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What can I do to save my pet's life?Thinking about "mandatory attachment of microchips" for dogs and cats

 
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The "Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" in 1995 triggered the consideration of making it mandatory to install microchips.
 

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    Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

    Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake > Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

    Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake(Hanshin / Awaji Daishinsai)1995(Heisei7 years)1/17(Tuesday) OccurredHyogoken Nanbu EarthquakeCaused bydisasterRefers to.

    January 1995, 7 1:17:5 (Japan time=+9 UTC),Hyogo OfAwaji IslandNorthern (orKobe CityTarumi Ward) OffshoreAkashi Strait(north latitude34 degrees 35.9 minutes,east longitude135 degrees 2.1 minutes, depth 16km)(I.e.As,magnitude7.3[Annotation 1] The Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake struck.

    KinkiA wide area of ​​the area was severely damaged.Especially in the city of Kobe near the epicenter (Higashinada Ward,Nada Ward,Chuo(Sannomiya-Motomachi-Port Island),Hyogo Ward,Nagata,Suma Ward) Was enormous and shocked not only in Japan but all over the world as a disaster in a modern city.The number of victims reached 6,434,Second World WarOccurred laterEarthquake disasterasGreat East Japan EarthquakeIt was the second largest damage scale.The entire natural disaster that occurred after the war was the worst until the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    same year7/25,Act on Special Financial Assistance for Dealing with Severe Disastersbased onSevere disasterSpecified in.

    Overview

    Areas that have been particularly severely damaged

    Hyogo Prefecture (Hanshin / Awaji)

    Hyogo Prefecture (Higashi Harima, Kita Harima, Naka Harima)

    Osaka

    Areas that have been severely damaged

    Hyogo Prefecture (Tamba, Kita Harima, Naka Harima, Nishi Harima)

    Osaka (Settsu)

    Osaka (Kawachi / Izumi)

    Kyoto

    Tokushima

    Characteristics of the earthquake

    As a shaking caused by the earthquake, a field survey by the Japan Meteorological Agency's Seismic Mobile Observation Team after the earthquakeBetween Hanshin(Kobe City, Ashiya City, Nishinomiya City, Takarazuka City in the southeastern part of Hyogo Prefecture) and part of Awaji Island (Tsuna Town-Hokutan Town-Ichinomiya)Seismic intensity 7Severe quake was applied.Kobe Marine Meteorological Observatory (currentKobe Local Meteorological Observatory, The location at that time was Kobe cityChuoNakayamatedori) And Sumoto weather station (SumotoIn Orodani), a seismic intensity of 6 was observed, and in a field survey conducted by the Seismic Mobile Observation Team, in addition to a wide area in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture as well.Nishiyodogawa WardTsukuda,Toyonaka CityShomotocho,IkedaThere was an area in Sumiyoshi that was judged to have a seismic intensity of 6.[2].

    Besides, in the eastOnahama(FukushimaIwaki), westNagasakiSasebo, NorthNiigataNiigata, SouthKagoshimaKagoshimaIt became felt (seismic intensity 1 or more) in a wide range up to.

    In the postwar earthquake,1946(Showa 21)Showa Nankai Earthquake,1948(Showa 23)Fukui earthquakeIt was the largest earthquake disaster at that time after the war.One of the characteristics of the damage is that it is a disaster caused by an earthquake that occurred directly under the city.As an urban earthquake disaster in Japan, it hit a big city directly1944(Showa 19)Showa Tonankai EarthquakeSince then.

    This was the first case in which the newly established "Seismic Intensity 7" was applied in the wake of the Fukui Earthquake, and the first case in which Seismic Intensity 7 was applied by a field survey (a field survey by the Japan Meteorological Agency's Seismic Mobile Observation Team).However, based on the opinion that the response would be delayed if the seismic intensity 7 was announced after the field survey, the seismic intensity 7 was changed to a system that can be reported by the measured seismic intensity from the year after the earthquake.[3]..Occurred after this,2004 OfNiigata Chuetsu Earthquake,2011 OfTohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake(Great East Japan Earthquake),2016 OfKumamoto earthquake,2018 OfHokkaido Iburi Eastern EarthquakeObservation of seismic intensity 7 inSeismographIt was actually measured by.

    Seismic motion with a killer pulse with a period of about 1-2 seconds, which is said to cause great damage to buildings, was recorded as one of the largest numerical values ​​at that time.[4]In some areas, it lasted for more than 10 seconds (however, in the subsequent earthquakes, seismic motion exceeding the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake was observed).At Kobe Marine Meteorological ObservatoryMaximum acceleration818Gal[5], Maximum speed 105Cain, It is analyzed that a seismic motion with a maximum displacement of 27 cm struck.[6]. They are,Kushiro-oki Earthquake(922 gull, 67 cains, displacement 93 cm),Northridge earthquakeIt is comparable to (about 800 gal, 128 cains).Rokko IslandThe seismograph recorded a pitch sway of 507 gal.The largest earthquake motion in Japan ever occurred in June 2008.Iwate-Miyagi Inland EarthquakeAt the time ofIwateIchinoseki4022 gal observed in[7].

    Other

    Roads, railroads, electricity, water, gas, telephones, etc.Life infrastructure(In modern societylife line(Often commonly referred to as) was shredded and stopped functioning at all in a wide area.From then on, when talking about urban disasters and earthquake countermeasures, the early restoration of "lifelines", "Active faultConsideration such as ", points to keep in mind in the building method,"Temporary housingAdministrative measures such as "" and "" have been attracting attention.

    Originally Japan was an earthquake powerhouse, and JapanLarge buildingWas found to be a structure that cannot withstand a large earthquake, so1981In (56), the Building Standards Law was significantly revised (so-called new earthquake resistance standards).[8]).However, many citizens have misunderstood based on the news that Japanese buildings are safe, and the new earthquake resistance standards have been enforced.1982It was built after (57)building, Condominiums, hospitals, railway station buildings, etc. were often collapsed or partially destroyed.

    Name

    In response to the earthquake that occurred at 1995:1 am on January 17, 5, the government decided to establish the "Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake Emergency Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters" at 46 am (10 hours 4 minutes later) on the same day.[9]..11:XNUMX am on the same dayJapanese Meteorological AgencyCalled this earthquake "7 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake"(British: the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake[10][11])Whenname official[9].

    On the other hand, the name indicating the disaster (earthquake) caused by this earthquake was arbitrarily named by the mass media and the like. ""Mainichi NewspapersIs about 3:XNUMX pm on the day of the earthquake,Great Hanshin Earthquake", Invented the name1/18It was disseminated on the same paper after the morning edition.[12][Annotation 3]..On TVYomiuri TelevisionStarted using "Great Hanshin Earthquake" on some programs from the day of the earthquake (1/24Unified from noon)[12],Daily broadcast tvUnified the name to "Great Hanshin Earthquake" from around noon on January 1th.[12]..After that, other media outlets began to follow suit.Kansai TV The1/19から[12],Yomiuri ShimbunIs1/22From the morning edition[12],Asahi Shimbun"[12] When"Sankei Shimbun"[12] The1/23From the morning edition, "Nihon Keizai ShimbunIs from the evening edition on January 1[12],Asahi Broadcasting TVIs from March 1[12],NHKFrom the evening of January 1[12],Kobe newspaperIs1/24From the morning edition[12],Kyodo NewsFrom the article delivered on January 1th[12],Weekly BunshunIs from the February 2nd issue[12], Each started using the name "Great Hanshin Earthquake".

    On the other hand, "Weekly Hyundai(February 2th issue)[12] And "Sunday Daily(February 2th issue)[Annotation 4][12],Weekly Asahi(February 2th issue)[Annotation 5][12],Asahi Graph(February 2 issue), "THE AGE』(1月30日号、2月5日号緊急増刊、2月13日号、2月25日号臨時増刊、3月25日号臨時増刊など)、『Guys!(March issue, April issue), "Nikkan Sports(January 1th)[13] Then "Great Kansai Earthquake,"Tokyo Newspaper』(1/23Until the evening edition)[12],Weekly Yomiuri(February 2th issue)[12], "Sankei Shimbun Emergency Special Edition" ("Sankei Shimbun" "Weekly Gallop''Sankei sports』January 1 issue)"Kobe Great Earthquake,"Weekly Shincho(February 2th issue)[Annotation 6][12] Then "Kobe earthquake, Some programs on Yomiuri TV[Source required]Then "Great Kansai EarthquakeAt first, it was not unified.

    While the notation of "Great Hanshin Earthquake" became predominant, the media that had adopted their own names until then also tended to switch the name of the earthquake to "Great Hanshin Earthquake". "Tokyo Shimbun" is from the morning edition on January 1th.[12], "Weekly Asahi" is from the February 2th emergency special issue[12], "Asahi Graph" started using "Great Hanshin Earthquake" from the February 2th issue.

    On February 2, the name of the disaster was ""Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeTo beCabinetOrally understood in[9][14]..This is because the government thought that the damage was enormous in the Hanshin area centered on Kobe City and the northern part of Awaji Island, the scale of the disaster was large, and a unified name was necessary for future recovery.[14]..Even before that, at the time of the earthquakeHokutan TownMasao Kokubo proposed the name of "Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake"[12].2/24As a five-year timed legislationLaw on Basic Policy and Organization for Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Reconstruction(Law No. 1995 of 7) was enacted and came into effect on the same day.

    In Osaka prefectureToyonaka CityAlthough the damage is not as great as in Hyogo prefecture, the characters "Osaka" are included in the area classification within Hyogo prefecture.Between Hanshin(Nada Ward, Kobe City, Higashinada Ward and Hyogo PrefectureAshiya,Amagasaki,NishinomiyaThis is because the damage in the vicinity) was enormous (in Toyonaka City, the damage was enormous mainly in the southern part, and 9 people were killed.ShelterMany people have been forced to live. ).However, in "Hanshin" by the above usage, Kobe city, Akashi city and Toyonaka city will be out of the way, and in the broader sense "Hanshin" including Osaka city and Kobe city, the order is western Osaka prefecture and southern Hyogo prefecture. Since it is expressed, there are still many objections.Because of that, "Great South Hyogo EarthquakeSome books use the notation[15].

    Even now,Mass mediaIt is sometimes called simply "Great Hanshin Earthquake".Some victims have doubts about this.Only the Kobe / Hanshin area, which is one of the big cities, large industrial areas, and tourist cities, was described as having been devastated, and was similarly severely damaged.Awaji IslandThis is because the area around the Hanshin area is not considered in addition to the northern part.[12].. The Mainichi Shimbun actually received a letter from a reader on Awaji Island protesting the name "Great Hanshin Earthquake", saying "Why can't I enter Awaji?"[16]..It was on Awaji Island at the time of the earthquakeTsuna Town(CurrentAwaji City) Mayor Kashiwagi Kazusaburo responded to the name of "Great Hanshin Earthquake" by saying, "I feel like someone else's affairs where the earthquake occurred." Are[12]..Also, when calling it the "Great Hanshin Earthquake", NHK tried to call it with the annotation "Awaji Island is the epicenter" as much as possible.[12].

    damage

    Breakdown of damage by prefecture (Hyogo prefecture and totalFire departmentMay 2006, 5 Confirmed value[17]..Fire and Disaster Management Agency as of January 2000, 1 except Hyogo Prefecture[18]. )
    PrefecturesPersonal damageHouse damage
    deadMissing personWounded personCompletely destroyedHalf destroyedBurned downHalf-baked
    Hyogo6,402340,092104,004136,9527,03589
    Osaka313,5898957,23215
    Kyoto14936
    Tokushima21484
    Nara12
    Shiga9
    Wakayama7
    Kagawa7
    Gifu2
    Mie1
    Kochi1
    Tottori1
    Okayama1
    meter6,434343,792104,906144,2747,03696[Annotation 7]
    • dead
      • Of the dead in Hyogo prefectureDisaster-related deathDeath to 919 (14.3%)[19]
      • 2005In (17), a mistake in counting the number of deaths was discovered and corrected.[20].
      • Number of burned to death 403 (total of Hyogo prefecture), 558 (total of each city, 528 in Kobe, etc.)[21]
    • Wounded person
      • Seriously injured: 10,494 people (98.2%) in the prefecture, 189 people (1.8%) outside the prefecture[17]
      • Minor injuries: 29,598 people (89.4%) in the prefecture, 3,511 people (10.6%) outside the prefecture[17]
    • Number of evacuees (peak): 316,678
    • Damage to houses: 104,906 completely destroyed, 144,274 partially destroyed, 249,180 completely destroyed (about 46 households), 390,506 partially destroyed[17]
    • Fire damage: 7,036 burned down, 7,574 burned down, 8,969 affected households[17]
    • Other damage: 7,245 roads, 330 bridges, 774 rivers, 347 cliff collapses[17]
    • Total damage: Approximately 10 trillion yen

    Great Kanto EarthquakeThen, the fire in the area where wooden houses are densely damaged caused great damage, and the death toll was mainly caused by burning, which killed about 10 people, which is the worst in the disaster in Japan.Mainly in the Great East Japan Earthquake(I.e.byDrowningThe worst death toll after the war was over 1.Compared to these, in this earthquakeFaultAlthough the damage was concentrated along the area and the disaster area was small, it occurred in the early morning of winter, and many people were sleeping at home, so the death toll was mainly over 6.Although the earthquake was extremely damaging, there are some factors that contributed to the mitigation of the damage.

    • Since the time of occurrence was early in the morning in winter, the utilization rate of public transportation and roads was low (Sanyo ShinkansenThe down trainShin-OsakaFirst departure at 6 o'clock[22]), Since the number of people going out was small, the damage outside the city and home was suppressed.As a result, many citizens were affected by the disaster at home.People who have difficulty returning homeIt was a situation where it was relatively easy to confirm the safety.
    • Although the temperature was the lowest in the year, the climatic and geographical conditions were such that the maximum daytime temperature was around 10 ° C.As a result, there was no factor to debilitate the victims trapped in the collapsed house such as heat stroke caused by high temperature or frostbite caused by low temperature, which suppressed human damage.Since more victims were affected at bedtime, some rescuers covered their bodies with blankets during the mainshock to protect them from falling objects and to keep them warm until they were rescued.
    • In addition to the calm wind at the time of the earthquake, the use of fire was low because the time of the earthquake was early in the morning.From this, the spread of fire was minimized even when the amount of precipitation was low.

    NishinomiyaIn Incheon, a large-scale slope facing a residential areaLandslideOccurred, killing 34 people[23].

    Cause of death of the victims

    According to the analysis of the corpse inspection report by NHK, 5,036 people, which is 76% of the 3,842 people who died on the day of the earthquake, died within one hour from the earthquake, and 1% of them died by compression (crushing death, suffocation death, etc.). rice field[24]..It is believed that many of the wooden houses collapsed and became the underlays of the houses and died instantly.In particular, many people died while sleeping on the first floor.

    In the case of a two-story wooden house, there were many cases where the pillars on the first floor broke and collapsed (due to the roof tiles and the weight of the second floor), but even if the building collapses, there is still space for survival on the second floor. It was easy and there were few deaths.

    About 90% of the dead are said to be crushed[25]..The time to death was also short.According to the summary of the medical examiner who inspected the body, out of about 2,456 people who died in Kobe city, 15 people died within about 2,221 minutes after the collapse of the building, which is 92%. The majority of the people[26]..In a Sunday Daily survey, 247 of the 47 people analyzed were building underlays, while only two were furniture underlays.[27].

    Of the dead, nearly 20 people in their 30s are more than in their 200s, and the number of deaths increases by age group, which is different from the Great East Japan Earthquake.[28].. The reason why there were many people in their twenties is that in Nada Ward, Kobe City, where there are many universities, as with the elderly,Cultural housingIt is believed that many students who lived in wooden apartments were laid under the collapsed apartments.[29].. 31 people died at 111 universities, especially at Kobe University, where 39 students and 2 faculty members died the most in university relations.[30][31].

    Building

    Warehouses, hospitals, buildings, condominiums

    SkyscraperWas generally safe.moreover,1978 Miyagiken-oki EarthquakeBased on the damage of1981It was revised in (Showa 56)Building Standards LawThe building built according to the above was less damaged.

    In addition to many logistics facilities such as old brick and concrete warehouses symbolized by the port town of Kobe, dilapidated buildings and buildings and condominiums with parking lots on the first floor (so-called)PilotiThere was a lot of damage in the structure)[32] Fortunately, few people died.A fire broke out in some reinforced concrete condominiums, but the fire did not spread to the next door.

    However, in the old building, on the middle floor, which was considered impossible in JapanPancake collapseThere were many damages that had never been seen in Japan, such as the collapse of the first floor of a low-rise building and the collapse of the building separated from the foundation.The Kashiwai Building, which had been tilted, completely fell sideways on Flower Road due to the aftershock the next morning.In addition, in Hyogo Ward, Kobe CityBank of MitsubishiHyogo branch (1968(Showa 43), 6 stories of reinforcing bars), Hyogo Prefectural Pharmacy Hall (1967(Showa 42)),Daiichi Kangyo BankKobe branch (1926(Taisho 15), 2 stories,Uheiji Nagano) Has collapsed.

    hospital

    Of the 342 hospitals in Hyogo prefecture, 13 were completely destroyed and burned.Of the 2,926 cases including clinics, 239 cases were completely destroyed, 270 cases were partially destroyed, 13 cases were completely destroyed, and 973 cases were suspended due to the suspension of infrastructure, and about half of them stopped functioning.The number of officially counted injuries alone is 35,000.Of the three disaster medical institutions in Kobe cityWest Municipal HospitalThe main building was completely destroyedCentral Municipal HospitalLost its function, such as being isolated.Prefectural Nishinomiya HospitalThere were 438 people, Meiwa Hospital 658 people, Saso Hospital 1,029 people, Nishinomiya Watanabe Hospital 1,200 people, and so on.On the contrary, in Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya CityHyogo College of Medicine HospitalThen.Lifesaving CenterThere were 22 doctors on standby, including 274 of them, but only about 8, 200% of the weekdays.

    Located in Nagata WardKobe City Medical Center West HospitalThe 5th floor of the main building was crushed and 44 patients and 3 nurses were trapped in the hospital, but they did not die instantly because of the living space.Later, one patient died.A large number of injured people will be transported to other hospitals that have survived damage, and hospitals will secure as many beds as possible by leaving mildly inpatients early on the day or transferring them to other hospitals. did.However, the number of beds was still insufficient, and we had to take emergency measures such as laying sofas and futons in the lobby and waiting room to make it a hospital room.In addition, the number of doctors performing treatment was overwhelmingly short of the number of patients, and some people died while waiting for treatment.[Annotation 8].

    There were 87 inpatients at Takahashi Hospital in Kaiuncho, Nagata Ward, but they evacuated to Takatori Junior High School due to hot air and an explosion.

    building

    Originated in KobeTakenaka CorporationIn architecture,Kobe International HouseFirst floor,Kobe City Hall2nd Government Building 6th floor,Kobe Shimbun Hall,Kobe Hankyu BuildingOf the 2,500 buildings, 17 were collapsed, 25 were wrecked, 56 were demolished, and 217 were repaired.Taisei constructionOf constructionMeiji LifeThe building protruded 2.5m on Flower Road.

    Kobe newspaperTemporarily relocated its head office to a production center (printing factory) in Nishi-ku, and temporarily built editing work at the Dianissei Building (Harborland).1996(8) in AugustKobe Information Culture BuildingOfficially relocated to.However, the move to the new head office was the default policy before the earthquake, and the building was also under construction.

    At that time, it was in Suma Ward, Kobe CityRadio kansaiThe head office was also damaged and moved to a temporary studio on the premises, and then moved to the current Harborland in June 1996.

    Apartment

    AshiyaLuxury high-rise condominiums along the coast located in Wakaba-cho and Takahama-choAshiyahama Seaside Town'[Annotation 9] Then, the extra-thick box bone with a thickness of 5 cm and a width of 50 cm was completely broken at a distance of about 3 cm, and there were 52 breaks in 25 of the 57 buildings.This was the expected damage,[33][Annotation 10],weightSteel frameZouBrittle fractureWas the first example in Japan.The steel frame of the condominium is exposed, and the temperature at that time (about 0 ° C) and the low temperature characteristics of the steel frame used,LandfillIt is thought that the limit was exceeded due to the coincidence with the natural period of the high-rise building of the seismic motion amplified in.

    Dangers of tiled roofs, wooden structures, and Japanese houses

    Newly built tiled roofs have almost disappeared in the Kobe area because many people died even in old wooden houses with few braces, using Japanese tiles and simply placing pillars on stones.Following the flow of traditional Japanese constructionWooden frame construction methodDamage was concentrated on the houses in Japan, and even in new houses, the properties that had insufficient braces were severely damaged.[34]..In the book "Reviewing Wooden Architecture" by Isao Sakamoto, "nearly 5,000 of the dead were crushed by the underlay of a house with a framework construction method."However, what is important is that, despite the fact that "many of the structurally problematic buildings have tiled roofs," it is generally misunderstood that "the problem is because the tiles are heavy."[35][36].

    Old wooden houses are often damaged by fire because they are dry over the years and do not use refractory materials.This is because wooden houses in the Kobe area are more than earthquakestyphoonIt is a wooden house that corresponds to the above, and it is vulnerable to vibration and the tile part is heavy, and the method of fixing the tile is also due to the fact that there were many methods of roofing the roof and placing the tile on it.In addition, the wooden house with many braces has sufficient earthquake resistance.Also in the same wooden housePrefabAnd two by four (Wooden frame wall construction method) Shows high earthquake resistance. There was almost no damage to the three-story house.

    Living space

    Following the flow of traditional Japanese constructionWooden frame construction methodThe reason why many people died instantly was that they became the underlay of a collapsed building and disappeared.In case of an earthquake due to the structure that is easily disassembledTile roofThis is because the roof soil, earthen walls, floors, and pillars fall apart and become an underlay, crushing the human body.If the shaking is small, the earthen wall protects the building, but if the shaking is large, the earthen wall may be destroyed and fall, becoming a weapon.

    Reinforced concreteIn the case of construction, it has a strong integrated structure, and even if it is wrecked, the pillars, roof, and floor will not fall apart and collapse.Even if the pillars are destroyed, the ceiling will be lowered and the floor and roof will not fall apart, and they will not die instantly.Furthermore, in the case of an ordinary condominium, there are many walls, and the walls act as pillars, so they are structurally hard to collapse.If the condominium is wrecked, the door will not open and you will not be able to live in it due to large cracks, but you will not be injured or die instantly under the building.Exceptionally, in condominiums with large windows, few pillars, and few walls, such as companies and supermarkets on the lower floors, the pillars on the first floor were destroyed and the ceiling became extremely low.

    Housing before the revision of the Building Standard Law

    The Building Standard Law was revised to take earthquake resistance into consideration.1981It has been reported that there was little damage to properties built from around 56 after (Showa 1982).98% of the collapsed wooden houses were built according to the old earthquake resistance standards[37]..As a result, the effectiveness of the revised Building Standards Law was proved.The house that collapsed and died1982It can be said that the building was built before (57) and was designed according to the Building Standards Act at that time, and its earthquake resistance was weak.Even after the earthquake1996(8)2000(12)2006The Building Standard Law was revised in (18).

    The problem with dangerous legal homes is that older homes are not earthquake resistant and dangerous.Whether it is illegal or not is judged against the Building Standards Law at the time of new construction, so it is not illegal for a building that complies with the regulations at the time of new construction to become obsolete and dangerous afterwards (Existing ineligibilityCalled).For example, buildings in the Edo period that do not have a building code are legal even if they are dangerous.

    The reason why there is almost no damage in a three-story house1988Until the Building Standards Law was revised and enforced in (63), in semi-fireproof areasWooden 3 storiesBecause the construction of the building was prohibited, there was no legal three-story house (old three-story) without earthquake resistance.Also, in Japan, there are houses with insufficient earthquake resistance.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismFrom the estimation of2008As of (20), it is said that there are about 1,050 million units (about 23% of the total number of houses in Japan).[38].

    Transportation

    Camera-photo Upload.svgImage request: Photographs of damage to transportation such as the Hanshin Expressway and railways in the Hanshin area (specifically, images of damage other than Kobe City)Image providedplease.(April 2015)

    On the roadChugoku Expressway,National Route 43-National Route 2Congestion occurred due to lane restrictions for restoration.In particular, the Hanshin Expressway No. 3 Kobe Line where the overpass collapsed (Daini Shinmei Road,Himeji BypassIt is directly connected to Osaka and Himeji, and is a connecting road. ) Has been out of service for a long time.For this reason, coupled with the interruption of railways, it has a serious impact on road traffic that simply passes through Kansai, and during the period until restorationNational Route 9-National Route 372(You can detour between Kyoto and Himeji on both national highways.)National Route 27Long-distance trucks and long-distance buses flooded the general roads.At that time, there was no route that could detour the damaged section without going through a general road.KeihanshinThe poorness of the detour route that does not pass through was highlighted.

    On the railroad, run in Hyogo prefecture, etc.West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan),Hankyu Corporation,Hanshin Electric Railway,Sanyo Electric RailwaySuch routes were severely damaged by the earthquake. The train was detained at the platform (which is an elevated station building) when the earthquake occurred.Hankyu Itami LineItami Station,Tokaido Main Line(JR Kobe Line)Rokkomichi StationAnd Hanshin Electric RailwayIshiyagawa garageThe collapsed image of the Hanshin Expressway, along with the image of the collapse of the Hanshin Expressway, symbolized the disaster.

    地下 OfKobe Rapid Transit Tozai Line OfOkai StationOn top of it because it collapsedNational Route 28A depression occurred in.Immediately afterTraffic regulationBecause such things were not done promptly, National Highway No. 43, National Highway No. 2,Yamanote main lineLarge-scale on major arterial roads leading to KobeTraffic jam(The reason why we did not regulate it was that the police policy at that time prioritized "saving lives from collapsed houses").

    Immediately after the earthquake, alternative transportation by buses and railway lines of other companies, which was carried out in collaboration between JR and private railway companies, was terminated in sequence with the elimination of non-stop sections. As of April, JR, which first eliminated all non-communication sections, will be in the new year.Commuter PassThe situation was also superior in issuance, and as a result, the share of users shifted to JR.[39].

    A major source of revenue for the Kobe economyKobe PortWas also damaged and manyWharfCan no longer be used.Also, Kobe CityChuo OfPort Island,Higashinada Ward OfRokko Island, Ashiya beach in Ashiya city, Tsukiji district in Amagasaki city, etc.LandfillThe ground softens around the center of "Liquefaction phenomenon"has seen.For this reason, support from the sea has become difficult.

    Was under construction at that timeAkashi Kaikyo BridgeAlthough there was no direct damage from the earthquake, a situation occurred in which the total length increased by 1 m.On the mountain on the Awaji side of the bridge,French RevolutionFriendship between Japan and France as a 200th anniversary projectMonumentIs scheduled to be built in 19951/12Approximately 220 people from Japan and France participated in the ceremony, but five days later, the earthquake struck and the business was suspended.However201511Since it is difficult to foster the momentum for the members to die and the construction to resume at the time of its inauguration, the Japan Committee for the Monument of Friendship between Japan and France proposed the suspension of the project and the dissolution of the committee.Officials agreed to this and the project was incomplete[40].

    道路

    Hanshin Expressway

    Hanshin ExpresswayNo.3 Kobe LineThe collapse of the sword was widely published on the front page of newspapers around the world as a symbol of the enormous damage caused by the earthquake.

    A witness discourse that "the collapsed highway was rippling on the verge of collapse" was reported in a news program.It was also confirmed that the joint between the pier and the road surface was destroyed by the earthquake.Therefore, it became a state like "a board just sitting on a pillar", and it is considered that the earthquake resistance became almost zero.The photograph of the highway bus left behind on the border between the collapsed highway and the barely remaining part is impressive, but it is thought that this event occurred in that part.[41].

    The actual and materials of the damaged and damaged structure can be found.1999It is exhibited at the earthquake disaster data storage that Hanshin Expressway has in Higashinada Ward, Kobe City, and anyone can visit it by making a reservation in advance.[42].

    Chugoku Expressway

    Chugoku ExpresswayThen,Suita JCTとNishinomiya Kita ICThere was no communication between them.For this reason, in the Kinki regionKeihanshinWithout going throughMieKameyama City(TokaidoAlong the line)ShigaMaibara(NakasendoAlong the line) From the surrounding area to Hyogo prefectureHimeji(Sanyo roadTo get to (along the line)Kitakinki OfFukuiTsuruga(Hokuriku regionFrom southern) to Hyogo prefectureWadayama Town(CurrentAsago CityIt has been pointed out that it cannot be reached without passing through.Controversy has been buzzing in recent yearsPrefectural systemAlso, from the existence of this northern Kansai detour, there is an opinion that "in order to solve regional and transportation problems, a framework that emphasizes transportation integrity should be adopted."

    Traffic regulation

    Immediately after the earthquake, a large-scale highway in the disaster areaTraffic regulationWas carried out.at first,Police stationIssued a permit markForgeryIs on the marketTraffic jamSince no improvement can be expected, thenCopyWe have made stricter examinations for the issuance of new marks that cannot be done, such as switching to "reconstruction marks" and "excluded marks".Traffic regulationHanshin Expressway No.3 Kobe LineGradually relaxed in line with the restoration of1996(8) All were canceled in August.The traffic regulation implementation roads are as follows.

    JR

    West Japan Railway Company(JR West) suffered the same damage as private railway companies, but it recovered rapidly before any private railway company and resumed operation on all lines first. "Difference in capital strength" "OldNational railwayBecause it was a linelineIt was relatively easy to work with a relatively large amount of space on the side. "" In addition to passenger trains, freight trains were also the main artery of logistics. "" NationwideJR Group"I called for support from" and so on.

    damage
    JR Kobe Line

    Nishinomiya Station ――Eight trains including freight trains derailed between Suma Station, andTakatori FactoryBut 39 cars derailed and overturned.Regarding station facilities,Rokkomichi StationThe viaducts and pillars were severely damaged, especially in the area.Shin-Nagata StationNearEmbankmentCollapsed and the station equipment was destroyed.In addition, at the Takatori Factory, the building was completely destroyed, the inspection and repair warehouse and inspection equipment were damaged, and the retaining wall of the earth retaining wall collapsed.

    Immediately after the outbreak, the operation was suspended on all lines, but the operation could not be resumed on the day of the earthquake, and on the following 18th, Osaka Station --Amagasaki Station (--Fukuchiyama Line)Tsukaguchi Station) And Nishi-Akeishi Station-Resumed operation between Himeji Station.To resume operation, construction was carried out using stations that can be turned back, but new points were set up at Suma Station and Sumiyoshi Station, which cannot be turned back, and at Nada Station, beyond that.Tonada signal fieldBy changing the premises wiring of the above to make it a pull-up line, it is possible to fold it back.

    From the direction of Nishi-Akashi, we gave priority to the upper and lower train lines where the platform is located, but we restored it.Nada Station --Since the line between Hyogo Station was directional, the restoration work was done with priority given to the two lines on the sea side (down train line and train line).Since the damage was great near Shin-Nagata Station, it was called the down train line.Wada Misaki LineToSmall driving lineIt is double-tracked by utilizing.At that time, this small driving line was non-electrified, so we hurriedly electrified it.Since the station building of Shin-Nagata Station was completely destroyed, it did not stop even if the operation between Kobe Station and Suma Station was resumed on January 1, and it passed until the temporary station building was built on March 30.

    On the timetable, when the train was restored from Osaka to Koshienguchi Station, it was operated only as a special rapid service (however, local trains west of Osaka Station), and the rapid service from Kyoto was operated at Osaka Station.The Special Rapid Service started operation from the Osaka area when Ashiya Station opened, but it did not operate from the Himeji area until March 3. (However, there was a train that operated special rapid service between Kakogawa Station and Himeji Station.)

    Due to the progress of restoration work after the earthquake, the non-communication section was gradually shortened, but it was necessary to operate with vehicles confined in each of the east and west of the non-communication section, and there was a shortage of vehicles especially on the east side of the non-communication section. rice field.Therefore, the vehicle was forwarded using the Bantan Line as a detour route, but the Bantan Line is non-electrified.pantographRemoved accessories such as the Amirai train ward (current Amirai general vehicle station) once,Diesel locomotiveFukuchiyama Driver's Office (currentlyFukuchiyama train ward), Attach the equipment removed at the same place, and use the Miyahara train ward (currently)Miyahara General Operation Center) Etc.

    However, this relocation alone could not solve the vehicle shortage, andOkayama train ward-Hiroshima driver's officeFrom 115 series 19 cars andMorinomiya train ward-Hineno train wardIn addition to the 103 series being operated, it was admitted to the Takatori factory at the time of the earthquake.Nara train wardの221系も運用された。また、車両の増結を行うなどし、201系は通常7両編成で運用されているが、このうち4本を4M4Tの8両編成と8M4Tの12両編成に組み替え、201系では最長となる12両編成で運転された。

    The section between Sumiyoshi Station and Nada Station, including Rokkomichi Station, was left as a closed section until the end due to the greatest damage caused by the collapse of the viaduct, but the entire line was opened on April 4 for the first time in 1 days.As a result, the railway between Hanshin will be restored for the first time after the earthquake, and the special rapid service has been increased by the timetable revision carried out on that day.The pattern of Rokkomichi station restorationJapan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) TV program "Project X-Challengers-』Also taken up.Every time the opening section is extended, two types of timetables are created, a provisional timetable from immediately after the opening to the road base consolidation and a provisional timetable from the road base solidification to the next extension of the opening section. The timetable was revised several times.

    Bantan Line

    From January 1th, Himeji Station-Wadayama Station non-stop rapid trainKiha 65 typeThe 4-car train is operated twice a day on the 1st and 2nd.Kiha 181 seriesThe 5-car train was operated 3 round trips. From the 23rd, Himeji Station-Wadayama Station- Fukuchiyama Station --A direct rapid train by Kiha 181 series will be set for one round trip between Shin-Osaka stations, and will be a non-stop rapid train from the 1th.Chizu ExpressHOT7000 seriesThe Kiha 6 series was a 181-car train, and the HOT7 series was a 7000-car train, which was operated until March 5, when the Tokaido-Sanyo Main Line opened.

    bedLimited expressWas suspended due to the earthquake, but "Dawn""NahaWill be detoured from January 1th via the Bantan Line.[43]On March 3, eight A-class railcars and two oversized freight were detoured for the transportation of new vehicles of the A-class railroad vehicle.

    For regular trains, not only diesel trains in the JR West jurisdictionGonō senWas operated inEast Japan Railway(JR East) Minami Akita Driver's Office (currentlyAkita General Vehicle Center South Akita Center) Belongs toKiha 58 seriesUp to 6 cars were supported and operated.

    While the JR Kobe Line's non-communication section was gradually shortened due to the progress of the restoration work after the earthquake, the east and west of the non-communication section were forced to operate by vehicles contained in each, so especially on the east side of the non-communication section. Separated from large depots such as Aboshi and Nishi AkashiJR Kyoto Line-Lake Biwa LineThen, there was a shortage of vehicles.

    ButForwardingThe Bantan Line, which can be used as a route, is non-electrified and has many old tunnels built in the Meiji era, and the opening area was small.pantographAccessories such asAmirai train wardRemoved once at (at that time),Diesel locomotiveAfter being forwarded by towingFukuchiyama Driver's OfficeAttach the equipment removed at (at that time) and do it yourselfMiyahara train wardIt was forwarded to (at that time).note that,Ikuno Station - Arai StationThe Ikuno tunnel in between has a particularly small opening area, so it slowed down to avoid hitting incidental equipment such as cables laid in the tunnel and passed through at 15 km / h.[44].

    Damage caused by the earthquake was restored from the Amirai train ward, and 149 cars including the vehicles sent to the ward office were sent to the ward office to increase the transportation capacity on the west side of the non-communication section.Hiroshima driver's officeとHineno train ward103 series 8 carsSuita FactoryIt was sent to the Amirai train ward from (at that time).In addition, it was newly refurbished in line with the timetable revision on April 4th.681 series-207 seriesWas also forwarded via the Bantan Line.

    Fukuchiyama Line

    As the most important detour route, the restoration work of the Fukuchiyama Line was carried out with the highest priority.On the Fukuchiyama Line, the damage between Kawanishi-Ikeda Station and Nakayamadera Station was great, and on January 1, when the earthquake occurred, the section between Hirono Station and Fukuchiyama Station was opened, and then operations resumed in sequence.

    To secure transportation capacity, special trains will be operated immediately after the start of operation, and from 5:30 to 21:1, one or two special trains will be operated up to 1 per hour, and the limited express "Kita Kinki" will be added. It was conducted.Limited express trains departing from and arriving at Osaka StationTokaido Shinkansen3 round trips to connect withShin-Osaka StationIn addition to this, "Kita Kinki" No. 15 was extended between Fukuchiyama Station and Wadayama Station to improve the connection with the Bantan Line.In addition, from April 4st to April 1th, when the JR Kobe Line was fully operated, two round trips to Shin-Osaka Station and extended operation to Wadayama Station were carried out.

    It was operated on the JR Kobe Linefreight trainA detour operation was also carried out.However, on the Fukuchiyama Line and San-In LineWadayama Station - Koyama StationSince freight trains were no longer in operation between them, there was a problem in operating heavy freight trains every day, and there was a need to train crew members and partially improve facilities, but the Fukuchiyama Line, San-in Main Line, andHakubi LineDetour operation started from February 2th via[45]..JR West was in charge of the detour freight train crew in the section where the freight train was not in operation.[46]..In addition, of the new vehicle according to the timetable revisionClass A railway vehicle transportationAlso from March 3th, 14 bottles,Oversized cargoTwo were detoured.

    Kakogawa Line

    The Kakogawa Line has a shorter detour distance and required time than the Bantan Line, but the number of trains is limited due to the crossing of trains in the line section where one-man operation is the main operation.Tanikawa StationThe premises wiring connecting the Fukuchiyama Line and the Kakogawa Line is for emergency use.TurnoutBecause there is only one, to the Fukuchiyama LineDirect operationWe couldn't do this, so we responded by increasing the number of trains on the line and increasing the number of trains.On the Kakogawa LineNishiwakishi StationIt was necessary to change trains at Nishiwakishi Station, but the transfer was canceled and a direct train was set up. The number increased to 9, and most trains were operated directly.In addition, a rapid train was also operated between Kakogawa Station and Tanikawa Station.

    Elimination status of non-communication section
    • Tokaido-Sanyo Main Line(JR Kobe Line) ...Multiple linesBecause it was, from the day after the earthquake occurredHimeji Station - Nishi Akashi Stationwhile,Osaka Station -(Fukuchiyama Line)Tsukaguchi StationThe operation was restarted in sequence between (double track).Takatori Station, which was half destroyed in the station building,JR Takatori Factory(2000(Abolished in 12)Marshalling yardA temporary home was set up in Japan and business was resumed.In addition, Shin-Nagata Station, where the station building was completely destroyed, will be treated as a passage for the time being.Partially opened due to wiring changes, etc., 74 days after the earthquake occurred4/1Is the last non-communication sectionNada Station --Restored the area between Sumiyoshi Station and resumed operation on multiple tracks.Limited expressWas increased as a temporary treatment in the morning and evening[Annotation 11].
    • Sanyo Shinkansen ... Eight piers collapsed immediately after the earthquake (fortunately, the collapse did not affect the train before the first train), and there was no connection between Shin-Osaka Station and Himeji Station. 8 days later4/8Eliminates the non-communication section[47].
    Other measures / impacts
    • From Kansai to the Kyushu region via the Tokaido Main Line and Sanyo Main Line until restorationExpress train with sleeping berths"Naha""DawnIs between Osaka Station and Himeji StationFukuchiyama Line - San'in Main Line - Bantan LineIn addition to being detoured to the route of No., a "direct rapid train" that runs between Shin-Osaka Station and Himeji Station by the same route was operated.In addition, as a response to detour passengers in non-communication sections,Kakogawa LineThe number of regular trains (1 hour intervals) was increased, and extra trains such as "Nonstop Rapid" were operated on the Bantan Line.
    • Because the Tokaido / Sanyo Main Line was divided, trains (trains)pantographOperates with the car down)Diesel locomotiveVia the Bantan Line / San-In Line, which includes non-electrified sectionsFukuchiyama StationForwarded to.Early after the earthquake because it is necessary as a detour route in an emergencyElectrification10 years after the earthquake2004(16) The electrification of the Kakogawa Line was completed in December.As for the Shinkansen, both JR Central and JR West decided to use each other's vehicles until they were restored because the vehicles were trapped in the sections of other companies.

    Private railway

    The southernmost railway line that operates in the disaster areaHanshin Main LineIs mainly from Higashinada WardNada WardThe section of the elevated structure in Japan has been severely damaged.The most serious damage isMikage StationWesternDetention lineThe vehicle rolled over and was severely damaged.Ishiyagawa garageAlso collapsed, and many vehicles that had been detained from the night before were involved in the collapse and damaged because the earthquake occurred early in the morning.This is the section of this elevated structureHigh economic growthPeriod1967The property was completed in (Showa 42) andSeismic structureIt is pointed out that one of the causes is that was not enough.In this section, iron bridges fell in several places, blocking the road to the north and south.Shinriya StationSince I was renting land under the viaduct in the vicinity, I went to the evacuation site to get the consent of the borrower to demolish it during the restoration process, and I received a request from the neighbors to clean up the rubble of my house together with the viaduct. That[48]..The damage situation of Hanshin is all over Japan.BridgeIt is also an opportunity for reinforcement work to prevent the fall.

    In addition, 41 cars were scrapped at once, including the cars damaged during operation in the underground section near Sannomiya, and once the garage itself was completely dismantled and removed, the construction had to be rebuilt until the following year. There wasn't.For this reason, the introduction of restored vehicles and new vehicles will remain within the range that can be covered by the capacity of the Amagasaki garage for the time being, and while JR and Hankyu increased the number of trains compared to the pre-earthquake timetable at the same time as the opening, Hanshin has a reduced number of flights. The operation was resumed at.Although other businesses also suffered great damage to railroad tracks and facilities, only Hanshin suffered damage to the first garage in terms of vehicles.

    Main damage
    Routes that were restored quickly
    Elimination status of non-stop sections for each railway company
    • Hankyu Railway ... (146 days after the earthquake)6/12[49], Itami Line Itami (provisional) -Excluding Itami
    • Sanyo Electric Railway ... (152 days later)6/18[49],HigashisumaThe eastern part was restored with the completion of the underground work that was underway at that time.Restoration of the ground line in the same section was postponed.
    • Kobe Electric Railway ... (156 days later)6/22,Minatogawa Station --Operation resumed between Nagata stations on the same dayKobe Rapid Transit Nanboku LineShinkaiji Station-Minatogawa Station has resumed operation, and all lines have been restored.[50].
    • Hanshin Electric Railway ... (160 days later)6/26[49]
    • Kobe Rapid Transit (Hankyu, Hanshin, Sanyo companies mutually enter) ... (208 days later)8/13[49], Daikai Station passes until January of the following year

    In the center of Kobe city2/1The Hanshin-Kobe Kosoku Line is at Sannomiya Station- High speed kobe stationBetweenpistonWas driving[51]..This piston operation became a big foot for the victims by contacting JR, which was restarted two days ago, west of Kobe. In late February, Hankyu Mikage-Oji Park and Hanshin Iwaya-Sannomiya were restored respectively, and these routes were transferred from the east of JR Sumiyoshi and the east of Hanshin Aoki, which had been restored earlier, to Kobe city from the Osaka area. I was able to go.Especially in the same section of Hankyu until the opening of all JR linesTransfer transportationIt was specified earlier.On the other hand, it passes through Port Island and Rokko Island where liquefaction occurred.Kobe New TransitPort Island Line(Portliner)Rokko Island LineIt took a considerable amount of time to restore (Rokko Liner), and the former opened on July 1 and the latter on August 7, one month ahead of schedule.

    Sea

    Kobe PortFerries etc.Shikoku-KyusyuThere were many departures and arrivals mainly in the direction, but each departure and arrival point was temporarily damaged and became unusable, so it was temporarily unusable.Osaka NankoIt was operated by changing the departure and arrival points.

    Since land transportation was paralyzed, it subsequently functioned as the main route connecting Shikoku and Kyushu.again,WaterfrontTemporary piers will be set up on the quay where the ground has collapsed, and short-distance temporary routes such as between Osaka and Kobe and between Kobe and Nishinomiya will be prepared, reducing the burden on people and reconstruction supporters who are evacuated as alternative transportation. Made an effort to do.Using the remaining coastal area, medical supplies were also given priority.Two years later with a lot of help1997(9)3/31In addition, all wharfsContainer berthHas been restored.And the same year5/19"Kobe Port Reconstruction Declaration" was announced.

    空港

    The shaking was intenseOsaka International Airport(Toyonaka City, Osaka Prefecture)IkedaAnd Hyogo prefectureItami CityIn)Runway-TaxiwayCracked.Airport terminal buildingThe outer wall was damaged.Away from the epicenterKIX(The year before the earthquake1994Opened in) also at the airport terminal buildingKansai Airport Station-Parking LotIn the areaHouseDamage was confirmed.However, at both airportsaircraftThere was no effect on the operation of[52]..Especially at Osaka International Airport in the disaster area, on the same dayMetropolitan Police Department,Tokyo Fire Department,SDF,U.S. Forces,政府Charter flightsMany of the aircraft came to support.Furthermore, as a special measure, Osaka International Airport normally has an operating time limit of 7:21 to 21:XNUMX, but we cooperated in restoration and reconstruction by operating a special flight in the XNUMX:XNUMX range, which is outside the operating hours.[53].

    Fire extinguishing / rescue activities

    火災

    Especially in KobeNagataIn, mainly in areas where wooden houses were densely packed火災The damage was enormous.A total of nearly 7,000 buildings have been burned down.Fire whirlwindIs said not to have occurred[54]..According to the materials of the Fire and Disaster Management Agency[55], A total of 285 fires have occurred after the earthquake.Of these, 7% were fires on the day of the earthquake, but the number of fires that broke out by 6 o'clock was 87, which is a considerable number after a certain period of time has passed since the earthquake occurred.The cause of the fire was found in about half of the total, with 85 cases of electric heating elements, followed by 13 cases related to gas and 12 cases related to fire type.It is said that there were quite a few cases of fires that broke out the day after the earthquake due to the resumption of power transmission.[Annotation 12].

    Slight because the water supply was cut off during firefighting activitiesFire protection water tankAs I was looking for, the flame spread and the damage was great.A news video shows a firefighter standing near the flame while holding a hose that does not allow water to come out due to water outage.In some areas, fire extinguishing activities have become difficult due to the sparks swirled up by the wind.[54]..When it was judged that the fire was too big to extinguish, the firefighters decided to switch to a firefighting activity called "free fire" that prioritized the safety guidance of the victims.It was during the war that the fire activity was carried out in the vicinity of the disaster area.Akashi air raidSince then.On the other hand, fire extinguishing (fire spread prevention) activities are also being carried out by bucket relays that do not rely on machines, mainly by local residents.[56].

    In addition to the fire extinguishing activities, fire brigades were deployed on the main streets such as National Highways No. 2 and No. 28, and the activities to prevent the spread of fire were more than the fire extinguishing activities. From the afternoon of the 17th, firefighters who came from all over the country with support finally started to extinguish the fire.The fire brigade is nearbyShinminato River,Hyogo CanalAs a result of extending the hose and discharging water all night, the fire was completely extinguished on the 2th, two days later.

    After the earthquake, in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture, maintenance of fire prevention water tanks and firefightinghelicopterIs being considered for use.The reason for not extinguishing the aerial fire by helicopter is that the Kobe Municipal Fire Department is difficult and ineffective considering the scale of the fire and the structure of the building, which may endanger the helicopter in flight and people on the ground. Is listed[57].

    problem

    • At that time, the fire brigade in the city of Kobe was hardly equipped with portable power pumps, and the fire brigade could not extinguish the fire at all.
    • Most of the fire hydrants could not be used because the water supply facility was destroyed, and the fire brigade searched for a fire prevention water tank and a school pool and discharged water, but there was not enough water, and finally 7 fire engines were connected from Kobe port and 4 km. We also carried out long-distance water supply (the longest was 14 km of water by connecting 7 pumps of the Kobe City West Fire Brigade from the Kobe City Citizen's Pool).
    • Even if fire engines from all over the world come to cheer, the fire hydrant and hosespecification(There are two types, "screw type" and "matino type (plug-in type)", which have not been standardized yet), and the problem was that the fire could not be extinguished.
    • Since the fire hose on the road was stepped on by a traveling car, there were many events where water could not be sent due to damage.

    Rescue activities by public institutions

    After the earthquakeFire-Policemen-SDFEach organization such asRescue operationHowever, some problems were pointed out.

    In this disaster, the lesser-known "Crush syndrome(Crush Syndrome) ”has become widely known.

    Fire / police

    Fire department,National Police AgencyMade adjustments and support was sent to the site from fire departments and police all over the country,Traffic jamFew people arrived without being involved in.Even if we arrived, the activity was difficult because we were not satisfied with the technology, knowledge, equipment, and equipment for the large-scale disaster.

    Tokyo Fire DepartmentIt is,Air Corps OfFire helicopterEarlierSpecial rescue teamWas dispatched to the disaster area and achieved good results.11:XNUMX on the dayHachioji Fire DepartmentThe special rescue team was instructed to dispatch directly to Kobe City by helicopter, and headed to the site with a large helicopter "Hibari".I brought in only the equipment I could carry, but I struggled in a lonely army.

    In the firefighting and police in urban areas, the rescue and other activities in the early stages were not smooth because they were damaged.On the other hand, on Awaji Island, "localFire brigadeAnd rescue activities centered on neighboring residents "was carried out.especiallyHokutan TownIn, search and rescue operations and corpse containment were completed approximately 11 hours after the outbreak.[58]..Considering the density of buildings and population, it is not possible to simply compare the time required for rescue with the city of Kobe, but the neighbors immediately after the earthquake, etc.Local communityIt shows the importance of rescue operations by.

    There were not enough vehicles to rescue the victims under the rubble, and there were few transports by the disaster prevention organization (emergency helicopter) (helicopter transport on the day of the earthquake: only one person in Nishinomiya City).This transport was carried by the aircraft engaged in emergency drug transport from the Osaka City Fire Department on the way back (1 people / week (including 62 people / 1 days)).[59]..Therefore, the rescue and transportation of the injured were delayed.

    The fire department and police have learned from this earthquake as a nationwide support system.Emergency fire support team(Firefighting)Wide Area Emergency Relief TeamEstablished (police) respectively,Tokyo Fire Department TheFire and rescue task force(Commonly known as: Hyper Rescue),Yokohama City Fire BureauIs a mobile rescue team (currentlySpecial Advanced Rescue Team: Super Ranger) Will be created.

    Self-Defense Forces and Prefectural Governor

    The Self-Defense Forces began to act a few minutes after the earthquake, but HankyuItami StationDispatch to nearby (Disaster dispatch) Was done36th Ordinary Science RegimentExcept for, the disaster dispatch to the center of Kobe city was not done immediately.The 36th Infantry Regiment is "dispatched in the vicinity" (Self Defense Force ActAlthough it was dispatched according to Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX, other units were on standby at the request of the governor (Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX of the Self-Defense Forces Act).

    Based on this lesson, request dispatch to the Self-Defense ForcesPrefectural governorBesidesMayor or Chief of PoliceThe system was later revised so that it could be done from such sources.

    Counterargument to some media reports by the Defense Agency and the Self-Defense Forces

    There are various contents of the SDF reports during the first few months.There are criticisms and contents that have caused excessive expectations, but some of them are different from the facts.Defense AgencyPublic relations magazine "Securitarian』There is a counterargument.Below is a list of items denied by the magazine.The reports in parentheses are criticized by the magazine (since the magazine does not specify the name of the paper magazine, all are written as "certain").

    • The SDF helicopter may have been able to extinguish the fire (papers, television, multiple weekly magazines, etc.)[Annotation 13]
    • A helicopter of the Self-Defense Forces is flying around the disaster-stricken ground in a war mood (a weekly magazine)
    • At the initial stage, helicopters were able to put more personnel (than actual) into the disaster area (each paper).
    • The local information is Tokyo, where the video cameras shot by multiple helicopters were left on the desk.RoppongiDid not come up to the center of the Defense Agency (a monthly magazine)
    • E-2c Early warning aircraftShould be dispatched (a certain monthly magazine)
    • After the earthquake, the local troops were able to be dispatched, but the dispatch order was finally not issued, and the Defense Agency (andPrime minister's residence) Asked for permission to issue a dispatch order for the unit, but only the word "wait" came back (a weekly magazine).
    • The "self-sufficiency" of the Self-Defense Forces can be a stumbling block in the event of a disaster (a monthly magazine, the author is a constitutional scholar)
    • Yusuke MatsushimaGSDFChubu DistrictThe general manager has a press conference about the delay in the initial movement (a popular caster)
    • About 20 years ago, the plan for a firefighting flying boat was not realized due to a "territorial battle" between ministries and agencies (a certain paper).
    • (RF-4E About) The reconnaissance information can be transmitted in real time by electric transmission (a certain weekly magazine, etc.)

    In addition, the article is concluded that "the matters pointed out are only a part"[60].

    reconstruction

    Various forms of "relief / support" were sent from all over the country.Relief supplies, donations,volunteerIn addition to the activities, many staff members of electric power companies and gas companies in other regions came to the site to support the reconstruction of the infrastructure.

    Reconstruction of the city

    In the reconstruction projectlife lineRestoration was given top priority.ElectricalWas able to be restored in about 3 days to 1 week in most areas, but the water supply buried undergroundgasIt took a long time to recover.In Kobe, there was a waterworks bureau at that time.Kobe City HallIt is said that the 2th floor of Building No. 6 was crushed to the 7th and 8th floors and was damaged, so it was not possible to prepare materials immediately, and it took time to grasp the route information of the water pipes, which affected the restoration.After that, Building 2 was removed from the 6th to 8th floors and restored as a 5-story building, and the Waterworks Bureau has also moved to Building 4.

    Transportation of reconstruction relief supplies was also accepted all over the country.On the other hand, the transportation network was cut off everywhere.In order to send a large amount of reconstruction relief supplies as soon as possible, the remaining roads will be prioritized over restoration to make it a disaster area.OsakaWas tied.

    Even on roads in the suburbs of Kobe, there were scenes in which reconstruction activities were supported, such as giving the highest priority to traffic control when saying "going to Kobe City".

    The full-scale reconstruction project for the building began in the following month.By this time, many equipment and human resources had rushed from all over the country to support the removal and reconstruction of rubble.[Annotation 14][Annotation 15].

    Evacuation shelter / temporary housing / reconstruction housing

    Residents whose houses were completely or partially destroyed evacuated to schools and public institutions.

    Many schools in the disaster area were forced to close.The victims woke up in gymnasiums and classrooms.Others set up tents in the park and woke up in their own cars.At the beginning of the earthquake, public facilities such as schools were recognized as evacuation shelters and food and drinking water were distributed, but after that, food was distributed to the tent villages formed by evacuees to the park. Etc. have come to be distributed.

    One month after the earthquake,Prefabricated construction methodbyTemporary housingWas built and the move-in began.However, most of them were built in the suburbs away from the disaster area and in the surrounding municipalities, so the transition from evacuation shelters to temporary housing did not proceed.For evacuation shelters such as schools, measures have been taken to promote the construction of temporary housing in the city center and the shift from evacuation shelters such as schools to waiting shelters in order to eliminate them when classes start in April, and private housing. Was rented and provided to the affected residents.

    After that, Hyogo Prefecture constructed a high-rise permanent housing called reconstruction support housing (disaster reconstruction housing).While privacy is protected more than temporary housing, it is a neighborhood relationshipBoardMay be difficult to form,solitary deathThe problem has also increased.There are also places where we are trying to prevent it with a system that automatically warns when the water is not used for a long time.[61].

    Regarding the supply of housing for these victims, the disaster certificate issued by each municipality was used as the basis for moving in.The investigation to prove it was conducted by a small number of people in a short period of time, and it has been pointed out that the accuracy is rough.

    Support activities by private companies / organizations

    While the government's response was delayed, support activities from private companies were conspicuous.

    • Headquartered in KobesupermarketMajorDaieiLess than,LawsonAt that time, Daiei Group retailers learned about the disaster at their homes in Tokyo.NakauchiUnder the direction of the president (at that time), even if the building was half-destroyed, the stores in the Kansai area, mainly in Hyogo prefecture, were opened immediately, and in-stock items and items delivered by air (other than groceries). blanket,Pocket furnaceExceptional (including) etc.Sweet bread,rice ballIn addition to offering it for 10 yen per piece, etc.), stores that are supplied with electricity after obtaining permission to extend business hours three days after the earthquake will continue to turn on the lights even at night, and will be open 3 hours a day for a certain period of time. Continued.
    • Seven-Eleven JapanHowever, within 3 hours of the earthquake, helicopter airlifted relief supplies and food from other areas, and took a very quick response.Seven-Eleven, which had no stores in Kobe at the time of the earthquake, was quick after the earthquake.helicopterWe rented 6 machines in-house and airlifted about 6000 people such as bento boxes and rice balls that were urgently manufactured at a bento box manufacturing factory in Kyoto Prefecture to Kobe City and provided them free of charge.
    • Co-op(Consumers' cooperative co-op Kobe) Distributed food based on the contract of "releasing food, etc. in the event of a disaster."
    • Nintendo TheGame boyWith 5000 unitsheadphone,Playing cards3000 pieces,SegaAlsoRecorder20000 books were provided to the affected children[62].
    • Headquartered in KobeAwajiyaImmediately after the earthquake, the damage to the head office factory was minor, so the lunch boxes manufactured using the materials in stock were distributed to the evacuation center, and then the factory equipment was restored with the support of each business operator to provide food support to the evacuation center. It was active as a base.
    • Kirin BeerThen.Drop lineFill 2000 empty beer bottles with water at the Kyoto factory, and take a special train from JR West.Koshienguchi StationTransported to and distributed to the neighborhood[63].

    As a support activity by an organization other than a companySalvation Army, Japan's largest with headquarters in KobeGangsterOrganization /Yamaguchigumi, Has a strong influence in the Hanshin areaReligious group OfSukyo Mahikari-PL cult-Tenrikyo-Soka Gakkai-Golden light-World mate[64]・ Two months laterSubway Sarin caseCauseAum ShinrikyoOrganizations such as, supply of food and drinking waterToilet-bath・ Proactively provided support such as providing evacuation areas.

    Other,Tetsuya Watari-Tsunehiko WataseBrothersEigo Kawashima,Kamon Tatsuo, Professional wrestlerGiant baba,Yasuo Tanaka[Annotation 16],at that timeHanshin TigersWas an active player ofToyozou Minamimurei,Yukicho KihiroEntertainers, talents, and cultural figures who are related to Kansai also come to the site to prepare meals and provide support on an individual basis.

    Reconstruction support by the media, etc.

    TV/Radio

    NHK,Private broadcastingEach station began calling for donations from viewers nationwide from around one week after the earthquake. NHK and commercial broadcasters in OsakaEvery day broadcastingEtc.Japanese Red Cross SocietyIntroduced the donation reception account in the earthquake news program every day and called for donations.Then, by donating the accumulation to the local government, we supported the support of the victims from the side.

    • In TokyoTBS - Dial Q2We carry out a "1 yen donation" in which 100 call = 100 yen is automatically donated when you call a specified phone number using the technology of.
    • TV Asahi -"DoraemonDonation "is carried out.
    • Kansai TV ――It was just after the program started, "Tunnels hammer price(Nationwide net) donated the profits obtained from the successful bid, which is the concept of the program, as "earthquake reconstruction support funds" through the Japanese Red Cross Society and others.CharityauctionWith the cooperation of exhibiting from celebrities in Europe and the United States, it was also an opportunity for charity auctions to be widely known in Japan.

    Music

    From March 3th to 7th,Tokyo OfNippon BudokanVolunteer atミ ュ ー ジ シ ャ ンThe charity concert "MARCH OF THE MUSIC" was held by the company and all the proceeds were donated.Many musicians who did not participate in the performance also made efforts such as raising funds at their own concerts and radio programs.Overlapping with reconstruction, JapanjazzIt is also a base for active education (Kobe is known as the place where jazz marked the first step in Japan).

    Sports

    Central horse racingThen.6/3The 4thKyoto horse racing(1/21, Alternative holding for the 22nd cancellation. GI on the 4thTakarazuka MemorialWas done), next1996(8)7/7 Of中山,Hanshin(Takarazuka Kinen was incorporated as in the previous year),SapporoHorse racingWas held as a reconstruction support eventBetting ticketA part of the sales of was donated.

    1/29Scheduled to be held inOsaka International Women's MarathonWas canceled, and the goal towel for the athletes who had ordered was donated to the evacuation center in the disaster area.[65].

    Stamp with donation

    JapanMinistry of Post(CurrentJapan Post), 1995 (Heisei 7)4/20Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeStamp with donationWas released.This was a stamp with a face value of 80 yen sold for 100 yen, and the difference of 20 yen was used as a donation for earthquake disaster support, and the face value was written as "80 + 20".However, because the design was not ready in time, the annual publication "Stamp hobby weekIt became a form to piggyback on the stamp.Therefore, the design isKanajima KeikaPainting "Guests in the painting room"[66] であり、被災地に全く関係ないものとなった。印刷数5000万枚のうち約4728万8000枚が販売され、諸経費を除いた9億4000万円が地元に配分された。その後、郵政省は2000年(平成12年)12月22日発行の「20世紀デザイン切手」の17集の中で、同震災のことを題材にした切手[67] Is issued.The design was regarded as a symbol of reconstructionOsamu TezukaIt was an image of "Phoenix", a map of the Hanshin-Awaji area, and a collapsed highway.

    Volunteer activity

    Immediately after the earthquake, support for the victimsvolunteerThe average number of people who participated in the activity is over 1 a day, and it is said that a total of 2 million people participated in the activity in three months.Public awareness of the importance of volunteer activities (including professional volunteers and information volunteers) in the disaster area has increased dramatically.For the victims without going to the siteBlood donation-DonationThe number of participants is expected to increase further, including those involved in logistical support such as contributions and provision of supplies.

    For this reason, this year is also called the "first year of volunteering" in Japan.later,CabinetAugust 1thDisaster prevention and volunteer day, A total of 17 days, 3 days before and after the 7th, "Disaster Prevention and Volunteer WeekI decided."

    Many of the volunteers involved in the disaster suffered great mental damage.Volunteer as well as caring for the victimsMental careIt was the first time that it became clear that it was also very important.

    Reconstruction organization

    When the Great Kanto Earthquake occurredImperial Capital Reconstruction InstituteIt becomes an organization equivalent to "Hanshin Awaji Reconstruction Countermeasures Headquarters(The first general manager was at that timeMurayama Tomi Cityprime minister), But 2000 years until 12 (Heisei 5)Prime Minister's OfficeWas placed in.In addition, "Hanshin-Awaji Reconstruction Committee" (Chairman isAtsushi Shimokawabe) Was also set up and cooperated with the above-mentioned recommendations to the countermeasures headquarters.

    War disaster recovery city planningbyLand readjustment projectThe city of Kobe was an extension of the reconstruction of the war, as the earthquake struck at the time when it was about to be completed, and the area where old wooden houses from before the war remained densely damaged due to the escape from the war. I caught the earthquake reconstruction as[68]..The reconstruction occurred on October 1976, 51 (Showa 10).Sakata Great FireThe reconstruction case of was referred to as an example of urban reconstruction in a short period of time.

    • It is not just a restoration to the city before the disaster, but a large-scale land change such as widening the road width, taking a lot of green space and setting a buffer zone.
    • In implementing this, we will present only the outline to the locals, not just the top-down hierarchy, listen to the voices of the local residents for details, and form an agreement, while making the entire city a disaster-prevention type city in a short period of time. To change to

    Government / prefectural response

    Government response

    The governmentEmergency Disaster Response HeadquartersWas decided during a cabinet meeting from 10 am (4 hours and 14 minutes after the earthquake).Prime Minister Murayama knew about the big earthquake on TV (NHK News at 6 o'clock) immediately after the earthquake, butNational Land AgencyThe first report from (at that time) was around 7:30.Prime Minister Murayama also responded to the disaster while responding to the ordinary Diet session, which was about to open, and performing public affairs as planned.

    at that time,Prime minister's residenceThere is no direct means for government and national agencies to collect information on the affected areas, and local governments and ministries and agencies have no means in place.Local branch office, The system to quickly collect the information sent from the SDF units to the Ministry, etc., and the system to report the collected information to the Prime Minister, etc. were not in place.Therefore, news organizations such as television and radio became the largest source of information, and each organization acted on the basis of information that was not centralized and organized.It was supposed to be the competent authority for disaster countermeasuresNational Land AgencyThere was no unique means of collecting information, and it was not possible to sufficiently aggregate the information submitted to the relevant ministries and agencies.[69].

    "Television and radio were the largest source of information not only for government and national agencies such as the official residence, but also for local government agencies and disaster prevention related agencies. The National Land Agency does not have its own means of collecting information, and it is related. It was pointed out that there was an institutional problem that the information was not sufficiently transmitted to the official residence because the information from the ministries and agencies could not be sufficiently aggregated. " — Collection of lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake[70]

    Prime MinisterThe news of the earthquake came to Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama at a very early stage, but this was due to the fact that Prime Minister Murayama happened to watch the news on TV immediately after the earthquake (NHK News at 6 o'clock). It was late to give detailed information from secretaries (the first report to the Prime Minister is said to be 7:30).Prime Minister MurayamaPrime Minister's official residence[Annotation 17] At 8:26, I walked to the Prime Minister's Office to see what was going on and waited, but no one was there and no information was given, so I returned to the official residence.[71]..After that, even though it is becoming clear that it is an unprecedented catastrophe due to incomplete but timely information, Prime Minister Murayama responded to the imminent opening of the ordinary Diet session and the new party issue that was a concern (Sadao Yamahanagroup),Business worldHe was suspicious that he did not respond sufficiently because he responded to the disaster while performing the public affairs as scheduled, such as a dinner party with the leaders.

    Hyogo Prefectural OfficeSatellite communication equipment on the roof of[Annotation 18] The Kobe Marine Meteorological Observatory recorded the maximum seismic intensity (seismic intensity 6 gal).[Annotation 19] Record was not sent[Annotation 20] However, the response to this "seismic gap" was not sufficient.[Annotation 21]..Information on seismic intensity 6 entered the National Land Agency and the Fire and Disaster Management Agency at 6:19.

    Japanese Meteorological AgencyThe seismic intensity information of Kobe Marine Meteorological Observatory and Tsuna Weather Station was not automatically transmitted, and the seismic intensity information of Tsuna Weather Station was out of order. Reported to the Meteorological Observatory, information on the Kobe Marine Meteorological ObservatoryMeteorological satelliteA satellite communication line dedicated to the Japan Meteorological Agency is prepared in the meteorological satellite.[72]).

    Toshihiro NikaiMember of the House of Representatives "(Omitted) First of all, Prime Minister Murayama, who is the chief executive officer of the nation, reports on when, where, and from whom the earthquake occurred in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture at around 17:5 on the 46th. I would like to ask you what kind of measures you were instructed to take. In addition, I would like you to clarify the schedule of the Prime Minister himself on the day of the disaster. It is a serious problem what the content of the report was. At first, I doubt that it might have been lacking in the recognition that it would cause such a big disaster (Omitted). ”Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama Minister "(Omitted) I first learned about it on the TV after 6 o'clock immediately after the earthquake disaster. I immediately contacted the secretary and ordered information gathering from the National Land Agency, etc. at 7 o'clock. There was the first report around 30 minutes, and I received that there is a possibility that it will greatly develop into a great damage. After receiving this report, I will further accurately grasp the damage situation. In addition to requesting contact, he gave top priority to saving lives, and at the same time, he also instructed us to do our best to extinguish the fire because there is a fire. We have set up the Emergency Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters at the Prime Minister's meeting from 10 o'clock, and we intend to take all possible measures, such as deciding to dispatch a government investigation team. (Omitted). " — January 1995, 7 Plenary session of the House of Representatives (representative question and answer)

    In addition, Prime Minister Murayama was asked about the delay in collecting information from the government and the inadequacy of the crisis management system in answering the representative question of the plenary session of the House of Representatives held three days after the earthquake. However, since it was an early morning event, I think there was a lot of confusion, "he was strongly criticized.

    Toshihiro Nikai, Member of the House of Representatives "(Omitted) I think that the control of the situation at the time of a disaster has a great influence on the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces, but whether or not there is a request from the prefecture, the safety of the land and the people. Regarding the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces, which has a noble mission to protect the situation, it is necessary to reflect on whether there were any serious mistakes in the judgment regarding the timing, scale, etc. In response to the request of the members of the House of Representatives of the up-and-coming party to be dispatched, there is a serious fact that the officers of the Defense Agency were not aware of this situation at the stage of ... on the morning of the day of the earthquake. Prime Minister Murayama must not be regretted that he could not take a more proactive and swift command from the standpoint of giving top priority to saving lives in the initial relief activities. (Applause) In addition to his political responsibility, I would like to ask the Prime Minister's opinion. Mayor Takahide Yokohama has pointed out the inadequacy of the government's crisis management system from the standpoint of the head of a large city, but all the people have the same feelings. Prime Minister Murayama will ask again how he receives these voices and how he feels the importance of his responsibility. (Omitted) ”Prime Minister Tomi Murayama“ (Omitted) Next As for the question about the government's crisis management system, in the event of a disaster, the government has a disaster prevention system so that prompt and accurate instructions can be given to related organizations, and the response of the Self-Defense Forces, etc. , The 200th Ordinary Division has been dispatching disasters in Itami immediately after the outbreak. Also, in order to smoothly implement disaster countermeasures, we have given necessary instructions and requests to local governments. However, looking back from now on, it seems that there was a lot of confusion because it was my first experience for a few minutes and it was an early morning event, but in any case We recognize that the enhancement of the crisis management system for disaster prevention is an extremely important issue, and in light of this experience, we will review the points that should be reviewed in the future and make efforts to strengthen the crisis management system. I'm thinking of going. (Omitted) " — January 7, 1995 Plenary session of the House of Representatives (representative question and answer)

    On the other hand, it was the longest in history at that time.Deputy Secretary-General, Cabinet SecretariatWas focusing on the official residenceNobuo Ishihara"In an unprecedented disaster and underdeveloped legal system, it was impossible for anyone other than Murayama, even the Prime Minister, to take prompt action."[73] He defends Murayama's words and deeds.On the other hand, Ishihara said, "Unfortunately, it is a fact that the Cabinet did not have a system to take immediate action under other laws and regulations such as the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law, and the cause is the Socialist Party. The Socialist Party has the authority of the Cabinet. I continued to oppose the strengthening. I didn't like the Cabinet to respond swiftly. "[74] I look back.

    Correspondence of Hyogo Prefecture

    Toshitami Kaihara・ The request for disaster dispatch from the Governor of Hyogo Prefecture (at that time) was not made immediately.This is "Governor Kaihara was sitting and waiting for information" "(in a position to compile the damage information investigated by each police station in each jurisdiction)Hyogo Prefectural PoliceHeadquartersSecurity departmentThere were few reports from Governor Kaihara. "

    For example,Higashinada Police StationEven at 8 o'clock, even though I knew the information that "more than 100 people were dead and hundreds of missing people", the headquarters security department reported to the governor only twice after the earthquake, so it was 2 o'clock. The damage information for the entire Hyogo prefecture, which was transmitted to the governor at the stage of, was far from the reality of "10 dead".[75].

    Governor Kaihara replied, "If the damage information was correctly communicated, we could immediately request the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces."[75]..On the contrary, there is an opinion that if Governor Kaihara immediately requested dispatch, the number of victims who were crushed to death under the building would have decreased further.Also, other than the governorChiefIt is also due to the inadequacy of the legal system at that time that it is not allowed to make a request.

    On the other hand, Governor Kaihara later said, "I couldn't communicate with the Self-Defense Forces. At 8 o'clock, the Himeji regiment finally contacted this staff member. I was cut off when I said it, and I couldn't get in touch with it after that. I think I can say it now, but the fact that the dispatch request was late is an escape from the responsibility of the Self-Defense Forces. " He said he was in the Self-Defense Forces, not himself[76].

    In the midst of such confusion about the situation, the dispatch request was made by Kazuyuki Noguchi, assistant manager of the Hyogo Prefecture Fire and Traffic Safety Division (at that time), who happened to have a phone call with the Self-Defense Forces four hours after the earthquake. It became consent[Annotation 22].

    Taking this as a lesson, requesting dispatch to the Self-Defense ForcesPrefectural governorBesidesMayor or Chief of PoliceThe system was later revised so that it could be done from such sources.

    Delay in initial response

    As mentioned above, the request from Hyogo Prefecture to dispatch a disaster to the Self-Defense Forces was more than four hours after the outbreak, but a member of the House of Representatives elected locally.Yuichi Takami(New party(Member) was also in Sumiyoshiyamate, Higashinada-ku, Kobe, and walked to JR Sumiyoshi Station to see the disaster situation directly.Takami, who learned that the prefectural governor had not requested dispatch, saidMobile phoneIn TokyoParliament HouseI made an urgent request to the Defense Agency at 8:40 through my secretary in Tokyo, but in Tokyo it was only recognized as "exaggerated", "unofficial", and "unconfirmed information".[78]..Representative Takami is the PRESTO representative.Masayoshi TakemuraMinister of Finance, Socialist PartyGoto regularMember of the House of RepresentativesAlso contacted by phone at 8:30, the Socialist PartyTakako DoiChairman of the House of RepresentativesI tried to contact him, but he was absent and contacted the secretary.There was no call back.

    As a cause of delay in initial responseLeft wingThere was also a commentary pointing out the influence of the idea.The criticism pointed out that the Socialist Party's anti-Self-Defense Forces idea, the disaster area of ​​Hyogo Prefecture, and the Keihanshin areainnovationBeing a power voter, supporting the Socialist PartyAll Japan Autonomous Organization Labor UnionAlthough it is claimed that it is affected by (self-government labor), there are many speculations and inconveniences.[79][80].. 『Sankei Shimbun』On January 1, the Socialist Party in the first columnOppositionHe criticized him for vowing to abolish the Self-Defense Forces.Domestic criticism is an English-language newspaper of Japanese capital[81] And also reported in overseas media[82]..The content is for the entire period from the initial period to the start of restoration.[83] Some emphasize the issue of the Prime Minister's leadership for several days after the SDF's dispatch order and outbreak.[84]..However, the Cabinet at the time of the earthquakeIn-house coalitionBelow,Japanese Socialist PartyRecognized the Self-Defense Forces as constitutional.AlsoKiyoshi OzawaAppointed Secretary of the National Land Agency and later Minister of Earthquake Disaster CountermeasuresSadari KozatoBothLDPHe was a member of the Diet.at that timeMinister of TransportwasKamei Shizuka"It was criticized that the SDF was delayed because of the Socialist Party's administration, but that was not the case. First, the SDF was admitted, and the minister who operated it was solidified by the LDP. Unfortunately, at that time, I couldn't get out without a request from the local government, so I had to wait. The actual dispatch was at 10 am after the request came. The reconstruction plan seemed to be difficult for about four years, at the earliest, three years, but Mr. Murayama said, "Immediate reconstruction. I will not pay attention to money. I will do it with a two-year plan."Everyone was surprised at this.That is not all. "For reconstruction, we will not use the original port, but a new large port," Murayama said.Instead of putting the broken one back, let's make it better.Mr. Murayama was prepared to take responsibility for everything he was in charge of.Looking at the subsequent reconstruction, Mr. Murayama's achievements are clear. "[85] And

    Former Prime Minister Murayama stated in an interview conducted in August 1997 (Heisei 9) as follows.

    Yamakawa"For example, in the case of American city councilors and Kobe city councilors, our research shows that they acted with a fairly strong awareness of elections. As politicians. I think it's natural, but how was it for the teacher? "

    Former Prime Minister Murayama"I didn't think about elections at all. I thought I shouldn't think about it. I believed that I should put all my energy into my job as prime minister."

    Yamakawa"(...) Certainly, the purpose of crisis management must be distinguished from the political purpose, primarily by helping the inhabitants and citizens. There may be something like the Symbolic Youth of Power, that is, the actions of a high-ranking person with power, such as the Prime Minister, have an impressive, symbolic and implied effect on the people. The behavior that makes the people intuitively understand that they are concerned about the victims from that behavior. The trust that arises from that in the prime minister and the government. I think it's okay if confidence leads to support in the ruling party's elections that support the prime minister and increases the number of votes. "

    Former Prime Minister Murayama"Well, that might have happened ... I was really impressed with the good attitude of Their Majesties in the disaster area, but in my case, I went to the site and took care of the victims. When I visited, I remember that the atmosphere of the media people was not good and I felt a bit frustrated .... The evacuation shelter I visited was a wooden board, and the victims were sitting on their chairs. I was told that I was in a high position when I said a word of sympathy to him, but I felt it was difficult ... " — Yamakawa Yumi"Crisis Management Leadership of Prime Minister Murayama in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" "Kansai UniversityCollection of Law Studies, Vol. 47, No. 5, December 1997

    In 2006 (Heisei 18), "Oita Joint Newspaper"ButOita UniversityIn the series project "Protecting Tomorrow-Aiming for Disaster Prevention Prefectural Government-", which was jointly conducted with, he talks about responsibility as follows.

    The communication network with the disaster area was cut off, and no one could get information.At that time, the official residence was open XNUMX hours a day and had no function or system to respond to disasters and accidents.Unlike the United States, there was no mechanism to anticipate earthquake damage with a computer based on population, topography, industrial distribution, etc., and respond to it.
    Rescue of human life is the first priority for national administration.The official residence had to grasp the damage as soon as possible and take action, but I never expected that such a big earthquake would occur.There was no administrative system that could respond urgently to a sudden catastrophe.There is no excuse for being accused of delaying the initial response. — "Protecting Tomorrow-Aiming for Disaster Prevention Prefectural Government-Part 5 Role of Government Ask Mr. Murayama, then Prime Minister" "Oita Joint Newspaper"[86]

    Former Prime Minister Murayama stated in a memoir published in 2012 as follows.

    At the time of that earthquake, I was in the official residence and saw the NHK news at 5 am.The top news was that Mr. Yamabana would leave the parliamentary group.The image of Kobe was not shown, and a few places such as Kyoto where the earthquake occurred were reported.The seismic intensity was 6 or XNUMX.The damage was greater in Kobe, but there was no information at all, probably because the communication equipment was broken and I could not contact.I immediately called an acquaintance in Kyoto and said, "The seismic intensity was very high, but fortunately there was no damage," so I was relieved to say that it was good.

    Then, after a while, the secretary in charge of the disaster called me. (Omitted) "There was an earthquake in Kobe. It seems to be very big. I don't have clear information yet, but it seems that there was a big damage."

    (Somewhat)

    At that time, the government's response to such disasters was not properly prepared.The Prime Minister's Office didn't have a XNUMX-hour response system, and the National Land Agency in charge didn't have a shift system.I couldn't get in touch with Kobe until around noon.There is no excuse for being told that the response was delayed.[87]

    Ministry of Health and Welfare(At that time), from the beginning of February, doctors and nurses at national hospitals,Case workerWe dispatched such items to the site and took measures to support medical care in disaster areas from the side.However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare did not immediately admit this, even though national hospital staff (doctors, nurses, etc.) in each region had requested to rush to the site as volunteers immediately after the earthquake. , There are criticisms that the dispatch was significantly delayed.

    Even though Japan is an earthquake-prone area, there were not enough measures taken to understand the devastation of the damaged areas mentioned above.Crisis managementLack of system ・Vertically divided administrationVarious administrative harmful effects such as have appeared.

    However, it has been pointed out that even if the government's initial action was earlier than it actually was, there would be no big difference in the scale of damage caused by the earthquake.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteAccording to Yoshimitsu Okada, who was the chairman of the board, 90% of the dead were due to the collapse of a wooden house, and 80% of them died by 6 am, almost instant death.Many buildings before the 30's collapsed, the buildings until the latter half of the 40's were severely damaged, and the buildings after 50 were less damaged, so all the buildings conformed to the new seismic design method of 1981. It is predicted that the death toll would have been about 200 to 500 if it had been made.[88].

    Assistance of the Self-Defense Forces and the US Navy

    The Dispatched Self-Defense Forces also took time to move, gather, and build campsites due to traffic jams and the blazing victims, and LO (Liaison Officer,Liaison executive) It took three days from grasping the situation until a large-scale disaster dispatch unit was deployed to the site and started rescue operations (it did not take three days to make a political decision).

    The earliest to set up a relief systemUS Navy7th fleet(Yokosuka) Asked the government to "rescue the injured by helicopter by letting the ship enter Kobe Port", but due to factors such as the underdeveloped acceptance system of Kobe City, political reasons, and the danger of damage to the berthing facility. , It was decided to refuse.However, this response was not special, and the government was unable to respond to requests for assistance from each country from the beginning.U.S. government is an aircraft carrierIndependenceHowever, the Japanese government refused this offer because it was judged that "at that time it was a blanket and water, and that kind of thing was urgent."[89].

    Impact of the earthquake

    News, internet, communication

    TV/Radio

    Information on the earthquake was largely covered by the press, and for about three days after the outbreak, almost all channels of TV and radio were related to the earthquake throughout the day.Special programAnd,CM Was hardly broadcast.However, 2-3 hours after the earthquake, it was difficult for each company to get the full picture, which contributed to the delay in the initial action of the administration.Kinki wide areaOther televisions tended to be treated more heavily after the afternoon of the 17th, when significant damage was revealed, and a special news program was broadcast.

    • In OsakaEvery day broadcastingThe radio program "Good morning, this is Ryuichi Kawamura]AshiyaLived in the show personalityRyuichi KawamuraReported on the scene while heading to the broadcast every day by taxi.In it, "Hanshin Expressway(No.3 Kobe Line) Has fallen. "This report reports the collapse of a highway pier faster than any other media (NHKIn the news, the current situation of Kobe from the sky was projected by helicopter at 8:49.A helicopter image was also included in commercial broadcasting at the same time).Good morning, I'm Ryuichi KawamuraSee also
    • In OsakaAsahi Broadcasting (now: Asahi Broadcasting Television)Then, at the time of the earthquake, the TV program "Good morning weather"ofLive broadcastThe moment of the occurrence of the earthquake is captured because[Annotation 23]..At TV Asahi-affiliated broadcasting stations, recording tapes containing the appearance of the earthquake in this program were frequently broadcast in the news special program for about a week after the earthquake as valuable information that conveys the scale of the earthquake.
    • NHK GeneralIs suspended at the moment of the earthquake[90] From 5:49 at Kinki blockOsamu MiyataThe announcer (in charge of "NHK News Good Morning Kinki") reported the earthquake information from the Osaka station, and from 5:50, "weather information" for 1 minute for the metropolitan area.[91] After 5:51Nobuo MurakamiAnnouncer (in charge of "NHK News Good Morning Japan" at 6 o'clock) reported the earthquake information[92].
    • NHK educationとNHK-FM broadcastingSo, for a few days (especially for the Kinki area, including 136 hours of continuous broadcasting), we aimed at viewers in the disaster area.Safety confirmation information broadcastWas applied for the first time[93]..These are still broadcast in the event of a disaster in each region.
    • OsakaAlthough the commercial TV stations in the Kinki wide area and Kinki prefecture area, which are headquartered in Japan, were also damaged.[Annotation 24]The damage was so great that the information could not be transmitted, and the information was continuously transmitted.
    • TV and radio stations in Osaka broadcast commercials as usual for several hours after the earthquake, but on MBS TV after 8 am[94], TV at 8:30 am "Morning Eye(Produced by TBS), and on Asahi Broadcasting after noon[95], CM is completely cut.Since commercials are flowing as usual outside the Kinki area such as the station in Tokyo, the frame is directed to the victims.life lineUsed as a frame to convey detailed related information such as (Daily broadcast, Asahi broadcast)[96]..This posture continued from the day of the outbreak to the next day, and at some stations until the day after the next.
      Although it was an extremely unusual long-time special program on TV, the news special program, which is a nationwide network, is produced and broadcast under the initiative of the station in Tokyo. The issue of "how to divide and convey detailed information" was posed.This was dealt with by a CM frame that completely cut the latter, and as a result, it seems that this led to the organization and segregation of information.
    • Headquartered in KobeIndependent station(Independent UHF station at that time)Sun TV[Annotation 25] 1 hours 17 minutes from January 1th to January 22nd,Independent radio stationIsRadio kansai[Annotation 26] At that time, it did not broadcast for 24 hours, but it continued to broadcast for 1 hours from January 17th to January 1th.
    • NHK Kobe Broadcasting StationWas damaged by the complete destruction of the station building.On the other hand, the Kobe Broadcasting Station at that time did not broadcast locally on TV in the prefecture.[Annotation 27]Although there was an impact due to the damage to the coverage base, the impact on the broadcasting itself was not significant.
    • It was an independent FM station at that timeKiss-FM Kobe[Annotation 25]Will broadcast the earthquake disaster without commercials from January 1th to March, and will send information to foreign victims by an English-speaking sound crew (DJ) and information on local disasters. Temporary disaster broadcasting stationAsFM796 PhoenixWas also provided.The earthquake was due to the recognition of the need for information for foreigners.FM CO-CO-LO,FM Wai WaiIt became an opportunity to establish foreign language broadcasting such as, and information on a municipal basis was an issue, and the system was established three years ago.Community broadcastingThe system has come into the limelight nationwide. "Temporary disaster broadcasting station # Hanshin-Awaji Great EarthquakeSee also.
    • In the Kinki wide area, some regular programs started to be broadcast about 7 days later, but entertainment programs such as laughter were not broadcast.[Annotation 28]..As an exception, on the night of January 3, three days after the occurrence,Detective! Night Scoop(Asahi Broadcasting Corporation <currently Asahi Television Broadcasting Corporation>) was broadcast.Also"Tsurubin Ueoka Papepo TV』(Yomiuri Television) Then, in the next week's broadcast after the earthquake, instead of the usual talk with the audience seatsShofuiteiとRyutaro KamiokaTalked by the two of them, raising questions about the topics they actually saw and heard about the earthquake and the media's attitude of reporting that could hinder rescue operations (for details, seeTsurubin Ueoka Papepo TVSee).
    • Akashi Kaikyo BridgeSince it was before the opening of NHK, a reporter from Shikoku was in charge of covering Awaji Island at NHK.[63].
    • Tetsuya ChikushiReported by helicopter from the sky, and was criticized for saying that the smoke of the fire rising in various places was "like a hot spring town in Beppu (where he was born)".
    • Nippon Television NewscasterKimura YukoIn a high-class fur coat, I made a report from the disaster area in Kobe city and bought a hushuku.
    • Key stationThe response of each station in the Kanto wide area has returned to the normal broadcasting system after the above time has passed, but even so,News,Wide showManyLive broadcastIn daily programs such as programs, and at milestones such as "2 weeks after the earthquake," "1 month," and "2 months," we convey a number of reports that convey the situation in the disaster area, and support the victims and call for donations. Was there.However, in other situations, earthquake-related information will be gradually narrowed down from national broadcasting to the Kinki wide area, especially about two months later.Subway Sarin caseThis tendency became remarkable after the occurrence of.
    • Curiously, the earthquake has made radio recognized as a source of disaster information.[97].

    News (Chinese)

    Kobe ShimbunThe head office building was completely destroyed by the earthquake.Although the equipment of the newspaper editing computer system (CTS, which was called "host computer" by the company) and the dedicated high-voltage power supply were damaged, newspaper editing became impossible, but in the previous year.Kyoto ShimbunInvoked the mutual assistance agreement in the event of a disaster that had been concluded with. Information was sent by telephone (discontinued in the evening of the same day) that was finally connected at 8:XNUMX, and employees were dispatched to Kyoto.[98] Then, I edited and produced a four-page spread evening edition with the company's employees.The original film for printing was produced by an employee of a subcontracted transportation company of Kyoto Shimbun on a motorcycle for 4 hours.神 戸 市 西区It was transported to the printing factory in Japan and succeeded in publishing the evening edition at 19:31 on the day (finished around 20:XNUMX).[98]).After that, employees were dispatched to Kyoto for a while to continue production, but with the support of equipment from newspaper companies nationwide and the full cooperation of business partners, some systems were successfully restarted 10 days later.

    Daily sportsNihon Keizai ShimbunAnd with the full cooperation of affiliated companies, we prepared a paper in Tokyo and continued to publish it.

    Internet / PC communication / mobile phone

    at that time,Japanese internetCommercial and personal use was just beginning in[99][Annotation 29]. AlsoAboveAs you can see, the telephone line was severely damaged like other infrastructure equipment, and some networks were disconnected.[101].

    The damaged Kansai Network Interconnection Association (WINC) andSINETNetwork changes route settings[Annotation 30]Due to such factors, a part of the area was restored the day after the earthquake.after thatKobe City University of Foreign StudiesInformation was actively disseminated from the server of Japan, and was reported to the media in Japan and abroad.[101]..Also prior to thisNara Institute of Science and TechnologyThen, we have been disseminating information since the day of the earthquake.[102][Annotation 31].

    MajorPC communicationnetwork("Nifty Serve,PC-VANEtc.) temporarily opened a free "earthquake information" corner and received thousands of safety information during the day.[101]In addition, personal computer communication was useful for exchanging information such as the status of university cancellations.[Source required]. this isaccess pointBy changing the above, the advantage of personal computer communication that can access information even in areas with poor connection conditions is utilized.[101].

    Since thenNTT Japanese character broadcastingProvided dead listwebVarious companies / organizations such as those published on the webNews groupInformation was exchanged and disseminated through[102][Annotation 32]..After this,Computer networkIt has become possible for people other than enthusiasts to pay attention to the commercial and use of[Source required].

    As of 26, 2021 years after the earthquake, it is widespread and generally widespread.[103]Can be saidMobile phoneHowever, the population penetration rate in Hyogo Prefecture in 7 was 4.0%.[104]It was a situation that could not be said to be sufficiently widespread.At the beginning of the disaster, as mentioned above, it was easier to connect than a landline phone due to the small number of users, but in addition to the damage caused by the earthquake, some base stations were brought in in large numbers from outside the disaster area. CauseconvergenceIn addition to the condition, the battery built into the mobile phone was much lower in performance than the current one, and it became unusable due to lack of charge.[105]..To interviewMediaFew reporters such as related companies and organizations also own it, so they took notes at the site and returned to the interview base and sent them by fax.[63].

    imode,EZweb,J-SKY (currently Yahoo! Keitai)In each mobile phone carrier such asMobile phone IP connection serviceSince 1999,Short message serviceSince 1996 for PHS and 1997 for mobile phones, it was almost impossible to collect and exchange information other than telephone calls.

    Media related to gangsters

    While the government's rescue and rescue activities were delayed, the above-mentioned organizations and groups, especiallyReligious group,GangsterRescue and support activities in the field by such means were rarely reported in the Japanese mass media.It was because of concerns that it could lead to the promotion of various groups.among them,JNN(TBS) Is the largest wide-area designated gangster in Japan based in Kobe city in the JNN news broadcast on January 3th, the third day after the earthquake.YamaguchigumiThe state of providing a large amount of food stockpiled by the general headquarters to the local residents was reported as "the choice of the residents' pain".At that time, the Yamaguchi-gumi prepared trucks loaded with oil heaters and provided assistance such as providing meals every day, so many victims were gathering.

    As a news agency, it was a cautious treatment that never gave to the Yamaguchi-gumi's promotion. ((Akihiro OtaniBut"This is Osaka Social Affairs Department It is mentioned in "The Great Hanshin Earthquake" and describes how Otani and the desk discuss whether or not they should be picked up.)

    In addition, the general public is lined up and countlessYakuzaThe way we get food is how the earthquake is unrealistic and unusual, and it causes serious reality.

    It was clearly stated.

    United Kingdom-AmericaMass media outside Japan also follow suit,with the BBC"The government's rescue operations are slow, but the localsmafia(Here, it refers to the Yamaguchi-gumi) is conducting rescue operations. "In addition, it was pointed out that "foreign media reported ahead of Japanese media" published in some magazines.[106] Is a false alarm or a false alarm.

    Culture/Sport

    Takarazuka RevueHome ofTakarazuka OfTakarazuka Grand TheaterWas also severely damaged. It had been several years since it was completed in 1992, but the walls were cracked, and the fire extinguishing sprinkler in the large theater malfunctioned, causing the seats to get wet.It was impossible to perform for about two and a half months,Anju MiraWithdrawal performance "Cordoba of sorrow/Mega VisionWas being performed, but the performance was forced to be cancelled. March, "Borderless map』Resumed the performance.In the same month, the aforementioned Anju performance was held at the theater, Hiten (currently:Umeda Arts Theater) Was restarted.

    Kobe International HouseWas completely destroyed, and the scheduled performance was canceled or the venue was moved. In December 1995, the temporary performance facility "Kobe International House Harborland Plaza Hall", which was constructed by renting a vacant lot in Kobe Harborland, was completed, and the performance in Kobe was resumed in earnest.

    Hanshin Racecourse,Hanshin Koshien StadiumPart of is damaged.Sakura Flower Award,Takarazuka Memorial TheKyoto RacecourseAlternative horse racing was held, such as being held at.This year's "Osaka International Women's Marathon"Or"Quanzhou International Citizens MarathonWas also forced to cancel. In April, TI Circuit Aida (currentlyOkayama International Circuit) Was scheduled to be heldF1Pacific Grand PrixWas postponed to October.Was scheduled for this yearYuai Pick Hyogo / Kobe TournamentWas also canceled.

    WrestlingAll Japan Pro WrestlingIs on January 2th, just two days after the outbreak.Osaka Prefectural GymnasiumThe venue was open on the day of the event, while being cautious, and the event was scheduled for the day.All Japan professional wrestling broadcast 30』(Nippon TV) Was held for free in the form of canceling the recording of the program.

    Rokko IslandWas scheduled to be held on January 1stJapan Championships in Athletics Men's 20km Women's 20km RacewalkingWas canceled and an alternative event was held in Chiba City in February of the following year.Twelve years later, in April 2 (Heisei 12), in March of the same year as a repayment at this time.Noto Peninsula EarthquakeWas damaged inIshikawaWajima CityAnother that was supposed to take place inRacewalkThe tournament was held as an alternative at Rokko Island.

    67th Selected High School Baseball TournamentRegarding (Spring Koshien), although there was an opinion that it should be canceled,Brass bandIt was carried out as scheduled by refraining from playing noises by such means.

    Professional baseball OfOrix Blue WaveIn 1995 (Heisei 7), 1996 (Heisei 8) and the Pa League consecutive championship (1996 (Heisei 8) is the best in Japan) under the slogan "Ganbaro KOBE", encouraged the victims. rice field.The annual New Year movieMan is hard seriesThe 12th work released in December of "The man is painful Torajiro Beni no Hana], From the Kobe city sideShochikuThere was a request for location,Yoji YamadaThe theme was the reconstruction and volunteering of Kobe, set in Nagata Ward, Kobe City, where the citizens were doing reconstruction at the time, triggered by the arrival of a fan letter from the couple who were working on reconstruction under the supervision.

    JFL(At the timeVISSEL KOBEOfficially started as VISSEL KOBE on January 1995, 7.J LeagueAiming for promotion, I was planning to practice for the first time on January 1th.However, due to the earthquakeOkayamaKurashikiI was forced to start practicing in Kobe, and because it was difficult to secure a driving range in Kobe, I had to change the driving range.In this way, in order to pray that the team was born on the day of the earthquake, in the game at the home stadiumSupporter"Kobe Hymn" ("Kobe Hymn" before the matchHymn of love"Parody) continues to be sung.

    At Suntory, this yearSuntory Ladies OpenWe donated a quantity of vehicles loaded with firefighting pumps and portable power pumps to the Kobe City Fire Department using the holding cost as a source of funds, and we have donated about 4 vehicles every year since then.

    Department store

    Sogo Kobe storeHowever, the entire building was opened on April 1996, 8 (Heisei 4) after restoration work including the dismantling and removal of the half-destroyed part of the main building (this removed part is the current Sun Fare Square). The new building and the basement of the main building had been reopened before that).DaimaruThe Kobe store was demolished and rebuilt as a new building because the 3rd floor of the main building collapsed.The West Building was also completely renovated and the reconstruction grand opening was opened in March 1997.

    Sannomiya HankyuWas moving inKobe Hankyu BuildingThe upper floor of the East Building collapsed and was completely destroyed, so it was dismantled and removed, and the store closed five days after the earthquake.Apart from this, in 5 (1992) before the earthquakeKobe HarborlandWas open inKobe HankyuWas less damaged than the above two stores, and resumed earlier (2012Closed, the current Kobe Hankyu will be open from 2019 at the location of the above Sogo Kobe store).Unlike Sogo, Daimaru, Hankyu and Mitsukoshi below, it is a form in which private shops move in.Kobe department storeHowever, the store was closed due to the disaster.

    It was in Kitahama even in Osaka, which is a little far away.MitsukoshiThe main building of the Osaka store was damaged and dismantled, greatly reducing the sales floor area.This contributed to the closure of the store in 10 (Heisei 2005), 17 years later.[107].

    population

    Kobe City was on January 1995, 7, just before the earthquake.Estimated populationWas 152 people[108]..The first time since the earthquake that took place on October 10st of the same yearCensusIn 142, the population of about 3792, which greatly exceeds the death toll of 4571 in the city due to the earthquake, has decreased.[108], Less than the population of Kyoto City. The estimated population reached 2004 on November 16, 11, surpassing the pre-earthquake population for the first time in 1 years and 152 months.[108]..However, looking at each ward, the population has increased since before the earthquake.Mt. Rokkosan site2nd ward (Kita-Nishi-ward) And 3 eastern coastal districts (Higashinada Ward-Nada Ward-Chuo) Only, 4 wards of the western coast (Hyogo Ward-Nagata-Suma Ward-Tarumi Ward) Has not returned to the pre-earthquake population even now[108][109]..Especially in Nagata Ward, the number of people remains close to 3.[109], It can be seen that there are disparities in reconstruction depending on the region.

    In addition, many people have moved to the Higashi-Harima area such as Kakogawa City.

    Asbestos and rubble

    Used for buildings damaged by the earthquakeasbestos(Mesothelioma(Cause of) is inhaled by a large number of people involved in relief and reconstruction activities such as residents, workers, and volunteers, so there are concerns about the impact.[110].

    Approximately 11.6 damaged buildings required to be demolishedDebrisThe amount was about 1450 million tons (as of December 1995, 7).[111].

    Since 1987Osaka Bay Phoenix Plan(Reclaiming the sea surface) has begun, and the wide-area disposal site that had been created on the surface of the sea received about 262 million tons of disaster waste.[112].

    Crimes / problems

    While the gangsters were engaged in relief activities, it is also true that they committed tactile acts such as illegally receiving disaster relief funds in the wake of the earthquake and requesting construction companies to receive orders for construction work.In anticipation of such problematic acts by the gangsters, the police took temporary measures such as opening a "patrol violence counseling center" using a mobile violence counseling vehicle.[113]..In addition, it is said that there was also a cut-out work by a gangster official.[114].

    There was also information that "sex crimes have increased", but there was a move to call it a hoax.Certainly, the number of rape cases in Hyogo Prefecture was the same as the previous year, and on the contrary, the number of forced obscene cases was decreasing.In addition, the number of thefts and robbers has decreased as well.However, it is difficult to declare a sexual crime, and even if you declare it, it is easy for the victim to suffer secondary harm that is equivalent to disregarding the damage such as "why did you not defend yourself" and "you should put up with it". There is a strong tendency to close.Therefore, there are many parts that cannot be unequivocally explained only by the number of cases.In addition, although more or less sexual crime information such as rape, molestation, and peeping at evacuation shelters has not been revealed, a large number has actually been collected.[115]..Also, in Kansai on January 1th, immediately after the earthquake, and February 19th, a month and a half later.KyotoKameoka OfKameoka faultSeismic intensity 7 with the epicenteraftershockThe hoax was disseminated, and the second time, companies around Kameoka City were confused, such as temporary closures and hoarding of products at food supermarkets.

    In 2003, college students broke the glass case of the "Light of Hope."In addition, it was reported to the Hyogo Prefectural Police that the lighting equipment installed at the memorial monument in Nada Ward was destroyed for the purpose of lighting up at the memorial event held on January 2013, 1, and it was treated as a property damage case.[116].. On January 2017, 12,East amusement parkIn the "Monument of Memorial and Reconstruction" engraved with the names of the victims of the earthquake ingraffitiWas found to be[117].Mt. RokkosanWith the same earthquake near the summit ofGreat East Japan EarthquakeBlack on a wooden pillar set up for the requiescats of the victims ofpaintWas found in June 2017[118]..Furthermore, the monument is2019Was found to have been stolen[119].

    Damaged by the earthquakeJizoSteal, etc.Pawn shopThe person who was brought in and cashed in was from the Hyogo Prefectural PolicetheftOn suspicionDocument inspectionHas been[120].

    As a problem statement,Toshizo IdoAt the Governor's Meeting of Kinki Block held on November 2008, 20, the Governor of Hyogo Prefecture said, "Tokyo extreme concentrationMust raise the flag to defeat.If an earthquake occurs in the Kanto region, Tokyo will suffer considerable damage.This is an opportunity. "Initially he was reluctant to apologize, but after receiving a fierce protest, he apologized.

    How disaster reporting should be

    Issues related to news ethics

    The way of reporting in this earthquake was raised to the point of debate about the way of reporting the disaster later.In OsakaQuasi-key stationMany of the broadcasters live in the Hanshin area, and since they are also residents of the disaster area, there are many cases in which they ask themselves whether the interviewees' private interviews are correct when interviewing the victims. Many people recall that it was an event that they never forgot in their daily lives.Even at the time of the disasterYodogawaIt also took time to recognize the importance of the matter in Osaka and Hyogo prefectures.

    The issue of "damage reporting or safe reporting" was also sent from media researchers, and after the disaster, it was released to the public.Key stationIn the news program produced, while the damage is currently expanding, the key station's reporting attitude is "If an earthquake of this class occurs in Tokyo, how much damage will it be?", "In Tokyo The hypothetical report that "I'm glad I didn't have it" was rampant, and general viewers were criticized by people from various positions.Former NHK reporter and journalistTaro KimuraTV is the strongest way to convey the voice, "There are events that cannot be seen on TV, and we can help quickly."Most of the people watching TV have a double copy of the commentary, but suddenly the commentary is inevitable even if it is out of the question.In particular, the press needs to be aware of replacing it with Tokyo from the first day, but there is a problem with the timing of the release, "he said.[121].

    Excessive coverage

    Press ethicsExcessive coverage activities can be mentioned as a problem related to.Immediately after the earthquake, mass media companies started aviation coverage activities, but while the aerial images that started immediately after the earthquake allowed people outside the disaster area, such as the Prime Minister's Office, to quickly grasp the damage situation of the earthquake, this helicopter ofnoiseIt has been pointed out that the voices of the victims under the house could not be heard and it was a major obstacle to the initial activities of the rescue team.Monthly WedgeWhen Norihiro Oe, the editor-in-chief, lived in Higashinada Ward, Kobe City when he was in high school, he said, "What is the usefulness of each broadcasting station competing for video and sloppy? I want you to leave, and it takes extra manpower to make the rescue team blindfold with a blue sheet or blanket at the site of the collapse of the house. "[122].

    On February 1995, 2, the Local Administrative Committee of the House of Representatives took up this issue based on hearsay information.Since then, broadcasting stations in the Kansai region have been studying ways to mutually limit the number of helicopter flights in the event of a major disaster and share images with each company (a type of representative coverage).However, it is not clear how much noise was actually damaged by the earthquake.Whether the source of the noise is not a helicopter of the Self-Defense Forces or fire department (how to distinguish the helicopter in the sky), the Self-Defense Forces, fire department, police,Japan Coast GuardThere are many vague points in the claim, such as whether the sound is okay if it is a helicopter.

    Consideration for victims

    Headquartered in OsakaYomiuri TelevisionIn a special program produced in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the earthquake, the announcer who interviewed the locals at the time of the earthquake was after the disaster.Commercial broadcasting key stationThe interview crew, led by the announcer and reporter of the news program produced, recalled his feelings at the time, saying that he could not bear the spectacle of interviewing the victims' life territory with his feet. It is said that consideration should be given to being close to the victims by not interviewing them.Therefore, in the case of the quasi-key station in Osaka, even as of 2015, depending on the station, a photograph of the disaster situation at that time and a "request to the local coverage crew" document written by the head of the press at the time of the earthquake were written in the announcement department.[Annotation 33] Is posted on the wall, and I always try not to forget the damage situation at that time and not to repeat the same mistake in the coverage of the new disaster site.[123].

    Other

    • Bank of JapanKobe branch is to prevent financial panic caused by the earthquakeMinistry of Finance(CurrentMinistry of Finance) Urgent discussions with the head of the Kobe Finance Office at the Kobe branch, requesting the Ministry of Finance and the Bank of Japan Head Office to issue special financial measures.Once the identity was confirmed, it was possible to withdraw deposits without a passbook or seal, and a damaged bank counter was opened on the second floor of the branch office to exchange damaged or burned banknotes.At this time, the Kobe branch manager made a live appearance on NHK Radio and explained about these measures.
    • 前Japan Socialist Party ChairmanSadao Yamahana, Former General Secretary of the Socialist PartyHirotaka Akamatsu,Japan New PartyIndependentMari Eeda,Democratic PartyからBudding partyParticipated in the partyKawabata TatsuoThey had planned to form a new party on January 1, but had to give up.
    • Originally scheduled for April 4th ​​and April 9rdUnified local electionsHowever, due to the impact of the earthquake, it was postponed to June 6 in the affected municipalities.
    • at that timeHanshin TigersBelonged toTakeshi ShinjoWitnessed the earthquake and alsoNew York MetsAlso in 2001 (Heisei 13) when I transferred toAmerican terrorist attacksI was to witness.
    • Kanda UnoIn a dialogue in the magazine "uno!" (November 1997 issue), he said that he was betting on the number of deaths in the earthquake at the invitation of the program staff, and as a reflection on this, 11 yen was donated to the disaster area. It is revealed that it was donated as a donation.On the other hand, the person himself denied that in his blog on March 50, 2011 as "too sad internet damage".At that time, Uo repeated words and actions that could be called insane, and the staff, relatives, and other people around him were amused, and they escalated. It is also possible.In this regardUno Kanda #behavior-reflectionchecking ...
    • Momotaro Electric Railway SeriesThe "Great Earthquake Card" that appeared in the event was hit by the earthquake.Super Momotaro Dentetsu DXWas abolished from.
    • At the time of the earthquakeKawasaki Heavy IndustriesA railroad vehicle that was being manufactured at the Hyogo factory (JR East E127 seriesEtc.) were also damaged, which had the effect of delaying business entry.Also, because the land route was cut off,Keihan 7200 series(7201 cars out of 4F and all cars on 7202F)Keihan Electric RailwayThe only vehicle that can be shipped by seaSakai Senboku PortviaNeyagawa garageWas transported to (usually directly by land to the Neyagawa garage).In addition, Shinkansen trains destined for JR Central will not be able to be transported by land, and will be routed via Sakai Senboku Port, just like Keihan trains.Torikai DepotWas transported to.
    • Tohoku regionA professional wrestling organization based inMichinoku wrestlingAlso a popular wrestler belonging toTaro NohashiHowever, at that time, he experienced an earthquake in the sixth grade of elementary school and joined Michinoku Pro Wrestling.20113/11I have experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake.At that time, the earthquake was said to be the "worst disaster after the war," but it was later the Great East Japan Earthquake, and NohashiExperienced "the worst disaster after the war" twiceIt was decided to do.

    Celebrities affected by the disaster

    Cultural person

    • Sakyo Komatsu(Writer) --Damage while sleeping at home in Minoo City, Osaka Prefecture.Komatsu published "Sakyo Komatsu's Great Earthquake '1996" in June 6.
    • Chen Sun-sin(Writer) --Stricken at home in Nada-ku, Kobe.It was four days after his discharge[124]..After the earthquake, the Kobe Shimbun posted a contribution from Chen saying "Beyond Sadness."[125].
    • Kazuki Omori(Movie director) --Damage at his home condominium in Ashiya City, Hyogo Prefecture.His parents' house in the city was completely destroyed by the earthquake.Immediately after his disaster and what happened after that, he wrote in his own book, "Earthquake Family" (Heibonsha).
    • Waichi Tsutaka(Western-style painter) --- My home in Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Prefecture collapsed and died as an underlay.Became one of the few celebrity victims of the disaster[126].
    • Fusako Miwa(Lawyer) --Encountered at home in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.
    • Koji Tanikawa(Shogi player) --At that time, the holder of the throne (all other titles)Yoshiharu HanyuWas holding) in nine steps. He escaped to Osaka on the 19th, driving his wife for 13 hours.At that time, the 44th termWarlordThe seventh game (Yoshiharu Habu) is being held between the 1st station (12th-13th) and the 2nd station (23rd-24th), before the 2nd station.Master gameClass APlace battlePair ofKunio YonechoThe battle (20th) was taking place.Tanikawa won both stations and defended in the war against the king, blocking Hanyu's monopoly on the seven crowns.Tanikawa later said, "If it weren't for the earthquake, I might have been captured."[127].
    • Tanigawa style(Novelist) --Encountered at home in Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Prefecture[128].

    Athletes / related persons

    • Murayama Minoru(Former professional baseball player, thenAsahi BroadcastingandSun TVProfessional baseball commentator) --- Damaged at my home condominium in Ashiya City, Hyogo Prefecture.His home was damaged and he was forced to evacuate in his own car.
    • Taro Nohashi(Later a professional wrestler) --As mentioned above, when I was in the sixth grade of elementary school (6 years old), I was damaged at my home in Tarumi Ward, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.12 years after this earthquake20113/11Based in the Tohoku regionMichinoku wrestlingAs a wrestlerGreat East Japan EarthquakeHave also experienced.
    • Orix Blue WavePlayers- Kobe CityNishi-wardDamaged at the player dormitory, Seibokan.There was a crack in the wall of the player dormitory.
    • Fujita Taira(Director of the Hanshin Tigers Second Army at that time) --The house in Nishinomiya was half destroyed and moved to the Hanshin Tigers dormitory "Torafuso".[129].
    • Mayumi Akinobu(Hanshin Tigers at that time) --There was no damage to my houseHanshin Koshien StadiumI used to stay at "Torafuso" because it became difficult to move to.
    • Kunimoto Kamamoto(Former soccer player / director) --Encountered at home in Toyonaka City, Osaka Prefecture.
    • Shinji Kagawa(Later a soccer player) ――When I was 5 years old, I encountered him at my parents' apartment in Tarumi-ku, Kobe.

    entertainer

    • Yasutaka Tsutsui(Actor) --Damage while sleeping at home in Tarumi-ku, Kobe[Annotation 34].
    • Katsura Bunshi (at that time: Katsura Bunshi)(Rakugoka) --I met at my parents' house in Ikeda City. ""Welcome to the newlyweds!] Is canceled.
    • Katsura Bunchin(Rakugoka) --OsakaMinamiI was damaged while walking in the downtown area of ​​Kobe, and my home in Kobe was half destroyed.His family lived in the garage, and he was the victim of the earthquake.traumaでコ ン テ ナLived[130].
    • Kanpei Ma(Owarai Tarento) --- Damaged while sleeping at home in Takarazuka City, Hyogo Prefecture, and the home was completely destroyed.Live an evacuation life at a nearby junior high school[131].
    • Jinnai Tomonori(Owarai tarento) --Encountered at an apartment in Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture.
    • Anju Mira(Actress) --Encountered at home in Takarazuka City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Yuki Matsuoka(Voice actor) --As a talentAsahi Broadcasting (now: Asahi Broadcasting Television)ProductionGood morning weatherEncountered in the studio while introducing the corner.
    • Saki Aibu(Later actress) --When I was in the third grade of elementary school (3 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Takarazuka City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Eriko Sato(laterGravure idol・ Actress) --When I was in the first year of junior high school (1 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Higashinada Ward, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Moriyama(Later actor) --When I was in the 4th grade of elementary school (10 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Higashinada Ward, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Miyaji Mao(Later actress) --When I was in the 5th grade (10 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Sumoto City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Takumi Tatsumi(Actor) --Encountered while staying at a hotel in Osaka.
    • Ryotaro Sugi(Actor) --Encountered while staying at a hotel in Osaka.
    • Fukuyama Masaharu(Singer) --Nippon Broadcasting System "Masaharu Fukuyama's All Night Nippon』\ After the live broadcast from Osaka, I encountered while traveling by taxi with staff including Fukuyama.
    • Noriko Shiina(Later talent) --When I was in the sixth grade of elementary school (6 years old), I encountered him at my parents' house in Katano City, Osaka Prefecture.
    • Aya Fujimoto(Later retired after working as a personality) --When I was in the sixth grade of elementary school (6 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Osaka City.
    • Hiromi Kawada(Later, a freelance announcer and talent after working on Yomiuri TV) --When I was in the 5th grade of elementary school (11 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Osaka City.
    • Junko Hamaguchi(Later talent) --When I was in the third grade of elementary school (3 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Osaka City.
    • Kiyoshi Nishikawa(Owarai tarento, a member of the House of Councilors at one time) --I met at my parents' house in Osaka City.
    • Nana Yamada(laterNMB48After that, I met him at his parents' house in Daito City, Osaka Prefecture when he was 2 years old.
    • Maki Okazoe(Later, freelance announcer talent) -When I was 2 years old, I met at my parents' house in Tondabayashi City, Osaka Prefecture.
    • Eri Murakawa(laterBOYSTYLEActress) ――When I was 7 years old, I met at my parents' house in Daito City, Osaka Prefecture.
    • Ryo Nishikido(Later actor) --When I was in the 4th grade of elementary school (10 years old), I encountered him at my parents' house in Kadoma City, Osaka Prefecture.
    • Toru Watanabe(Actor) --Encountered while staying at a hotel in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Tadao Takashima(Actor) --Encountered at my parents' house in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Norika Fujiwara(Actress) --Encountered at my parents' house in Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Kenji Moriwaki(Talent Marathon Runner) --Encountered while staying at a hotel in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.
    • Kazue Fukiishi(Later actress) --When I was in the sixth grade of elementary school (6 years old), I met at my parents' house in Kashiba City, Nara Prefecture.
    • Kitagawa Keiko(Later actress) --When I was in the second grade of elementary school (2 years old), I was damaged at my parents' house in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Toda Erika(Later actress) ――At the age of 6, she suffered a disaster at her home in Kobe, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Misato Ugaki(Later, after working on TBS TV, a freelance announcer / talent) ――At the age of 3, he suffered a disaster at his home in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Ryohei Suzuki(Later actor) --Stricken at his parents' house in Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Takatsuki Kanako(Later voice actor / singer) --When I was 1 year old, I was damaged at my home in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Pumpkin potato fly (Owarai combination) --Both were damaged when they were 2 years old.

    Announcer / Media Official

    • Kuwahara Seihei(At that time: Kansai TV announcer) --I met at my home in Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Prefecture.
    • Kazuki Masuda(At that time: MBS TV announcer) --I encountered MBS TV overnight.
    • Chiyoko Mori(Radio personality)- Asahi Broadcasting (currently Asahi Broadcasting Radio)Encountered during the live broadcast of the production "Chiyoko Mori's Good Morning Partner".
    • Youzo Michigami(Asahi Broadcasting Announcer) --Working in the announcement department at Asahi BroadcastingGood morning personality is Yozo MichigamiEncountered while preparing.
    • Chizuru Toriki(At that time: Asahi Broadcasting Announcer)-"Good morning weather" Encountered at MC.
    • Yoshino Nishino(At that time: Asahi Broadcasting Announcer) -Encountered at Asahi Broadcasting while working in the announcement department.Immediately after the disaster "ANN News Fresh』Broadcast, I put in a report from the studio of Asahi Broadcasting.
    • Naomi Uemura(At that time: Yomiuri TV announcer) --I met at my home in Ashiya City, Hyogo Prefecture.Immediately after the disaster, she reported on the live broadcast while she was broadcasting "NNN News Special".
    • Noriko Wakihama(At that time: Yomiuri TV announcer, laterKyoto Sangyo UniversityFaculty of Contemporary SociologyProfessor, Department of Contemporary Social Studies) --- Encountered at my home apartment in Mukonoso, Amagasaki City, Hyogo Prefecture.Immediately after the disaster "Zoom in!! Morning!During the broadcast, I made a phone call from my home and went to the site of the collapse of the pier around the Fukae entrance of the Hanshin Expressway No. 3 Kobe Line to interview.
    • Seizo Makino(Yomiuri TV Announcer) --Nishinomiya City, Hyogo PrefectureKotoenEncountered at my home condominium.
    • Osamu Miyata(At that time: NHK Osaka Broadcasting Station announcer, later priest) --Encountered during work.I gave the first report in the earthquake.
    • Yuri Hayashi (Freecaster) --Encountered during the rehearsal of "Zipangu Asa 6 OSAKA" on Yomiuri TV.
    • Toshihiko Michiura(At that time: Yomiuri TV announcer) --I encountered while working in the announcement department of Yomiuri TV.
    • Yuhashi Ohashi(Kansai TV announcer) --I encountered Kansai TV while working overnight. ""Mezamashi TV』\ I told the first report.
    • Takashi Miura(Yomiuri TV announcer) --Although I lived in Ashiya City, Hyogo Prefecture, I entered Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture in front of me to perform a live broadcast of "Zoom in !! Morning!" And encountered it while traveling by taxi to the relay site.
    • Michiyo Namura-I met Miura et al. While moving to a relay site in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, because I was in charge of the local weather corner of "Zoom in !! Morning!".
    • Takashi Mashimo(At that time: NHK Kobe Broadcasting Station announcer) --I encountered the NHK Kobe Broadcasting Station in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture during the night shift.
    • Koichi Sumita(At that time: NHK Tokyo Announcer Room Announcer) --I encountered while returning to my parents' house in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture.Immediately after the disaster "NHK News Good morning Japan』Broadcast, I made a report by phone from home.
    • Jiro Jinbo(At that time: Yomiuri TV announcer, later the director of the news station, the chairman of the treatment commentary → newscaster) --Osaka PrefectureHirakataKuzuhaEncountered while sleeping in the kitchen of the 15-story 14-story home condominium where I lived at that time.After confirming her safety, Keihan Electric Railway went to work on Yomiuri TV in a private car from the afternoon when it moved to Kyobashi, and continued to appear in the local news special program for less than 48 hours.[132].
    • Osamu Tomimoto (at that time: NHK Kyoto Broadcasting Station announcer, later NHK Radio Center Personality) --Encountered at home in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.He delivered the first report in the earthquake.
    • Kazuya Matsumoto(At that time: NHK Nara Broadcasting Station announcer) --Encountered at home in Nara City, Nara Prefecture.I gave the first report in the earthquake.
    • Kazushi Teraya(At that time: NHK Otsu Broadcasting Station announcer) --Encountered at home in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture.I gave the first report in the earthquake.
    • Tomoki Deyama(At that time: NHK Wakayama Broadcasting Station announcer) --Encountered at home in Wakayama City, Wakayama Prefecture.The earthquake delivered his first report.
    • Julia Hosuda(laterIshikawa TV(Freelance announcer) ――When I was 4 years old, I was damaged at my home in Nishinomiya city.She moved to Osaka after the disaster[132].

    Musicians and musicians

    • Kamon Tatsuo(Singer-songwriter) --Damage while staying at a hotel in Kobe city[133].
    • Char(Guitarist) --I encountered it while staying at a hotel in Kansai.
    • Billy Joel(singer-songwriter, pianist)-Osaka city during the performance in JapanHotel PlazaEncountered while staying at.The Osaka performance will be held for two days, January 1th on the day of the earthquake and 17th the next day.Osaka Castle HallAlthough it was planned to cancel the performance on the 17th, the performance was postponed to the 19th and the performance was held for two days as scheduled, and a part of the profits from the performance was donated to the victims.
    • Yu Sado(Conductor) --Encountered while staying at a hotel in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.
    • Ichiro Okamoto(Danceries Renaissance EnsembleConductor) --Nishinomiya City, Hyogo PrefectureIncheonDamaged at home[134]..His home broke, with his wife and childrenPeriod Instruments,recordThe collection was safe, but he lost his father who lived with him.[134]..Members of the Danceries Renaissance Ensemble were also damaged in Nagata Ward, Kobe City, and their homes were completely destroyed.[134].
    • Hiramatsu Airi (Singer-songwriter) --My parents' house in Suma-ku, Kobe collapsed.On April 4, the same year, the earthquake charity song "Bito-Ganbaroya We love KOBEWas released.
    • Yu Aku (Lyricist) --There is a family homeTsuna-gunGoshiki Town (Currently: Sumoto City) is damaged.
    • Ken Washizaki(Singer-songwriter, radio personality, moderator) --While my home in Higashinada Ward collapsed, I was also volunteering.

    Lessons and changes from the earthquake

    Firefighting / rescue / medical care

    The experience gained by firefighting and rescue from this disaster was the increase in the national common wave in the firefighting radio and the increase in waves.Tokyo Fire Department OfFire and rescue task force(Hyper Rescue) and Yokohama City Fire Department Rescue Mobile Squadron (currentlySpecial Advanced Rescue Team), As a national support systemEmergency fire support team(Firefighting)Wide Area Emergency Relief TeamIt leads to the maintenance of (police).

    The firefighting organization was originally a municipal unit, and the earthquake has exposed many problems in command, communication, equipment, etc. in the wide-area mobilization of firefighting, and improvements are being made.

    But as of 2009Area block・ Although a firefighting and lifesaving activity command organization for wide-area disasters at the level is finally being created, this is an organization that will be set up temporarily after things happen, and a permanent organization will be set up to deal with large-scale disasters from normal times. It is not at the stage of researching the plan.

    For medical treatment2005As a lesson and reflection on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in AprilDisaster dispatch medical team (DMAT) was launched.

    SDF

    On the other hand, in March 1995 (Heisei 7)Subway Sarin caseTogether withSDFThe function of the SDF in crisis management has attracted attention, and the public's liking for the Self-Defense Forces has increased dramatically compared to before the earthquake, and public opinion that the Self-Defense Forces are necessary has also increased.

    However, the Defense Agency (currentlyMinistry of Defense) Is originally a wide-area crisis management agency that prepares for emergencies in peacetime.Although it has a disaster response planning function, the fact is that the Fire and Disaster Management Agency is the only response partner on the firefighting side in discussions at the regional block level. Since there is no such thing, "In order to fully respond to large-scale disasters, we should establish a separate disaster relief team with abundant specialized equipment, rather than using the Self-Defense Forces, whose equipment is mostly occupied by weapons and weapons." I have an opinion.Regarding this, there is also an opinion that "it is a waste of budget to establish a bureaucracy that responds to a catastrophic disaster with a low probability separately from the war, and the equipment and functions related to disaster relief of the Self-Defense Forces should be further enhanced." It has been issued.

    When the road is cut off, it is often the case that the fire engine cannot easily approach the site, so it is effective to use a helicopter to remove debris and suspend the fire engine by air.In addition, although it has not progressed from the budget point of view to install thousands of fire protection water tanks in each local government nationwide in preparation for the rupture of the fire extinguishing water supply, about 40 large transport helicopters of the Self-Defense Forces already hang water containers in the school playground. It can be greatly complemented by air transportation.

    ButCH-47Large transport helicopters such as these are expensive at billions of yen per aircraft, so while the CH-1 of the Self-Defense Forces is dispatched to disaster relief such as earthquakes in developing countries where large transport helicopters cannot be purchased, it is useful for municipalities. It is difficult to make duplicate purchases at the Fire Department due to financial difficulties.The fire department plans to arrive at the site in several hours while removing debris / earth and sand from the course with a debris removal vehicle / heavy equipment without asking the Self-Defense Forces to airlift the helicopter (as of 47).

    Coordination between local government and the Self-Defense Forces

    To the press (Great Kanto Earthquake(Although there are precedents such as) Local governments who were pointed out that they neglected to treat the earthquake disaster and did not formulate a crisis management plan[Annotation 35] Etc. explained that "I never thought that a big earthquake would occur in Kansai" (I do not understand the basics of crisis management that it is important to prepare for a "rainy day disaster" from normal times), so the media Was severely criticized by.

    This is in 1961 (Showa 36) when the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law was enacted.US-Japan Security TreatyIt is said that it was just after the renewal and was legislated so as not to stimulate anti-SDF sentiment.[135]..With such a background, at that timeMinistry of Home AffairsIt has been pointed out that the guidance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications is still inadequate for the disaster prevention regulations of local governments, and that the same situation may occur in other local governments.

    As mentioned above, Prime Minister Murayama was accused of delaying the SDF dispatch order and explained, "It's the first time for me." I was criticized as saying, "I hated my hair emotionally and did not make effective use of it and expanded the damage to the people."Takeshita CabinetからMurayama CabinetServed up to 7 prime ministersNobuo Ishihara"In an unprecedented disaster and underdeveloped legal system, it was impossible for anyone other than Prime Minister Murayama to take prompt action," said the former Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary.[136] As represented by the testimony, the deficiencies in crisis management of the administrative system as a whole became clear.After that, Prime Minister Murayama was to assume the post of Prime Minister,House of Councilors election in July 1995The number of seats in the Socialist Party has dropped sharply.

    The government of 12 (Heisei 2007), 19 years after the earthquakeChief Cabinet Secretary"I would like to pray for the souls of many victims again. The disaster prevention system has been strengthened since then, but improvements must be made to improve it," he said at a press conference.At that time, he acknowledged that the government's crisis management system, which was pointed out as a major problem, had undergone some improvement, and said, "Since it is not enough, we will always reflect on it and improve it." ..

    While the government's support was delayed, the private sector's support activities were actively carried out as mentioned above.

    Seismic retrofitting / existing ineligible

    The biggest reason why this earthquake was a catastrophe was that many houses had old wooden tiled roofs, but one of the other reasons wasKinki OfSeto Inland SeaIt can be mentioned that there were fewer earthquakes on the shore than in other regions.Some earthquake experts say that even small-scale earthquakes do not occur.EnergyHe stated that the accumulation of (strain) had occurred, and that once an earthquake occurred, there was a risk that it would become large in scale.

    However, since the M 1916 earthquake that occurred near the Akashi Strait in 5 (Taisho 6.1), there has been no significant seismic activity for about 80 years.[137]From the overconfidence of "actual experience" such as "there are few earthquakes in the Kinki region. Even if it happens, it will not be such a big earthquake", the misunderstanding that "a big earthquake will not occur in the Kinki region" spreads, or the earthquake itself. There were few people who were less aware of this and trusted the experts' points.Historically, the Kinki region has been hit by large earthquakes many times (Earthquake Chronologychecking)[138].kabuki"Earthquake Kato" isHideyoshi ToyotomiWas buying the disappointment ofKiyomasa Kato KeichoNew Year (1596) MayKeicho Fushimi Earthquakeso,Fushimi CastleIt is a story of running away from Hideyoshi.KobeEarthquake prediction liaison meeting OfSpecific observation areaIt was also designated as (Nagoya / Kyoto / Osaka / Kobe area was designated).

    Regarding the structure where major earthquakes occur until then,Pacific plate,Philippine Sea Plate Japan Trench,Nankai TroughInEurasia plateSlip under and thatplateWhat is caused by the bounce ofTrench earthquake) Only inlandActive faultThe occurrence of a direct earthquake due to the displacement of the earthquake has not received much attention.In fact, it is located near the boundaries of these platesKanto regionとTokai regionとKii PeninsulaIn the big earthquake (Kanto earthquake-Tokai earthquake-Tonankai earthquake-Nankai earthquakeAs an area with the highest possibility of occurrence, thorough measures such as disaster prevention drills and reinforcement of buildings have been implemented.However,Kinki(Kii Peninsula) ButThe Pacific OceanIs the shoreMieとWakayamaIn contrast to the Setouchi coastOsakaとHyogoWas almost unsuspecting.

    Hokkaido・Tohoku region・Hokuriku regionSuch asHeavy snowfallIf so, even in areas other than earthquake-prone areas,snowIt has been pointed out that since the house is built on the premise that heavy objects such as "" are piled up on the roof, it becomes strong against the force from the vertical direction, and as a result, the structure is strong against shaking such as "earthquake".However, in 2004 (Heisei 16)Niigata Chuetsu EarthquakeIt has been pointed out that it is necessary to consider the seismic structures separately because the buildings in the heavy snowfall area have collapsed or been damaged.

    When building or repairing the property including the building after that, the structure has been changed to consider the minimum earthquake resistance as well as the lessons learned from the damage caused by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake.The aforementioned "ElevatedStructural fragility of "structured piers of expressways, general roads, railways, etc." was pointed out, and reinforcement work was carried out under the initiative of the government.[Annotation 36] Was being constructed.

    Building Standards Law

    The most important issue is that it is not illegal without the seismic resistance of old houses (Existing ineligibility) The problem did not change.For the time being, 1995Law Concerning Promotion of Seismic Repair of Buildings(Seismic retrofit promotion law) was enacted to promote seismic retrofitting[139]..In addition, the Fire and Disaster Management Agency is instructing seismic retrofitting of public facilities.However, even in Hyogo Prefecture, where the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake occurred, the earthquake resistance rate of public facilities is only 48.3%.Seismic retrofitting is delayed compared to Tokyo 78.1% (Fire and Disaster Management Agency 2003, seismic retrofitting status of each prefecture).In particular, the earthquake resistance rate of private company facilities and condominiums is extremely low.Furthermore, although public facilities with few casualties are being made earthquake-resistant, there is almost no seismic retrofitting of private non-seismic wooden houses that have caused more than 80% of the casualties.

    Agreement on Technical Barriers to TradeArticle 1998 of the Architectural Council has repeatedly emphasized that compulsory standards should not be more trade-restrictive than necessary, and the Building Council has submitted a coherent report.As a result, since the revision of the law in XNUMX, "performance regulation" of technical standards has been promoted.[140]..As an earthquake-prone country, the conventional so-called specification regulations that limit the quality and shape of building materials based on structural mechanics have changed to performance regulations that try to measure substantial earthquake resistance by standard specifications or international verification methods. There is.The purpose is deregulation, not necessarily a revision that focuses on earthquake resistance.[141].

    According to a survey, it is estimated that about 6434 people, or about 1% of the 600 victims of the earthquake, were crushed by the fall of interior furniture (Yamaguchi University・ Because of the existence of Professor Daejeon's group), many people purchased "furniture fall prevention metal fittings" for a while after the earthquake, but the spread is now slowing down.

    Seismic evaluation

    Although the Building Standards Act was amended, there was no way to test how much earthquake resistance a detached house or low-rise rebar structure, which was often collapsed, actually has.For this reason, a large-scale experimental facility (full-scale three-dimensional quake destruction experiment facility) is a facility where vibrations can be applied to actual buildings up to 6 stories of reinforced concrete for testing.E-DefenseWas built in Hyogo Prefectural Miki Comprehensive Disaster Prevention Park in Miki City, Hyogo Prefecture.In addition, the waveform actually observed at the Kobe Marine Meteorological Observatory has come to be used as simulation data for seismic design.

    Seismic observation

    In 1995,Tokai earthquakeAn observation network (Kanto / Tokai crustal activity observation network) was established for the purpose of observing the precursory phenomena of the earthquake, but an earthquake observation network that covers not only the Hanshin-Awaji area but also the whole country has been established. There wasn't.Therefore, there was not enough basic data accumulated to elucidate the prediction and generation mechanism of the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake.Based on this lesson, the "Earthquake Disaster Prevention Measures Special Measures Law" was enacted on June 1995, 6 to promote research on earthquakes, and the "Basic Survey and Observation Plan on Earthquakes" was enacted.[142]As part of this, we will cover and observe all over Japan with a seismograph with a mesh of about 20 km.High-sensitivity seismic observation networkAnd the development of the basement strong motion observation network has started.

    Standards for cassette stoves and gas cylinders

    A cassette type that can be used anywhere during the evacuation life by the victims of the earthquake.Gas stoveWas used for cooking, but the standard for cassette stoves and gas cylinders at that time wasEstablished by JIS standard (JIS S 1991 / JIS S 3) on July 7, 1.[143] The size and components of the cylinder were not strictly specified.The compatibility of cassette stoves and cylinders from different manufacturers was not perfect, and there were several types.

    Therefore, it may not be possible to lend or borrow cassette cylinders among the victims, which raises questions on the manufacturer side and recognizes the need for standardization.[144].

    With this as a lessonJapanese Industrial Standards "Cassette Konro (JIS S 1998)" "Fuel container for cassette Konro (JIS S 10)" on February 2, 20Has been revised[143], The shape of the cylinder is specified as one type, and it is now possible to install a cassette stove and a cylinder regardless of the manufacturer.[144].

    Water lever

    Single hot water mixed faucet before the earthquakeShekouWas popular as a "stop-up type" that lifts and stops the lever, but after the earthquake, a "stop-down type" that lowers and stops the lever has become widespread.[145]..There are rumors that it is due to measures taken by the earthquake, but it is explained that the reason is due to the overwhelming prevalence of "stop-down type" in Europe and the United States.[146]. AlsoJapanese Industrial Standards CommitteeExplains that it has been unified into a downward stop type from a global perspective including earthquake disaster countermeasures.[146].

    Other measures / problems

    This great earthquake occupies an important position in Japan's disaster countermeasures, including the problems mentioned above and below.

    • The "Study Group on the Ideal Disaster Medical System in the wake of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" was established, and ""Disaster base hospitalWill be installed and maintained.
    • Many "fires (especially fires) caused by earthquakes"Fire insurance"Natural disasterCases that are covered as an exemption clause (when insurance money is not paid)[Annotation 37] There are many, and improvement has not progressed, including the problem of profitability.Therefore, taking this earthquake as an opportunity, "Earthquake insurance(The amount of earthquake insurance paid in this earthquake is about 783 billion yen.[147]).
    • In the local government, not only the direct cause of death such as crushing death due to the collapse of the building due to the earthquake, but also the worsening of chronic illness and power outage after the disaster victims evacuated.Medical equipmentA committee was set up to examine whether deaths due to indirect causes, such as deaths due to suspension of death, are also recognized as related deaths (certified deaths).however,blindness・ ・ Loss of limbs ・ SevereMental disorderStatistics on severe disability similar to death have not been released (it is unknown whether statistics were made).

    Mourning and inheritance of lessons

    The following facilities were created to keep records and memories of the earthquake.

    Memorial ceremonies are held in various places on January 1th every year.

    • East amusement park(Sannomiya, Chuo-ku, Kobe) --The silent prayer will be held at 5:46, 12 hours before and 12 hours after the time of occurrence.[Annotation 38]..There are 6,000 books in the squareLantern"1.17" imitated inKobe City HallThe government building is posted in front (if this lantern goes out, the ceremony organizer leaves the ceremonies untouched and gives the visitors a candle to ignite).The lanterns are lit from the evening of the 16th to 17:21 on the 1th, although there are some differences every year.This "Gathering of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake 17" will be held in Tokyo for the first time in 2019 (Hibiya Park) Also had a venue[149].
    • Kunyoike Park(Itami City) --The silent prayer was held at 12:16 on the 17th, which is 46 hours before the occurrence time, and the candles are lit until 17:5 on the 46th, which is the occurrence time.
    • The most dead studentsKobe UniversityThen we hold a memorial service every year[31].

    In addition, every December from 1995 (Heisei 7), we pray for requiescats, mourning, and reconstruction of the city.Kobe LuminarieHowever, in recent years there has been a tendency to deviate from the significance of the event, and an increasing number of citizens have doubts about the purpose of the event.Some say, "The unconventional" requiem "is embarrassing for the dead, and I want Luminarie to be abolished at this time."

    Many supporters and volunteers helped the disaster area to recover quickly, so the victims still express their gratitude to the supporters through statements and events.In addition, Kobe City puts the lessons of this support activity and the meaning of giving back at that time.Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake,Sumatra offshore earthquakeAt that time, we have been providing assistance to many human resources and materials earlier than anywhere else.Moreover, in the disaster prevention business, even now, this earthquake is often cited as an example, and it is becoming the starting point of the disaster prevention business.

    The song "Happiness is Koberuyo" composed and written by Makoto Usui, a music teacher at Kobe Municipal Elementary School, is often taken up as a reconstruction song, and is sung at many memorial events including miscellaneous school groups (now). Then, "So that you can carry happiness],Cooley High Harmony,Ai KawashimaIs singing).

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in 2011 (Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake), There is a movement to change a part of the lyrics "Kobe" to the name of each region and sing. On July 7th, Usui himself, the songwriter and composer, published a CD book.This CD contains "Happiness to carry ~ Furusato ver. ~". "Kobe" was changed to "Furusato" and some arrangements were made.According to Usui, "'Furusato' is a general term for place names in the disaster area."[150]..This version was released on July 2011, 7Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc."Masahiko Ueyanagi-Mami Yamase Good evening! Friday specialWas swept away[151].

    In addition, earthquake-related exhibitions may be held for a limited time (Fire MuseumSuch)[152].

    Other memorial event monuments

    Reconstruction / disaster prevention campaign

    Works on the theme of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

    Category: Works on the theme of the Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeSee also

    reportage

    Precursor report

    Novels and poems

    Drama

    Children's literature

    Comic

    • Shin Takahashi "Good person.(1993-1999) ... Episodes against the background of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake are recorded.
    • Akihiro Otani,Oshima Easy "This is the Social Affairs Department of Osaka (Great Hanshin Earthquake)(1995)
    • Goda Mamora "Sharp glare(1995-2000)
    • Kimura Navy "Lives in Kobe(1998-2006) ... The hero himself has not experienced the earthquake, but his acquaintances and friends are victims of the disaster.One of them also participates as an earthquake disaster volunteer, and episodes from that standpoint are also drawn.
    • Yamamoto "Godhand Teru(2001-2011) ... Episodes against the background of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake are recorded.
    • Saara Ines "Osaka Bean Gohan(1992-1998) ... There is a story that a friend of the main character was damaged.
    • Kawaguchi Kaiji "Zipangu(2000-2009) ... In the extra edition "What to Protect", the main character's Self-Defense Forces member is Hanshin-Awaji, with the setting of 10, about 7 years before the story of the main story begins. There is a story of dispatching disasters to the areas affected by the great earthquake.
    • Nanasantaro,River third address "Dreams(Dreams) ”(1996-, serialized)… Hyogo Prefecture representative Kobe Tsubasa High School ace Ikuta Yohei's house was damaged by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, and he lost his parents in a temporary housing with his younger brother and sister. There is an episode that lives in Kobe.
    • Masahito Kagawa"Inspector morning glory(2006 --2012)… The main character, the forensic scientist, Asagao Yamada, is set to have lost his mother in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake.
    • Nanami view "Alito(2011-2015) ... The main character is a girl who lost her mother in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake.She also appears in the works such as "Monument of Memorial and Reconstruction" and "1.17 Light of Hope" at Higashi Yuenchi.

    movies

    Theater animation

    TV drama

    Radio Drama

    • LouLou-DJ in the disaster area- (1997, XNUMXNHK-FM, Screenplay: Yasuo Koike) ... Radio drama.NHK-FM"FM theater(Produced by NHK Osaka Broadcasting Station).

    stage

    • Wakaba(2005,Meijiza, Original / Screenplay: Kenichi Onishi) ... The stage of the TV drama of the same name.

    Music

    The 46th NHK Red and White Singing Battle(June 1995, 12)Saori Yuki-Shoko Yasuda,Kiyoshi Maekawa,Naomi Tamura,South kosetsu4 groups participated in a special project frame with the meaning of a message to the victims (not subject to examination).

    Information disclosure for the 20th year

    Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake "1.17 Record"

    On December 2014, 26 (Heisei 12), Kobe City posted a photo of the situation at the time of the earthquake in order to inherit the experience and lessons learned from the earthquake on the occasion of the 9th anniversary of the earthquake. "The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" 20 Record "" was opened.[156][157]..Approximately 1 photographs selected from approximately 4700 photographs taken mainly by the staff of the Kobe City Public Relations Division, such as photographs immediately after the earthquake and during restoration and reconstruction, are released.[158].Disaster preventionEducationSo that it can be used for住宅,火災Such asCategoriesCan be searched by region.Kobe Transportation Center BuildingThere is also a "fixed-point observation photograph" that traces the reconstruction process of parts of the city.[159]..Except for some photosCreative commons It is published under (CC BY 2.1 JP) and can be used secondarily.

    Release of recorded video

    For one year immediately after the earthquake, we are planning to release the recorded video that Kobe City staff continued to take in the 1th year.[160]..Civic sentiment is cited as the reason for refraining from publishing so far.[160].. In the 20th year, it was decided to open it to the public in order to pass it on to future generations.[160]..The recording time of the video is about 48 hours, and we are planning to produce a shortened version that summarizes the road to reconstruction.[160].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ This is not the one at the time of observation,2001(13) February 4Japanese Meteorological AgencyBut,magnitudeIt was corrected by changing the calculation method of.Therefore, some old monuments and materials are M7.2.
    2. ^ Immediately after the earthquake, broadcasting stations reported the damage to the houses in Kameoka City, which were completely or partially destroyed.Yomiuri TelevisionThen, have a villa in the same cityJiro JinboI tried to make a phone call.
    3. ^ See the following books for this story.Shutaka Kamiya "The Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1 Minute"Mainichi Newspaper Osaka Head Office(Edit) "Document Hope Newspaper, Great Hanshin Earthquake and News", Mainichi Newspapers, 1995, pp. 22-25.ISBN-4 620-31073-5.
    4. ^ "Great Kanto EarthquakeHe explained that he was aware of the disaster from the recognition that it was a catastrophe since then.[12].
    5. ^ Initial "human and physical damageKansaiIt is explained from the judgment that "it will spread to the sphere"[12].
    6. ^ It explains that the area that was destroyed is Kobe.[12].
    7. ^ Includes 2 non-residential houses outside Hyogo prefecture.
    8. ^ TriageIt became conscious of the importance of.
    9. ^ Designed by ASTM (Ashiyahama)Nippon Steel-Takenaka Corporation-Takasago Thermal Engineering・ Matsushita Electric Works <Currently:Panasonic Electric Works> ・Matsushita Industries).Management isJapan Housing Corporation・ Hyogo Prefecture Housing Supply Corporation ・ Hyogo Prefecture ・ Private sector. It has 14 to 29 floors and a total of 3,381 units.1979(Showa 54) Completed.Due to the steel frame of the common area of ​​the staircase and every 5th floorRigid frame structure.
    10. ^ The order of destruction when a force exceeding the limit is applied is decided, and the core part is broken at the end.There was no significant change in the aftershocks that followed.
    11. ^ Hankyu's recovery is quick in the section that opened last, until it opens.Transfer transportationWas done.With the establishment of the use of this special train, the following 1996 (Heisei 8)3/16It was upgraded to a regular train by the revision of.
    12. ^ In the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in 2011, there was concern about a fire caused by the resumption of power transmission, and the media warned that the breaker should be turned off when leaving the house."Request from Tohoku Electric Power”. Tohoku Electric Power. April 2012, 11Browse.
    13. ^ Forest fireUnlike such a situation, when extinguishing a fire in an urban area, pinpoint fire extinguishing agent spraying is required, so low-altitude flight is required.Fire whirlwindFlying a helicopter low in the air is a complete suicide (the airflow is unstable and the air density is low at high temperatures, which is necessary for the helicopter to fly.LiftIs not obtained) and it is very likely to cause a secondary disaster.
    14. ^ In Kobe city etc., residents should not build buildings in a disorderly manner for two months.Building Standards LawThere were 84 building restrictions. "Yomiuri Shimbun" April 2011, 4
    15. ^ Later, the "Act on Special Measures for Reconstruction of Damaged Urban Areas" was also created.“Cabinet decides on a special bill in the disaster area, building restrictions of 8 months”. "Mainichi Newspaper"(July 2011, 4). http://mainichi.jp/select/seiji/news/20110423ddm012040039000c.html [Broken link].
    16. ^ The novel "On Happiness" published in 1994 (Shinchosha Co., Ltd. Later made into a bunko) is a work set in Kobe.
    17. ^ It was connected to the official residence by a corridor.
    18. ^ "Hyogo Satellite Communication Network" was built in 3 using 1991 billion yen.The entire prefecture, the National Land Agency,Fire departmentI should have been able to communicate with the "Super Bird B" satellite, but I could not send or receive information because the emergency generator stopped, the water pipe was damaged, and all four experts in charge could not go to work. ..
    19. ^ CurrentKobe Local Meteorological Observatory..At the time of the disaster, it was located in Nakayamatedori, Chuo-ku.
    20. ^ The cause is a failure of the NTT leased line connected to the Osaka District Meteorological Observatory called "L-Ades".SumotoNo weather station records were sent.
    21. ^ The delay in the initial response due to the occurrence of the seismic gapNiigata Chuetsu EarthquakeHowever, after that, the damage situation of the communication blackout area was confirmed by the SDF helicopter every time a relatively large aftershock occurred.
    22. ^ In response to the contact from the section chief, there was an exchange of "You may consider this call as a disaster dispatch request" and "Please".[77].
    23. ^ It was the only station in Osaka that was broadcast live during the time of the earthquake.
    24. ^ Every day broadcastingThen, the set in the news studio collapsed, and the Asahi Broadcasting Corporation (currently Asahi Television Broadcasting Corporation) was hit by an earthquake at the beginning of "Good morning weather."At this time, a power outage of a dozen seconds occurred partially inside the head office at that time (Asahi Broadcasting Corporation, "Great Earthquake Broadcasting Station 24 Hours" (Asahi Shimbun), p. 19), and the lights were temporarily turned off in the studio during live broadcasting. Therefore, although the video was interrupted, the audio (microphone) was alive, so I continued broadcasting with only the audio for a few minutes.Kansai TVThen the spotlight on the ceiling of the studio fell,Yomiuri TelevisionThen.ElevatorWas damaged to stop.TV OsakaThen the desk fell down.
    25. ^ a b In particular, Sun TV suffered "messed up damage" inside the company.For more informationSun Television #Broadcasting system at the time of the Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakePlease refer to.
    26. ^ After the broadcast stopped until 6 o'clock, the company building itself was completely destroyed.Detail isShelter Studio 117Please refer to.
    27. ^ It used to be organized locally in the morning and evening, but it was suspended in 1988, and after that it was all used for Kansai wide area broadcasting from Osaka.Then, in the 2000s, prefectural broadcasting was revived.
    28. ^ In Tokyo, variety programs such as golden prime time were broadcast as usual on the 17th and after the next day.After resuming regular programs in Kinki, only the CMs including program sponsors will be filled with fillers and public service announcements (currently).AC Japan), It was replaced with an enlightenment commercial about lifeline calls from Osaka Gas and others.
    29. ^ Kobe City announced the multimedia culture city concept in 1994, and was a pioneer in disseminating information on the Internet in the fields of administration and education.[100].
    30. ^ Kobe City University of Foreign StudiesAccording to Katsunori Shiba, when searching for a connectable route, he used difficult-to-connect telephone and personal computer communication.[101].
    31. ^ According to Kyuichi Haneda of the same university, this information dissemination was done at Haneda's discretion.[102].
    32. ^ As an article that focused on these movements at that time,Washington Post OfEarthquake on the Internet: A Shock E-Mailed Round the World(January 1995, 1)[102].
    33. ^ Do not use words at the time of interviews, avoid unreasonable interviews, do not give an impression of disturbing the lives of disaster victims such as not causing trouble in early morning and late night evacuation shelter interviews, and do not handle food and drink poorly.
    34. ^ At the time of the earthquake, TsutsuiDuring writingTherefore, he has published several sentences about the earthquake since he lifted the writing in 1997.Yasutaka Tsutsui, "The Counterattack of Laughing Dogs" (2004)Shinchosha Co., Ltd.,Year 2006Shincho Bunko) Recording "The Great Hanshin Earthquake is not over yet" etc.Also, in an interview published in the evening edition of the Yomiuri Shimbun on April 1995, 4, "When I feel the wonder that 25 people have died in this earthquake and I am not one of them, I don't care about the novel anymore. It became. "
    35. ^ For example, until 1971 (Showa 46), Osaka Prefecture conducted disaster prevention drills in collaboration with the Self-Defense Forces.Ryoichi KurodaSince assuming the post of governor, he has aimed for "disaster prevention drills that do not rely on the Self-Defense Forces."The reason was that "there is no earthquake in Kansai".again,YodogawaWhen the Self-Defense Forces were dispatched due to the flood damage, they were protesting against the Self-Defense Forces.Even after Kuroda retired, he remained in the same relationship until the Great Hanshin Earthquake.After the earthquake, cooperation with the Self-Defense Forces began to be sought again in Osaka Prefecture, and in 1995 (Heisei 7), Osaka City decided to jointly carry out disaster prevention drills with the Self-Defense Forces for the first time in 22 years. (Norichika Tanaka, "The Great Hanshin Earthquake and the Dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces," "Freedom," June 1996)
    36. ^ On the pillar,Iron plate or Carbon fiberIs the mainstream.
    37. ^ In non-life insurance, the "all-risk" type is general insurance, but "war", "natural disasters" and "self-damage" are not included.
    38. ^ Since 2012, he has been silent at 14:46, the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Source

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    2. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency (1997). “Chapter 2 Field Survey (pdf) ”. Japan Meteorological Agency Technical Report, No. 119. April 2018, 6Browse.
    3. ^ Hiromichi Nakamori, 1 Initial information on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (PDF)
    4. ^ Samukawa (2010), p259-260.
    5. ^ Overview of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Cabinet Office
    6. ^ Kobe University. “Chapter 2 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake (pdf) ”. Kobe University. April 2018, 6Browse.
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    8. ^ About earthquake resistance of houses and buildings Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (viewed December 2019, 1).
    9. ^ a b c Fear of Memorial Photo M7.2(Published by Awaji Town.Kobe UniversityLibrary "Earthquake disaster library")
    10. ^ Operational Procedures of Contributing Agencies (PDF) (Written by the Earthquake and Volcano Department of the Japan Meteorological Agency.英国Published by International Seismological Center)
    11. ^ Earthquakes and Tsunamis – Disaster prevention and mitigation efforts – (PDF) (Meteorological Agency)
    12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Earthquake report" Hanshin "not popular in Awaji Island" "Asahi Shimbun", January 1995, 1, Tokyo morning edition, page 28.
    13. ^ "For 3000 people who died in the Great Kansai Earthquake", "Nikkan Sports", January 1995, 1 (Tokyo version), page 18.
    14. ^ a b Information materials on lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Overview of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake(Cabinet Office "Disaster Prevention Information Page")
    15. ^ Yoshiyo Watanabe (Author), Soichi Nishiwaki (Photo) "Verification South Hyogo Great Earthquake"Ronsha, 1995.ISBN 484600029X
    16. ^ "Document Hope Newspaper Great Hanshin Earthquake and Press", page 25
    17. ^ a b c d e f Hyogo Prefecture. “Confirmation of damage caused by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (confirmed by the Fire and Disaster Management Agency on May 18, 5)". April 2018, 6Browse.
    18. ^ Cabinet Office. "Outline and damage situation of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (pdf) ”. Disaster prevention information page. April 2018, 6Browse.
    19. ^ "15 deaths in evacuation, causes of stress and fatigue?". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2011, 3). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20110317-OYT1T00509.htm [Broken link]
    20. ^ "Checking the list of mistakes in counting the number of fatalities in the earthquake, difficult for Miyagi alone". Kahoku Shimpo(July 2013, 2). http://www.kahoku.co.jp/news/2013/02/20130203t13010.htm [Broken link]
    21. ^ "Burning to death in Hanshin-Awaji, two official numbers of" mysteries "". Kobe newspaper(July 2014, 8). http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/rentoku/sinsai/20/201408/0007271511.shtml 
    22. ^ Shimamura (2014), p151-153.
    23. ^ "Buried memory Nishinomiya / Incheon landslide". "Kobe Shimbun". http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/rentoku/sinsai/09/rensai/P20121001MS00158.shtml 
    24. ^ NHK SpecialInterview Group "Seismic Intensity 7 What Divided Life and Death-The Truth of Buried Data in the 21st Year-", KK Bestsellers, 2016, pp. 44-48.
    25. ^ Masahide Murakami, Ken Tahara, Yoshinori Fujita and others,Problems of traditional wooden urban housing in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake "Architectural Institute of Japan Structural Papers" 1996 Vol. 61, No. 481 p.71-80, two:10.3130 / aijs.61.71_1
    26. ^ "Serialization <Chasing" crushing death "> I can't help regardless of whether it originated in the disaster area (2) The inspection document talks". Kobe newspaper. http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/sinsai/96assi/ren-assi02.html [Broken link]
    27. ^ Yoshio Kumagai,Eiichi Itoigawa In addition,Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake: Analysis of factors causing deaths in Kobe City "Comprehensive Urban Studies" Special Issue 61, 123-143, 1996-12, Retrieved April 2016, 4,NOT 110000527550
    28. ^ Cabinet Office Disaster Prevention Information Page Reference Material 6 Number of fatalities in the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (by age group and gender) Retrieved April 2016, 4
    29. ^ General Incorporated Association Fire and Disaster Prevention Science Center Retrieved April 2016, 4
    30. ^ UNN Kansai Student Press Federation April 2016, 4
    31. ^ a b Kobe University Kobe University Earthquake Memorial Flower Ceremony (Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake Victims Memorial Event) January 2016, 01
    32. ^ "Piloti house" The first floor that withstood the tsunami is a pillar, not affected by the waves Asahi Shimbun Digital (April 2011, 8) Retrieved June 29, 2019.
    33. ^ Nikkei Architecture
    34. ^ Part 2 (5/14 Earthquake motion and damage summary in the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, 5/21 Damage to detached houses in the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, 5/28 Damage to RC / S buildings in the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake) PDF collection for Nobuo Fukuwa's earthquake-resistant engineering lecture (PDF)
    35. ^ Shigeyuki Yokohama,Damage to wooden buildings and countermeasures in the Great Hanshin Earthquake <Part 1> Retrieved February 2019, 1
    36. ^ Shigeyuki Yokohama,Damage to wooden buildings and countermeasures in the Great Hanshin Earthquake <Part 2> Retrieved February 2019, 1
    37. ^ It has been XNUMX years since Hanshin-Awaji.Seismic standards divide light and dark
    38. ^ Enforcement of "Act to partially revise the Act on Promotion of Earthquake-Resistant Repair of Buildings" (P9) (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) Retrieved January 2011, 23 (PDF)
    39. ^ "JR lead after opening". Traffic newspaper (Kotsu Shimbunsha): p. 1. (July 1995, 7) 
    40. ^ "The Japanese-French monument is incomplete and the curtain is the main body of the Japanese commission.”. Kobe Shimbun NEXT. April 2020, 12Browse.
    41. ^ Broadcast in August 2008 "Moment of shock~ The Great Earthquake that hit Kobe "(National Geographic Channel)Than
    42. ^ "Earthquake data storage-To pass on the experience of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake to future generations-". April 2017, 4Browse.
    43. ^ “Resuming operation from Kyushu's Blue Train today”. Traffic newspaper (Kotsu Shimbunsha): p. 3. (July 1995, 1) 
    44. ^ Supervised by West Japan Railway Company "Resurrection!Railroad tracks, towns--Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake JR West 100 people's testimony ”Kotsu Shimbun p.137
    45. ^ "Survey Research Report on Disaster-Resistant Transportation Infrastructure Development" p.87
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    48. ^ Twenty years after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the trajectory and succession of reconstruction Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc., viewed January 2020, 1.Yoji Kido, who was in charge of the restoration near Shinzaike Station, laterHerbis OSAKAOpening of businessHotel HanshinEngaged in the relocation of Fukushima and worked as the vice president of Hanshin Electric Railway
    49. ^ a b c d Hyogo Prefecture / Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Support / Recovery Status
    50. ^ Kobe Railway Museum-Kobe Electric Railway-History of vehicles and diamonds
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    52. ^ "7 White Paper on Transportation”. Ministry of Transport. April 2013, 9Browse.
    53. ^ Ikaros Publications "Kansai 3 Airports" Ikaros Publications <Japan Airport>, 2011.ISBN 978-4-86320-445-4. 
    54. ^ a b Kunihiro Yamashita,Fire whirls that occur around multiple fires"Multiphase flow" 1995 Vol. 9, No. 2, p.105-115, two:10.3811 / jjmf.9.105
    55. ^ "About the investigation study report on the ideal way of fire prevention measures in the event of an earthquake”. Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (August 1998, 7). April 2012, 11Browse.
    56. ^ The bucket relay of 咄 嗟 was successful-Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake / Citizen's Disaster Prevention Activities- (Published in the April 1995 issue) Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Firefighting Staff Note
    57. ^ Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Lessons Information Material Collection [03] Securing Firefighting Facilities / Materials and Water Use / Lesson Information Material Collection Cabinet Office disaster prevention information page (viewed January 2019, 1).
    58. ^ "Serialization <Chasing" crushing death "> From the disaster area, I can't help (4) Regional power / Increased or Awaji lifesaving rate". Kobe newspaper. http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/sinsai/96assi/ren-assi04.html [Broken link]
    59. ^ HEM-Net
    60. ^ The source of criticism of the media coverage from the Self-Defense Forces side is the Press Office of the Public Relations Division of the Secretariat, "Condemning the media coverage," "Securitarian," March 1995 issue.
    61. ^ "<I want to tell you-from Hanshin>" Connection "to prevent lonely death". "Asahi Shimbun"(July 2011, 4). http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0404/OSK201104030141.html [Broken link]
    62. ^ Goodbye Famitsu Communication 199503[Broken link]
    63. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “The contents of the bottle were water, not beer. 117". NHK News. April 2022, 1Browse.
    64. ^ “Worldmate to help the blind who entered the site of Fukami Guru”. Chugai Nippoh(July 2005, 1). http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/directory/eqb/serial/chugai/html/0701/0126/07-01-26_12-17.html#219 April 2017, 4Browse. 
    65. ^ Osaka International Ladies Marathon 20th Anniversary Compilation Committee / Editing "Osaka International Ladies Marathon 20th Anniversary" Japan Association of Athletics Federations, 2001, p. 40. 
    66. ^ Stamp Hobby Week "Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" (1995) Kittecom
    67. ^ Issuance of the 2000th (final) stamp of the "12th Century Design Stamps" series issued on December 12, 22-Postage stamps issued at the end of the 20th century- Japan Post
    68. ^ "Identical twins / Kobe reconstruction that overlaps with" postwar "". "Kobe Shimbun". http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/sinsai/95kessan/950810kessan1.html [Broken link]
    69. ^ As of 2022 (4th year of Reiwa),Minister of Special Affairs, Cabinet Office (Disaster Prevention)とCabinet Crisis ManagementIs supposed to correspond.
    70. ^ From the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Lessons Learned Information Material Collection "Cabinet Office, Hyogo Earthquake Memorial 21st Century Research Organization"
    71. ^ Aso Iku"Information, not reaching the official residence" Shinchosha (currently Bunko) ISBN 4101219311,ISBN-978 4101219318 Bunko Release Date: 2001/07
    72. ^ The role of meteorological satellites Japan Meteorological Agency website
    73. ^ Nobuo Ishihara "There should be a government official-serving the seven prime ministers"Shogakukan, 1997.ISBN 9784094020311
    74. ^ Nobuo Ishihara's Decision on the Prime Minister's Office-Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobuo Ishihara's 2600 Days,Chuokoronsha, 1997, page 182
    75. ^ a b JNNSpecial news program "In the Lost Town-One Month After the Great Hanshin Earthquake" Broadcast on February 1, 1995
    76. ^ "Great Hanshin Earthquake. Why was the SDF dispatch delayed?" "PRESIDENT" (President) May 2011, 5 issue.
    77. ^ "XNUMX Years of the Earthquake Protecting Life Part XNUMX Largest Dispatch in History". Kobe newspaper(July 2004, 9). https://www.kobe-np.co.jp/rentoku/sinsai/10/rensai/200409/0005507643.shtml April 2020, 4Browse. 
    78. ^ From "Respond to the official residence" from "Bet the fire, call the Self-Defense Forces!"
    79. ^ "Asahi Evening News" January 1995, 1
      "The Socialist Party has traditionally made the existence of the Self-Defense Forces unconstitutional .... Unless requested by the local government, the Self-Defense Forces, which actually have important roles and responsibilities, are not allowed to participate in regional disaster drills. It is written as "ta".
    80. ^ Norichika Tanaka"Great Hanshin Earthquake and the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces" "自由』May 1996 issue
      "(Some local governments in the Kansai area) have even made a list of people who refuse to visit, and even mention the name of the Self-Defense Forces there." Behind the 5300% (as of February 10), there is a delay in planned and systematic relief efforts. ”“ Generally, there is “progress” in the formation of postwar disaster views and disaster culture. "Target" chanted by a knowledgeable personPacific WarIsn't it possible to say that the view had a great influence?as a result,"ideologyToo much priority was given to the people's irreplaceable historical heritage, and the precious (geopolitical and diplomatic lessons) war-damaged "experiences" that saved lives were forgotten. Maika "" Socialist PartyCommunist partySuch asInnovation partyIn the strong Hanshin area, the participation of the Self-Defense Forces has been refused for political reasons even in disaster training. ", Etc., citing the existence of self-governing labor in the background.In addition, after the earthquake in Autonomous Labor OsakaSelf defense shipWhen the author sent a sound truck to the wharf to oppose the arrival of the port and asked the question that the port should be allowed to enter in the event of a disaster, no one could answer this question.Weekly HyundaiIn the November 1996, 4 issueKobe UniversityHonorary professor OfKazuo HayakawaIn the process of restoration, etc., citing problems such as the installation of temporary housing and the forced closure of evacuation shelters.Kobe CityIt is written critically, citing that it was criticized for its cold response.
    81. ^ "Daily Yomiuri", a senior researcher at the Yomiuri Shimbun Research and Research Headquarters on January 1995, 1, criticized by Takahama's support for the heads of local governments supported by social, communal, and innovative political parties.
    82. ^ Example: Paul Brustein "The confusion of measures is anti-SDF sentiment" "Washington Post] June 1995, 1
      Hobert Loen, "What the Earthquake Shows About Japan," The Washington Post, February 1995, 2
      Taking Hobart Loen as an example, he cites the delay in relief because of the Murayama administration's "left-wing political constitution," as well as the rigidity of the bureaucracy.
    83. ^ "People's Safety Forgotten Murayama Administration" "Freedom" May 1995 Issue
      "The forces that have decided that the SDF is unconstitutional have fought an" anti-SDF struggle. "" Even if they were dispatched to disaster relief, the cry of "returning to the SDF" sometimes filled the disaster area. " It is written that "the Socialist Party was at the forefront of the situation" and "the responsibility for the influence of the wrong policies that the Socialist Party has made in the past is extremely serious."
    84. ^ "Reporter's Eyes" "Mainichi Shimbun" May 1995, 5 morning edition, page 9
      Eiji Oshita"Dread. XNUMX hours at the Prime Minister's Office" "tide] June 1995
      Atsushi Sasa"Criminal accusation of the Murayama government's" crisis management "" "Bungei Shunju" August 1995
      Norichika Tanaka"Great Hanshin Earthquake and the Dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces" "Freedom" June 1996 issue
    85. ^ Weekly HyundaiDecember 2018, 12 issue, serialized Shizuka Kamei's political world intersection, 29th, Tomiichi Murayama, Chancellor who entrusted everything with "I take responsibility", pp. 10-62
    86. ^ “Protecting tomorrow-Aiming for disaster prevention prefecture-Part 5 Role of administration Ask Mr. Murayama, then Prime Minister”. "Oita Joint Newspaper"(2006). http://www.oita-press.co.jp/bousai/115571833418053.html [Broken link]
    87. ^ Katsuyuki Yakushiji: Hen "Tomiichi Murayama Retrospective" Iwanami Shoten, 2012, pp. 237-238
    88. ^ Yoshimitsu Okada "Earthquake Map of Japan Nankai Trough / Earthquake Directly Under the Capital" Tokyo Shoseki, 2014, pp. 193-194
    89. ^ Minutes of the House of Representatives Information From the 134th Diet Disaster Countermeasures Special Committee No. 4
    90. ^ At that time, NHK was broadcasting "Radio Midnight Flight"Radio No. 1とFM broadcastIt is not broadcast 24 hours a day except for 5:55 amWeather informationIt started from.The start time has been moved up to 4 o'clock due to the reorganization in April of the same year.
    91. ^ Weather information - NHK Chronicle
    92. ^ Earthquake information - NHK Chronicle
    93. ^ Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake Safety Information - NHK Chronicle
    94. ^ MBS TV, supervised by Hajime Imai, "What was the radio broadcast for the victims of the Great Hanshin Earthquake?" (Dohosha Publishing), p. 19
    95. ^ Asahi Broadcasting Records Group, "Great Earthquake Broadcasting Station 24 Hours" (Asahi Shimbun), p. 66
    96. ^ Asahi Broadcasting decided that it would be difficult to coordinate with sponsors and agencies even before the official start of the full-scale commercial cut, and from around 10 am, some commercials were shown as landscape images.Osaka GasIt was supported by sending a VTR to announce how to restore the microcomputer meter.After that, Kansai TV, Yomiuri TV, and TV Osaka also gradually shifted to commercial cuts.
    97. ^ "Information source in the event of a disaster The role of radio that extends to the younger generation XNUMX years after the Great Hanshin Earthquake”. Sankei News (February 2022, 1). April 2022, 1Browse.
    98. ^ a b "All records of the Great Hanshin Earthquake" recorded "Aftershock Town Newspaper" p.173 Kobe Shimbun, published in March 1995 ISBN-4 87521-089-2
    99. ^ "Earthquake and the Internet" Proposals from Kobe "" by Katsumi Tanaka NEC Creative (ISBN-978 4872690439)
    100. ^ Internet Magazine 1995, p. 64.
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    108. ^ a b c d Kobe City Statistics Report Special Issue (PDF) Kobe City November 2004, 11
    109. ^ a b Demographics Kobe City
    110. ^ "Endless Asbestos" Iwanami Booklet
    111. ^ Welfare White Paper (8 edition)
    112. ^ 97/03/31 About approval of change of Osaka Bay Phoenix plan
    113. ^ 7 "White Paper on Police" Taking advantage of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, it became clear that gangsters are trying to obtain funds through illegal and unjust acts, so the police are cracking down on these illegal acts by utilizing the gangster countermeasures law. Thorough.
    114. ^ "Miyagi Prefecture requests exclusion of gangsters from reconstruction work". "Nikkan Sports"(July 2011, 3). http://www.nikkansports.com/general/news/f-gn-tp0-20110331-755115.html [Broken link]
    115. ^ "Don't forgive the earthquake disaster hoax on the net. Police strengthen measures". "Daily Sports"(July 2011, 4). http://www.daily.co.jp/gossip/article/2011/04/02/0003914377.shtml [Broken link]
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    117. ^ Graffiti on the monument of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Kobe NHK News August 2017, 12
    118. ^ Paint on the wooden pillar of Mt. Rokkosan's earthquake memorial service Kobe NHK News August 2017, 12
    119. ^ Requiem for the earthquake, stolen or erected near the top of Mt. Rokkosan Mainichi Newspaper March 2019, 1
    120. ^ "Suspected theft: Stealing 7 Jizo ... Hyogo Prefectural Police sent documents to a 22-year-old man". "Mainichi Newspaper"(July 2014, 1). http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20140107k0000e040216000c.html [Broken link]
    121. ^ Asahi Shimbun Evening edition dated February 1995, 2 Performing arts
    122. ^ norihiroe's tweet (721144371756666880)
    123. ^ The 20rd "3 Years of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" Handed Down by Announcers - YouTube
    124. ^ Chin Shunshin dies After the Great Hanshin Earthquake, "I want to see the smile of Kobe" Reconstruction watching withnews,Asahi Shimbun, August 2015, 1.
    125. ^ Chin Shunshin "Beyond Sadness, Great Hanshin Earthquake Kobe," "Kobe Shimbun," morning edition, January 1995, 1, page 25.This contribution is * Kobe Shimbun Co., Ltd. (eds.) "All records of the Great Hanshin Earthquake" M1 Direct hit First-ever seismic intensity 7.2 Report from the disaster area in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Kobe Shimbun General Publishing Center, 7, page 1995.ISBN-4 87521-089-2.. * Contributed by Chin Shunshin "Beyond Sadness" Immediately after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, Kobe Shimbun NEXT, January 2015, 1 21:20.
      It is also reprinted in.
    126. ^ Article by Waichi Tsutaka, National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo "Tobunken Archives"
    127. ^ Separate Treasure Island380 "Shogi Checker Rook Reader"[Detailed information for identifying documents]
    128. ^ Nagaru Tanigawa from the popular "The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya" "I want to entertain and enjoy"
    129. ^ Ryoichi Yazaki, "Former Hanshin and Mr. Tigers are gone," Kosaido, 2006. Pages 52-53
    130. ^ "Bunchin Katsura, a witness of the times ⑳ At the turning point of the earthquake disaster arts" January 2014, 1 "Yomiuri Shimbun" morning edition 6 pages
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    133. ^ It is written on the jacket of the single CD "Angry Groove-Earthquake Edition-" released after the earthquake.
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    135. ^ "Dialogue Crisis Management and the Self-Defense Forces" "Securitarian" March 1995
      Norichika Tanaka "Great Hanshin Earthquake and the Dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces" "Freedom" June 1996, etc.
      In the talk of "Securitarian"Atsushi SasaIn addition to the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law, the problems of Article 83 of the Self-Defense Forces Law are also mentioned.
    136. ^ From "There should be a government-serving the seven prime ministers"
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    144. ^ a b Expiration date and compatibility of cassette gas cylinders Prepare.jp January 2010, 1
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    151. ^ Official Website
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    157. ^ "Approximately 1000 photos of the Great Hanshin Earthquake, released by Kobe City under CC license Secondary use OK". http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/1412/10/news073.html 
    158. ^ <20 years of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake> Kobe City releases 1.17 photos of the Great Hanshin Earthquake "1000 Record" Disaster Prevention Information Newspaper Disaster Prevention Information Organization December 2014, 12
    159. ^ "Thousands of photos of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, published online Kobe City". Kobe Shimbun NEXT(July 2014, 12). http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/news/bousai/201412/0007570772.shtml 
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