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Smartphone and Internet account "1 button release" tried-China

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The service is currently in trial and needs generational changes and improvements.

According to media reports, the China Institute of Information and Communication will soon release a "1 button release" function.This is Yu ... → Continue reading

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    Generational change

    Generational change(Seikoutai)

    Alternation of generations of plants

    Alternation of generations of ferns

    The most well-known alternation of generations isFern plantIt will be that of.

    The body of a fern plant has a compound phase as a nuclear phase, that is, 2n. When the body of a fern matures, it attaches a collection of sporangia to the back of its leaves.SporangiumInMeiosisIs done, therebysporeIs formed. Therefore, the nuclear phase of the spore is n.

    Spores germinate alone andAnterior lobeWill be. The nuclear phase of the anterior lobe is n, and an egg genitalia and a sperm genitalia are formed on the lower surface of the anterior lobe.eggspermWhen a fertilized egg is produced by fertilization, it germinates and the body of the fern is made.

    In this way, the 2n body that makes spores by meiosis,GameteThe n bodies that make up each exist independently. The alternating appearance of two bodies in the life cycle in this way is called alternation of generations. The generation that produces spores is called the sporophyte, and the body that produces gametes is called the gametophyte.

    Make spores for thisAsexual reproductionAnd make a gameteSexual reproductionThe sporophyte is considered to be replaced by the generation thatAsexual generation, GametophyteSexual generationSometimes called.

    Alternation of generations of other plants

    It is the alternation of generations found in ferns thatMoss plant-Seed plant-Brown algaeKind・Green algaeIt is found in algae such as species.FungiThen.Acupuncture gate OfAllomyces moldEtc. include those that perform similar generational changes. Also,ForaminiferaKind also undergoes such a generational change. No such example was known in animals, but it was discovered in recent years.Wheeled animalsIt was found that the phylum undergoes a generational change with such changes in the nuclear phase.

    Of green algaeSea lettuceIn the order Shiogusa, gametophytes and sporophytes are almost the same. thisAlternation of generationsMay be called. The brown algae such as Ralfsiaceae and Ralfsiales also fall under this category. There is almost no difference between generations of allomyces and allomyces.

    However, for many, the two generations are different in size, and in many cases there is a clear difference. thisAlternation of generationsCall.Fern plantThe sporophytes are much larger and the gametophytes are very small. Those with large sporophytes like this are brown algae.KombuIt is found in the eyes and the green algae Tsuyunoito. Seed plants are the extreme of this, and gametophytes are male.pollen(andPollen tube), The female one has shrunk to, and it seems that the sporophyte alone completes the life cycle. There is a view that the large and complex body of seed plants is related to having a biphasic nucleus.

    However, in moss plants, gametophytes are the center. Similar examples include the brown algae Kayamonori and the green algae.MonostromaAnd honeymo.

    In the life cycle, a body that takes in nutrition and leads a growing lifeNutritionThat said, even if there are two generations, if one is extremely small and temporary, it may not be considered a nutrient.

    Alternation of generations of animals

    CnidarianLife cycle is sometimes called alternation of generations.Alternation of generationsAlso called (Sedai Koban).

    For example, Moon jellyfishWhen a jellyfish releases an egg and sperm, the fertilized egg develops and becomes an elliptical planula larva. When this larva settles on a hard bottom, it surrounds the upper mouthtentacleWithPolypWill be. Polyps reproduce asexually and increase in number by division. Eventually, the polyp splits into a stack of plates, and the individual plates fall apart, each becoming a jellyfish. When a jellyfish grows, it produces eggs and sperm. Even in cnidarians, sea anemones and corals do not change generations, and polyps have reproductive nests that reproduce sexually.Comb jelliesIs close to cnidarians, but only jellyfish exist without alternation of generations.

    In this way, the larval polyp reproduces asexually, and the parent jellyfish reproduces sexually.Asexual generation, The latterSexual generationThis life cycle is regarded as a generational change. However, both of them can be seen as continuous growth stages, and their nuclear phases are both 2n. Therefore, it is a completely different phenomenon from the alternation of generations that accompanies the alternation of generations seen in plants and the like.Flatworm OfflukeKindTapewormSince larvae reproduce asexually, it is sometimes said that the species also undergo generational change.

    However, in this case, the two generations are the same as the nuclear phase. There is also the question of whether the two generations can really be considered different generations.

    Generational change in the technical field

    The term generation is often used in industrial products and systems. This is the basic idea that underlies a product or system, for exampleManufacturing methodAnd key devices and system infrastructureinterface,protocolIt is used when the framework such as is changed significantly. The various technologies that underlie products and systems often include quantity andPerformanceIt may be accompanied by large qualitative changes rather than gradual changes such as or expansion of scale, and terms such as generation x are used before and after such changes.

    • Computer example
    Focusing on the changes in key devices used in the dawn era,1st generation computer(Vacuum tube),2st generation computer(Transistor), 3rd generation computer (IC (Integrated Circuit)) Was used.
    Analog record,Magnetic tape,optical disk,Flash memoryThere are several generations with completely different mechanisms and qualities.
    Paying attention to the mechanism of communication infrastructure,First generation mobile phone(Analog communication),Second generation mobile phone(Digital communication, PDC, etc.),XNUMXrd generation mobile phone(Digital communication, IMT-2000) and so on.
    • In a broader concept,analoggeneration,デ ジ タ ルWords like generation are also used. this is,signalI am paying attention to the processing method of.
    For example, TV broadcastIn the field of traditional analog broadcasting (NTSC,PAL,SECAM) From digital broadcasting (egISDB,ATSC,DVBEtc.) is being changed to generations in the 2000s.写真In the field ofFilm photoからDigital cameraThe conversion to has progressed.

    Historically,power,EnergyFocusing on the qualitative changes in production methods and production methods, the changes in generationsIndustrial revolution,Energy revolutionIt is expressed by terms such as.


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