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👍 | Arrested a XNUMX-year-old man on suspicion of kidnapping a female child. Invited by SNS and brought to his home in Gunma prefecture [Niigata]


Arrested a XNUMX-year-old man on suspicion of kidnapping a girl child. Invited by SNS and brought to his home in Gunma prefecture [Niigata]

If you write the contents roughly
It is said that he was arrested after identifying the whereabouts of Mr. Osawa using a security camera.

On the 21th, the Niigata Higashi Police Station and others arrested a construction worker, Kiyoharu Osawa (XNUMX), in Kiryu City, Gunma Prefecture, on suspicion of abducting a minor ... → Continue reading

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    Surveillance camera

    Surveillance camera(Kanshi camera) is an object for some purposeMonitoringin order toVideo cameraIs. mainlyA humanMonitor andcrimeThose that are installed in search of effects such as deterrencesurveillance camera,active volcanoAnd the weather and riversDisaster preventionThose who seek a superior effectDisaster prevention cameraAlso called. In a broad sense, it may refer to the entire system including the functions of transmitting/processing captured images, recording, and displaying, rather than the camera itself.EnglishThen it is sometimes called video serveillance, closed-circuit television(CableWith a camera tied withmonitorClosed only for a whilecircuitUsing the abbreviation of "TV"CCTVIs more often called.

    Surveillance cameras can be installed in various facilities such as stores, on the premises, on the streets, and on railways.station,Railroad crossing,空港,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,GangsterOffices, individuals and gatherings住宅And so on.

    Main uses

    Disaster prevention

    damWater monitoring,道路Disaster (collapse etc.) monitoring,active volcanoSurveillance,(I.e.Monitoring[1],Railway station platformChecking the boarding and alighting status of

    Factory production line monitoring,Nuclear power plant,Thermal power plantIt is used in laboratories to monitor abnormalities in places where people cannot enter, and to monitor and record conditions such as dams, rivers, and volcanoes. "Kaguya, Etc.,Artificial satelliteSurveillance cameras are also used for things whose state is difficult to grasp.

    Crime prevention

    Surveillance cameras help detect various crimes[2][3][4][5].."Relay method" to find out the whereabouts of the criminal by connecting multiple surveillance camera images[6],Artificial intelligenceBy (AI)Face recognition systemHas also been introduced[7].

    JapanEach prefectural police department ofDowntownSuch asCrime preventionAs part of this, surveillance cameras are installed in downtown areas, on the streets, and around streets.Railway companies also install surveillance cameras to check the status of each station.It is also being installed inside railway cars.[8][9]..However, each railway company in the metropolitan area has not published the operating rules for surveillance cameras, and there are voices saying that the rules should be disclosed.[10].

    The main purpose of crime prevention is to see shops (retail stores) andbankな どFinancial institution, Gang office,Elevator, Of public institutionsceilingSome are installed in various places.In the case of financial and public institutions, the purpose is not only to monitor and record intruders and suspicious persons, but also to monitor and record employees.breach of trustIt is also to deter the act. Elevators are used for various purposes, such as detecting abnormal passenger behavior and stopping on a nearby floor. For shops, it depends on face recognitionShopliftingAddiction offenders are also monitored[11].VietnamSince there are frequent thefts by freighters at airports, it is considered to attach surveillance cameras to freighters.[12].

    In the case of gang offices, it is installed to monitor mischief, conflicting parties and police personnel. Not only in the facility but also in the cityHeapSurveillance cameras are being installed on the roads of Japan. Surveillance cameras are being installed on school roads and school gates, as well as on-campus surveillance cameras.[13][14]..Also, as the price of cameras drops,IndividualAnti-theft in your home parking lot, etc.Running awayIn some cases, inexpensive surveillance cameras are installed for the purpose of prevention.("#Installation location and purpose/effectSee also)

    A system has also been developed that can easily retrieve and extract only the necessary information from the video of the surveillance camera.[15].

    Police provided by multiple surveillance cameras and individualsSmartphoneThere is also an effort to analyze the video taken at and track the escape destination of the criminal case by "relay method" and lead to arrest[16].

    In Japan, the percentage of suspects identified by images acquired by security cameras has increased, and2019/In (31 / first year of Reiwa), 1% of the arrests were due to camera images.[17]..Hard to leave evidenceSpecial fraudIn the investigation such as, the image of the security camera is important[18].

    However, on the other hand, when introducing the image of the security camera on TV news etc., the part of the criminal's face and the carLicense plateEtcMosaic processingIs often done, and there are criticisms that it is not useful for arresting the criminal[19].

    Installation location and purpose/effect

    In the case of surveillance cameras installed for crime prevention, there are two cases, one is to seek a crime deterrent effect by "monitoring" and the other is to "provide evidence when a crime occurs". The former case is installed in a conspicuous place, and the latter case is installed in a less conspicuous place. In some cases, a sign saying "surveillance camera is operating" is used to announce that a surveillance camera is installed in order to avoid criticism that it may lead to privacy infringement. In this case, the former purpose will be sought exclusively.

    Dummy cameras without shooting function are also sold for crime prevention[20].

    Since it is possible that the cameras will be destroyed, multiple cameras may be installed in combination. The surveillance camera body is photographed by another surveillance camera. Also, as a method of camouflage,light bulb OfsocketBuilt-in surveillance camera that can be inserted intoLED bulbAlso exists[21]. Also,TMJ,vending machineMany of these machines are equipped with surveillance cameras.

    Wearable surveillance cameras installed on people are(English editionAnd body-worn CCTV, etc.AmericaUnited Kingdom,Hong KongIt is rapidly spreading in police such as[22][23][24][25].. Tried to use it in school[26][27], The largest body camera in the United StatesAxonAnd the largest droneDJITeamed up to monitor for policeDroneIs selling[28][29].. Even in Japan, surveillance cameras are being installed in drones for civilian crime prevention.[30][31].. In addition, police in China equipped with a surveillance camera function.Mech robotHas been deployed[32]Equipped with surveillance camera functionSunglassesType ofWearable computerIs also using[33].懐 中 电灯The function of the surveillance camera is also installed in the[34].

    Crime deterrence

    United KingdomIn 20057/7Happened tobus-subwayTargeted atLondon simultaneous bombingThe reason why the arrest of the criminal was carried out promptly depends on the records of the surveillance camera. EspeciallyPurposelyA deterrent effect on crimes is expected. Even in Japan,Narita International AirportKIXA surveillance camera with a face recognition system is installed in[35],Also2007/(19) February 7Tokaido/Sanyo ShinkansenStarted commercial operation inN700 seriesEven in public transportation, surveillance cameras are being installed at public transportation, especially at all passenger entrances and exits and driver's entrances and exits in Japan.


    Information extraction from video

    In the beginning, it was only to shoot and store images, but in recent years, a combination of image processing systems has appeared one after another. For example, if you install it on the road,License plateDetect images and extract as dataAutomatic vehicle number reader(JapanThen, the "N system" used by the police is famous, but there are also commercial ones), and car name recognition that identifies the car model from car images and videos (JapanThen the "F system" used by the police is famous[36]But there is also commercial[37]),空港Take a picture of the traveler's face with a photo of the criminal's faceDatabaseA face recognition system that automatically collates with2016/(HeiseiAs of 28), it has already been introduced.Estimate gender and age from face recognition,MarketingHas already been used to[38][39].

    Furthermore, software that analyzes behavior patterns and detects abnormal behaviors has already been developed.[40][41]In addition, people tremble (TremorA system that analyzes the psychological state from (etc.) has also been developed.[42].. Also, use gait features for individual identificationGait analysisHas also been done[43]Used for criminal investigation[44][45]. Also,IndividualIn addition to the analysis of the crowd, the analysis of the crowd is also performed, and it is possible to detect anomalies from changes in crowd density.[46]Predicting congestion[47]Has also been done. It is also done to display the stay time on a heat map[48].. Technology for tracking a person across multiple surveillance cameras has also been developed[49][50][51]..Also, at ATMs to prevent fraudMobile phoneUsage detection[52]AndarmsDetection systems are also beginning to appear[53].. A smoke detection system is also being developed[54].

    As of June 2016, large-scale monitoring by face recognition is difficult[55].米 国Then about 1.2 million face recognition database[56]Although it is maintained, it boasts the highest specific rateGoogleFaceNet even has uncertainty in distinguishing a large number of faces[55] (In addition, there is OpenFace as an open source implementation of FaceNet).However, it has one of the largest populations in the worldChugokuLarge-scale monitoring by face recognition is actively used in, and a face recognition database of about 13 billion people who are said to exceed Google's specific rate is maintained[57]. JapaneseTokyoThen, in order to raise the specific rate, take a photo of the criminal's collation face after April 2016 (Heisei 28).3DIs going in[58].

    Recording of accompanying information such as voice

    The number of surveillance cameras that have sound collection microphones and are capable of recording voice is increasing. Further, even if the surveillance camera does not have a microphone, a sound collecting microphone can be separately installed. Some devices can detect suspicious sounds such as screams, glass breaking, machine breaking sounds, etc., and automatically notify/report.[59][60][61].. Sound is also used to measure liveliness[61].

    In addition, temperature, humidity and odor are recorded.[62][63].

    Collection of mobile phone information

    Mobile phoneSpecific information of (MAC address)Bluetooth,Wi-FiIt is also possible to install a device (Fake Access Point) that collects and records via via.

    iPhoneThen.iOS8ThanMAC addressRandomization is performed so that the eigenvalues ​​are not scattered.[64]However, device anonymization is not sufficient, so it is still possible to track using sequence numbers and timing information.[65].

    Collection and use of depth information

    The range image (depth information) can be used to measure actual dimensions and assist image analysis.[66]Used in parking lots, ATM surveillance cameras, etc.[66].. It is also used to prevent false detections by insects and animals.[67].

    To acquire depth information, the depth is estimated by image processing from images from multiple synchronized cameras.PhotogrammetryOr near infrared lightlaserIrradiation and detection (TO DEALDepth camera () that calculates the depth by(English edition, Phase difference laser scanner, etc.).In photogrammetry,Stereo cameraSurveillance cameras equipped with are beginning to appear, and high-precision image analysis is being performed by 3D reconstruction of stereo images.[68][69][70].. There is also a system that estimates depth from multiple videos using multiple surveillance cameras.[71].. LIDAR has begun supplying TOF depth cameras for surveillance systems, etc.[72][73][74].. LiDAR is said to be effective when people overlap and it is difficult to distinguish them from images[50].

    Temperature measurement/detection

    ThermographyThere is also a surveillance camera system equipped with temperature measurement by a camera (with heat generation).InfectionTo make it easier to find the affected personImmigration controlIn addition to admission management such as corporate facilities and eventsForest fireUsed for countermeasures, etc.[75][76][77].

    In addition, a surveillance camera with a far-infrared camera is also under development to find people hidden behind things.[78].

    Detection of blades, guns, and explosives by millimeter waves, etc.

    There is also technology for detecting blades, guns, and explosives using millimeter waves.[79][80], It is speculated that a system integrated with a surveillance camera will appear in the future.[80].


    Irradiation with sensor light[81]There are also surveillance cameras that can give voice warnings.[81].. Surveillance cameras for calling out are also being researched[82].

    In addition, Parking LotFor management, there is also a surveillance camera system that supports cooperation with the gate bar.[83], Which makes it possible to block blacklisted cars[83].

    Video composition

    Technology has been developed that combines images from multiple surveillance cameras and displays them from a bird's eye view that is easy to view.[84].

    Live camera

    Monitor a wide area,TV station,インターネットThings that are shooting images that can be published in real timeLive cameraAlso called. In addition, the InternetURLWithout publishingLogin of timeUser namePasswordIf you keep it in a company or organization, or in an individual or family, you can monitor distances over the Internet regardless of distance.

    Video management

    Save image

    PreviouslyMagnetic tapeWas stored in thehard disk,Flash memoryThere are many examples of being stored in. The image is a continuous still imageMotion JPEGAnd Motion JPEG 2000, differential compressionMPEG4,H.264It is usually saved as long as there is enough storage area. After the capacity is insufficient, it is common to delete old records,Storage deviceThe capacity of is selected in consideration of the required storage period. Image qualityMagnetic tapeBetter quality.

    The image quality or compression rate of differential compression is higher than that of continuous still images.2016/As of (28), the compression rate is highH.264 Surveillance cameras adopting High Profile are increasing, and surveillance cameras adopting H.265 have also appeared.[85].

    To prevent overexposure and underexposure, it supports auto white balance and combines multiple exposures.High dynamic range (HDR)There are also surveillance cameras that have a shooting function.There are also surveillance cameras that can save still images in the RAW image format before tone mapping.[86]However, saving in RAW video format is not often done.In addition, since color reproducibility is not so important for surveillance cameras and 18% gray cards and color checkers are not used, it is not possible to record correct color information excluding the effects of light such as lighting and sunlight. Can not.However, there are surveillance cameras that perform color correction according to the face detected by face recognition.In addition, a surveillance camera equipped with a polarizing filter / polarizing lens that removes diffused reflection of light.[87]Also exists.

    In addition, due to the evolution of video processing, fog image correction (fog reduction / Dehaze / Defog) that reduces the effects of weather such as fog and rain.[88]Low Light Image Enhancement / Visibility Enhancer[88]Surveillance cameras compatible with[Annotation 1].

    analogThere is a lot of transmission noise in surveillance cameras,InterlaceSince it is a moving image, it will have a large capacity when stored digitally. A digital surveillance camera is not affected by transmission noise and is a progressive moving image, so the capacity is small. In the case of differential compression, the capacity can be further reduced by reducing CCD noise, physical/software motion stabilizer, and heat haze removal. Also,Background difference,Human sensorBy detecting moving objects such as, recording can be started from a few seconds before that, only when a moving object is detected in the shooting range of the camera, instead of always saving the image, and the capacity can be saved.In addition, there are surveillance cameras that can improve the image quality only in a specific area in the video frame and lower the image quality in encoding.

    The number of shooting frames is usually 1 per secondTopOr it is common to set it as a 30-frame video, butTMJIn corners, etc., shooting 1 to 1 frames per second tends to prolong the storage period.Record by dropping the number of framesVTRIs "Time-lapse VTR"[Annotation 2]Called.

    Image copy

    Police may request the installation of surveillance cameras to provide images. In this case, depending on the model and software used, general video software may not be available and dedicated software may be required. Mostly for image storage servermemory card(CF etc.)interfaceThere is, and it is possible to output to the outside. Of course, on the video tape while playingdubbingIt is also possible to do so.

    Installation Opposition

    In Japan, about 1% of the people are negative about installing surveillance cameras in public places, andNichibenrenThe installation is not progressing mainly in rural areas, partly because of the opposition from other groups.[2][89][90][91].Japan OfNational Police AgencyExplains that it does not perform real-time face recognition in public spaces, but as of March 2019, 3 railway operators have opened a dedicated line to provide surveillance camera images to the police, etc.ブ ラ ッ ク リ ス トSome companies secretly operate surveillance camera systems that include a function to collate with.On the other hand, in Europe and the United States, lawsuits have been filed against the use of police face recognition systems by people who oppose surveillance cameras, which is legally regulated and illegal.Judgment, There are also movements such as discontinuing the provision of technology from companies[7].

    Privacy concerns

    Of course, the recorded video is strictly managed, and it is often said that "only when a problem occurs" and "viewing requires the permission of the boss".However, in addition to information leakage due to the administrator's failure to manage properly, it is often unclear how long the recorded data will be stored and who can view the recorded data. , Multiple privacy issues have been pointed out[90].

    In addition, there are cases where some churches have problems using surveillance cameras with face recognition systems.[92]There are surveillance cameras that are installed without sufficient security measures and left in a state where anyone can access them on the Internet, and there are websites such as "Insecam" that allow you to freely browse the images of those surveillance cameras.[93].

    Also, surveillance cameras are interconnectedFace recognition systemCombined with the current Chinese "Sky netLarge-scale monitoring system such asEnglish: Mass Surveillance)”[94],Freedom of expressionAnd the risk of invasion of privacy has also been pointed out.

    Information leakage

    2016/1,Russia OfWebsiteIt was revealed that anyone can freely peep at the images of surveillance cameras around the world with "".This site delivers real-time video from surveillance cameras in 120 countries around the world, and covers more than 6,000 cameras in Japan (as of January 2016, 28, 1 on the site). It was.

    The target countries for installation of surveillance cameras are Russia, the United States,France,Japan,(I.e.,クウェート,San Marino,(I.e.Over 120 countries. The highest in the United States is 7645, and Japan is second with 6291.ItalyWas the third place with 1992 units. in Japan,Mental hospitalIsolation ward,dental clinic, A famous coffee chain store,convenience store, Mobile phone shop,Conveyor belt sushi restaurant,Department store,Massage shop,Barber shopIt was widely collected regardless of industry. The reason for the leak was because when the camera was purchasedPasswordIn many cases, it was easily discovered because it remained as it was. The site also makes it possible for manufacturers of surveillance cameras to understand[95][96].

    2018/ OfUS-China trade warAnd with the People's Republic of Chinatrade frictionIn the United States, the world's number one surveillance camera market share[97]wasHike visionAnd second placeDarfa TechnologySurveillance cameras of Chinese companiesPeterson Air Force BaseSecurity concerns that it will be installed in various places in the United States such as US military bases have become a problem[98][99], May 2018, 8(English edition (NDAA 2019) enacted, prohibiting purchases by US federal agencies[100].

    Also, the majority of surveillance cameras are banned from government procurement by the Defense Authority Act.HuaweiSubsidiary ofHISILICONUsing other chips was also seen as a problem[101].. Although the US federal agency is required to remove these surveillance cameras made in China,Florida OfUS NavyThe problem was the purchase of bases and the fact that nearly 3,000 Chinese surveillance cameras had not been removed at multiple U.S. military bases and government facilities.[98][102].

    America's(English editionWas disguised as a "Made in the United States" surveillance camera made in China and delivered it to the U.S. military for a long time.[103].Republic of ChinaTaichung CityHowever, more than 100 Chinese surveillance cameras in the city have been removed for privacy and security reasons.[104], As wellToyohara StationFace Recognition and Chinese Surveillance Cameras Removed from Next Generation Surveillance System[105].

    False arrest

    The video of the surveillance camera, which should be "conclusive evidence",False arrest-False accusationIt is also causing an incident.Regarding the background, one active police officer said, "One image of the security camera is far stronger as evidence than we make 100 investigation reports. I am relieved because I seized the security camera, I am a little too proud." There is nothing to say if you look at all the images from the security camera), but even if you look at it quickly, it is the limit of human power. Testifying[106].

    The following is an example of misapproved arrest caused by surveillance camera footage.

    • 2012/(24) --A cash robbery case occurred at a convenience store at midnight.A surveillance camera captures the crime, the criminal wore a mask, andAutomatic doorWas touching.Police said based on this video and the testimony of the victim's store employees that their eyes were similar.OsakaIzumiotsu CityOf menArrestdid. Also, from the outside of the damaged store's door,fingerprintWas found. The man insisted, "I was with my friend at home at about the same time as the crime," and showed the photograph taken at that time to the police, but he could not get them to hold it.ProsecutionWas done.ProsecutionAt the trial, he asked an expert to appraise the video, and it was determined that "the similarity between the male and the criminal" was high. But thenLawyerObtained a video from a surveillance camera and checked it one week back from the day of the incident.The video five days before the incident showed a man touching the place where his fingerprint was detected when shopping. Then, it was concluded that "it cannot be concluded that the fingerprint of the automatic door was attached on the day of the incident," and the man said.無罪I was sentenced.Men were detained for 300 days[106].
    • October 2012, 24-FormerChina broadcastingAnnouncerYasuishi HiroshiBut,Hiroshima citySouth wardOn September 9th of the same yearemployeeSuspected of stealing an envelope containing 66,600 yen that was misplacedHiroshima Prefectural PoliceHiroshima South Police StationWas arrested by. Fuseki was subsequently charged and convicted in the first and second trials,Supreme CourtWas convicted of reversal.
    • 2014/(26) June- Yamaguchi A male customer left it on the table at a pachinko parlorWalletThe next day, I sat right behind the man.Female theftOn suspicionYamaguchi Prefectural PoliceWas arrested by. The surveillance camera showed that a woman touched the top of the table when seated and moved to another table one minute later, and Yamaguchi Prefectural Police decided that the woman had stolen his wallet and left. However, after that, a wallet stolen from the trash can in the corner of the store was found, and a surveillance camera there showed another person throwing away the wallet, and misapproved arrest was discovered. The woman was released the morning of the seventh day of his arrest. In addition, when the police again confirmed the surveillance camera at the incident scene, the person who threw away the wallet stole the wallet 1 hour 7 minutes after the woman left the seat.[106].
    • 2017/(29) June- SaitamaFukayaIn the apartment, 1,000 yen in cash was stolen, and a woman in her 30s who came home was injured.Saitama Prefectural PoliceFukaya Police StationConcludes that the man in his thirties is a crime based on the video of the surveillance camera, and this man is in NovemberRobbery,Forced obsceneArrested and detained for 20 days on suspicion of such as (the man denied the suspicion and then released on hold)2018/A man in his twenties, who was arrested in another robbery case in May (30), admitted his involvement in this case and contained information that only the criminal could know, so the Fukaya office announced on August 5. Re-arrested the man and apologized to the man[107].

    Number of installations in each country

    The number of surveillance cameras installed is increasing in each country. As of 2014, the number of surveillance cameras installed throughout the United Kingdom reached 590 million (11 in 1 people)[108]..In the United States, it is said that more than 2016 million units (3000 in 10.8 people) have been installed as of 1.[109].

    AsiaThe number of installations is also increasing.The number of surveillance cameras in China2017/As of December, 12 million units (1 in 7000 people)Artificial intelligenceAlso equipped with (AI)Sky netThe world's largest surveillance camera network called[110],2019/At that time, eight of the ten cities with the most surveillance cameras in the world were said to be in China.[111][112]..In korea2015/It is estimated that 12 million units (800 in 6.4 people) have been installed as of December.[113].


    In Japan, it is estimated that more than 2016 million units (28 in 500 people) are installed as of 25.4, but less than in other developed countries.[2][114][115].

    KomeitoIs the delay in the spread of surveillance camerasJapan Communist PartyHe points out that he is in the opposition movement.actually,1996/Tokyo, where the Communist Party member served as the mayor for 8 years from (16)KomaeSince he refused to conclude a "Memorandum of Understanding on Promotion of Community Safety Activities" with the local police station, no security cameras were installed on public roads in the city. Mayor Kunihiko Takahashi, who was elected in 1 after the communist mayor, criticized that "the abnormal situation continued."[116][117].

    In Japan, as a legal regulation, there is a draft "Law Concerning the Appropriate Installation of Surveillance Cameras by Administrative Organizations, etc."2003/(July 15, 7)House of RepresentativesIt was submitted to, but it was abandoned because the deliberation was not completed.

    Tokyo, depending on the local governmentSuginamiIn some cases, it sets its own standards for camera installation.However, there is no unified standard as of 2016 (Heisei 28).Even so, despite the opposition and resistance of the Communist Party in many parliaments, each local government has included "security camera installation" in the ordinance for crime prevention from around 2003, so it is more regional than before. It was one of the triggers for the installation of security cameras.[116][117].

    Occurred in 2018Niigata small 2 girl murder caseThen, the police told the owner of the car that was driving near the crime scene during the investigation processdrive recorderCalled for records.As a result, the drive recorder acts as a surveillance camera and the criminal is arrested.[118]..The number of drive recorders shipped in Japan reached about 2020 million in 340 alone.[119].


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ It is possible to use these technologies for post-processing by opening the images taken by a surveillance camera that is not installed on a PC or the like.Also, in video processing, technology to remove the rain itself (FFmpeg(Equipped with derain filter, etc.) and technology to remove motion blur (Motion Deblurring) have also appeared.
    2. ^ British: time lapse VTR


    1. ^ "Tsunami monitoring with a surveillance camera! Earthquake countermeasures using NTT DoCoMo's base station"RBB Today (December 2016, 3)
    2. ^ a b c "I heard that there are few security cameras in the countryside of Japan, and visited Japan three times in 3 prefectures with 9 burglaries "as expected"”(Japanese). Kobe newspaperNEXT /Yahoo! News. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
    3. ^ "Arrested 2-year-old man on suspicion of rape injuries 15 years ago with 35 weeks remaining until statute of limitations". Yomiuri ShimbunOnline / archive.is (September 2020, 6). 2020/10/15Browse.
    4. ^ "Explain all the reasons why the rape case is "not prosecuted"”(Jp). Opinion site "iRONNA". 2020/10/15Browse.
    5. ^ ""I told you to get out of the way, but cheeky" With two children "2 months pregnant" Kicking the belly of a mother in her 7s ... 20-year-old man arrested”(Japanese). UHBHokkaido Bunka Broadcasting System/ Yahoo! News. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
    6. ^ "The terrible and scary security camera investigation that caught the Shibuya Halloween light tiger rollover criminal was exhausted in just two weeks after the incident occurred."Weekly Hyundai(Delivery on December 2018, 12) Retrieved on November 17, 2021
    7. ^ a b "Risk to Face Recognition Surveillance Society" "Yomiuri Shimbun" morning edition August 2021, 8 (commentary)
    8. ^ "Forecast all in-car troubles? Swiss Federal Railways surveillance cameras"Swissinfo(2015/October 10)
    9. ^ "Even on the Hokuriku Shinkansen, the cabin will be constantly recorded from the 15th.""Nihon Keizai Shimbun』January 2016, 28 (Heisei 3)
    10. ^ “Security cameras at all metro stations... Privacy is a challenge”. YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (November 2010, 4). originalArchived as of October 2010, 4.. https://archive.is/20100429190732/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20100426-OYT1T00799.htm 2010/4/26Browse. 
    11. ^ "Shoplifting addict visits, automatic detection by face recognition Junkudo Bookstore""Nihon Keizai Shimbun" March 2015, 27 (Heisei 11)
    12. ^ "Proposed a surveillance camera to the cargo carrier at the airport to crack down on theft."VIETJO Daily Vietnam News (October 2015, 10)
    13. ^ "A threatening statement to Tohoku Gakuin University, arresting a student who was identified from a security camera"RBB Today (2014/October 12)
    14. ^ "4 security cameras in school, concerns about student privacy UK"AFPBB News(2012/October 9)
    15. ^ "I saw a red car!" Technology to quickly find out from surveillance camera images RBB TODAY (October 2016, 9)
    16. ^ [Scope] Don't miss the Shibuya light tiger rollover camera / Collect all Halloween images / Decide on arrest of 4 suspects"Nihon Keizai Shimbun"Evening paper2018/(30) December 12 (Social) Viewed September 10, 2019
    17. ^ Shinpachi Yoshida (February 2020, 2). “Camera images identify suspects, and the number increases year by year to 1% of arrests”. Asahi Shimbun. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN2H6RSHN25UTIL020.html?iref=pc_ss_date 2020/10/15Browse. 
    18. ^ "3D Face Appraisal: The spread of security cameras that can't escape the criminal and its power for special fraud Prefectural Police Only deployed in Kyushu-Fukuoka Prefecture". "West Japan Newspaper" (Nishi-Nippon Shimbun). (April 2016, 8). originalArchived as of October 2016, 8.. https://web.archive.org/web/20160831090624/http://www.nishinippon.co.jp/nnp/f_sougou/article/270887 
    19. ^ Do not hide your face from the security camera images! NO2
    20. ^ [100-yen verification] You can buy such a security camera for 100 yen ...!With two AA batteries and a light blinking function at 3 second intervals !! "Dummy camera for security"Rocket news 24(2018/October 3)2020/(Reiwa 2nd year) Retrieved October 10th.
    21. ^ "Camouflage surveillance cameras with LED bulbs"My Navi News (July 2015, 11)
    22. ^ “Hong Kong police attach uniforms to video camera for the first time in Asia”. AFPBB(July 2012, 8). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2894489 2020/10/15Browse. 
    23. ^ All Grampian Police officers to wear CCTV cameras clipped to chest [Broken link] --STV News July 2012, 7
    24. ^ Met police to issue body cameras to majority of officers by next year - The Guardian 2015/6/3
    25. ^ Justice Dept. will spend $ 20 million on police body cameras nationwide The Washington Post -XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X Day
    26. ^ Iowa school district asks principals to wear body cams --Ars Technica July 2015, 7
    27. ^ All Houston School Police To Wear Body Cameras Next Year [Broken link] --Houston Public Media February 2015, 2
    28. ^ "The police's sense of science fiction is accelerating. DJI works with Axon, a taser gun, to sell police drones". Gizmodo(July 2018, 6). https://www.gizmodo.jp/2018/06/dji-axon-teaming-up-cop-drones.html 2020/10/15Browse. 
    29. ^ “The Next Frontier of Police Surveillance Is Drones”. Slate(July 2018, 6). https://slate.com/technology/2018/06/axon-and-dji-are-teaming-up-to-make-surveillance-drones-and-the-possibilities-are-frightening.html 2020/10/15Browse. 
    30. ^ Detecting a drone 300m ahead and recognizing an image on a surveillance camera--Panasonic's technical application capabilities --ZDNet Japan March 2016, 28 (Heisei 3)
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