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Cloud computing(British: cloud computing) IsインターネットSuch asComputer networkViaComputer resourcesTheServicesIt is a usage form provided in the form of. For shortク ラ ウ ドOften called, cloud is in English(I.e.Means.With the worldwide spread of the cloud, you can get the services you need, when you need them, online.BusinessHas been streamlined and succeeded in increasing the creativity of society.
Cloud computing as a commercially established definition is2006ToGoogle OfCEOMetEric SchmidtAdvocated by.However,GoogleIt is said that it was first used as a term prior to1994A Wired article in April stated thatGeneral Magicco-founder and engineer ofAndy hertzfeldIt is quoted as the words of (later to become a Google employee).However, cloud computing as a concrete service was not widely used at that time, and the capabilities of all computers, networks, and communications were too low, limiting implementation and testing services..
As a prehistory, figures similar to "clouds" were created in 1977. ARPANET,,Year 1981 CSNETで, Used to represent a network of computer equipment, both of which laterインターネットDeveloped into. The term "cloud" refers to the InternetMetaphorHas been used as. The term "cloud" was used in 1993. Distributed computingWas also used in the field of..These are justComputer networkIt is a primitive definition as a sign ofWeb serviceThe definition is very different from the one after the spread.
In conventional computing, the hardware and software used are purchased and contracted as much as the user needs (these resources are on the premises).On-premisesOr installed in a remote data center).On the other hand, in this method, the usage contract is made based on the amount used or planned, not the hardware or software itself.
In conventional computing, if the limit of the purchased or contracted hardware is exceeded, the operation slows down, or if the storage capacity is exceeded, no more memory can be stored, but in cloud computing, the contract is changed or exceeded. Business can be continued by paying for the amount of resources used.
Users take various information processing services from information systems owned by external organizations via networks such as the Internet.What the user needs is a minimum connection environmentPersonal computer,Mobile information terminalSuch asclient, And the service usage fee. A group of computers that actually perform most of the processing (server, Storage, etc.) on the service provider sideData centerIt is installed inside, and the service provider side carries out the asset management and operation and maintenance of them.
The modern cloud user interface is primarilyWeb applicationIt is provided in the form of.1995 OfインターネットImmediately after the commercial use ofApplication service providerTrial and error has been done with a similar form such asJava appletThe format depended on vendor specific technology such as.2005Begins withAjaxIn the boom ofWeb applicationAfter great potential was found in2006ToGoogle OfCEOIsEric SchmidtAdvocated by.
Services provided in this form are referred to as "cloud computing services" or simply "Cloud service".The service provider is "ク ラ ウ ドService providerOr just "Cloud providerAlso called. As a new paradigm, "Sky Computing", The service when the network is closer to the device is called "fog computing" or "edge computing".. The edge is the outer edge of the network,Content delivery networkThe closest business user to your accessMirror serverIs a typical example.
Wide network access, rapid adaptability, measured service, on-demand self-service, and resource pooling are key characteristics.National Institute of Standards and Technology Defined by (NIST).. NIST explains:.
Network, server,storage,Application, A shared pool of configurable computing resources such as services, andon-demandIt is one of the models in which it can be accessed and quickly provided and utilized with minimal administrative effort or interaction between service providers. This cloud model isUsabilityAnd consists of 5 basic characteristics, 3 service models, and 4 deployment models. — National Institute of Standards and Technology
In the case of the full cloud system, it is sufficient if the terminal and the Internet connection environment are prepared, and it becomes possible to simplify the internal IT equipment. Therefore, mainly for small and medium-sized enterprises with mobility, companies that simplify the internal IT equipment by selecting a method of connecting to a business system on the cloud from a lightweight notebook PC to perform business are rapidly increasing. The adoption of the full cloud system has made it possible to diversify working styles and is also useful in promoting remote work. Since the latter half of the 2010s, we have been aiming for the full digitalization of human work.Digital transformation (DX)Is booming.
2006Even before the term was proposedthe 1980s OfSuper computerStarted with Hourly Lending (RCS)Utility computingAndthe 1990sDedicated to each companyWebIt started with the provision of servicesApplication service providerSimilar attempts have been made, but it ended in a transient epidemic without giving a business impact.In addition, the slow processing speed of computers and the communication speed of networks also hindered the spread.
In addition, the 1980sToValue Added Network (VAN)There was also a service that provided various processes over the network.However, in the 1980s, communication lines were expensive and slow, and technical specifications were not unified, so the use was limited to the extent that they were introduced as an element of business systems.
Amazon Web Services The2004Will be the first serviceAmazon Simple Queue Service (SQS)Since then, it has continuously expanded its services and reigned at the top of cloud computing.the 1980sStarted onValue Added Network (VAN)とUtility computingAndthe 1990sStarted onApplication service providerServices such as these were also absorbed by the endlessly sophisticated cloud computing services.
Classification by service provided
The classification according to the type of service provided is as follows.
- SaaS (Software as a Service)-Via InternetsoftwareProviding packages.電子 メ ー ル,Groupware,CRMetc.Microsoft OfMicrosoft Online Services, Google Google Apps,SAPof,SAP Business ByDesign, SAP SuccessFactors, SAP Ariba,Salesforce.comSalesforce CRM,OracleThere is Oracle Cloud.Open SourceSaaS constructionFrameworkasLiferayThere is.
- PaaS Platform as a Service-for running applications over the InternetplatformOffer of.VirtualizationWas doneApplication server,DatabaseSuch.Users can deploy and operate their own applications. Amazon Web Services Amazon S3, Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon SimpleDB, Microsoft Microsoft Azure, GoogleGoogle App Engine,AppScale, SAPSAP Cloud Platform,SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud,IBM OfSoft Layer,Salesforce.comSuch as the Force.com platform.
- HaaS or IaaS (Hardware / Infrastructure as a Service)-Via InternethardwareAnd infrastructure provision.Server virtualization,Desktop virtualizationOr shared disk. User himselfoperating system System can be installed and constructed including (OS).Amazon Web Services OfAmazon EC2-VMware Cloud on AWS, IBM's SoftLayer, etc.
- XaaS -Generic term for the above.
Classification by arrangement form
The classification according to the arrangement form (deployment) is as follows.
- Public cloud --General services via the Internet. In a narrow sense, it refers only to the public cloud. Services provided online.A service that partially rents the cloud.
- Private cloud --Companies build and install an environment using this technology in-house,IntranetA form used by the user department via, for example. In the case of own assets such as data centers and servers,ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グIt may be procured.Compared to the public cloud, it requires investment and operation management, but it can strengthen security and asset protection.It is possible to increase or decrease computing resources and storage according to the operation by simply changing the platform side without modifying the application side (if cloud technology is not used, data migration to enhanced new equipment). And the added storage needs to be conscious on the application side.)
- Hybrid cloud -A form that combines the above public cloud and private cloud. It is possible to use and cooperate according to requirements such as business, data and security.
The main technologies used internally to realize this method are as follows.
The use of computer resources via networks has been carried out since the dawn of computers in the 1950s, and is basically not a new technology. Traditional examples and terms includemain frameProvide hourly calculation service via network usingValue-added communication network(VAN), orApplication service provider,Network computing,Utility computing, SaaS, etc. exist.
However, behind the spread of the term and service form called "cloud computing" since the 2000s,Open standardThe fact that the procedure common to all over the world has been established and spread has been great. For example, the development of the Internet and Internet-related technologies, variousstandardization, The speed and cost reduction, and on the provider side, the use of servers and software with less restrictions on specific manufacturers due to the spread of open source technology, at various levelsVirtualizationSharing of computing resources by technology and realization of flexible provision according to each user. Conventional similar services are not open due to barriers between services and technical barriers, and the procedure to start using them is complicated, and even if it is the widest, information can only be transmitted within the service to be used. , Anyone in the world can use it with easy procedures, and cooperation between services is easy, which is a big step forward.
Depending on the provider's requirements, depending on the provider, a dedicated line connection may be used instead of via the Internet, and not via virtualization.Bare metal(Physical server unit), original technology,Quality of ServiceDifferentiated by adopting or using a service fee system according to the actual service level. A large-scale provider installs huge data centers in multiple locations around the world and connects them with high-speed lines to improve availability such as disaster countermeasures.Multi national companyUser companies, such as, need only connect to the nearest access point and do not need their own international line.
However, the form of “providing computer processing in the form of a service via a network” has existed in the past.1960From the generationTime sharing systemSuch asData centerUtilization (sharing a centralized virtual environment remotely via a network and charging as a service on a pay-as-you-go or flat-rate basis),1980TeenagerVAN,1991From aroundインターネットBased onASP, And even SaaS. Generally, of these, those that mainly provide the use of packaged software have come to be called SaaS.
It is said that the historical changes in the usage of computers are as follows.
- main frameCentralized processing in its heyday
- Distributed system(Open system)Client serverDistributed processing such as
- インターネットNew centralized processing centered on network
- Globally distributed users receive services without being aware of servers (cloud computing)
For example, it is a representative Japanese automobile companyToyotaIn the case of, even before this method was generalizedToyotaIT assetsIntranetでToyota groupAbout 4,000 companies (supplier, Stores, etc.,networkIt provides an environment where the system can be used via.
The chronology since the SaaS terminology has been generalized is shown below.
- 1999, Salesforce.com was established,CRMLaunched Salesforce CRM, which provides SaaS form of application.
- 2002,Amazon.com Amazon Web Services (AWS) started.
- 200511/13,Intel Virtualization Technology(x86 virtualization.Virtualization requirements for Popek and GoldbergThe CPU that supports () was announced.
- 20068/9Eric Schmidt allegedly used the term first in a "Search Engine Strategies Conference" held in San Jose, CA, USA.
- 20068/25, Amazon EC2 public beta started.
- 2007In July, Salesforce.com announced “from SaaSPaaSHe announced the concept.
- 200711/15,IBMAnnounces plans for what is currently available.
- 20083/4,Yahoo!And Computational Research Laboratories (CRL) in India announce research support.
- 20085/27, Google Google App Engine (GAE) announced to the public.
- 20088/20,Amazon Web ServicesIs Elastic Block Store compatible with Amazon EC2.
- 200810/23,Amazon Web ServicesBeta is removed from Amazon EC2, and it is official version.
- 200810/27Microsoft is the platform at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference 2008 (PDC 2008)Microsoft Windows AzureAnnounce.
- 200811/17, Microsoft is a groupware serviceMicrosoft Business Productivity Online SuiteStarted the service.
- 2009XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Sun MicrosystemsAnnounces.
- March 2009, 3, IBM, Sun Microsystems,Cisco Systems, SAP,EMC,AT&T,Novel,OMG,Red hat,VMwareAnnounced by.. In addition, non-participation of Amazon, Google, Microsoft became a topic.
- April 2009, 4 IBM Integrates Social Networking and CollaborationLotus Live EngageAnnounce .
- On July 2009, 7, IBM launched IBM Managed Cloud Computing Services (IBM MCCS) Announced.
- October 2009, 10, OS equipped with the development environment "Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud" (UEC),Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koara) Server Edition has been released. In the desktop version,Online storage serviceThe "Ubuntu One" client software is now standard equipment.
- On November 2009, 11, Fujitsu announced the appointment of the leadership board of the "Open Cloud Standards Incubator" inter-standardization group in the DMTF (Distributed Management Task Force), an international standardization organization for operation management technology and virtualization technology.
- 2010In April, the IEEE computer society published a special article “ECONOMICS AND THE CLOUD” in the monthly magazine “Computer (ISSN 4-0018)”.
- 2010January,Toyota digital cruise(Current Toyota Systems) Has begun offering the All Toyota Cloud.
- 2011June 6th at the WWDC 6 Keynote SpeechAppleCEO,Steve JobsBut"iCloud"Announced.
- On June 2012, 6, Oracle announced Oracle Cloud.
- October 2012, GermanySAPThe company's in-memory databaseSAP HANABased onPaaS"SAP HANA Cloud PlatformIs now available. In addition to online companies such as Amazon.com and Google, the services of the world's four largest package software companies (US, IBM, Oracle, Oracle, SAP in Germany) have been released.
- August 2013, 7,IBM Soft LayerAnnounced the completion of the acquisition.
There are more similar concepts and terms than before, just paraphrasing orBuzz wordThere are many claims that it is.20084 Sun MicrosystemsCEO Jonathan Schwartz said, "What is the cloud?Network computingWas rephrased with a new word." CEO of Oracle in September 2008Larry EllisonCriticized, "We've already done it, the advertising phrase has changed.". It is also argued that there are many companies that the management team leads and promotes on-site technologists on the basis of "I do not know what it is, but it seems to be an industry trend"..
On the other hand, unlike the conventional concept, there is a view that opportunities to utilize large-scale infrastructure are open to individuals and small groups, which may lead to social change..
From the point of view of system configurationNetwork computingFrom a provider perspectiveApplication service provider, From the perspective of software provision form, SaaS, from the perspective of billing methodUtility computingIt can be considered that such systems and services are called "clouds" from the user's point of view.
The existing similar terms include the following.
- Server hosting(Rental server)-Provides services including provider assets via the network.
- Network computing(Network Centric Computing)-Advocated by Sun Microsystems. Network-centric computing in general.
- Dot com (.com)- Sun MicrosystemsAdvocated by. Mainly utilizing the InternetE-commerceGeneral business such as.
- e-business (e-business)- IBMAdvocated by. All businesses that apply Internet technology to existing core businesses.
- Utility computing -Provision of computing services by pay-per-use billing units.
- Application service provider -A provider that provides application services via a network.
- SaaS -Offer software as a service, not as a package.
- Ubiquitous computing - IoTAnd similar concepts. Many devices are connected to the Internet.
- Grid computing - Distributed computing OfParallel processingone of. It is also used for technology in the data center.
- Web service -A standard that allows different software to cooperate with each other using Internet technology.
- Service-oriented architecture (SOA)-A form of loose coupling of application services based on Web services technology.
- Web 2.0 -A collective term for multiple web technologies.
- ^ Cloud computing [cloud computing]
- ^ Levy, Steven (April 1994). “Bill and Andy's Excellent Adventure II” (English). Wired. ISSN 1059 – 1028 April 2022, 9Browse"The beauty of Telescript," says Andy, "is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create sort of a virtual service."
- ^ "A story of glory and frustration that traces the origins of smartphones”(Japanese). NHK Living Information Blog. April 2022, 9Browse.
- ^ Internet History 1977
- ^ National Science Foundation, "Diagram of CSNET," 1981
- ^ What Is The Cloud? --AT & T (1993)
- ^ Life after Google (Author George Gilder) Review. Why is Google's era over?
- ^ IoT platform structure and new business possibilities
- ^ William Sterlings, Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2015 ISBN 0134175395
- ^ NIST Definition of Cloud Computing(September 2011),NIST's definition of cloud computing(Information Processing Promotion OrganizationJapanese translation, December 2011)
- ^ Cloud Computing
- ^ Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). “Utility computing”(Japanese). Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). April 2021, 10Browse.
- ^ Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). “Is ASP the ultimate form of information system?”(Japanese). Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). April 2021, 10Browse.
- ^ Strong security due to inner circle: "Private" cloud computing is gaining popularity
- ^ IBM announces current viable cloud computing
- ^ Yahoo, US partner with Indian research institute for cloud computing research support
- ^ Microsoft Announces Windows Azure at Professional Developers Conference
- ^ Sun announces "Open Cloud Platform"
- ^ Open Cloud Manifesto
- ^ A dark cloud that can be reached in the way of "Open Cloud Manifesto"
- ^ IBM offers enterprises cloud social networking and collaboration services
- ^ New public cloud service that provides IT resources on a pay-as-you-go basis-IBM
- ^ Oracle's Ellison CEO Takes Down "Cloud Computing"
- ^ Nicholas G. Kerr "What the Net Baka Internet Is in Our Brain" Seitosha, 2010 ISBN 4791765559
- ^ Masaya Mori "Cloud Accelerates Transformation of Human Society"
- Nikkei BP Publishing Bureau, "Cloud Taizen The Complete Cloud Computing <From Service Details to Basic Technology>" (Nikkei BP, 2009) ISBN 978-4-8222-8388-9
- (Papers) "Business system that pursues customization and scalability of IT services at the same time-A case of salesforce.com "Force.com"-"InfoCom Review (54), pp.2-21
- Amazon Web Services
- Microsoft Azure
- Google Cloud Platform
- Thin client -Simplified terminal that is premised on leaving the processing and storage functions to the server via the network.
- pogo plug
- CNG -System that collects and shares broadcast program materials using cloud services