"
  • "Nomadai Kuni" and "Yamako"
  • "princessUjikuni”, “Queen”
  • "Fusuoku"
  • "Kimikoku"
  • "Japan"- Emperor Suren2 years,NinaTsunuga Arashito (Tsunuga Arashito, etc.) got a kid who was a change of white stone enshrined in a village, but after that she went into "Japan" after the kid who escaped, and the kid entered "Japan".Namba(Namba) andToyokuni Mae-gunIt is said that he was found to be the deity of (Himego no Yashiro) of (Toyo ni Michinokuchi no Kuni) (Nihon Shoki).

Other languages

The official notation in English isJapan(Japan). Adjective isJapanese(Japanese). The abbreviation isISO 3166-1Used inJPN,JPIs often used.JAP(Jap) Has a derogatory meaning, especially in English-speaking countries, but in some countries[Note 16],IOC codeSo from a neutral standpointJAPIs used.NipponThere are some examples where (Nippon) is used. Specifically,UPURomaji notation by etc. (since 1965),Postage stamp,Bank of Japan notesEtcNipponNotation is used.Abbreviation isNPNIs used.
Other means Japanese in each languageProper nounIs unchapine (: an t Seapáin), Yapang (alone: Japan), Japon (Buddha: Japan), yapan (Orchid: Japan), Happon (West: Japan), Japone (Yi: Japan), yaponiya (: Japan), Japonia/Iponia[Note 17](dew: Япо́ния), Yaponiya (Yu: Япо ́нія), Yepun (Thai: ญี่ปุ่น) Such as in a specific area at a specific timeChinese"Jipangu" that pronounced "Japan" was copied in (Japanese readingThere is also a theory that it is derived from "Zippon"),Zipangu(Xipangu / Zipang / Zipangu) or JapanguEtymologyIt is thought to be.
Kanji culture areaIn Leven (: Rìběn; Japan[Note 18], Irbon (Morning: 일본; Japan), Nyaban (Yue: Nhật Bản; Japan[Note 19]I read "Japan" as it is in my own language.
9st centuryIn the medieval Arab world since the middle of the year, the golden land that exists beyond the eastExcited(A: الواق و اق) Was called.The origin of this name is "", which was the name in China at that time.JapanThere is a theory that it was the result of being transmitted to the Arab world.Also, regarding the meaning of the golden land in the east.ZipanguMatch the legend.
Notation on old maps published in Europe
  • "CIPAN GU" around 1300[43]
  • "IAPAM" around 1560[44]
  • "ZIPANGNI" 1561[45]
  • "IAPAN" around 1567[46]
  • "IAPAM" around 1568[47]
  • "JAPAN" issue year unknown[48]
  • "IAPONICUM" 1585[49]
  • "IAPONIAE" 1595[50]
  • "IAPONIA" 1595[51]
  • "IAPONIÆ" 1595[52]
  • "IAPONIA" 1598[53]
  • "IAPONIA" 1598[54]
  • "IAPAO" 1628[55]
  • "Iapan" 1632[56]
  • "IAPONIA" 1655[57]
  • "IAPON" issue year unknown[58]
  • "Iapan" 1657[59]
  • "IAPONIA" around 1660[60]
  • "NIPHON" around 1694[61][Note 20]
  • "JAPAM" 1628[62]
  • "YAPAN" 1628[63]
  • "IAPON" 17th century[64]
  • "IMPERIUM IAPONICUM" Early 18th century[65]
  • "IMPERIUM IA PONICUM" around 1710[66]
  • "IAPONIA" Early 18th century[67]
  • "IAPON" 1720-30[68]
  • "IMPERIVM JAPONIC VM" 1727[69]
  • "HET KONINKRYK JAPAN", around 1730[70]
  • "JAPANIÆ REGNVM" 1739[71]

Origin of national name

Overview

in Japan,Yamato administrationSince their unification,YamatoIt was called ", but since ancient timesChugoku,KoreaIs JapanJapaneseI have called it.Ishigami Shrine OfSeven swordsInscriptions and ChineseHistory book("Pre-Chinese book''Three Kingdoms''After Chinese book''Song Book''Suisho] Etc.)Goguryeo OfHirokai Dou OfInscriptionAlso, all are described as Wajin, Wakoku, Wajin, Wajin, Wajin, etc. So the representative of Yamato外交Sometimes (5st centuryof"Five Kings of Japan”) Came to write“ King Wakoku ”in national books[72].

But after diplomatic relations with China have been aborted for about 120 years7st centuryWhen it was resumed early,Japanese calligraphyIn "The Emperor of the East respects and whitens the Emperor of the West", and in "Suisho", there is a national book that says "Tenshi in the place of sunrise, Tenshi in the place of sunset. There is a description given by the Japanese side, and it avoids calling it "Yu" as in the past. On the Chinese side, the name of Japan appeared for the first time in "Tohoden" of "Old Book of Tang", and "Japan is a different species of Wakoku. Because it is in that country, near the sun, it is named after Japan. "Or, Wakoku himself blames the grace of his name and makes it with Japan again." "Or, Japan is a former (original) small country, and the land of Wakoku is combined." Explains why Wakoku changed the name to Japan[73].. Also, in the "New Book of Tang", it says "It is close to the place where the country rises, and it makes a name for it", which is common with "Tenko Hidekoro" in the book of Sui.

In this 7th centuryEnvoyFollowed byEnvoyIs often dispatched, but it is not clear when the name was changed to "Wa" and "Japan" to the national name.[74].. The Nihon Shoki, which describes in detail each negotiation of the messenger, was also published after Japan was established as a national name in the 8th century.bookTherefore, all the characters of "Wa" that may have been in the original material have been changed to "Japan" as far as the national name is concerned. In other literature, it is an anecdote of "Overseas Kokuki" written in 733 (Tenpyo 5), in 664 (Tenji 3).DazaifuIt is said that he gave a book to the Tang messenger who came to Japan, "Chinzei High School, Chinzei High School," but the truth is unknown. After all, what is certain is "Japanese sequelThe envoy to Tang, who visited Tang for the first time in 702 years in 2 (32nd year of Taiho), claimed that he was a "Japanese envoy" while the Tang side treated him as a messenger of "Yamato Province". The article "Tohoden" in "Old Book of Tang" also seems to be based on this explanation on the Japanese side.[75].

Details

In "Nihon Shoki", Emperor Jimmu, the first emperor of Japan, was called God Nihon Iwayohikoson (Kamyama and Hikono Mikoto), and Nigihayahi called Japan "the country of Japan that sees the void."

"Silla Honki』," In 670, Wakoku changed the country name to Japan. " Regarding the relationship between "Wakoku" and "Japan", according to "Nihon Shoki", in ancient Japan where the power of "Yamato" unified Wakoku, with the influx of kanji, "Wakoku" was borrowed from "Yamato". Eventually, the kanji for "Yamato" was changed from "Wakoku" to "Japan", and it was initially read as "Yamato".[39].

The time when the notation of the country name "Japan" became established was from the latter half of the 7th century.8st centuryIt is thought that it is until the beginning. East Asia around this time was established in 618.Has expanded its power and had a strong influence on neighboring countries.Emperor SaimeiIs a 658 vassalAbe HirafuTo be a foreign countryQuietness(Sakhalin) I have ordered the conquest. Due to the defeat of the Wakoku army at the Battle of Baekgang in 663, Tang sent a messenger to Wakoku, and in the process of performing postwar processing between Tang and Wakoku, the Wakoku side was a decree nation aiming for an equal relationship with Tang. There was a need to change to. With these circumstances as an opportunity, in 668Emperor TenchiIs the first decree in Japan, the Omi imperial court decree (Omi ordinance) Was enacted. And in 672RebellionAfter that, he seized strong powerEmperor TenmuFurther promoted the construction of a system centered on the emperor, in 689Asuka Jogohara OrdinanceFrom 701 (Great treasureFirst year)Great treasure lawIt is thought that "Japan" was born as a notation of the national name in the process leading up to the establishment of.

The specific time of establishment has not been specified by historical sources. However, the views to estimate it are narrowed down to the following two theories.

(1) The theory that it was established during the reign of Emperor Tenmu (672-686)[76].. This is the view that the notation "Japan" was established at the same time as the issue and notation of "Emperor" was established during this reign. For example, Takashi Yoshida speculates that the Asuka Kiyomihara Ordinance of 689 stipulated both the "Emperor" notation and the "Japan" notation.[77][Note 21].

(2) The theory that the "Japan" notation was established before and after the establishment of the Taiho Code in 701 (the first year of Taiho). For example, Takamitsu Kono states that the "Japan" notation was stipulated in the Taiho Code official decree form.[78].. However, in "Nihon Shoki"DahuaIn the July article of the first year (645), the apology to the messenger from Goguryeo and Baekje says "Emperor of Japan, Myojin Miu", but today this is based on the official decree of the Taiho Code, which was stipulated later. Nihon Shoki ”(720 years (XNUMX)YoroIt is believed that the editor of (4 years) established) added a mellow color.[79].

The "Tang calendar" established in Tang in the first half of the 8th century states that there was a mission to Tang from "Japan" in 702 (Taiho 2nd year).[80].. "Old Book of Tang" established in later generations[81][82], "New Book of Tang"[83]In addition, the new country name "Japan" was changed to Tang by the envoy to Tang at that time.Takenori, Oshu) There is a description that it was transmitted to. Both books state that "the origin of the national name is that it is close to the land of sunrise." Regarding the reason for the change of the country name, the explanation from the Japanese side that "I hated the name of Wakoku that is not elegant" is described, but regarding the relationship between Wakoku and Japan, there is a possibility that it is not just a change of the country name. Mentioned. In other words, the "Old Book of Tang" states that "Japan, which was a small country, merged Wakoku," and the "New Book of Tang" states that the Japanese messenger said, "Wakoku changed the country name to Japan, and Wakoku merged Japan." I stole the national name, "but said it was suspicious.[Note 22]Also in the same book, Japan is regarded as a country that was the first to communicate with China at the end of the Emperor Sui (around 600), and is different from the ancient Wa-ken country. In addition, it states that the surname of the king of Japan is Mr. Agyo, that Jimmu, who was in Chikushi Castle, conquered Yamato and became the emperor. In any case, these statements confirm that in 702, the "Japan" state name was first approved by Tang.

The oldest historical material with the "Japanese" national title discovered so far isKaiyuan22 years (734 years, Japan:Balance6 years)ImaiIs a grave magazine[Note 23]..However, in July 2011, the Nara army[Note 24]NamedBaekjeA paper was published in China that the word "Japan" was found in the epitaph of a human military commander.The epitaph is believed to have been produced in 678, and if this were the case, the establishment of the national name Japan would go back further than the conventional theory.[85].

"Old chinese calligraphy"New tang bookThere is a theory that the "Japanese" national name is a name from the viewpoint of the mainland China to see the Japanese archipelago in the east.[86].Heian periodIt was established earlyHirohito's personal notes』Introduction, Japan is a "daybook" to China, that is,EastIt is explained that the location is in Japan, and the reading of the "Nihonshoki" was held several times during the Heian period.Nihon Shoki Memories] Many books also take the theory that it was named from the Chinese perspective.[Note 25].

In "Suisho" Toshoden,There is also a claim that in the Kokusho to the emperor, he called himself "Tenshi of the rising sun" and that the phrase "Hisuzuru Denko" at that time became the source of the "Japanese" national title. However, it has been pointed out that the word "Hijizuru-dokoro" is just a decoration because there is a description in the Buddhist text "Daichidoron" that it is a different expression of the East.[87].

History

Japanese history is usually equated with history in the Japanese archipelago. However, the exact establishment of "Japan" isCountry codeIt was in the latter half of the 7th century as shown in, and until then it was called "Waikoku." It is not clear in the historical materials what kind of geographical range or systematic range this Japanese country has, and many academic hypotheses have been submitted. There are various theories regarding the relationship between Japan and Japan, and it is also suggested that "history of Japan" and "history of the Japanese archipelago" should be clearly distinguished.[88].

Human historythanJapanese archipelago OfHistoryIs tens of millions of years longer, and the Japanese archipelagoHuman capitalDid not live. The formation of the Japanese archipelago beganmammalianAppearedEoceneIt is estimated to be (5600 million years ago-3400 million years ago).そして、アフリカにAnd in AfricaHuman capitalWas bornEoceneFar behindPleistoceneIt is the final stage (about 25 years ago).

Classification of the timesIt is,archeologyWith the one aboveHistoryThere is one above.

(1) Archaeologically,Paleolithic(Pre-Pottery Age),Jomon Period,Yayoi Period, Historical period, and so on.

On the other hand, (2) historically,Ancient times(Kofun periodFromAsuka Period-Nara period·Heian period),中 世(Kamakura Period-Muromachi Period-Sengoku period),The early modern period(Azuchi-Momoyama Period·Edo Period),Modern(Meiji RestorationTo August 1945, 8) andmodernThe common rule is the quintile method (since August 1945, 8).[Note 26].

Discussion about the founding

Officially established in 1966Cabinet Order that stipulates the day of the founding anniversaryAccording to (Cabinet Order No. 41 of 376), February 2th was designated as "a day to commemorate the event itself that the country was founded."Foundation Day(OldEra) Was set.WritingConverted the day of the imperial year of the first Emperor Jimmu (January 1, Yin Metal Rooster) to the Gregorian calendar (660 BCFebruary 2).663 BC,Nara BasinAnd its surroundingsNagahikoTheEmperor JimmuIs defeated (Jinmu Tosei),Emperor Jimmu Nara BasinIt is said that he was to govern and the surrounding area.

However, Japan as a nation and the people and culture of Japan have been gradually formed over many years since prehistoric times.mythOrrealityBecause there are many records that are difficult to distinguish[89],FoundingCertain time根 拠BecomeRecordDoes not exist.

Based on this imperial year of Emperor Jimmu, a bill regarding the enactment of "National Foundation Day" has been submitted nine times since around 1957, but from the standpoint of history, the imperial year of Emperor Jimmu has been submitted by many people in this Kiki. Since there is a description that he lived over 9 years old, it was considered a myth and it was not true after the war, so there is a background that none of them was established.

Therefore, National Foundation Day does not legally define "the date when Japan was founded."

Emperor Jimmu did not existOverheadMay be a person[89]However, in "Nihon Shoki" Jimmu, Kamyama Toiwarehiko (Emperor Jimmu)RoosterSpringNew YearDragonSakuThere is a description that it was enthroned on (January 1), and in Japan before the Meiji era, this was widely considered to be the epoch of the founding of Japan.Therefore, the 1th year of the Meiji era11/15(December 1872, 12)Emperor Jinmu coronation ADDetermined to start in 660 BC, this is the first yearChronology· "Imperial periodWas used from January 6, 1 (January 1, 1873)[Note 27]

In addition, as the time of the founding of the country, the time when the national name "Japan" was established (the establishment of the Asuka Kiyomihara Ordinance or the Taiho Code) and the Taisei Hokan were made, and the construction of a modern nation began (under international law).National sovereigntyThere is no evidence that clearly defines the time when Japan was founded, such as the theory that it was the time of the Meiji Restoration.

Dawn of Japan

The history of humankind in the Japanese archipelago is said to have begun about 10 years ago or about 3.5 years before people began living.[Note 28].. The Japanese archipelago at that time was a land connection with the Asian continent[Note 29], WesternNorth ChinaAnd northernSiberiaThere was also a cultural exchange with him. About 3 years ago, it separated from the Korean Peninsula by the strait, and about 1 years agoLast glacial periodAfter the end of the sea, transgression of 6m or more continued until about 100 years ago (Jomon Kaishin). The inhabitants of this period are Jomon people. After this, small-scale and wide-ranging exchanges and exchanges took place between the archipelago and the continent, and macroscopically the Japanese archipelago was also under the influence of the East Asian cultural sphere centered on China.[Note 30].. However, due to the geographical condition of being a large island nation located in the easternmost part of East Asia, it is a backward region in terms of the degree of development of civilization, compared to China, which had developed early from the civilization of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basin. Was there.

8th century BCSince then, from southern ChinaRice cultivationWhen the Yayoi people, who have a cultural style centered on, flow in, regional political groups called "Kuni" are gradually formed in various places. These regional political groups formed a loose Wajin cultural sphere linked by maritime trade from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula to the Nansei Islands. In such a cultural areaJeweletc6th century BCSince then, it has propagated from Japan to the Korean Peninsula, and the manufacturing method of bronze and ironware was introduced to Japan around the 2nd century BC.1st century-2st centuryBefore and after, each Kuni repeated conflicts over the position of representative of Wa, forming regional coalition nations in various places. Among them, from the nations that existed from Kitakyushu to Honshu, the most influential Yamato was the unification kingship (Yamato kingship) Was formed, and the theory that it developed into a dynasty is predominant. Of the kingshipChief() LaterKingCalled (Ookimi)AustralianFollowing (local chief), we proceeded with the construction of a unified nation.

Establishment of Ritsuryoku and development of aristocratic politics

The battle for hegemony on the Korean PeninsulaJapanChanged the national system of. Until then, the Yamato kingdom was a Tungusic Chinese nation that belonged to the same culture.Baekje,SillaIn response to the repeated dispatch of troopsNinaTo build Japanese territory, etc.Korean PeninsulaHad an influence on663, Sent reinforcements for the reconstruction of BaekjeBattle of Shiramura RiverDefeated by the Allied Forces of Silla and Tang to retreat their influence on the peninsula. Shortly thereafter, the Yamato kingship replaced the "Wakoku" issue with the "Japan" issue and the "Great King" issue with the "Great King" issue.Emperor”, Showing an attitude of trying to establish equal diplomatic relations with China, centering on ChinaBookbinding systemClarified independence from. This was a diplomatic stance that was different from other East Asian countries, and was more or less inherited by Japan after that. Japan rapidly ingested China's legal and social systems in the latter half of the 7th century, and became an ancient nation in the early 8th century.Ritsuryoku Nation) I saw the completion.Also"Suisho』, Corresponds to the latter part of the Kofun period in the Japanese archipelago610ToIs said to have been destroyed by expedition to "Liuqiu", and it was the established theory that it existed in the Ryukyu Islands in the previous research, but opinions are divided over its position.[90][91].

Japan continued to maintain its unique international status in East Asia in the 7th century.ChineseUnique to the dynastyEmperorIn the 8th centuryBalhae was made a tributary state..Will be described laterSamurai governmentEven after the establishment13st century OfMaster,16st centuryEurope's expansion into Asia,19st century OfWestern powerIt will maintain its independence in response to various situations such as the advancement of.

At the time of its establishment, the area controlled by Wa did not cover the entire Japanese archipelago, and the areas south of southern Kyushu and north of central Tohoku were still outside the area. Southern Kyushu was incorporated at the end of the 8th century (Hayato) However, the entire Tohoku region, where resistance was strong, was in the latter half of the Heian period ()Enkyu Ezo Battle) Incorporated into the territory, Wajin, Hayato, and Ezo became Japanese.Especially in the 8th and 9th centuries, the conquest of Ezo became active and the relationship deteriorated.An expedition to Silla is also planned[92]It was a time when the empire's external orientation became stronger, but in the 10th century, these movements subsided.

9st centuryから10st centuryIn the meantime, local gentry and influential peasants began to maintain and expand their power and arm themselves. They often became in conflict in various parts of the country, and the government set up middle- and lower-class officials to control them.Captive,Pursuit messengerI dispatched them to various places, but some of themOfficials in the officeSome of them have become established as they are. This issamuraiIs the origin of. SamuraiHome,Roh PartyThe battle was repeated, but eventually it was a coalition centered on eastern Japan.SamuraiHas grown into. Above all, draw the genealogy of the central aristocratTakehira HiranoGen SeiwaIs a military aristocratsamuraiIt grew into a force that divides the samurai into two, and the two sides fought over the administration.

In central politics11st centuryToFujiwara KitaPlays a central role in the administration as a consort kin of the imperial familyCustoms politicsWas established.Emperor Shirakawa Haritoku no KimiAfter taking control of the Emperor, the emperor, who has no direct kinship with the Fujiwara Kita family, quicklyTransferThen,Emperor TaijoBecome (the emperor) and manage the politicsPoliticsHas come to be often seen.

In terms of culture, we tried to ingest the continental culture centered on Tang from the 7th century to the 9th century, but from the 10th century to the 12th century, a culture unique to Japan began to be created.National cultureHas blossomed[3].

Age of the samurai government

From the 10th century12st centuryIn the meantime, the ancient Ritsuryo national system centered on the old emperor changed significantly, and it shifted to the dynasty national system where decentralization to each level of society progressed.FurthermoreResponsibility and Rebellion of ToshinagaTaira administrationBrokeGen Seiwa,HojoSeize the real powerKamakura ShogunateGoverns the country while competing with the dynasty aristocratic forces,Hard""Thanks and serviceA feudal system symbolized by the words "" has been established (Manorary system,Job system[3].

From around the 12th century (late Heian period)InvoiceIt is thought that this is a sign that the notations of "Japan" and "Japan" have begun to appear in old documents such as, and the consciousness of "Japan" and "Japanese" has become strongly conscious.Also, around this time, it will lead to todayBuddhism in JapanSects developed[3].

After defeating the Mongol Empire

Late 13th centuryMongolian Empire OfInvasion of JapanIs an opportunity for the awareness of "Japan" and "Japanese" to spread widely to all levels of society.ShrineEstablished the idea.Yoshihiko AminoSays that such "Japan" and "Japanese" consciousness was cultivated in the relationship with "another world" including not only foreign countries but also gods and Buddha.[93].

1333Destroyed the Kamakura ShogunateEmperor GodaigoReturns to the ancient Emperor's parenthoodKenmu's new governmentBut soon failed,1336Was established inAshikaga OfMuromachi ShogunateAfter thatNorthern and Northern DynastiesSuppressed the riots and continued to rule the medieval samurai government.

By this Muromachi period,Mr. AndoThrough these activities, the territory of "Japan" has spread to southern Hokkaido (Donan Twelfth Building). Also, in the 15th centuryYoshimitsu AshikagabyNichimei TradingWas formally conducted by Shogun Ashikaga as “King of Japan” in China.Ming DynastyHowever, the relationship did not take hold in the subsequent Sino-Japanese relations.

The arrival of the Warring States period and the early modern period

14st centuryから15st centuryBy that time, the medieval decentralization of society had further progressed, and a guardian territorial system was formed.Onin's rebellionFrom the latter half of the 15th century, with the decline of the Muromachi Shogunate caused bySengoku DaimyoThe formation of regional nations by forces has progressed rapidly[3]..The formation of this regional state led to the reunification of medieval societies, at the end of the 16th century.Oda NobunagaEstablished a unified government in JapanHideyoshi Toyotomi TheTaiko Inspection SiteEstablished the foundation of a feudal society in the early modern period[94]..Became the last champion of the Sengoku daimyoTokugawa Ieyasu The1603ToEdo ShogunateWas opened, and the "world of Taihei Tenka" continued for about 260 years.[3].Bakuhan systemThe establishment of Japan has led to stabilization in Japan, and continued moderate economic growth has become one of the foundations of modernization as the development of large cities and the accumulation of commercial capital. Meanwhile, it developed after the 17th centurySinologyIs a Japanese traditional religionShintoWas ideologically developed and had a great ideological influence on Japan after that.

The territory of Japan is also changing during this period. At the end of the 16th centuryMr. KakizakiIs headquartered in the southern part of Hokkaido and includes Hokkaido, Kuril, Sakhalin, KamchatkaEzoGained control of. The Ezo area was sometimes called the “boundary”, which is sometimes referred to as the “territory” of Japan.17st centuryToBattle of Sakshine,Russian EmpireAs a result of the advancement in the area, the interest in the north became stronger, and the area of ​​Japan came to be considered to be south of "Ezogashima" (Hokkaido). Looking southward, through the Middle AgesKikaijima-Iwo JimaWas recognized as the western boundary. Early 17th centurySatsuma Domain OfShimazu TheRyukyu KingdomOnce invadedHojo OfProfitTerritory,Kamakura ShogunateIt came under the control of Mr. Shimazu after the destructionChikumaIt was the distribution center ofAmami archipelagoDirectly under the control ofOkinawa IslandsandSakishima Islands(Miyako IslandsandYaeyama Islands) Rice and sugar from the Ryukyu government[95]However, since the tributary trade was allowed to continue, the Ryukyu Kingdom remained in Japan and Ming Dynasty (laterQing Dynasty) Placed in the state of both genera.

In terms of exchanges with foreign countries,PortugalSince the arrival of the ship16st centuryToNanban tradeBecame popularOda NobunagaIn particular, while protecting these and making cultural exchanges extremely rich, Hideyoshi ToyotomiBantenren Expulsion OrderHideyoshiMr. LeeInvaded byThe role of Bunroku and KeichoAfter the failure of1603ToTokugawa IeyasuOpenedEdo ShogunateThrough SatsumaRyukyu invasionOther than that, foreign policy gradually became reluctant, and trade also became "IsolationAlthough the trade system, also known as ", has restricted the influx of foreign artifacts,clearTrade withDejimaAt NetherlandsThe influx of culture and information was not interrupted through trade with. Since the end of the 18th century, the Edo ShogunateKuril IslandsIn contact with the Russian powers at the same time, strengthening defense in the north became an issue, but formal diplomatic treaties with Russia and demarcation of borders were not done until after "opening".

Meiji Restoration and Development of Modern Japan

Edo Shogunate TheJapan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityStarting withOpeningAnd changed the foreign policy up to that point.BakumatsuAlthough the population increased during the period,ReverenceAfter exerciseMeiji Restorationso,Meiji government TheBakuhan systemCollapseCentralizationI proceeded.Establish borders with neighboring countries1875ToKarafutoInstead of making the whole area a Russian territoryShimori IslandSouth ofKuril IslandsThe whole area is Japanese territory (Karafuto-Kishima Exchange Treaty),1876Declared the territory of the Ogasawara Islands[96],Also,Ryukyu disposalTogether with1885ToDaito Islands,1895To尖 閣 諸島Was incorporated to establish effective control of the Nansei Islands.To the central issue of the Meiji government's foreign policyInequality treaty OfAbolitionwas there.

Freedom Civil Rights MovementIn response1889Was promulgated inImperial Japanese ConstitutionFor the first time in AsiaConstitutionParliamentWith, modern "Constitutional nationBecame[Note 31][97]..Partial rights were guaranteed under the Imperial Constitution,1925 OfCommon election lawMen's general electionThe system was established.

Japan wins wars with other countries one after another

Sino-Japanese warJapan wonOtomi WarlaterTaiwan transfer,Russo-Japanese WarByRussian EmpireJapan wonSouth Karafuto ceded,Governor-General of KoreaAfter establishmentSouth Korea annexationIf you expand the territory withSiberian troopsAfter the failure ofKanto ArmyJapan has an interestManchuriaIncreasing invasion to (Northeast China)[98],1934ToManchuriaTo gain a certain degree of control[99],afterwardsCounter-attackInsist.

Victory in World War I

Sino-Japanese War, Russo-Japanese War,Giwadan RebellionJapan, which has won consecutive wars with foreign countries, first started in Europe in 1914.World War IDespite not being directly involved in national interestsJapan-UK AllianceOn the basis ofAlliesParticipated as a side.Japan isCentral allies OfGerman EmpireAustria-Hungary EmpireDeclaration of war,Japan-Germany WarRushed into.Unlike European countries, mainland Japan was not damaged during World War I, so Japan's exports to Africa and Asia increased, and domestic exports increased.War economyThe booming economy, called, continued for more than five years.

Japan, which defeated the German Empire and the Austria-Hungary Empire one after another, occupied some cities of the colonial Republic of China.As a result of the war, the Allies such as Japan won.

Postwar Japan has become a victorious country, so it is one of the few European powers.League of Nations OfPermanent memberIt reigned as a major power of the international community, such as joining the group.again,German New GuineaAlsoIt was changed to the rule of Japan.

Defeated in World War II

Sino-Japanese warContinue to1941ToAttack on Pearl HarborPacific WarHas started and alreadyEuropeThen.Nazi GermanyHad started the invasion,The United States of AmericaIs here becauseSecond World WarHas expanded all over the world.The fact that the dock and supply tank were left unattended while succeeding in the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor helped the U.S. military recover its strength in the midway naval battle.LogisticsThere is also a theory that points out not only the plan but also the lack of awareness of cutting off the logistics of hostile countries.[100].

Postwar reconstruction

Restoration of sovereignty from occupation

19458/15,Tamane BroadcastEmperor ShowaTo subjectsPotsdam DeclarationOn September 9nd of the same yearSurrender documentWith JapanAlliesSigned the end of the Pacific War and JapanGhqWill be placed under the supervision of.firstUniversal suffrage for men and womenwas22th House of Representatives general electionSelected inHouse of RepresentativesGot through the amendment procedure inThe Constitution of JapanBut,1946Promulgated on November 11rdImperial Japanese ConstitutionIs in the form of a full-text amendmentNational democratic rightThe sovereignty regulations have been changed.In terms of human resourcesBanishment of public office-Red purgeWas done.Occupation authorities proceed with policyPress codeWas clothed.Initially there was no military-like organization in accordance with the Constitution1950ToPolice reserveWas installed.

19519ToSan Francisco Peace TreatyIs signed and it is decided to restore Japan's sovereignty, and Japan is here.KoreaApprove the independence ofJeju-Giant island-UlleungdoAbandonment of the Korean region including[101].. at the same timeSecurity Treaty between Japan and the United States(Former Japan-US Security Treaty) was signed, and the U.S. Forces in Japan will continue to be stationed even after the restoration of sovereignty.[3][102].1952Restoration of sovereignty.1956,Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationAfter signingUnited NationsToJoindid.

In terms of economy, the situation in Japan immediately after the end of the war was extremely fierce,Korean WarWith the outbreak ofKorean special demandPartly because of the economic recovery[3], 1956 『Economic White Paper』Has reached the situation described as" no longer after the war ".

After restoration of sovereignty

Shinmu businessJapan, which entered into full-scale economic growth from the beginning, was in the 60s.High economic growth periodRushed into.

Externally1953 OfTakeshima ConflictExcept for such cases, direct disputes were generally avoided.Security struggleAlthough it happened1960Is new toUS-Japan Security TreatyWas signed.This "security revision" is still valid as of 2022 and is valid in Japan.National securityHowever, it is often the subject of debate over the base issue and the pros and cons of cooperating with the United States' global strategy.[3][102].

Regarding Korea,1965 OfJapan-Korea Basic Treaty South KoreaAnd normalized diplomatic relations and solidified its position in East Asia. "Two ChinaFor the problem,Republic of ChinaTaking a "San Francisco system" that establishes diplomatic relations only withNational warAfter that, it actually dominated mainland ChinaPeople's Republic of ChinaThere was no diplomatic relations with him, but in 1972Formed diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China..In exchange, it broke with the Republic of China, and since then there has been no official exchange between nations until 2022.[3].

In the 1980sBubble economyOccurs.

Politically55 yearsByLDPJapanese Socialist PartyAlthough it was roughly divided into, the Liberal Democratic Party generallyRuling partyMet.

modern

Goldman SachsBecame a "legendary analyst" of the Japanese economyDavid AtkinsonIn modern Japan, companies that have become too powerful buy workers cheaplymonopsonyIt has been pointed out that productivity decline and financial weakness may have occurred due to a situation called (monopsony).[103]. In 2001Kyushu Southwest Seacraft Ship IncidentThere has occurred.

New coronavirus epidemic

August 2020, 1,KanagawaIn the first exampleWuhanHave a travel historyNew coronavirus OfinfectionWas announced[104].Ulcerative colitisDue to the recurrence ofShinzo Abeprime ministerAnnounced resignation[105].The influence of a pandemicAfter a one-year postponement byOlympic and Paralympic Tokyo 2020 GamesWas held in 2021.

Geography

Since the Meiji era, Japan has not had a territorial provision in the constitution, which was unique from the perspective of comparative law.[Note 32].. Declaration of territory on islands or treaties with neighboring countries are the norms of territorial territory, and after World War II, peace treaties with Japan (commonly known as San Francisco Peace Treaty)Legal normsIs formed.

Terrain

The territory of Japan is 6,852(I.e.(Native5 islands + Remote island6,847 islands)[108].

Asia・It is in the eastern part of East Asia,EurasiaSince it is near the eastern end ofOriental,Far EastIt is included in the area called. Most of the territoryIsland arcIs the Japanese archipelago. This is HonshuHokkaido-It consists of Kyushu and Shikoku. In addition, the Izu and Ogasawara Islands extending to the south and the Nansei Islands extending to the southwest (Okinawa main islandEtc.)Japan is also located in the northeastNorthern four islandsAlso claims sovereignty.

territoryareaIs about 37.8square kilometerIt ranks 60th in the world in (the area where the Japanese government claims sovereignty). About 70% of the country is mountainous, and the forest rate is about 67%.

LandfillHas been created for a long time, but many of themPortThe purpose was to form and maintain.Due to thisLandfill Port Island,Rokko Island,Kobe AirportAnd so on. recentlyKIX,YokohamaHakkeijima,Wakayama Marina CityAnd so on, totalareaIs equivalent to about 0.5% of the national land. Also,Isahaya Bay reclamation projectHachirogataThere are also examples such as large-scale projects such as.

There are many remote islands, some of which are off limits for a variety of reasons (mostly due to private land and important facilities).Ryukyu Islands,Izu IslandsIs convenient for transportation even among remote islands, and the southern islands have a subtropical climate or a rainforest climate, so they are called "Hawaii in Japan" and are popular with Japanese tourists.

Easternmost point
TokyoOgasawara Village Minamitorishima (24 degrees 16 minutes 59 seconds north latitude, 153 degrees 59 minutes 11 seconds east longitude)
Westernmost point
OkinawaYaeyama DistrictYonaguni Town Tuisi[109][110](24 degrees 27 minutes 05 seconds north latitude, 122 degrees 55 minutes 57 seconds east longitude[110]
The westernmost tip of Japan has been around for a long timeYonaguni Island OfNishizakiAlthough it has been said to be (Irizaki), the 2019 / 2 topographic map of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, which is the basic map, was revised in 5, and Tuishi, located 1 m north-northwest of Yonaguni Island, is the westernmost point in Japan. Became[109][110].
Southernmost point
Ogasawara Village, Tokyo Okinotorishima (20 degrees 25 minutes 31 seconds north latitude, 136 degrees 04 minutes 11 seconds east longitude)
Northernmost
HokkaidoWakkanai Bentenjima (45 degrees 31 minutes 35 seconds north latitude, 141 degrees 55 minutes 09 seconds east longitude) (Government of JapanEffective dominationThe northernmost part of the area below)
HokkaidoTottori-gunTottori Village Etorofu IslandKamoiwakka Cape (45 degrees 33 minutes 28 seconds north latitude, 148 degrees 45 minutes 14 seconds east longitude) (The northernmost point of the area where the Japanese government claims sovereignty)

AroundThe Pacific Ocean,Sea of ​​Japan,East China Sea,Philippine Sea,Sea of ​​OkhotskSurrounded by the ocean. The sea between Honshu and ShikokuSeto Inland SeaIs called. Onshore国境There is no line,Russia,north korea,Taiwan, South Korea,China,フィリピン, AmericaExclusive economic zoneAre in contact with each other. Also to the southパラオRepublic, on the extension of the Ogasawara Islandsミクロネシア 連邦There is, across the Pacific OceanAmericaThere is. OffshoreWarm current OfJapanese Current(Kuroshio),Tsushima Current,Cold snap OfKurile Current(Oyashio),Liman CurrentFlows.

territorial disputeThere are several areas with.

The physiographic division traverses central Honshu from north to south based on the geological structure.Itoigawa Shizuoka Structural LineIt is roughly divided into southwestern Japan and northeastern Japan. In the vicinityEurasia plate,Philippine Sea Plate,Pacific plate,North American plateConflict,Pacific Rim Orogen-Pacific Rim Volcanic Zone-Ring of FireIt is part of a belt called. Therefore, it is released all over the worldEarthquakeEarthquakes occur so frequently that it is said that 1% to 2% of energy is concentrated around Japan, and earthquakes with a seismic intensity of 1 or 2 class occur every day somewhere. Also,Volcanic activityThere is a lot of volcanic soil due to its activeness, which also enriches the nature of the Japanese archipelago.SpaThere are manyVolcanoIt can be said that it is a blessing of. On the other hand, large eruptive activities have been recorded many times in Japanese history, and several times in prehistoric times due to recent geological research.Catastrophic eruptionI know that was happening.

The highest peak in the mountainsMount FujiIn addition to (elevation 3776 meters)Japan Southern Alps,Japan Northern AlpsMountains over 2500 meters are concentrated in the center of Honshu.other,Mt. Taisetsuzan,Mt. Bandaisan,Mount AsoEtc. are famous. Due to its graceful appearance, Mt. Fuji has had a great influence on the artistic side by being used as the subject of many works of art, and is widely known around the world as a symbol of Japan.

The riverTone River-Mogami RiverHowever, unlike continental rivers, the distance from the headwaters to the estuary is very short.Above sea levelDue to the steep height difference, the flow is relatively fast.Torrential rainIt has the disadvantage that the embankment will collapse and cause enormous damage to the houses and fields, but it is also characterized by the fact that relatively fresh water can be easily taken in.

Since it is an island country surrounded by the sea,Fishery:Both flourishingMaritime nation.Inland seaincludingWatersThe area of ​​the area including is about 43 square kilometers.[111].

The Japanese government insistsJapan's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) Is about 12 million square kilometers, which is about 405 times the territorial area, and the total of the territorial waters and EEZ is about 447 million square kilometers, which is the sixth largest in the world.[112].. However, Japan has claimed sovereignty, but Takeshima, which is illegally occupied by South Korea, and Japan, which has effective control but has recently claimed sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands, have their own nations. Has become an important foreign policy issue. In addition, China and South Korea have asserted rights in the west of Kyushu and the East China Sea, ignoring international law, as to the continental shelf extending from their territorial waters.

Apart from EEZUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaIn which the exclusive submarine resource interest iscontinental shelfFor the United Nations in April 2012Continental Shelf Limit CommitteeRecognized the four continental shelves as "Shikoku Basin," "Ogasawara Kaitai," "South Iwo Jima," and "Oki Daito Ridge South."[113].

Changes in national land

Ancient times

Yayoi PeriodIn the latter half of the year, wide-area regional powers rose in various parts of western Japan.[114].. At the end of the 2nd centuryKinaiDominates the wide area of ​​Western JapanYamadai KuniA coalition was created. In the 3rd century, the Yamadai Kunitachi Union was established under the control of Tokai and Hokuriku as well as East Japan[115].Kofun periodIn the first half of the first half,MiyazakiからTohoku OfMiyagiIt has been revealed from the prevalence of the Kofun construction that the country has been expanded to the extent of[116][Note 33]..Hideki Arai assumes that after the first contact with the eastern nation by the Yamato in the late 3rd and 4th centuries, the war of conquest of the east by the royal power took place from the end of the 4th century to the 5th century. [117].. However, Wakoku does not have the idea of ​​securing and maintaining each area of ​​control such as Tohoku.[118], 6th century, weak economic baseAbukuma RiverSeparation of the north from the ruins of Wakoku[119]In the late Kofun period, the current Pacific Ocean side is in the southern part of Miyagi prefecture, and the Sea of ​​Japan side is the presentNiigataUp to the central part became the territory of Japan[120]..During this period, in 400 (the first year of Emperor Richu) and 404 (the fifth year of Emperor Richu), Wa fought twice with the Baekje and Gaya countries on the Korean Peninsula with the Goguryeo and Baekje Allied Forces.[121].

Nara-Heian periodJapan is in the northTsugaru StraitUntil the southKikai IslandWas recognized as a national land[122]On the other handKyusyu-Shikoku-Iki Island-TsushimaAnd surrounded by themHonshu OfHokurikuChubu regionI recognized that the area to the west was the original territory of Japan.[123]..Therefore, the lack of interest in the Tohoku region has not changed, and I do not feel the need to completely control the northern part of the Tohoku region.[124],actuallyOsaki PlainWas the northern limit of Japan in the 8th century[125].. In the 9th century, when the Kyoshin tax exemption from Mutsu and Dewa stopped[126]Interest became even weaker, and the management of northern Tohoku was left to local government officials.[127]. Also,Nansei IslandsInterest in[128].

In ancient Japan,KinaiThere was an administrative district called.Renewal of DahuaAlthough it was recognized as a special area for the ruler from the time it was installed by[129]After the enforcement of the ritual system, it played a role of supporting the nation as a directly controlled area.[130].

中 世

In the latter half of the Middle Ages, Japan was able to establish a <master-servant relationship> with General Muromachi, whether it was in a hierarchical order with General Muromachi at the top, or whether it was outside. Was drawn[131].. Areas that rebelled against generals and did not reach orders were placed outside of control, and the boundaries were clarified by the existence of <master-slave relationship>.[132].

In history, the reign of Yoshimitsu Ashikaga, the third shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate, is evaluated as the first unified government of Kobu.[133]..However, the Muromachi Shogunate is a political power with little interest in rural areas.[134], I think that the range that I should govern is the Kinai region, Setouchi, Chubu region, and Tohoku, Kanto, Kyushu were only remote areas for the Shogunate[135].

In the first half of the 15th century,Permanent RevoltWhen the <master-slave relationship> between the shogun and Kamakura collapsed, the shogunate came to stipulate that the eastern boundary of Japan was to Suruga, and separated the eastern country from Japan.[136][137][138].. On the other hand, at that time it was an independent countryRyukyuHad a <master-slave relationship> with Shogun Muromachi, and the <master-slave relationship> by the shogun was a concept that could also be established between nations.[139].

1419 (Oei 26),Mr. Lee ThePiratesFor the purpose of destroying the base ofTsushimaBut the operation ended in failure (Oei's outer corpse). After that, negotiations were held between Tsushima and Lee to make Tsushima the territory of Korea, but the negotiations were unsuccessful and Tsushima continued to belong to Japan.[140].

文明YamatoKofuku-ji Temple・BetweenPrideIs "Daijoinjisha miscellaneous notesIn the latter half of the Middle Ages, the range of Japan is the current Kinki, Tokai, Hokuriku, Chugoku, and Shikoku regions.[141].. On the other hand, Tensho 9 (1581), the end of the Warring States period,Oda NobunagaWhen he revealed his intention to fight with Mr. Mori, he said, "This time, when the number of Mori clan sneaks out as the second volume, Nobunaga's runner is put out, and the number of people in Togoku and Saigoku is matched. Togoku (Oda territory) and Saigoku (Mori territory) said, "We should have completed the war, defeated them, and left it to ourselves without delay this morning. ) Will fight and defeat Saigoku, and this morning (Japan) will be in a state of no stagnation, stipulating the scope of Japan.[142].

The early modern period

Oda administrationInheritedToyotomi AdministrationIt is,Shikoku peace-KyushuIn 1588 (16th year of Tensho), the unity of Japan was achieved.[143].. The Toyotomi government then expanded its control to East Japan.[144], 1590 (Tensho 18)Ou punishmentFor the first time, the northern end of Honshu was incorporated into Japan's land[145]..In addition, Hideyoshi attacked the Korean Peninsula twice, calling it "Tang dynasty", but did not extend control to mainland China and the Korean Peninsula (The role of Bunroku and Keicho).

Inherit the Toyotomi administrationTokugawa ShogunateTurned to the Toyotomi administration and chose the path of international isolationism.[146], Negotiated with four regions of Nagasaki, Tsushima, Ryukyu (Satsuma) and Matsumae[147].

1609 (14th year of Keicho),Satsuma DomainBroke into Ryukyu and established a book-binding relationship and placed it under control, but Ryukyu continued to have a tribute to China, and Japan and China (Light-clear) Maintained a bilateral relationship with[148].. Also, during the Tokugawa administration, Ezochi (Hokkaido) recognized that it was outside Japan, except for the "Wattochi" in the southern part of the Oshima Peninsula controlled by the Matsumae clan.[149].

Since modern times

In 1870 (Meiji 3), the new government of Meiji, which had settled on the territorial settlement of the frontier region, incorporated Hokkaido into Japan, and in 1879 (Meiji 12)clearRyukyuOkinawaOfficially transferred to Japan as[150].

Since the end of the 19th century, Japan expanded its territory due to the external war, and in the first half of the 20th century it expanded to the largest scale in Japanese history. In 1895 (Meiji 28)Sino-Japanese warAs a result of acquiring Taiwan from Qing (Shimonoseki Treaty)[151]In 1905 (Meiji 38),Russo-Japanese WarIn a later negotiation, he received a sale of South Karafuto from Russia[152](Portsmouth Treaty). Furthermore, in 1910 (Meiji 43), Korea, which was under the protection of Japan, was annexed.[153].. Then, in 1922 (Taisho 11)Southern Ocean IslandsThe delegation and governance of[154], Expanded the territory to the Pacific side.

In 1932 (Showa 7)ManchuriaFounded[155].. 1937 (Showa 12),Rozobashi incidentStarted the warSino-Japanese warExpands occupied territories to the Chinese continent. In September 1940 (Showa 15), started to move to northern French Indochina (Buddha in India[156]In July of the following year, he was stationed in southern France, and in July of the following year, he was stationed in the south.[156].

September 1939 (Showa 14),Taiwan Governor's OfficeWith the NavyHainan IslandOccupied[157].. The Taiwan Governor's Office intended to put Taiwan into a heavy industry and put Hainan Island under the control of “Taiwan's colony”.[158].. However, control of Hainan Island after the occupation was to be led by the Navy, and the Taiwan Governor's Office could only be involved by cooperating with the Navy.[159].

In December 1941 (Showa 16), Japan started the Pacific WarSouthern strategyAnd the whole of Southeast Asia was incorporated into the land in May of the following year.[160].. However, when Japan lost the Pacific War, Japan lost its colonies and Manchuria disappeared. It was concluded in 1951 (Showa 26)San Francisco TreatyAs a result, the sovereignty of the South Karafuto and Kuril Islands has been abandoned.[161].

In 1972, Okinawa, which had been occupied by the United States since the end of the Pacific War, was returned to Japan.[162]To the present (Okinawa return).

Climate and flora and fauna

climate
Köppen climate classificationAccording to the report, most of the Okinawa islands south of Honshu and the north of the Daito IslandsTemperate rainy summer high temperature climate (Cfa), Miyako Islands/Yaeyama Islands (Ishigakijima-Iriomote Island・Yonaguni Island・Hateruma Island)・Oki DaitojimaAnd so onRainforest climate (Af)) while Hokkaido etc.Subarctic humid summer cool climate Indicates (Dfb)[163]..The inland area also has a cold climate due to its high altitude, and is used as a summer resort.monsoonAlthough the changes in the four seasons are clearly affected by theOceanic climateTherefore, compared to the continent, the cold winter is not so severe and the climate is mild.Enclave,Overseas territoryAside from the above, within the territory of one country熱 帯からSubarcticThe nation including up to is rare.Northern hemisphereThen there are the United States and the People's Republic of China. (Excluding cold areas due to altitude)
In winter,Siberian high pressureIs predominant and the northwest monsoon blows, but a large amount of water vapor evaporates from the warm Tsushima Current in the Sea of ​​Japan, which is the path, causing a large amount of snow.Therefore, about 52% of the country, mainly on the Sea of ​​Japan side, is one of the most heavy snowfall areas in the world.together,Sea of ​​JapanGet up on the sideWinter thunder The世界But rareNatural phenomenonIs.On the Pacific side, there are many sunny days when the air is dry.
In the summer,Pacific highThe effect of is strong, and hot and humid days continue. There are also many typhoons. However, mainly in the northOkhotsk Sea HighThe higher the effect of, the lower the temperature, which often affects agriculture.
It is an area with relatively high rainfall.The main factors are winter snowfall on the Sea of ​​Japan side, June and July (Okinawa, Okinawa).Amami regionIn May and June)(I.e.Happens stagnationrainy season, Approaching/landing from the southern sea from summer to autumntyphoonSuch. Also,Global warmingAs a result, in addition to the original seasonal heavy rain,Spring:からFall:IrregularlyLinear precipitation zoneAppears and is extremely strongTorrential rain West JapanHas come to occur frequently[164][165]..YearPrecipitation amountIs about 1700 mm, and there are large regional differences.MinamitorishimaAll over Japan exceptmonsoonAround the west and south coasts of the mountainous Japanese archipelago in the regionWarm currentClouds are easy to develop because of the flow ofDaylight hoursIs about 1800 hours世界OtherTemperateIt is less than the area.
Ecosystem
Long north-south,Forest limitCross overAlpine beltDue to the large ocean and changes in the four seasons, it inhabits compared to the area.Animal,plantThere is a wide variety of.Tsugaru StraitThe northern ecosystem of HokkaidoPrimoryeIs similar to the ecosystem ofBraxton lineThe boundary has been proposed.YakushimaAnd the Nansei Islands between the temperate and subtropical ecosystems.Distribution borderThe Watase line is proposed. In addition, several distribution boundaries have been proposed mainly in the Straits.
Since all sides were surrounded by the sea, it was unlikely that new organisms would invade from the outside. In addition, since there are many remote islands, there are many areas where the island's unique ecosystem has been maintained. In particular, the Ogasawara Islands and the Nansei Islands have built an isolated ecosystem compared to the mainland for a long time, so many flora and fauna peculiar to the islands inhabit. The Ogasawara IslandsGalapagosHas a special ecosystem. Even in the Nansei Islands,Iriomote Wildcat,Amami Oshima-Tokunoshima OfAmami rabbitIncluding, there are cases where endemic organisms inhabit each island. However, recent developments and humans brought inAlien organismsAs a result, the ecosystem has changed drastically, and there are many places where the habitat of endemic plants and animals is threatened.
plant·森林
From tropical to subarctic, and then to alpineTundraGrow toAlpine plantIt is rich in variety and variety of plants. Blessed with precipitation, many plants suitable for high humidity are distributed.Moss plant,Fern plantAnd so on. From the terrain away from the continent,CedarJapanese endemic species such as are widely distributed. CustomarilyCherry Blossomschrysanthemum national flowerReceive the same treatment as. Besides this, eachMunicipalitiesBut they have their own trees and flowers.
About two-thirds of land is forest (Forest rate66%[Note 34]・Forest area: 2,512 millionHa・As of 2009).SubtropicalIt is possible to establish forests with sufficient annual rainfall in any area from the subarctic region to the subarctic region. FlatVegetationAbout two-thirds of the southEvergreen broad-leaved forest,So-calledLaurel forestIt is a type that about 3/1 of the northDeciduous forest,Beech forestIs a forest represented by. In higher altitude areas,Evergreen coniferous forest, PartlyDeciduous coniferous forestThere is. Part of the Nansei Islands belong to the tropics,mangroveDevelops.
The breakdown of this forest area isNatural forestIs 53% (1335 million hectares),Plantation41% (1036 million hectares), others (elevationUnder such conditions, ungrown forests, etc.) account for 6%.Among them, the planted forest is after World War IIExpanded afforestationSugi forest occupies a large number (452 million hectares) due to the influence of.This is because a large amount of natural forest was cut down due to tight timber demand during the period of high economic growth, and only the efficiency of timber production was considered.CypressThis is because the forest was renewed. After that, the amount of imports from overseas increased sharply, and the price of timber fell sharply, resulting in many of the unprofitable plantations being left behind. In the abandoned cedar forest, understory vegetation does not develop and it becomes a poor ecosystem, and there are many problems in terms of disaster prevention and water source recharge. Also, mass planting of cedar and cypress is sometimes called "national disease".hay feverHas been spread.
Animal
mammalian
More than 100 species inhabit, of which,Endemic speciesExceeds 3%, and 7 genera are endemic.The mammal fauna of Japan is on the Blakiston line between Hokkaido and Honshu, and between the Tokara Islands and the Amami Islands in the Nansei Islands.Watase LineIt is separated by, and different animal groups inhabit these boundaries.
Large mammals in HokkaidoBrown bear,Sika deer, In HonshuAsiatic black bear,Sika deer,Japanese serowAnd so on.
EndemicJapanese macaqueOut ofShimokita PeninsulaLive inPopulationLive in the most northern part of the worldmonkey.Japanese wolf,Ezo wolf,Japanese sea lion,JapaneseSea otterThe population, andJapanese otterIs extinct.
birds
Over 500 species of birds are observed. In Japan, which has abundant water sources in addition to the sea on all sides, there are many rivers, ponds, and lakes that live in it.waterfowlThere is a wide variety of. The Japanese archipelago is a wintering area for birds breeding in Siberia,Southeast AsiaIt is a breeding ground for birds that have wintered in the south, and also extends from the north to the south.Migratory birdIt is also important as a stopover point for passing birds, and you can observe a variety of migratory birds depending on the season. In recent years, due to random developmentTidal flatAnd the destruction of forests in Southeast Asia pose a threat to the survival of birds found in Japan. Internationally important as a habitat for waterfowl37 wetlandsBut,Ramsar ConventionRegistered and protected by[166].
As a non-migrating foreign bird,National bird OfpheasantAnd so on. Near the house,Crow,Sparrow,Pigeons,Swallow,White wagtailIt has been inhabited by people and has been popular in culture since ancient times. recentlyBulbul,ム ク ド リThere are many around the house.
Endemic,Tunaand so on.TokiIs extinct. Current,Sado CityThe ibis artificially bred in is borrowed from a Chinese population.
reptiles-Amphibian
There are many species in the subtropics, and more than half of them are concentrated in the Nansei Islands. This is also due to the progress of speciation in each island. Species differentiation between islands on the mainland is not very visible. The exception isSalamanderAlthough it is not found in the Nansei Islands, it is known around the world for producing many seeds as the species differentiation in each region of the mainland progresses. It is also the largest existing amphibian in the worldGiant salamanderIs known worldwide as a representative amphibian of Japan.
Fishes
The fish near the sea are rich in both type and number,Sanriku CoastFrom the offing to the Kuril Islands, it is one of the three major fishing grounds in the world. Warm and cold currents flow in the near sea, and at the tide boundary where these flowplanktonAre likely to occur, and there are wide continental shelves and diverse and complexcoastalIt is a good condition to have.Freshwater fishThe species ofRiverThere are not many because the scale is small.Ancient lakeIsBiwa lakeAlthough various species live inSweetfishArtificial release of species used for food, etc.Exotic fishWith the expansion of the power of the, the extinction of rare species and the drastic change of the freshwater fish fauna have become problems. On the other hand, due to the wet climateBrackish waterIs easy to do,shellfishIs also abundant.
In addition, according to a report issued by the Census of Marine Life in 2010, the sea around Japan is home to about 25 species of marine organisms, which is the largest of the 3 representative seas in the world. It became clear that[167].. This shows that Japan's climate is extremely diverse over the north and south, at the same time it is blessed with large currents, and seawater has a lot of nutrition. For example, Hokkaido is the southern limit of drift ice, while the Nansei Islands and Ogasawara Islands are the northern limits of coral growth.
昆虫
There is a wide variety and variety from subtropical to subarctic. Since there are many forests, there are many.cityMany insects can be seen in the department. Especially because it has a lot of rain and there are swamps and paddy fieldsDragonflyThere are many types. Also,Beetleな どSatoyamaMany insects living in Japan were seen, but the number of insects has decreased with the change of life. Since the Edo periodSusumushi,CricketBreeding has been done to enjoy the meows of. The culture of keeping insects as pets is rare in the world.OmurasakiIs a national butterfly.

Environment issues

1950s-60s,Four major pollution diseasesLarge scale represented byPollutionFrom the occurrence of 1967Basic Law for Pollution ControlAt the beginning, regulations on water pollution and air pollution were enacted one after another. In response to this, Japanese companiesOil shockDue to the negative growth of 1973-1976, we concentrated our investment on pollution control, and the number of large-scale pollution decreased sharply after the 1970s. In addition, this investment played a role in supporting the Japanese economy in the oil crisis.Pollution controlAnd economic growth at the same time"[168].
But,Japanese archipelago remodeling theorySince the 1970s when people called out, in the name of regional promotion, such as road construction and farmlandPublic works,ResortLarge-scale development, such as development, was actively carried out, and the unique scenery and ecosystem of Japan was greatly damaged. Also, because of the garbage problem,world HeritageAs symbolized by abandoning registration,EnvironmentThere are also many challenges in management. Deforestation of plantationdamDue to the decline in river and forest ecosystems due to construction, etc.boarThe fact that it appears and disappears in urban areas has had an impact on human life.
High economic growth periodSince then, the Japanese table has changed, and the import of overseas agricultural products has increased.Tokyo extreme concentrationDue to various factors, such as logging of natural forests and decentralization of public works in regional development, agricultural and mountain villages and agriculture, forestry and fisheries have declined. With this,Abandoned landThere are problems such as the increase of forests, the degradation of planted forests, and the decrease of marine resources.

Area classification

PrefecturesIt consists of a wide-area administrative division (1 prefecture, 1 prefectures, 2 prefectures). However, shaking is seen in the regional divisions (regional divisions) that are wider than that. Inside the prefecture,市町村And the towns and villagescounty, Special wards, etc. (List of Japanese local governmentsreference). Part ofCityIs administratively separateGovernment-designated city,Core city,Special city at the time of enforcementStipulated in.

Hokkaido region
1.Hokkaido
Tohoku region
2.Aomori - 3.Iwate - 4.Miyagi - 5.Akita - 6.Yamagata - 7.Fukushima
Kanto region
8.Ibaraki - 9.Tochigi - 10.Gunma - 11.Saitama - 12.Chiba - 13.Tokyo - 14.Kanagawa
The above is “XNUMX prefecture and XNUMX prefectures”. "Capital AreaTo thisYamanashiTo theWide Kanto areaIs located in the 1st and 6th prefectures of the Kanto regionNiigata・YamanashiNagano-Shizuoka4 prefectures are added respectively.
Chubu region[169][170]
Hokuriku region[171][172][173]
15Niigata - 16.Toyama - 17.Ishikawa - 18.Fukui
FukuiReinan areaMay be included in the Kinki region.
Niigata prefecture is not included in the Hokuriku region, and together with Nagano prefecture and Yamanashi prefectureKoshinetsuIs often called.
Higashiyama district[174]
19Yamanashi - 20.Nagano
Central highlands[Note 35]Also called. Gifu PrefectureHida areaMay be added.
Tokai region
21Gifu - 22.Shizuoka - 23.Aichi
usually,"Tokai prefectureIsn't Shizuoka PrefectureMieOften included. Incidentally, Shizuoka Prefecture is often combined with the Kanto Koshinetsu prefectures to form a wide-area Kanto area.
Kinki
24Mie - 25.Shiga - 26.Kyoto - 27.Osaka - 28.Hyogo - 29.Nara - 30.Wakayama
However, Mie Prefecture is often not included in the Kinki region but is often included in the Chubu region or Tokai region. In addition, we refer to the Kinki region as "Kansai regionUsually refers to 2 prefectures and 4 prefectures excluding Mie prefecture (in some cases,Iga areaMay be added).
Chugoku
31Tottori - 32.Shimane - 33.Okayama - 34.Hiroshima - 35.Yamaguchi
Tottori prefecture and Shimane prefecture, and in some cases, part of Yamaguchi prefecture and part of Hyogo prefecture / Kyoto prefecture,San'inCall. Okayama and Hiroshima prefectures including most of Yamaguchi prefectureSanyoCalled (may include part of Hyogo Prefecture). Also, Yamaguchi PrefectureKyushu regionIn addition, it may be the Kyushu/Yamaguchi region.
Shikoku region
36Tokushima - 37.Kagawa - 38.Ehime - 39.Kochi
Shikoku MountainsMore northNorthern Shikoku, SouthMinamishikokuAnd Also, together with the Chugoku regionChugoku / Shikoku region(Chu-Shikoku region). In that case, include Sanyo and Kita Shikoku togetherSetouchiCall.
Kyushu region
40Fukuoka - 41.Saga - 42.Nagasaki - 43.Kumamoto - 44.Oita - 45.Miyazaki - 46.Kagoshima
It may be combined with Yamaguchi prefecture to be Kyushu/Yamaguchi region, or may be combined with Okinawa prefecture to be Kyushu/Okinawa region.
Amami archipelago is closer to Okinawa than Kyushu in terms of history, culture, nature, etc.[175][176][177]Therefore, the Amami archipelago may be combined with Okinawa to be the Okinawa/Amami region.
Okinawa region
47Okinawa
Okinawa prefecture may be included in the Kyushu region. When it is included in the Kyushu region, it is sometimes called Kyushu/Okinawa region.
Okinawa Prefecture is culturally and naturally close to the Amami Islands[178][179]Therefore, it may be combined with the Amami archipelago to Okinawa and the Amami region.

city

Ranking of ordinance-designated cities by legal population
For reference, the Tokyo ward section is also shown
RankingPrefecturesCity (ward)Legal populationEstimated populationRate of change (%)TypeEstimated population
Statistics date
00specialTokyoSpecial Ward8,949,4479,714,254+8.55Special Ward2022/7/1
01Kanagawa横 浜 市3,689,6033,773,673+2.28Government-designated city2022/7/1
02OsakaOsaka2,666,3712,754,928+3.32Government-designated city2022/7/1
03AichiNagoya city2,263,9072,326,239+2.75Government-designated city2022/6/1
04HokkaidoSapporo1,914,4341,962,374+2.50Government-designated city2022/6/30
05HyogoKobe City1,544,8731,512,181-2.12Government-designated city2022/7/1
06KyotoKyoto City1,474,4731,449,714-1.68Government-designated city2022/7/1
07FukuokaFukuoka City1,463,8261,629,129+11.29Government-designated city2022/7/1
08KanagawaKawasaki City1,425,6781,542,044+8.16Government-designated city2022/7/1
09SaitamaSaitama1,222,9101,339,285+9.52Government-designated city2022/7/1
10HiroshimaHiroshima city1,174,2091,192,596+1.57Government-designated city2022/7/1
11MiyagiSendai city1,045,9031,098,811+5.06Government-designated city2022/7/1
12FukuokaKitakyushu977,288925,962-5.25Government-designated city2022/7/1
13ChibaChiba962,130978,699+1.72Government-designated city2022/7/1
14OsakaSakai City842,134817,407-2.94Government-designated city2022/7/1
15NiigataNiigata812,192779,665-4.00Government-designated city2022/7/1
16ShizuokaHamamatsu city800,912784,098-2.10Government-designated city2022/7/1
17KumamotoKumamoto-shi734,294737,680+0.46Government-designated city2022/7/1
18KanagawaSagamihara City717,561726,660+1.27Government-designated city2022/7/1
19ShizuokaShizuoka City716,328684,784-4.40Government-designated city2022/7/1
20OkayamaOkayama City709,584720,113+1.48Government-designated city2022/7/1

Politics

Legal system

The Constitution of Japan is the highest law, and the Diet is enacted under thislaw, Cabinet enactedCabinet Order,MinistriesEstablished byMinisterial OrdinanceSuch ascommand,Local governmentEstablished byOrdinanceVariousdecreeIs determined. Besides this, before the revision of the Japanese ConstitutionEdictBefore the Imperial Japanese ConstitutionProclamation of the Prime Minister/PresidentsIs no longer enacted, but is valid as long as it does not violate the Constitution[Note 36].. The National Diet Library database as of 2019 Japanese Law Index Is a valid edictPrincipal meridian longitude calculation method and standard time(Meiji 19th Royal Decree No. 51),s: Leap year(Meiji 31 ​​Royal Decree No. 90), etc., 57 cases, and Prince's Proclamation Declaration/Public Affairs officials have recorded 5 cases, such as the Declaration of the Calendar Change (Meiji 337 Declaration No. 9). Constitutionally, the courtAdministrative actionFinally judge whether or not theUnconstitutional legal examination rightHaveSupreme CourtIs the final court. However, the so-calledJusticeBased on this, interference with the decisions of political departments such as the Diet and CabinetTheory of governanceOften refraining from judicial decisions on behalf of.

Constitution

currentConstitutionIs the constitution of Japan,CountryformandGovernance Of組織-effectTo specify[180].1946(Showa 21) Promulgated on November 11,1947(Showa22 years) April 5EnforcementWas done[180].

FormallyArticle 73 of the Japanese Empire ConstitutionAnd applyImperial Japanese Constitution OfAmendmentIt was enacted through the procedure.Amendment procedure96 articleAlthough it is stipulated inRigid constitutionClassified into2020To date, it has never been revised.

Underlying the Constitution of JapanArticle 13"Personal dignityThere is a philosophy of[181][182].

For a long time, abandonment of war, non-holding of forceArticle 9SDFThe significance of existenceConstitutional revision debateIs being done.Constitutional courtInstallation andNew human rights,Emergency clauseIs also being treated as a constitutional amendment theme.note that,sovereignty Was restrictedOrConstituent power changedThere is an argument that there was a legal defect in the amendment procedure under the occupation for such reasons, and some insisted that the Constitution of Japan itself was invalid, and that the Constitution of the Empire of Japan is still valid. There are also people.

law

Meiji RestorationSincetrustEtc.Civil lawExcept the provision ofContinental lawSystem (especiallyGerman lawas well as the French law), butConstitutional monarchy,Parliamentary Cabinet SystemaboutEnglish lawThe Supreme Court and belowUS lawWith a strong influence ofAnglo-American lawCan also be seen[183].. Japanese constitution, civil law,Commercial law,Criminal law,Civil Procedure Code,Criminal procedure codeCollectivelySix methodsCalled. These six laws form the basis of Japanese law,JurisprudenceBecause it has been considered as a basic research field of. Of the commercial law,CompanyMany of the rules regardingCompany lawWas divided into The criminal code isDeath penalty,Imprisonment,imprisonment,fine,detention,Fee,Confiscation punishmentIs defined as. Within a certain range in the field of private lawCustomary lawHas effect (Law application(Article 3)[Note 37], About the criminal lawCriminal statutory principleTo eliminate common law.

Death penaltyThere has been debate over how the system should be since the constitution was established (Death Penalty Abolition Problem # Death Penalty in JapanSee). However, the case law is that the death penalty system is constitutional (Death sentence system constitutional judgment case), the so-called "Nagayama standard" is the "standard for death penalty selection"[184].. Since 2009,刑事 事件About serious crimesJudge systemHas been introduced.

right

Freedom of the press

Article 21 of the Constitution of JapanByFreedom of the pressincludingFreedom of expressioncensorshipProhibitionCommunication secretIs sung.However, freedom of expression is not guaranteed indefinitely,Public welfareBecause necessary and reasonable restrictions can be approvedTachikawa anti-war flyer distribution caseJudged in[185],Nishiyama incidentThen, a reporter who is said to have deviated from the scope of legitimate coverage activities has been convicted.[186]

There was almost no direct perpetrator of the press by public institutions, and the political terrorism in Japan where the reporter was killed was in 1987.Akahotai caseAsahi ShimbunAs of 1, one reporter was killed in the case of Yasuhiro Nakasone, who is not only a member of the press but also an experienced prime minister.Noboru TakeshitaThere are also compulsive acts against them)[187].

As a custom peculiar to JapanPress clubThere is a system and it is a memberMass mediaOnly monopolizes press conferences such as governments and government agencies and enjoys the benefits of receiving information.The press conference held by the press club excludes non-member media and violates press freedom.Free journalistAnd many criticisms from foreign media[188].

Use public radio wavestv setbroadcast·radioFor broadcasting,Broadcasting law-Radio ActAccording to the provisions ofMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIssued byBroadcasterYou need a license.Article 4 of the Broadcasting Law has neutral content (does not harm public security and good manners, is politically fair, does not distort the facts, and does as much as possible about conflicting issues. It is obligatory to clarify the issue from the angle of), and the abolition of the article is being considered in 2018.[189]However, it still exists as of 2021.Under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsPublic broadcastingIsJapan Broadcasting CorporationThe budget of (NHK) requires the approval of the Diet according to the provisions of Article 70 of the Broadcasting Law.[190].

News (Chinese)For the purpose of preventing excessive competitionSpecial designationHas been applied, butFair Trade CommissionIs "Certain unfair trading methods in the newspaper industryIs an industry group, asking for a review.Japan Newspaper AssociationConflict with[191]..Newspapers are subject to the reduced consumption tax rate.[192].

Based in FranceNongovernmental organization"Reporters Without Borders2020 created by (RSF)World Press Freedom RankingIs ranked 180th out of 66 countries surveyed, and is categorized as the third "country with significant problems" from the top in the classification of each country into five stages. The RSF states that Japan is "a parliamentary monarchy and generally respects the principles of media pluralism," but in addition to the above-mentioned press club system, "the editorial department prioritizes economic interests." The situation continues to be influenced by the policy of a huge "affiliation" "and" on SNSFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident"Harassment of journalists covering issues such as Okinawa base"[193][194]..However, this ranking relies on questionnaires to the press, lawyers, researchers, etc. of the country concerned for qualitative surveys, and therefore the scoring depends on the feelings of these groups toward their own government.In addition, the distribution of evaluation points in the surveyed countries is concentrated near the average value, and there is a tendency for the ranking to open more than the difference in points.[195][196].

In addition, the world name is higher[196]"Freedom House"of"Freedom of the Press In 2017, it was ranked 199th out of 48 countries and was judged to be a free country.[197]..In addition to this, the report on the degree of freedom on the Internet, "Freedom on the Net In 2019, Japan is ranked 65th out of 11 countries and is judged to be a country where freedom on the Internet is secured.[198][199],Freedom in the World In 2020, Japan's overall degree of freedom is rated as 100 out of 96, and it is positioned as the most free country in Asia.[200].

Discussion about the head of state

As there is no provision for "head of Japan" in the Constitution of Japan, there are various views on the head of government.[201].politicsPerson ofHiroshi Tanaka,ConstitutionNobuyoshi Ashibe,Comprehensive policy studiesAccording to Kazuo NaganotheoryA large number of have authorityCabinet or Prime MinisterIs the head[201][202][203](Cabinet/Former Prime Minister). In addition, the theory that the Emperor is still the head of state after the current Constitution came into force (Emperor's head) is the highest state authority国会Is the head ofChairman of the House of RepresentativesThere is even a theory that there is no head in Japan in the first place, or a theory that the head of state is the head of the House of Representatives.

Emperor

"Emperor"Article 1 of the Constitution of JapanJapan as stipulated inJapanese peopleIntegratedSymbolBarrel position, or individual in that position[204].. The current constitution states that "the emperor is a symbol of Japan and a symbol of Japanese national integration, and this position is based on the consensus of the Japanese people who have sovereignty." Under the Imperial Japanese ConstitutionArticle 4It was stated in the statement that "the head of the Emperor Ha Kunio Nishite is in full control", but there is no provision in the current Japanese constitution that the Emperor is the head of state. The “Encyclopedia of Japan” states that the emperor does not have the authority of a regular constitutional monarch, and the “Law Term Dictionary (4th edition)” separates the symbolic emperor from the former emperor.[205].. Also, "National History Dictionary"legal systemAbove, it is said that the symbolic emperor is not a monarch[206].

According to the Iwanami Japanese History Dictionary, "Japanese monarchy" is called "emperor system"[207].After the war"Social scienceIs said to have taken hold as a term[207].. Since the Emperor is called "symbol" in the constitution, it is also called "symbol emperor system". "There is a theory that the symbolic emperor system is not a monarchy because the emperor is not the head of state."[208].. Constitutional scholarToshihiko Nonaka,Mutsuo Nakamura,Kazuyuki Takahashi,Takami victoryAccording to his joint work "Constitution I" (fifth edition), the question "Is it possible to call an emperor who has become a symbol only a monarch?Definitionby[209].. After democratic infiltration, monarchy became nominal even in countries where monarchy was maintained[209].. When this happens, is it a monarchy?RepublicDistinction is meaningless[209].. Whether the Emperor is a monarch is a constitutionally "problem with little practical benefit"[209].

Oriental historyA personHidehiro Okadaof"Japan"and"Japanese historyThe birth of720Japan's oldest history book completed inJapanese calligraphy], "Takamagahara"ThanHinata(Miyazaki)ofTakachiho mountainWent down to (Advent of Tenson)Goddess of the SunAmaterasuGrandchild ofNiniginomikotoGrandson ofEmperor JimmuThe first oneEmperorHowever, it is said that they have consistently ruled the Japanese archipelago.[210].. 『Encyclopedia mypediaSaid, "Emperor JimmuHistorical factNot"[211].. In addition, the imperial division was divided, and the two systems were alternately crowned "Ryokan'[212], The imperial disputeNorthern and Northern DynastiesThe word "exists"[213].. 『NEWS Post Seven], "ExistThe oldest in the world OfRoyal familyAsGuinness BookRegistered in JapanRoyal familyIs described as[214].

National politics

Political system

Japan isSingle nationAnd thatPolitical systemas,"Parliamentary democracySystem"·"Symbolic emperor system'[215][Note 38]・ "Parliamentary Cabinet SystemIs taken.

Central government

Japanese Government(Governance mechanism) Is the constitutionlegislationRight国会ToAdministrative powerTheCabinetToJurisdictionThe裁判 所To eachSeparation of power(Santo separation). In addition, a cabinet exists based on the confidence of the Diet.Parliamentary Cabinet SystemTo adopt.Article 41 of the Constitution of JapanDefines the Diet as the "highest body of national rights," but its theory is divided into academic theories and emphasizes that it is the institution that plays a central role in national politics (political aesthetic theory).[216], "This is a rule of interpretation when interpreting the authority and mutual relations of national institutions" (comprehensive adjustment function theory)[217]Is influential.

Legislative office

国会It is,House of Representatives(House of Representatives)WhenHouse of Councilors(Senate) And two housesBicameral systemParliament (legislature).As mentioned above, Article 41 of the Constitution of Japan states that "it is the highest body of state power and the only legislative body of the country."on the other hand,Article 72 of the Constitution of JapanThen, the Prime Minister is supposed to submit a bill to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet, and the theory is divided as to whether or not this "bill" includes a bill.In actual operation, with cabinet legislationLegislatorIs used together[218][219].

The House of Representatives and the House of Councilors both represent the entire nation.election(House of Representatives general election-House of Councilors ordinary election) Was elected byMember of ParliamentIt is organized by (members of the House of Representatives and members of the House of Councilors). However,budget,TreatyThe nomination of the Prime Minister,Cabinet no confidence resolutionIn some cases, the House of Representatives has stronger authority than the House of Councilors (Superiority of the House of Representatives). this is,Dissolution of the House of RepresentativesHowever, because the term of office is short, it is more reflected in the will of the people.

Executive branch

Executive branchCabinetIs thatChiefBarrelPrime MinisterAnd otherSecretary of StateConsists ofCollaborative systemInstitution.The Prime Minister must be a member of the Diet.Since the enforcement of the Constitution of Japan, a member of the House of Representatives has been nominated as the Prime Minister by convention.A person nominated by the Diet is ceremonially and formally appointed as Prime Minister by the Emperor as a state act.The Minister of State is appointed by the Prime Minister and the EmperorAuthenticationTo do. The majority of the Secretary of State must be chosen from among the members of the Diet. The Prime Minister and other Ministers of StatecivilianMust. Cabinet isAdministrative powerThere are many opinions that while they are jointly responsible to the Diet for the exercise of the House of Representatives, they have the substantive right to decide to dissolve the House of Representatives.Article 7 of the Constitution of JapanItem 3 and69 articlechecking).

PersonPrime MinisterDate of BirthageCabinetPolitical partyTerm of officeNumber of daysConcurrent ministerHonor / concurrent position
100 64Fumio KishidaKishida Fumio
Fumio Kishida
 1957
(Showa32 years)
 7/29
65The 1nd Kishida Cabinet
LDP
Komeito
(Self-public coalition)
2021(Reiwa3 years)10/4 - 2021(Reiwa3 years)11/10038 daysMinister of Foreign Affairs :
2021(Reiwa3 years)11/4 - 2021(Reiwa3 years)11/10
House of RepresentativesMember
(No.9,10Period,Hiroshima 1 wardsElection)
27nd generationLiberal Democratic Party President
101The 2nd Kishida Cabinet
2021(Reiwa3 years)11/10 -Current position0272 days
Total number of days in office0309 days

The majority of bills to be deliberated in the Diet are cabinet-submitted bills (government legislation, cabinet law) submitted by the Cabinet, and few bills (member legislation) are proposed by members of the Diet.[219]..The bill submitted by the government will be prepared in coordination with the ruling party, which has a majority of parliamentary seats in the ministries and agencies under the cabinet.Ministry officials (Career bureaucrats)Has a strong influence on national affairs.

Since the election requires "3 vans" of ground, signboard (name), and bag (election fund),Hereditary politicianThere are many. Since the 1970sYasuhiro Nakasone,Junichiro KoizumiWith the exception of the above, the term of office of the Prime Minister remained at most two years, and since 2 (2006), the term of office lasted for about one year.

55 years and after
In the Diet,1955Was formed in (30)LDP(Aka: LDP) consistently occupied the largest number of seats. Unified in the same yearJapanese Socialist Party(Common name: Socialist Party, currentSocial Democrats) With the last two digits of the year in which the two parties joined55 yearsFormed a political system called. This system isRuling partyAs the president of the party (head of the party) as the prime minister in the Diet, the minister of state is appointed from among the members of the party to organize the cabinet, and the Socialist Party runs the national politics as an opposition party while confronting and cooperating with the LDP. It is a thing.New freedom clubCoalition governmentThe Liberal Democratic Party's independent government continued for about 1983 years until 58 (Heisei 1986), except for one period from 61 (Showa 1993) to 5 (Showa 40).
LDP in 1993Haneda schoolLeft the partyNew PartyJoin theNon-LDP and non-communist coalition governmentIsHosokawa Cabinet(Hosokawa GokiWith the establishment of the Prime Minister, the Liberal Democratic Party withdrew from power, and with this, the "55 system" that had been building Japanese politics for many years after the war collapsed. The following day, in June 1994, the LDP/Social PartyNew party OfIn-house coalitionIsMurayama Cabinet(Murayama Tomi CityPrime Minister) was established and the LDP was restored to power. nextHashimoto Cabinet(Ryutaro HashimotoSince then, the LDP has been rearranging its coalition partnersPresidentThe era of assuming the post of prime minister was continued, but in August 2009 (Heisei 21)House of Representatives general electionWas defeated by, dropped from the first party of the House of Representatives, and in September the following dayDemocratic Party-Social Democrats-New National PartyConsists ofMinsha United Nations Administration OfYukio Hatoyama Cabinet(Yukio HatoyamaPrime Minister) is established. The coalition government centered on the Democratic PartyNoda Third Remodeling Cabinet(Yoshihiko NodaThe last of December 2012House of Representatives general electionEnded with the defeat in theSelf-public coalitionWas revived.
Judiciary

According to the Constitution of Japan, the jurisdiction is the court (Supreme Court andlawThe lower court as stipulated in XNUMX.) shall be exercised. There is no judicial office in each local government, and the lower courts (High Court,District court,Family court,Summary court) Will try. Also, according to the Japanese ConstitutionSpecial court(Imperial court,Martial law conferenceEtc.) is prohibited.

Judicial systemAs,Criminal trialReflect a sense of citizenshipJury systemReferee systemIs an eclectic systemJudge systemAndProsecutor OfRight to prosecuteReflect people's willProsecution screening systemand so on.

Local politics

Political system

In local politics, unlike national politics, a dual representation system is adopted by the chief and the local council, which are directly elected by the residents.[220].

Local government

Local autonomy consists of two stages: municipalities, which are basic organizations, and prefectures, which are wide-area organizations.Local government(Local government).

Municipality
City is 795,townIs 743,village183, total 1718[221][Note 39].. This municipality system was enforced in 1889 (Meiji 22) in Japan excluding Hokkaido and Okinawa, and some remote island regions. other,Special local governmentAs of October 2016, 10, 10 special wards (Tokyo Ward) Has been established, and these have the authority according to the city (Article 281 of the Local Autonomy LawParagraph 2, Article 283)[222][223]..かつては1万を超えた市町村数は、1950年代後半のThe number of cities, towns and villages that once exceeded XNUMX was in the latter half of the XNUMXs.Great Showa mergerAnd of the 2000sGreat Heisei mergerDrastically decreased due to the reorganization of the municipalities.
Enforcement agencyBarrelMayor,Voting bodyBarrelMunicipal assembly[Note 40]Are placed, and all are elected by residents.
Manage property, handle local affairs, and execute administration. Establish the ordinance within the scope of the law. A city with a particularly large scale has the same authority as a prefecture as a government-designated city, except for the authority regarding agriculture, forestry and fisheries administration.
"City" is read as "shi", but "town" is mixed with "town" and "chou", and "village" is mixed with "mura" and "son".
Prefectures
The city is 1,roadIs 1,PrefectureIs 2,Prefecture43, total 47Prefectures.. 1871 (Meiji 4)Abandoned DomainAs a result, prefectures have been set up as administrative divisions throughout the country.市町村Unlike the prefecture, the merger/separation of the prefecture itself was not done in 1888 (Meiji 21).[Note 41].
The city has a certain adjustment function for special wards, but there is no legal difference between prefectures, and the difference in names is historical.[224].. Roads are also equivalent to prefectures in the Local Autonomy Law,Special lawEstablishing some special exceptions regarding roads (per police organizationPolice lawArticles 46 and 51).
Executive agencyPrefectural governorThe prefectural assembly, which is a voting body, is set up, and both are elected by residents.
We will administer a wider area, encompassing municipalities. Establish ordinances within the scope of the law.

At present, alleviating concentration in TokyoDecentralizationTo promote prefectures, eliminate prefectures and establish more extensive provincesPrefectural systemIs being considered (Japan's Doshu system debate). Also,Osaka,Naka KyotoThere is also a movement to create a special ward like (Metropolitan area special ward establishment law).

国際 関係

1956からUnited NationsIn 1958, "United Nations centerThe three diplomatic principles of "cooperation with liberal countries" and "maintaining the position as a member of Asia" were set forth, but the actual situation is that they are generally implemented within the scope of compatibility with Japan-US key diplomacy.[226][227][228].

Currently in 195 countries around the worldEmbassyAnd 157 countries have established embassies in Japan and 41International organizationHas an office in Japan[229].

From Japan in 2019visaThe number of countries that can travel without it is 190, which is the highest in the world along with Singapore.It was the most among the 200 countries and regions surveyed.[230].

Also, in JapanG7,G8,G20,Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD),World Trade Organization(WTO) member countries, so-calledStrong lineIs one of the nations[22][23].

Currently in JapanUnited Nations Member StatesOf which, North Korea (DPR KoreaIn addition to all member countries except)Vatican City,Republic of Kosovo,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ニウエIs recognized as a nation and has international relations.Also, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), Palestine (Palestinian country),Taiwan(Republic of China) And an informal relationship.

United Nations

East Asia

East AsiaSo, since ancient times, they are geographically adjacent to each otherChugoku,KoreaDiplomacy was taking place mainly at Japan isConfucianism-Kanji culture areaIt is a corner of the traditional culture,Gagaku,Ink painting,China,Zen Buddhism,calligraphyMany have East Asian roots.MeijiAfter the period,CivilizationThe Japanese culture, which was developed by adopting Western culture, spread to East Asia on the contrary.[231].Japan-China Peace and Friendship TreatyAlthough diplomatic relations were cut off based on the above, exchanges continue as a business relationship between non-governmental organizations.Taiwan(Republic of China) Or Korea (South Korea) Was once(Japanese territory) Taiwan,(Japanese territory) KoreaAsDainichi this empireIt is still an important trading partner because it was governed by[232]..It also achieved economic growthChugokuHas become a Japanese competitor in science and technology, economy and business.North Korea has consistently had no diplomatic relations since its founding, and Japan has imposed economic sanctions on it.In terms of military and security, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are eachAmericaThere is a loose cooperative relationship through.On the other hand, China is from the founding country (Socialist countryFrom)Korean WarSince then, it has been in an alliance with North Korea,Russia(OldSoviet Union) Also has a cooperative relationship.

Republic of Korea flag South Korea : Ancient timesMore JapanGoryeo,Mr. Lee,Korean Empire such asKorean PeninsulaMaintained a certain degree of exchange with successive administrations[233], In the late Edo periodConquest theoryAppeared[234].MeijiThe main person who insisted on the theory of conquest in the new government during the periodXNUMXth year of Meiji eraAlthough dismissed in 1876Inequality treatyIsJapan-Asia morning regulationIs concluded.Looking at the Korean Peninsula while looking at defense from continental forcesProfit lineJapan, which was perceived, strengthened its influence on Korea from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, and in 1910.South Korea annexationWas made[235].Governance by JapanAt the beginning of the army-led martial arts rule, but in 1919Third movementInvited.After that, "Ichimoku Dojin" and "OnenessHowever, in Korea, which already has a long history of rule by successive dynasties, it was not possible to hope for a complete grasp of the human heart, resulting in a distorted rule structure.And it was carried out from the 1930s to the 1940sTotal warMeasures to carry out will impose a heavy burden on the Korean people.On the other hand, with your own handsNation-stateIn Korea, where it was not possible to establish a Japanese language, the resistance movement itself against Japan is closely linked to the formation of nationalism.[236].

Second World WarAtSurrender of JapanTo restore sovereignty (Liberation Day)38th parallelSouth of the area is an effective control areaSouth Korea(Korea) was founded.Korean WarIn 1950, to support South KoreaJapan Coast Guard OfSpecial minesweeperWas dispatched from Japan[237]Be wary of the rise of Japan[238]Lee Seung-jaeUnder the administration, South Korea unilaterally in 1952 (Showa 27)Lee Seung-nou lineDeclareTakeshimaOccupy.This willTakeshima problemWas generated, Japanese fishing boats that crossed this boundary were captured, and many Japanese fishermen were killed and detained.[239][240]..Even in mainland Japan, Korean government operativesNiigata Red Cross Center Bombing Attempt,Kim Dae Jung Abduction CaseHave caused an incident such as[241][242].

April RevolutionByLee Seung-jaeOverthrow the dictatorship and establish a military governmentPark ParkPushes the public backlashJapan-Korea Basic TreatyConcluded a diplomatic relations with Japan and received compensation from Japaneconomic growthIt was used as a source of funds, but by concealing this from the peopleUnder Japanese rule OfColonyIt caused a controversy over compensation for control.Kim Dae JungThe administration promoted the liberalization of Japanese popular culture,Japan-Korea World CupCo-sponsorship was also proposed, and an increase in the number of people who have a sense of familiarity with Japan was also seen.[243].

But,Roh Moo-hyunThe administration turned to a strong diplomatic policy due to territorial and historical issues, and in 2005 (Heisei 17) President Roh Moo-hyun gave Japan to the US government.Virtual enemyProposed to assume as[244]..In the latter half of the administration, he professed "diplomatic war on Japan" due to the Takeshima issue,Junichiro KoizumiPrime ministerYasukuni ShrineThe relationship between Japan and South Korea was completely cold due to worship[245]..There were no signs of a fundamental improvement in relations in subsequent administrations.26 versionDiplomacy blueprintThen, the expression that was said to be "the most important neighboring country for Japan, which shares basic values ​​such as freedom, democracy, and basic human rights, and benefits such as ensuring peace and stability in the region," also changes year by year. The 30 version of the Diplomatic Bluebook no longer has any "pillows".[246]..However, the notation of "important neighbor" has been revived from the Reiwa 2nd year diplomatic bluebook.[247].

With Japan except the United StatesCriminal delivery agreementAlthough it is the only country that connects (as of 2022)[248], Occurred from 2011 to 2012Yasukuni Shrine / Japanese Embassy Arson AttackIn, the Korean court convicted the criminal Chinese of the arson of the embassy, ​​but he was guilty of arson.Political prisonerEven if the sentence expired, the South Korean side did not hand over to Japan to deal with the crime of arson at the shrine, and the Prime Minister at that timeShinzo AbeCriticizes the response as "an act of ignoring the treaty"[249][250][251].

On the defense side, exchanges between Japanese and Korean defense officials are ongoing.[252][253], 2018Jeju International Fleet ReviewAtSelf Defense Ship FlagConflict overKorean Navy radar irradiation problem, By South Korea in 2019Japan-Korea Secret Military Information Protection Agreement(GSOMIA) Friction may surface, such as a notice of destruction.

CulturallyRestricting the inflow of Japanese popular culture in KoreaIs gradually relaxing the restrictions[254][255],Japan alsoK-POPKorean culture such as is gaining a certain degree of popularity, especially among young people and women.[256].

Democratic People's Republic of Korea flag north korea: Currently there is no diplomatic relations.Both embassies in China (Beijing) Is the contact point between governments,TokyoHas a passport, official visa issuance, and a window for goodwill exchangesGeneral Assembly of Koreans in JapanExists[257]..North KoreaSouth Korea annexation(OldMr. Lee-Korean Empire OfDainichi this empireIt is said that it has not settled on any of the evaluation, the compensation problem, and the claim right problem.Japanese GovernmentIt is,Japan-Korea Basic TreatyOnly the Government of South Korea based onKorean PeninsulaIt is in the position of being a legitimate government of the government and has not been approved by the state.[258].. In addition,United Nations Member StatesIt is the only nation that Japan has not approved.In addition, Japan is in the position that the compensation issue has been resolved by a treaty with South Korea. 2002 (Heisei 14)Japan-North Korea summit meetingIt was announced that Japan had agreed on a method of mutually waiving compensation rights, normalizing diplomatic relations, and implementing economic cooperation with North Korea.[259]After that, the negotiations for normalizing diplomatic relations have stagnated.In the backgroundJapanese abduction issue by North Korea,Suspicious ship caseAgainst public opinion in Japan againstNorth Korea nuclear issue,North Korean human rights issueThere is the current situation of North Korea, which is deepening its isolation.In addition, it should be noted.Abduction issueRegarding, North Korea has expressed the official view that "all have been resolved."[260].

Japan is currently receiving theseEconomic sanctionsIs being carried out in North Korea[261]..North Korea uses a nuclear card from the United StatesTerrorism-supporting nationPulled out the de-designation, but was redesignated in 2017[262].. In April 2012, North Korea announced its own constitution (Democratic People's Republic of Korea Socialist Constitution) Clarified as a nuclear power[263]..On the military sideWest JapanStay within rangeShort-range ballistic missile OfScudEstimated 350 ERs, covering almost all of JapanNodonIt has an estimated 200 missiles, and missiles passed over Japan three times in 2016 and 2017.National Instant Warning System(Commonly known as J-Alert) is activated, etc.[264],JapaneseSecurityHas become a serious threat[265].

Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China: Japan is 1972 (Showa 47)Japan-China Joint StatementAnd 1978 (Showa 53)Japan-China Peace and Friendship TreatyWith the conclusion,People's Republic of ChinaNormalized diplomatic relations with (Japan-China relations normalization[266].Deng XiaopingTakes control of "Four basic principlesIs launchedReform and opening upTake a policy and Japan appreciates itOfficial development assistanceLarge scale in China in the name ofYen loanWent[267]. afterwards,economic growthA number of Japanese companies have relocated their production bases, and since 2006 (18), the total trade amount has exceeded that of the United States and has become the largest trading partner.[Note 42]..But emotionallyYasukuni Shrine ProblemRelationships are deteriorating in relation to.in Japan,Anti-Japanese activities in China in 2005Etc. were also actively reported, and the American private research institute in June 2008Pew Research CenterIn the survey, 84% (up 17% from the previous year) answered that they did not like China, which was the highest among the 24 countries surveyed.Also, the number of Japanese tourists to China has decreased.On the other hand, in China, although it decreased by 9% from the previous year, 69% still did not like Japan, and it became clear that the two peoples are still opposed to each other.China's coverage is under the control of the Chinese Communist Party, and it is hard to say that the general public is informed of ODA and apologies from Japan.Sichuan earthquakeThere were also events that expressed gratitude from the Chinese, such as the relief activities of the Japan Disaster Relief Team.[268].. Since 2010, it has surpassed Japan in GDP and has been pointed out to be dependent on China, making it economically non-negligible.[269].

From a military perspective, it is possible to mount a nuclear warhead that will cover all of JapanBallistic missileEstimated 100 shots, precision attack is possibleCruise missilePossessing an estimated 10 shots of Tokai type 10 and long sword type 600 poses a threat to Japan[270]. Also,China Coast GuardHas revealed its stance of advancing into the ocean, such as being allowed to use weapons in 2021, and Japan has revealed a sense of crisis.[271]..But in 2019Chinese PLA YokosukaIt's been a few years since I arrived at the portSDFThere are also signs of cooperation, such as joint training with[272].

Republic of China flag Republic of China : Taiwan(Republic of China) IsSino-Japanese warDainichi this empireSince it was ceded toSecond World War50 years to the endJapanese ruleAre experiencing.Second World WarAfter thatNational warChinese Communist PartyMilitary (currentChinese PLA) Was defeatedChinese National PartyBut for development and stabilitythe 1990sHas laid down dictatorship[273]..Japan once regarded the Republic of China as China's representative government and was contested over China's representation in the United Nations.Albania resolutionBut he supported the Republic of China, but in the 1970sEstablishing diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of ChinaAs a result, it officially broke with the Republic of China and has not approved Taiwan as a nation as of 2022.Although both embassies were closed due to the disconnection,Japan Taiwan Exchange AssociationTaipei Economic and Cultural Representative OfficePlays that role in effect.note that,Japan-China Peace and Friendship TreatyStates that "the state of the People's Republic of China, which claims that Taiwan is an integral part of its territory, is "understand and respect." Take the attitude that you are not[274].. In the 1990sLee Teng-huiBecame one of the pro-Japanese countries as the reconciliation progressed, such as the appointment of[275][276]. In 1996The KMT dictatorship is resolved, Then with the KuomintangDemocratic Progressive PartyWith (Democratic Party)Two-party systemMigrated to.Has a strict historical awareness of Japan from the experience of the anti-Japanese warForeignerSupports the Kuomintang and has a strong pro-Japanese tendency to experience the Japanese colonial era.Head ministerThere is a pervasive understanding of the composition that the Democratic Party supports the Democratic Party.[276], 2014Sunflower student movementAs symbolized by, as the generation goes down, suchStereotypeIs being resolved[277][278].

Now TaiwanSecurityIn terms ofTaiwan Relations LawIn the backgroundU.S. ForcesIt has a close relationship with Japan and has an indirect cooperation relationship with Japan, which maintains the Japan-US security system. Since the 1970s, even between Japan and Taiwan尖 閣 諸島There was a territorial dispute and a dispute broke out, but no serious conflict was reached.[279].

Human, cultural and economic exchanges at the private level have been consistently active even after the diplomatic relations, especially in recent years.Lee Teng-huiAfter the administrationMainland Taiwan MovementAs a result, the people's attitude toward Japanophilia tends to increase. Occurred on March 2011, 3Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake-Great East Japan EarthquakeThen, Taiwan sent the world's largest amount of donations of over 200 billion yen to Japan.[280]..Since it is located overseas, it is very popular as a tourist destination, and direct flights are operated.Also, for the first time overseas in JapanShinkansenJapanese technologies and products have been introduced into various infrastructures, such as adopting part of the system.[281][282][283].

Southeast Asia

Historically with JapanSoutheast AsiaRelationship with the regionRed seal ship tradeWas thriving16st centuryFrom the end17st centuryGo back to around[284]..JapanIsolationDidEdo PeriodBetween,Kingdom of ThailandExceptSoutheast AsiaArea isStrong line-European countries(America,United Kingdom, Netherlands,France,Portugal) Became a colony.Second World WarLet's colonize the same area as JapanWesternStrong lineMany victims were also made to the residents of the area because it became a battlefield withSecond World WarThe countries that later achieved independence formed diplomatic relations with Japan, built good friendships, and maintained them.Thailand,フィリピン,MalaysiaIt is said that they have a close relationship economically and culturally, and that they have good feelings toward each other's people.[285]..In addition, Japan has been establishing economic relations with these countries since the 1970s.ASEAN(Union of Southeast Asian Nations)ASEAN + 3Join in[286],Association of Southeast Asian Nations We hold regular summit meetings with (ASEAN) countries and attach great importance to relations.AlsoFree trade agreement Looking for a (FTA).SDF OfPKOAs for the first dispatch,CambodiaAnd again東 テ モ ー ル,VietnamWas also dispatched to.Waters around Southeast Asia (especiallyMalacca Strait,Singapore Strait) IsMiddle EastImported fromcrudeIt is a very important route, as nearly 9% of the routes pass through.[287],PirateFrequently haunts[288]..As a countermeasure,Japan Coast GuardIn each countryCoast GuardIn addition to providing guidance and joint training to the training, we also dispatch to the field.[289]..The emperor empressThailand,Malaysia,Indonesia,Singapore,フィリピンAre visiting.

Indonesian flag Indonesia: Old NetherlandsIn the colony,Red seal ship trade,JapantownAroundSengoku periodAlthough there was a private exchange fromIsolationAs a result, the exchange was cut off.[290].Second World WarIn the case of JapanDutch East Indies CampaignDutch armyBreaking, temporaryUnder Japanese occupationInitially placed inColonyWelcomed as a liberator of rule, but as the war intensifiedImperialization policyIs givenIndonesianInside is "RomushaSome were forced to engage in harsh hard labor.[291]. But,independentWhile some Japanese were involved in the event, and there were pro-Japanese groups, amid political turmoil in the 1960s.Communist partyWith the rise of power, it approached China etc., but after 1966SuhartoThe system once again strengthened relations with Japan[292]..However, in the 1970s, Japanese companies entered Indonesia one after another and became dominant in the Indonesian economy, so they opposed it.Kakuei TanakaLarge-scale anti-Japanese movement to coincide with Indonesia's visit to IndonesiaMalari IncidentHas happened[293].

In modern times, 2001American terrorist attacksBy米 国His relationship with him deteriorated, and he was subject to sanctions such as an arms embargo until 2005.for that reasonRussia,ChugokuStrengthen relations with, but with any countryMilitary allianceWe are developing such as not connecting[294]..Good relations with Japan, for JapanLiquefied natural gasSince it is a vitally important supplier, many Japanese companies have entered the market.EnergyEngaged in business[295]..Also in JapanOfficial development assistance (ODA) is hardInfrastructureIn addition to maintenance, civil police activity promotion plan[Note 43]Governance ability support (governance support)Legal support[Note 44]It also extends to support the development of soft infrastructure.Sumatra offshore earthquakeThen, we promptly decided to contribute to the third place by country, andAcehJMSDFDispatched a ship[298]..We also support the construction of disaster prevention systems.

Cambodia flag Cambodia: OldFranceAlthough diplomatic relations were established with the colonial Cambodia shortly after the war[299],Pol PotDuring the administrationEmbassyDiplomatic relations were temporarily cut off, such as closing the government, but it became normal in the 1990s after the collapse of the administration.[300][301]..Japan is the largest for Cambodia with financial assistance from JapanDevelopment assistanceBesides being a country[302],SDFUtilized地雷Removal activities and educational support are also being vigorously carried out.Also, in terms of cultureKhmer RougeDestroyed and suppressed byBuddhismTo the restoration of the facilities and faith ofBuddhism in JapanThe world is making a big contribution.on the other handCambodiaIs JapanesePermanent memberInvariant support for entry[303]..Only Japan continues to support Cambodia, which has been criticized by Europe and the United States for strengthening one-party dictatorship, and Japan is in a position to promote simultaneous economic support and democratization.[304].. However, in the 2018 election in which Japan financed the election in Cambodia, the government of Cambodia decided to dismantle the largest opposition party, all the seats belong to the ruling party and democratization is going backwards.[305].

Singapore flag Singapore : British MalayaWas the central city ofSingaporeIt is,Meiji EraToOtokichi YamamotoFor the first time, I had an exchange with Japan[306].. In 1942 (Showa 17),Second World War OfBattle of SingaporeByBritish ArmyWhen the Japanese army that broke theShonan IslandWas renamed (Singapore during the Japanese occupation), 1945 (Showa 20)Surrender of JapanUntil then, military occupation and resistance from residents, mainly overseas Chinese, continued.[307][308].. Singapore in 1966 (Showa 41)MalaysiaAfter being exiled from Japan and becoming independent, Japan immediately approved and maintained a friendly relationship. In 2002 (Heisei 14)Japan-Singapore New Era Economic Partnership AgreementIt is the first country to conclude a free trade agreement with Japan, and the traffic of VIPs is active and it maintains a close relationship in economics and politics.[309].

Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand : 14st centuryFrom aroundAyutthaya Japanese VillageWas formed, and at its peak, 3000 peopleJapaneseEtc.Ayutthaya dynastyHas economic influence in controlled Thailand[310].Yamada NagamasaWas active here[311]. afterwards,Edo Shogunate IsolationI lost exchanges with Japan because I took a policy,Ayutthaya Japanese Village The18st centurySurvived until[312]..After the opening of Japan, in 1887, the Japan-Thailand Preference Declaration was signed and diplomatic relations resumed in earnest.[313].Dainichi this empireThailandBothColonyA friendly relationship was built because of the commonalities that escaped the transformation, and in 1932Thai Constitutional RevolutionHappened, but it was Minister to SiamYatabe YasuyoshiThere was also the support of Japanese people including[314].Second World WarThen.Axis powersNot said, butJapan-Taiwan Offensive and Defensive Alliance TreatyTieJapanese troops stationedShowed a supportive attitude towards Japan[315].

After the war, he made an effort to return Japan to the international community, and is now known as Japanophilia.[316], Has a deep economic connection.The ratio of Thailand to Japan in international trade is 9.5% for exports and 15.8% for imports (2016).ChugokuIt is the second largest trading partner after[317]..In addition, Japan's direct investment in Thailand was 1,489 billion.BahtThis accounted for a quarter of Thailand's total investment[317].. For Japan in 2007AsiaBecame the third countryEconomic partnership agreementWas tied[318]..Many manufacturing bases of Japanese companies have been set up for some time due to low labor costs and manufacturing costs, but in recent years there has been a shift to the consumer market due to economic growth.[319].Thai royal familyRoyal familyGood relationship with[320], The number of Thais visiting Japan is increasing[321].. In 2004Sumatra offshore earthquakeThen.SDF OfDispatch to ThailandWas also carried out[322].

Philippines flag フィリピン : Red seal ship tradeThroughAzuchi-Momoyama PeriodHave exchanges from manyJapaneseMoved inManilaToJapanese StreetWas formed[323].16st centuryToSpainMade the Philippines, which was a territory at that time, a base for trade with JapanVeteren exileExiled Japan byUkon TakayamaAlso accepted[324],Edo Shogunate OfIsolationWith the disruption of diplomatic relations due to policy, exchanges with Japan were disrupted.It was resumed after the conclusion of the Japan-West Friendship Commerce and Navigation Treaty in 1868. Because the Philippines sought independence in 1899US-Pacific WarDespite the outbreak, Japan remained ostensibly neutral, but some influential people sold and transported weapons.[325]Was also a leaderArtemio RicarteAlso accepts asylum[326].Second World WarThen.Occupied in JapanThere was a history of a fierce battle involving local residents (Battle of the Philippines), Although the feelings towards Japan were bad in the postwar Philippines,CompensationGradually improved through payments and financial assistance[327]..Now known as Japanophilia[328].

In 2008Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership AgreementHas come into effect, and economic ties are strengthening[329]. However,フィリピンCurrent status of major trading partnersAmericaAnd Japan, but in recent yearsChugoku, South KoreaTrade with[330]..From the perspective of labor costs and manufacturing costs, many Japanese companies have manufacturing bases in the Philippines to create jobs.[331].Filipinos in JapanIt is,Foreigners living in JapanHas the fourth largest population by nationality[332].. In March 2013typhoonYolandaCaused enormous damage to the Philippines, and JapanSDFWas dispatched[333]..Japan is also contributing to the political situation, and in 2011, the President of the Philippines was mediated by Japan.Benigno Aquino IIIAnd rebelsMoro Islamic Liberation FrontHeld an informal first meeting[334][335].

 Vietnam: 1905 (Meiji38 years),French IndochinaAsFranceVietnamese national activists who oppose the rulePhan Boi ChauAdvocated byRusso-Japanese WarStudy abroad in Japan after winningToyu movementHowever, the Japanese government concluded in 1907 (Meiji 40)Japan-France agreementExiled activists by[336].Second World WarThen.French Third RepublicAfter the collapse ofSino-Japanese war(Chinese incidentIn 1940 (Showa 15) as part ofBuddha in IndiaWas carried out in the north and in the south in 1941 (Showa 16), but in particular, the invasion of French Indochina in the south strongly urged the opening of the war between Japan and the United States in December of the same year.[337].. In March 1945 (Showa 20)Vietnam EmpireTo establishFranceWhen Japan surrendered in September of the same year, it was established as North Vietnam.Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Currentthe Socialist Republic of VietnamIt is,Vietnam WarSecurity relations with Japan in JapanThe United States of AmericaFought withVietnam Communist PartyAlthough it was a dictatorship by Japan, Japan did not participate directly in the war. Before the end of the Vietnam WarSouth VietnamEstablished diplomatic relations with Japan in 1973 (Showa 48) when the government remained, and hated socialist policies after the unification of Vietnam in 1975.Boat peopleBecame a Vietnamese refugee (Indochina refugees) Was accepted by Japan[338].

Japan is accepting many Vietnamese workers, partly due to labor exports by the Vietnamese government and labor shortages in Japan.Approximately 2021 Vietnamese workers as of 45[339][340], 20 of them are accepted as technical intern trainees[339]Vietnam has become Japan's largest supplier of foreign workers, including a memorandum of understanding for specific skills, which is a status of residence newly established in 2019.[341][342]..On the other hand, Japan has a large amount of money in VietnamDevelopment assistanceIs being carried out in JapanODABuilt and maintained byTan Son Nhat International Airport,Can Tho BridgeHas become an integral part of Vietnam's transportation[343][344]..In addition, due to soaring labor costs and rising production costsChugokuThe number of Japanese companies relocating their production bases has been increasing since 2000, and the largest relocation destination is Vietnam.[345].

South Asia

South AsiaWe maintain friendly relations with each country.6st centuryIt is assumedBuddhist biographySince then, JapanReligious-culture-PoliticsDeeply rooted inBuddhism(Mahayana Buddhism) Is the birthplace of ancient IndiaTianzhuWidely known as[346][Note 45],SanskritBuddhist scriptures and philosophical ideas written in (Sanskrit) have spread widely[347]. Also,16st centuryFrom the second halfNanban tradeThen.PortugalIs on the west coast of IndiaGoreWas built inPortuguese indiaAlthough the colony was an important relay point[348],South AsiaFormal diplomatic relations between countries and JapanSecond World WarIt was started after the independence of each country and the restoration of Japan's sovereignty.Because Japan is "the only country exposed to the war" (Atomic bomb dropped on Japan),Nuclear testCarried outIndia,PakistanThere was a time when I was away from[349]In recent years, relationships have become more important as the situation changes, and in 2006 (Heisei 18)Southeast AsiaIncludingMinistry of Foreign AffairsAsia and Pacific DepartmentNewly established Southern Asia[350]..There is a particularly severe conflict between the two countries due to the absence of religious conflicts.India-PakistanThe feelings toward Japan of each person, including both, are said to be relatively good.

Indian flag India : 19st centuryFrom the second half onwards, with JapanBritish Indian Empire TheCotton fabricAlthough fierce international competition continued in the market[351],Russo-Japanese WarJapan's victory inIndiaGive the national activists the hope of "liberation of Asia"Indian National AssemblyHas a strong influence on the formation[352]..After that JapanImperialismIf you proceed with the policy,Jawaharlal NehruCriticized this[Note 46],Subhas Chandra BoseExpects Japan after that,Second World WarWhen the war between Japan and the UK started, Japan said,Greater East Asia mutual prosperity areaBy Bose as a member ofFree Indian Provisional GovernmentSupport the establishment,Operation ImphalAimed to invade India but was eliminated[353]..However, Japanese military actionUnited KingdomHas hit the Indian rule of India,NehruIndia, which became independent under the Prime Minister in 1947, saidNon-allied movementContinued to reconcile and support the defeated Japan[354].

After thatIndian National AssemblyThe faction governmentNon-allianceWhile raisingUSSREmphasis on military cooperation with[355], National control in JapanPlanned economy"Indian socialist system" based on[356], And even in 1974Nuclear testThe relationship between Japan and India was not strong for its name and distance due to the impact of the implementation.[349], The marketization of the Indian economy in the 1990sIndian People's PartyJapan's economic advance has accelerated due to the change of government[357]..Also, it becomes hugeChugokuFrom the east and westGeopoliticsIt is one of the countries where relations are expected to become particularly intimate in the future, for some reason, and the remarkable economic development in recent years.Information technologyAchievements in[358]..Japan and IndiaG4In October 2008, the leaders of both countries jointly declared Japan-India Security Cooperation (Joint Declaration of Security Cooperation between Japan and India.Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between Japan and India), For JapanAmerica,AustraliaNext toSecurityBecame the third country to formally cooperate in the field[359]..Furthermore, in 2011, Japan and India will phase out tariffs on FTAs ​​(FTAs).Free trade agreement) As a pillar of the EPA "Japan-India Economic Partnership AgreementIs effective[360]..If this is achieved, about 90% of Japan's exports to India and about 97% of India's exports to Japan will have zero tariffs within 10 years.[361].. FurthermoreAmerica,AustraliaExpand power withChugokuLooking atJapan-US Australia-India Strategy DialogueFormed (Quad) and is in a loose alliance[362].

Pakistan flag Pakistan: Japan is a major donorKohat tunneletcYen loanWas built in[363], 1998Underground nuclear testThe aid was suspended until April 2005.[349]. But,SDF Iraq dispatchEtcSecurityFrom the point of viewMiddle EastThe Japanese government felt that it needed the cooperation of Pakistan, which has a strong influence on Japan, at that time.Junichiro KoizumiResumed loan aid after the Prime Minister's visit[364]..Due to its attractive population of 2 million, it is expected to become a promising huge market for Japanese companies in the future.[365]..HistoricallyIndus civilization,BuddhismBecause the culture flourishedcultural heritageIs abundant, and now Japan isUNESCOThroughMohenjodalo,Taxira(GandharaRuins) Support for conservation[366].

Bangladesh flag バングラデシュ: World since independence in 1973Poorest countryIt is said to be one of the above, and Japan provides assistance in many aspects such as economy, health, and natural disaster countermeasures.[367]..In addition, attention was paid to the fact that it is possible to ship at a very low manufacturing cost compared to Japan.ClothesJapanese companies, mainly industries, continue to enter the market[368]..In recent years in BangladeshHigh economic growthIs continuing[369], Established a manufacturing base in Bangladesh because of its poor working conditionsUNIQLOJapanese companies such as Japan are embarking on improving the working environment[370]..The first generationPresident of BangladeshMujibur RuffmanDaughter ofSheikh HasinaAccording to the Prime Minister, when enacting the Bangladesh flag, "My father is Japan.HinomaruWas referred to. "[371], Traditionally known as Japanophilia.

Oceania

OceaniaAmong theSouthern Ocean IslandsJapan has a relatively deep relationship with each other because Japan was once under the control of a mandate or occupied territory.ミクロネシア 連邦Then of NikkeiToshio Nakayama,Manny Mori PresidentHas been selected for.パラオWas once of Japanese descentKunio NakamuraBecame president, and in some municipalitiesJapaneseIn the countryOfficial terminologyIt has been adopted as (not actually using Japanese on a daily basis, but has a strong symbolic meaning), and is very pro-Japanese in both the public and private sectors.

Australian flag Australia: Japan-Australia diplomatic relations dominated Australia at the timeUnited KingdomThrough19st centuryBeginning at the end, from 1930 to 1931 Japan became Australia's third-largest trading partner.[372]. afterwards,Second World WarThen Japan became a warring nation and Japan is a city in northern AustraliaDarwinAttack etc.[373]It was in 1952 that diplomatic relations between the two countries recovered after Japan's defeat. In 1957Robert MenziesThe Prime Minister came to Japan and offered to strengthen political and economic exchanges[374][375], In 1976Japan-Australia sugar negotiationsWhile trade friction such asBasic Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Japan and AustraliaIs tied, etc.[376], The economic ties gradually strengthened[377].

Today, it has the greatest influence in OceaniaAustraliaHas a very close relationship with.EconomicallyJapan-Australia Economic Partnership AgreementConclusion andTrans-Pacific Partnership Agreement,APEC,East Asia Summit,Southeast Asian Nations Regional ForumThe economic barriers are low[378][379][380][381][382]..Since the Japan-US-Australia defense summit meeting was held, we will take joint steps in military and diplomatic relations. In March 2007 (Heisei 19),SDFAustralian ArmyAnd the United NationsPeacekeepingJoint training of (PKO activities), antiterrorismActivity,(I.e.It was included to cooperate with local disasters and hitAustralia-Japan Joint Declaration on Security CooperationWas signed[383]..This will make Japan the second country to formally cooperate in the field of security (after the United States).We are also conducting joint research on submarines, and Japan is conducting joint research on weapons with the United States.United KingdomIt is the third country after[384]..Also, Australia is JapanRight of collective self-defenseShow an attitude of accepting the exercise of[385], Is in a position close to a de facto ally[386]..On the other hand, there is a conflict in the whaling issue.[387].

New Zealand flag New Zealand : New ZealandDiplomatic relations with20st centuryAt the beginning, it dominated New Zealand at that timeUnited KingdomIn 1928, it signed its own commercial treaty.[388].Second World WarDiplomatic relations were cut off inside, but when they recovered after the war, both countries bothThe Pacific OceanIsland country andDeveloped countryActively trade asAsia PacificPolitical and economic ties are strengthening due to their interest in the stability and development of[389]..Reflecting that, now togetherAPEC,Australia Group,TPP11,CJPE,OECDIn addition to being a participating country, the intelligence agreement of the five countries in which New Zealand participatesUKUSA AgreementJapan is strengthening cooperation with "(commonly known as Five Eyes)"[390].

The United States of America

United States flag The United States of America: Close relationship with military, economic, and politics.Kurofune visitThe economic relationship that started from 2006 continues to be large against the backdrop of the economic power of the United States and was the largest trading partner until 18 (4). In the Pacific War, after surrendering four years of fighting in East Asia and the Western Pacific Region, it surrendered and was occupied by the Allied Forces, centered on the US Army. United StatesGhqThrough (SCAP)7 years occupationPlayed a central role in. Japan isSan Francisco Peace TreatyBased on April 1952, 27 (Showa 4)Sovereignty restoredBut stillUS Army in JapanRelationships that depended on most of their country's security continued.In the Far East region, which is far from the mainland for the United StatesMilitary base siteIn Japan,Compassionate budgetThe presence of allies, also known as copayments, that bear the heavy costs of staying in the army is important, and strong alliances continue. Opposition to this, especially the U.S. military base opposition movement and the relocation of bases by local residents at the base, may develop into diplomatic issues.[Note 47].. Because Japan-US relations are intimate, sometimes friction may increase,Japan BashingSuch a phenomenon may occur. AndUnited States GovernmentThe intention ofRequest for JapanThrough the formJapanese govermentIt is said that it has been given to the government and has an influence on Japanese policy making. Also,Criminal delivery agreementIs one of the few countries to conclude.

Central and South America

GenerallyLatin AmericaThe central and southern part of the American continent, which almost coincides with the region called, was already under the control of Spain and Portugal in the 16th century when Japan came into contact with Western countries. Spain includes current Central American countries and PhilippinesNueva EspanaThrough the development of trade with Japan andKeicho Eurasian EmbassyHowever, when the mission returned to Japan, the Edo Shogunate's isolation policy was strengthened, and exchanges between Japan and the region were disrupted once in the first half of the 17th century.

When Japan opened in the latter half of the 19th century and the Meiji Restoration followed, most of the Latin American region was already independent. The Meiji government concluded that the Edo Shogunate has concluded with the United States and Western European countries.Inequality treatyWhile struggling to resolve "No.", they moved to strengthen their diplomatic achievements by concluding equality treaties with Latin American countries and established diplomatic relations one after another, starting with Mexico. Latin American countries also found advantages in securing agricultural labor and began accepting Japanese immigrants at the end of the 19th century. However, this areaMonroismSince then, the United States has maintained a strong interest and influence,Attack on Pearl HarborIn 1941, when Japan and the United States entered the Second World War (Pacific War), Central American countries other than Mexico immediately, and all other countries also declared war on Japan by 1942 from Brazil/Mexico in 1945. And in someDetention of NikkeiAlso deported to the United States. After the war, Japan was under the strong influence of the United States, and the exchanges between the two regions were strengthened again, with the entry of Japanese companies and the transfer of Japanese-affiliated workers to Japan. It also captures economic development in Southeast AsiaTrans-Pacific Partnership AgreementJapan, Mexico, Peru, Chile, etc. participated in the (TPP), and their own cooperation is being strengthened, excluding the United States, which did not participate in the agreement.

Central americaWe will maintain a peaceful relationship with (Central American) countries centering on economic relationships, although we lack human and cultural exchanges. Also,CubaSuch asSocialist countryHave a friendly relationship with both economic and cultural sides,Peruvian Japanese Ambassador Residence Occupation CaseBut Cuba was requested by JapanGuerrilla OfexileWe cooperated such as accepting acceptance.

South America(South America) geographically地球It is located directly behind, but from the latter half of the 19th centuryPeru,ArgentineHave a deep friendship with. There is also a history of accepting large numbers of immigrants from Japan. In trade relations,チリIt has a particularly strong relationship with Argentina, where friendly relations have continued since the warパラグアイMany countries are pro-Japanese.

Argentina flag Argentine: In 1898 (Meiji 31), Japan signed the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation with Argentina, and at that timeRussian EmpireThe warships Ribadavia and Moreno in preparation for the war withKasuga,NisshinPurchased as[393], They areRusso-Japanese WarA full-fledged relationship was started from the fact that he was active in. Relations between the two countries before 1941 are similar to BrazilImmigrationIs the center, and there are currently an estimated 1 Nikkei in Argentina (Japanese Argentines) Is[394].Second World WarAlthough diplomatic relations were sometimes cut off, it recovered soon after the war.Also,Falkland IslandsMalvinas war between Britain and Argentina (which broke out over the sovereignty ofFalkland conflict),AmericaGovernmentUnited KingdomJapan's own diplomacy, such as not implementing an embargo on Argentina despite repeated requests from the government, is highly evaluated by Argentine acquaintances.[395]..Now bothG20As a member, he is strengthening his financial ties.

 チリ: Diplomatic relations were established for the first time with the conclusion of the Japan-Chile Treaty of Commerce and Navigation in 1897.[396]..After that, in World War II, diplomatic relations were temporarily cut off due to Chile's declaration of war against Japan in 1945.[397]However, it recovered soon after the war.Now produced in Chilecopper,molybdenum,wood,FishesAndWineEtc. are exported to Japan, especiallyChilean wineIs the number one exporter of wine to Japan[398]..Supporting this active trade are the bilateral Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) and the Japan-Chile tax treaty.[399], And both countries at the same timeTrans-Pacific Partnership AgreementIt is a friendly country, such as being a participating country of (TPP).In addition, Chile had a magnitude of 1960 in 9.5.Chile earthquakeJapan was attacked by a magnitude of 2011 in 9.0Great East Japan EarthquakeBoth countries are earthquake-prone countries.For this reason, there are many occasions when it comes to seismic research.[400].

Bahamas flag (I.e.: Independent approval was granted on the 1973th, two days after the independence on July 7, 10. Diplomatic relations were established in 27. In 1975, an "Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Bahamas on the exchange of information for the prevention of tax evasion and the allocation of taxation rights on personal income" was signed, but it should be revised in January 2011. Have virtually agreed between the two countries. (The Bahamas are known as Tax Haven)[401]

Brazilian flag Brazil : 19st century, BrazilAfrican continentSent fromslaveThecoffeeHe was a worker on farms and orchards, but abolished slavery in 1888 after being criticized by other countries.[402]..As a result, there is a labor shortage.Italy,SpainDespite accepting immigrants from Japan, poor treatment and low wages have caused problems and the acceptance of immigrants has been suspended.[403]In 1892, the Brazilian government announced that it would accept Japanese immigrants on its behalf, and there were too many people in Japan to agree on their interests. , The first diplomatic relations were established between the two countries[404]..Full-scale acceptance of immigrants beganRusso-Japanese WarAlthough I wonCompensationWas not obtained and Japan was economically confused20st centuryIt was the beginning.afterwards,World War I,Second World WarThere was a temporary interruption in the acceptance of immigrants, especially during World War II, although diplomatic relations were temporarily interrupted, the movement of immigrants continued until the 1960s after the war.Between 1908 and 1941, the peak of immigration, more than 19 people went to Brazil.[405].

Through this immigrantSao PauloToLiberdage such asJapanese StreetWas built[406], The largest in the worldJapanese schoolAlso located in Sao Paulo[407]In Brazil as a whole, about 180 million people have built the largest Japanese-American society overseas (Japanese Brazilians), Maintaining a very deep relationship not only in terms of politics and economy, but also in terms of culture[408].. Especially,J LeagueBrazilian players have been the largest number of foreign players since the event began.Also, in the latter half of the 20th century, the composition of immigrants from Japan to Brazil collapsed, and the number of Brazilians living in Japan continues to increase, so the penetration of Brazilian culture in Japan can be seen.[409]. In 2013with the BBCAccording to a survey conducted by many Brazilians, Japan's influence is favorable and is one of the most pro-Japanese countries.[410]..On the diplomatic side,G4As togetherUnited Nations Security Council MemberFor Japan, as it is aiming to enter the marketSouth AmericaOften collaborates in international politics as the largest partner in.

Venezuelan flag ベネズエラ: Japan and Venezuela established diplomatic relations in 1938.But soonSecond World WarThe diplomatic relations between the two countries were cut off and revived in 1952 after the war.Venezuela is one of the important crude oil suppliers for Japan in modern times, and in 2008crude,Iron ore,Cacao,aluminumEtc. are imported worth 10 billion dollars[411]..However, since around 2010 Venezuela has beenHyper inflationThe people are in a state where they can't even buy daily necessities.[412][413], In terms of politics, take over the previous administration, take control and strengthen the dictatorial tendencyNicholas MaduroAppointed as interim president as president and leader of oppositionJuan Guaidó, The state where there are two presidents continues[414]..Although the Japanese government supports Interim President Guaidó[415]There is no sign that the turmoil will be resolved, which is hindering the development of bilateral relations.

Peru flag Peru: In 1872 (Meiji 5)clear OfcoolieTheslaveOpened asMaria Luz caseThe training began in the wake of[416]..The following year, in 1873, Japan and Peru signed the Austrian-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation and officially signed diplomatic relations.Many immigrants have traveledLatin AmericaThe second largest Japanese population in (Latin America),Second World WarThen the arrest of NikkeiThe United States of AmericaDeportation to Latin America was the most frequent in Latin American countries[417].. In the 1990sJapanese PeruvianIsAlberto Fujimori(Spanish"Fuhimori") took office as president, and the relationship rapidly became closer,Occupation of the residence of the Japanese Ambassador to PeruSucceeded in resolving the forcible force[418]After losing his leg, he went into exile in Japan.Fujimori is recognized as having Japanese nationality at birthHouse of Councilors electionArrested and convicted on the way back to Peru after running for[419]..But my daughter'sKeiko FujimoriLost in the presidential election twice, etc.[420], The presence of Japanese and Nikkei is still strong. 2012 is a bilateral treatyJapan-Peru Economic Partnership AgreementWas concluded[421].

Mexican flag Mexico: Closest relationship among Central American countries. From the end of the Edo period to the Meiji periodOpeningTied afterSino-Japanese good trade treatyUntil then,Inequality treatyIt is the first treaty of equality for Japan, which has been forced to suffer. Because of that relationship,EmbassyCan be said to be the central district of national politicsTokyoChiyoda-Nagata TownIs located only at the Mexican Embassy. In World War II, Mexico declared a war against Japan in 1942, and the Japanese and Mexican troops engaged on the Philippine front, but the Mexican government forcibly detained Japanese Americans. The relations between the two countries after the war were good, and there were deep economic ties such as the entry of many Japanese companies. Particularly in the automobile industry, exports to the United States, which borders Mexico, are also active, and it became effective in 1994.North American Free Trade AgreementIt also benefited from (NAFTA), but in some circumstances it could be affected by the US government's protection of its own industry and labor force.

Europe

Edo Period,In Japan米 国と と も にOpeningIs approachingUnited Kingdom,France such asEuropeCountries and alsoAnsei TreatiesRepresented byInequality treatyMost countries that have tied upEuropeWas a country[422]. afterwards,Meiji RestorationIt was also a model for modernization inRussiaincludingEuropeMore thanWestern EuropeCountries,Escape from Europe”(Fukuzawa Yukichi)MeijiJapan after the timesStudentsDispatch ofHired foreignerActively tried to ingest academics, techniques, and culture by using.Russo-Japanese WarAfter the victory, Japan is on an equal footing with European countriesStrong lineTreated as[423],Second World WarSince then,Western EuropeCentered onNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Indirect alliance with countries[424]. Also,Royal familyIt is,British Royal FamilyIncluding, Netherlands,Sweden,BelgiumSuch asEuropeEach countryRoyal familyHave a deep friendship with. On the other hand, it is said that some bad feelings due to the engagement in World War II remain, especially in the Netherlands.[425].Democracy,資本主義,LiberalismIt is one of the regions with the most friendly countries because it shares the same philosophy.G7Because there are many contacts such asUnited Kingdom,France,Germany,ItalyI have a lot of interaction withCold WarBy the end ofIron curtainIs removedSocialist campThe former Eastern European countries that belonged toBaltic statesInteraction with and became active,Akihito the Emperor-Michiko EmpressIn 2002 (Heisei 14)Poland,Hungary,Czech RepublicIn 2007エストニア,ラトビア,リトアニアAre visiting (including stopping by).

Irish flag Ireland : Relationship between Japan and IrelandDuring a visit to England in 1872Iwakura Mission DublinIt starts from visiting.After that, Irish writer Lafcadio Hearn (Japanese name:Koizumi Yakumo) Moved to Japan and wrote a book about Japan[426], HundredsNun,PriestHas influenced education and child welfare throughout Japan[427].1957Formally established diplomatic relations with2017Is celebrating its 60th anniversary[428]..Although there is a big difference in economic power between the two countries, they are the sameOECDAs a member ofEUStrengthening economic ties through[429].

British flag United Kingdom : Japanese-English relationsIs the early Edo periodLeaf DeWas on boardMiura Anjin Edo ShogunateStarted by serving[430].. In 1858Inequality treatyIsJapan-UK Amity Trade TreatyAlthough diplomatic relations were established[431], Before the full-scale opening of the countryNamamugi IncidentStarting fromSatsuei War,Shimonoseki WarThe hostile relationship continued through such things.However, it made me feel the difference in power.Satsuma Domain,Choshu clanJudging that it was impossible to get rid of him under the shogunate, he approached Britain.[432], Both hansCampaignMeiji governmentWill become the center of. In 1886Normanton caseWith this as an opportunity, the movement to revise the inequality treaty increased, and a few years laterAnglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and NavigationIs newly concluded,Meiji RestorationAbolished the unequal treaty that had been a concern since then[433]..In this way, what is particularly emphasized in Japan-UK relations is19st centuryFrom the second half20st centuryBritain's role in the modernization of Japan towards the beginning, and Britain had the strongest influence on Japan in all aspects of economy, culture, academia, politics, and military. In 1902 (Meiji 35), both countriesRussian EmpireAs a counter toJapan-UK AllianceConclude theRusso-Japanese WarThen Britain became a key player behind Japan's victory, such as accommodating war expenses.[434],World War I,Siberian troopsMutually supported in[435]. But,Sino-Japanese war(Chinese incident)WhenJapan-Germany Ikoku UnionBoth countries will be hostile to each other,Second World WarBecame a warring country. After the end of the war, BritainAllied occupation of Japanparticipated in.Diplomatic relations have recovered after the occupation.

Same in modern timesG7Maintaining strong financial ties as a member, but on the other handUKTokyoBoth are globalFinancial centerIs[436], Also a pharmaceutical company that competes with Japanese companiesAstraZenecaAnd electronics manufacturersDysonAnd so oneconomic superpowerThere is also a competitive relationship as[437]..On the military side21st centuryThe ties are getting stronger rapidly after enteringIraq warSometimesSummerwaToSDFBritish ArmyWill be stationed and cooperate[438],F35Conducting joint research between Japan and the United Kingdom on missile technology mounted on fighter aircraft[439],SDFBritish ArmyConcluded a Japan-UK Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement that has agreed to a partnership with[440]. Also,Royal familyBritish Royal FamilyIncluding the exchange of[441], Has a deep cultural relationship.

Italian flag Italy : Italy-Japan relationsIs JapanOpeningThen,ResorgimentByItaly kingdomIt begins with the conclusion of the Japan-Italy Treaty of Amity and Commerce in 1866.Before that, he visited China at the end of the 15th century.Republic of GenoaMerchantMarco PoloHowever, the book "Touhou memoirs』In the ratio of JapanZipanguIn addition to introducing the country[442], Italian missionaries visiting Japan during the Warring States period, etc.[443], Had indirect contact.After the establishment of diplomatic relations, it was one of Japan's main export products.Silk moth paperThree-quarters were sold to Italy, strengthening economic ties[444].. Also in JapanMeiji RestorationAnd Italy's unification was achieved at about the same timeMeiji government TheItaly kingdomHe has a decent interest in the government and employs multiple specialists and technicians from Italy (Hired foreigner).Above all, the painterEdoardo Chiossone ThebillIssuancestampStrive to popularize[445], JuristAlessandro PaternostroAs a legal adviserTakeshi InoueEfforts to revise the treaty[446], PainterAntonio FontanesiIn JapanWestern paintingWas a student of himAsai Chu,Goseda Yoshimatsu,Shotaro Koyama,Matsuoka Hisashi,Yoshimoto YamamotoHas grown into a painter representing the Meiji era[447]..In this way, the influence of Italy remains strong in terms of social institutions and culture.In the two World Wars, he fought in the same camp throughout, especiallySecond World War TheJapan-Germany Ikoku UnionBecause it was tied, it was the most important partner of Japan after Germany.[448].

After the defeat, both countrieseconomic superpowerIt has been reconstructed as a company, and is an economic competitor as well as amicable exchanges.that isAutomobileEspecially prominent in the industryFiat,FerrariIs a rival competing for global market share[449][450]..In addition, various Italian companies are expanding into Japan, and at the same time, Japanese companies are expanding into Italy.[451]..On the diplomatic side, bothWestern camp,G7As a member, they have some common interests and continue to have close exchanges.[452]..But JapanG4 countriesAsPermanent memberItaly blocks the expansion of permanent members while aiming for entryUniting for ConsensusIs also the leading country of[453].

 Austria : Austria-Japan relationsYetAustria Strong lineWas a countryAustria-Hungary EmpireEra,Inequality treatyWas said to be the culmination ofNihon Shukou Trade and Navigation TreatyWas established by tying[454].. In 1873Vienna World ExpoJapan also participated in the event, which is "JaponismIt became one of the triggers of the fashion[455]..Also at that timeAustria-Hungary EmpireWas a great power, so many engineers and knowledge layersHired foreignerCame to Japan asLorenz von Stein TheIto HirobumiRecommend a German-style constitutional systemImperial Japanese ConstitutionAffects[456],Albrecht von LorezStrives to popularize German medicineShinpei GotoIn addition to affecting[457],LerchBrings skiing technology to Japan, etc.[458], Has a strong influence on Japan after Britain, the United States, Germany, France, Russia and Italy in terms of politics and culture.[459]. afterwards,Giwadan caseLet's stand on the same side and fight, continueWorld War IDespite the conflict, now that it has become the Republic of AustriaVienna Boys ChoirExchanges centered on music and culture are progressing, such as cooperation with and students studying abroad in Austria.[460].

Dutch flag Netherlands : Sino-Japanese relationsIn the early 17th centuryBungoIn UsukiJan YostenDutch merchant ship on boardLeaf DeBegins with the drifting.From the Edo period to the end of the Edo period, the Netherlandsキ リ ス ト 教Is the only European country to penetrateIsolation systemEven belowNagasaki TradingContinued to maintain trade relations with Japan through[461]..DutchRed-haired personCalled, they wrote about world affairsDutch bookAlso influenced the foreign policy of the Edo Shogunate, and the culture, science and technology, and research they brought aboutDutchAbsorbed throughDutch studiesIt has a great influence on the history of Japan, such as promoting the formation of Japanese people and stimulating the knowledge layer.[462].. In 1858Sino-Japanese Treaty of CommerceFormally established diplomatic relations, butInequality treatyBecause it was, in 1912 againJapan-Ran Commerce and Navigation TreatyWas tied[463]..第二次世界大戦中はDuring World War IISoutheast AsiaConflict over the interests of[464]After the war, diplomatic relations were restored, and in 2000, the 400th anniversary of Japan-Ranch exchanges was celebrated, and good relations are maintained.[425].

Swiss flag Switzerland : Relations between Japan and SwitzerlandIt is,1864It started with the conclusion of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce of Japan and the West.[465][466]. afterwards,World War I,Second World WarThroughPermanent nationSwitzerland was a rare nation where diplomatic relations continued without interruption because it maintained its neutrality.[467]..Today, Japan is an economic powerhouse and Switzerland is a financial nation, with economic and financial ties to each other.Nestle,NovartisHas advanced[467][468][469].

 Sweden : Relations between Japan and Sweden TheEdo PeriodThere is an academic connection back to. In 1649Juriaan SchaedelComes to Japan and is willing to do artilleryTriangulationTell[470], In 1775Dejima's three scholarsDoctor known asKarl Thunberg HakoneAfter collecting plants, he published "Japanese Flora" in Japan after returning to Japan.植物学,Dutch studies, In europeOriental studiesContributed to the development of[471][472]..Formal diplomatic relations were established in 1868, and the "Nine-Power Treaty of Sweden" signed at that timeMeiji governmentIs the first treaty signed with a foreign country[473]..In modern times, SwedishLow birthrate and aging populationMeasureswelfareWhile policy is drawing attention in Japan, Japan has become Sweden's second most important trading partner in Asia.[474]. Also,Royal familySwedish royal familyExchange is also close[475].

Spanish flag Spain : Japan-Spain RelationsBegins in the 16th century, the Warring States period,PortugalAlong with, Japan was the first European country to come into contact with[476].. at firstChristian(Francisco XavierEtc.) orNanban tradeInfluencing Japanese culture and worldview through relationships throughNanban cultureProduced[477]. But,Edo ShogunateByProhibitionWhen is laid, the exchange is temporarily interrupted.After the opening of the country, the Japan-West Friendship Commerce and Navigation Treaty was signed in 1868, and exchanges were restored.[478].Second World WarAt that time, Spain showed an Axis-oriented stance, but remained neutral and temporarily lost diplomatic relations in 1945.[479]..After the war, diplomatic relations recovered,Royal familyIn addition to close exchanges with the Spanish royal family, cultural exchanges continue.

 Denmark : Relations between Japan and DenmarkIt is,Danish East India CompanyWas established17st centuryIt originated in, but it was an informal contact[480]..Diplomatic relations were officially established1867This is after the Austrian-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation.Edo ShogunateWas the last treaty signed with a foreign country[481]. afterwards,1911In (Meiji 44)Uchimura KanzoLectures "The Story of the Country of Denmark: The Story of Saving the Country with Faith and Trees"Enrico DalgasIn addition to introducing the tree planting business in Japan as an excellent measure[482],