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Cloud computing

Cloud computing(British: cloud computing) IsインターネットSuch asComputer networkViaComputer resourcesTheServicesIt is a usage form provided in the form of[1]. For shortク ラ ウ ドOften called, cloud is in English(I.e.Means.With the worldwide spread of the cloud, you can get the services you need, when you need them, online.BusinessHas been streamlined and succeeded in increasing the creativity of society.

the term

Cloud computing as a commercially established definition is2006ToGoogle OfCEOMetEric SchmidtAdvocated by.However,GoogleIt is said that it was first used as a term prior to1994A Wired article in April stated thatGeneral Magicco-founder and engineer ofAndy hertzfeldIt is quoted as the words of (later to become a Google employee)[2].However, cloud computing as a concrete service was not widely used at that time, and the capabilities of all computers, networks, and communications were too low, limiting implementation and testing services.[3].

As a prehistory, figures similar to "clouds" were created in 1977. ARPANET,[4],Year 1981 CSNET[5], Used to represent a network of computer equipment, both of which laterインターネットDeveloped into. The term "cloud" refers to the InternetMetaphorHas been used as. The term "cloud" was used in 1993. Distributed computingWas also used in the field of[6]..These are justComputer networkIt is a primitive definition as a sign ofWeb serviceThe definition is very different from the one after the spread.


In conventional computing, the hardware and software used are purchased and contracted as much as the user needs (these resources are on the premises).On-premisesOr installed in a remote data center).On the other hand, in this method, the usage contract is made based on the amount used or planned, not the hardware or software itself.

In conventional computing, if the limit of the purchased or contracted hardware is exceeded, the operation slows down, or if the storage capacity is exceeded, no more memory can be stored, but in cloud computing, the contract is changed or exceeded. Business can be continued by paying for the amount of resources used.

Users take various information processing services from information systems owned by external organizations via networks such as the Internet.What the user needs is a minimum connection environmentPersonal computer,Mobile information terminalSuch asclient, And the service usage fee. A group of computers that actually perform most of the processing (server, Storage, etc.) on the service provider sideData centerIt is installed inside, and the service provider side carries out the asset management and operation and maintenance of them.

The modern cloud user interface is primarilyWeb applicationIt is provided in the form of.1995 OfインターネットImmediately after the commercial use ofApplication service providerTrial and error has been done with a similar form such asJava appletThe format depended on vendor specific technology such as.2005Begins withAjaxIn the boom ofWeb applicationAfter great potential was found in2006ToGoogle OfCEOIsEric SchmidtAdvocated by.

Services provided in this form are referred to as "cloud computing services" or simply "Cloud service".The service provider is "ク ラ ウ ドService providerOr just "Cloud providerAlso called. As a new paradigm, "Sky Computing"[7], The service when the network is closer to the device is called "fog computing" or "edge computing"[8].. The edge is the outer edge of the network,Content delivery networkThe closest business user to your accessMirror serverIs a typical example.

Wide network access, rapid adaptability, measured service, on-demand self-service, and resource pooling are key characteristics.National Institute of Standards and Technology Defined by (NIST)[9].. NIST explains:[10].

Network, server,storage,Application, A shared pool of configurable computing resources such as services, andon-demandIt is one of the models in which it can be accessed and quickly provided and utilized with minimal administrative effort or interaction between service providers. This cloud model isUsabilityAnd consists of 5 basic characteristics, 3 service models, and 4 deployment models[11]. — National Institute of Standards and Technology

In the case of the full cloud system, it is sufficient if the terminal and the Internet connection environment are prepared, and it becomes possible to simplify the internal IT equipment. Therefore, mainly for small and medium-sized enterprises with mobility, companies that simplify the internal IT equipment by selecting a method of connecting to a business system on the cloud from a lightweight notebook PC to perform business are rapidly increasing. The adoption of the full cloud system has made it possible to diversify working styles and is also useful in promoting remote work. Since the latter half of the 2010s, we have been aiming for the full digitalization of human work.Digital transformation (DX)Is booming.


2006Even before the term was proposedthe 1980s OfSuper computerStarted with Hourly Lending (RCS)Utility computing[12]Andthe 1990sDedicated to each companyWebIt started with the provision of servicesApplication service provider[13]Similar attempts have been made, but it ended in a transient epidemic without giving a business impact.In addition, the slow processing speed of computers and the communication speed of networks also hindered the spread.

In addition, the 1980sToValue Added Network (VAN)There was also a service that provided various processes over the network.However, in the 1980s, communication lines were expensive and slow, and technical specifications were not unified, so the use was limited to the extent that they were introduced as an element of business systems.

Amazon Web Services The2004Will be the first serviceAmazon Simple Queue Service (SQS)Since then, it has continuously expanded its services and reigned at the top of cloud computing.the 1980sStarted onValue Added Network (VAN)Utility computingAndthe 1990sStarted onApplication service providerServices such as these were also absorbed by the endlessly sophisticated cloud computing services.


Classification by service provided

The classification according to the type of service provided is as follows.

Classification by arrangement form

The classification according to the arrangement form (deployment) is as follows.

  • Public cloud --General services via the Internet. In a narrow sense, it refers only to the public cloud. Services provided online.[14]A service that partially rents the cloud.
  • Private cloud --Companies build and install an environment using this technology in-house,IntranetA form used by the user department via, for example. In the case of own assets such as data centers and servers,ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グIt may be procured.Compared to the public cloud, it requires investment and operation management, but it can strengthen security and asset protection.It is possible to increase or decrease computing resources and storage according to the operation by simply changing the platform side without modifying the application side (if cloud technology is not used, data migration to enhanced new equipment). And the added storage needs to be conscious on the application side.)
  • Hybrid cloud -A form that combines the above public cloud and private cloud. It is possible to use and cooperate according to requirements such as business, data and security.

Utilization technology

The main technologies used internally to realize this method are as follows.

The use of computer resources via networks has been carried out since the dawn of computers in the 1950s, and is basically not a new technology. Traditional examples and terms includemain frameProvide hourly calculation service via network usingValue-added communication network(VAN), orApplication service provider,Network computing,Utility computing, SaaS, etc. exist.

However, behind the spread of the term and service form called "cloud computing" since the 2000s,Open standardThe fact that the procedure common to all over the world has been established and spread has been great. For example, the development of the Internet and Internet-related technologies, variousstandardization, The speed and cost reduction, and on the provider side, the use of servers and software with less restrictions on specific manufacturers due to the spread of open source technology, at various levelsVirtualizationSharing of computing resources by technology and realization of flexible provision according to each user. Conventional similar services are not open due to barriers between services and technical barriers, and the procedure to start using them is complicated, and even if it is the widest, information can only be transmitted within the service to be used. , Anyone in the world can use it with easy procedures, and cooperation between services is easy, which is a big step forward.

Depending on the provider's requirements, depending on the provider, a dedicated line connection may be used instead of via the Internet, and not via virtualization.Bare metal(Physical server unit), original technology,Quality of ServiceDifferentiated by adopting or using a service fee system according to the actual service level. A large-scale provider installs huge data centers in multiple locations around the world and connects them with high-speed lines to improve availability such as disaster countermeasures.Multi national companyUser companies, such as, need only connect to the nearest access point and do not need their own international line.


The term was first used in 2006 by Google CEO OfEric SchmidtIs said to be byGoogle App Engine,Amazon EC2It was popularized around 2006 and 2008 when, etc. appeared.

However, the form of “providing computer processing in the form of a service via a network” has existed in the past.1960From the generationTime sharing systemSuch asData centerUtilization (sharing a centralized virtual environment remotely via a network and charging as a service on a pay-as-you-go or flat-rate basis),1980TeenagerVAN,1991From aroundインターネットBased onASP, And even SaaS. Generally, of these, those that mainly provide the use of packaged software have come to be called SaaS.

It is said that the historical changes in the usage of computers are as follows.

  1. main frameCentralized processing in its heyday
  2. Distributed system(Open system)Client serverDistributed processing such as
  3. インターネットNew centralized processing centered on network
  4. Globally distributed users receive services without being aware of servers (cloud computing)

For example, it is a representative Japanese automobile companyToyotaIn the case of, even before this method was generalizedToyotaIT assetsIntranetToyota groupAbout 4,000 companies (supplier, Stores, etc.,networkIt provides an environment where the system can be used via.

The chronology since the SaaS terminology has been generalized is shown below.

Similar terms

There are more similar concepts and terms than before, just paraphrasing orBuzz wordThere are many claims that it is.20084 Sun MicrosystemsCEO Jonathan Schwartz said, "What is the cloud?Network computingWas rephrased with a new word." CEO of Oracle in September 2008Larry EllisonCriticized, "We've already done it, the advertising phrase has changed."[23]. It is also argued that there are many companies that the management team leads and promotes on-site technologists on the basis of "I do not know what it is, but it seems to be an industry trend".[24].

On the other hand, unlike the conventional concept, there is a view that opportunities to utilize large-scale infrastructure are open to individuals and small groups, which may lead to social change.[25].

From the point of view of system configurationNetwork computingFrom a provider perspectiveApplication service provider, From the perspective of software provision form, SaaS, from the perspective of billing methodUtility computingIt can be considered that such systems and services are called "clouds" from the user's point of view.

The existing similar terms include the following.


[How to use footnotes]


  1. ^ Cloud computing [cloud computing]
  2. ^ Levy, Steven (April 1994). “Bill and Andy's Excellent Adventure II” (English). Wired. ISSN 1059 – 1028. https://www.wired.com/1994/04/general-magic/ April 2022, 9Browse"The beauty of Telescript," says Andy, "is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create sort of a virtual service." 
  3. ^ "A story of glory and frustration that traces the origins of smartphones”(Japanese). NHK Living Information Blog. April 2022, 9Browse.
  4. ^ Internet History 1977
  5. ^ National Science Foundation, "Diagram of CSNET," 1981
  6. ^ What Is The Cloud? --AT & T (1993)
  7. ^ Life after Google (Author George Gilder) Review. Why is Google's era over?
  8. ^ IoT platform structure and new business possibilities
  9. ^ William Sterlings, Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2015 ISBN 0134175395
  10. ^ NIST Definition of Cloud Computing(September 2011),NIST's definition of cloud computing(Information Processing Promotion OrganizationJapanese translation, December 2011)
  11. ^ Cloud Computing
  12. ^ Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). “Utility computing”(Japanese). Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). April 2021, 10Browse.
  13. ^ Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). “Is ASP the ultimate form of information system?”(Japanese). Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). April 2021, 10Browse.
  14. ^ Strong security due to inner circle: "Private" cloud computing is gaining popularity
  15. ^ IBM announces current viable cloud computing
  16. ^ Yahoo, US partner with Indian research institute for cloud computing research support
  17. ^ Microsoft Announces Windows Azure at Professional Developers Conference
  18. ^ Sun announces "Open Cloud Platform"
  19. ^ Open Cloud Manifesto
  20. ^ A dark cloud that can be reached in the way of "Open Cloud Manifesto"
  21. ^ IBM offers enterprises cloud social networking and collaboration services
  22. ^ New public cloud service that provides IT resources on a pay-as-you-go basis-IBM
  23. ^ Oracle's Ellison CEO Takes Down "Cloud Computing"
  24. ^ Nicholas G. Kerr "What the Net Baka Internet Is in Our Brain" Seitosha, 2010 ISBN 4791765559
  25. ^ Masaya Mori "Cloud Accelerates Transformation of Human Society"


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