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🥾 | [Wakamatsu Ward] Campsite opens in Green Park It will be available from March next year!


[Wakamatsu Ward] Campsite opens in Green Park It will be possible to stay overnight from March next year!

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In addition, the "Rose Garden", where 320 roses of about 2500 species are in full bloom, is a popular spot that many people from outside the city visit for the roses in spring and autumn when they are in full bloom.

"Kitakyushu City Hibikinada Ryokuchi / Green Park" celebrated its 4th anniversary in April this year (30 Takenami, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu City). … → Continue reading

 Kitakyushu Nokoto

It is a local media that makes you want to know more about Kitakyushu.We will focus on things, things, and people in Kitakyushu, focusing on gourmet food, outing information, and event information.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


rose(Rose) IsRosaceaeRose genusIs the generic name of[1][2][3]..Or especially of themGardening species(Gardening roses / cultivated roses)[1](flowerIs considered to be for viewing or edible[4] ).This section deals with the latter garden roses and cultivated roses.

Molding of the genus RoseShrub(Shrub) or woodyVineso,leafAnd on the stemthornMany have.The leaves are once odd pinnate compound leaves.The flowers are 1 petals and manystamen(However, most of the cultivarsDouble-floweredIs).Northern hemisphere OfTemperateIt grows widely in the area, butTibetAround,ChugokuYunnanからMyanmarThe main production area is from hereMiddle East,EuropeTo againFar EastからNorth AmericaPropagated to.Southern hemisphereRoses do not grow naturally.


The name of "rose" isJapaneseSo, the transcribed version of "Ibara"[Note 1].Chinese languageThe word "rose" is usually used, but this word is also used.Reading aloudAlso read as "sobi" and "shobi".In Chinese, there are also other names such as "Maikai" and "Gekki" (note that "Rose" isChineseInHermanusPoint to).

In EuropeLatin Of pink Many languages ​​are called by names derived from, and the same word is synonymous with "RoseAsPink colorOften has the meaning of.

6 OfBirth flowerIs.The season word is summer (when it comes to "winter rose" and "fuyusobi", it's winter.Season wordsbecome). Flower languageIs "love", but it changes depending on the color, condition, number, and combination.


There is no fixed method for classifying roses, and the following is an example.In addition, since abbreviated symbols are often used for roses, they are also described.

Classification by strain


Progenitor species by place of origin

Only the main ones.

  • European species
    • Rosa Alba (dawn rose
    • Rosa Canina(Rosa canina
    • Rosa Garica (Gallica rose
    • Rosa Kinamomena (pink cinnamon
    • Rosa glauca (Glauca rose
    • Rosa Kentifolia (Rose centifolia
    • Rosa Spinosissima (Rosa spinosissma
    • Rosa Wickriana (Wichuraian rose
  • The original species of the Middle East
    • Rosa Fetida(rose foetida
    • Rosa Fetida Bicolor (Rosa foetida bicolor
    • Rosa Fetida Persiana (Rosa foetida persiana
    • Rosa Fetschenkoana (Rosa fedtschenkoana
    • Rosa Damask rose (Rosa damascena
  • Chinese progenitor
    • Koshinbara(Rosa chinensis
    • Rosa laevigata (laevigata rose
    • Rosa gigantea(Giant rose
    • Rosa Primula (Rosa primula
    • Rosa mulliganii (rose mulliganii
    • Rosa Sericana Pterakansa (Rosa sericana pteracantha
    • Rosa Hugo's Rose (hugoni rose
    • Rosa Banksiae Lutea (Rosa banksiae lutea) (Lady Banks' rose
    • Rosa Kinensis(Rosa chinensis
  • The original species of Japan
  • North American species
    • Rosa Kinnamomea (pink cinnamon
    • Rosa Nitida (Rosa nitida
    • Rosa California (california rose
    • Rosa virginiana (virginian rose
    • Rosa Pars Tris (Rosa palustris
The original species used for breeding
    • Rosa Multiflora (Neubara) (Rosa mulitiflora
    • Rosa Wickriana (Memorial rose) (Wichuraian rose
    • Koshinbara(Rosa chinensis
    • Rosa Garica (Gallica rose
    • Rosa Alba (dawn rose
    • Rosa Damask rose (Rosa damascena
    • Rosa Kentifolia (Rosa centifola
    • Rosa Fetida(rose foetida
    • Rosa Moscata (Rose moschata
    • Rosa gigantea(Giant rose

Garden variety

Old Rose (O)

Refers to varieties before "La France" described later.Includes wild rose, the original species of the wild, but may not include it.The main series include Galica, Damask, Aruba, and Kentifolia (Sentifolia).It features an elegant flower shape and a rich scent.Also, many of them bloom in one season.

  • Alba (A)
  • Centifolia (C)
  • Damask (D)-A fragrant strain used for perfumes and the like.
  • Gallica (G)-Red and pink varieties.Most of them are short and have a scent.
  • Bourbon (B)
  • Noisette (N)-A vine lineage.
  • Tea (T)
  • China (Ch)-A short stature.
  • Moss (M)-A derivative of Kentifolia and Damask,Stem,budTomossSomething like that is attached.
  • Portland (P)
  • Polyantha (Pol) -A small, continuous flowering strain that produces tufted flowers.The original variety of Floribunda.
  • Rambler (R)-Based on the Memorial RoseBreed improvementA strain that has long and supple branches.
  • Eglanteria Roses
  • Hybrid Perpetual (H.Perpetual)
  • Hybrid Fetida (H.foetida) (HFt)
  • Hybrid Macrantha (H.Macrantha)
  • Hybrid Musk (HMsk)
  • Hybrid Moyesii (HMoy)
  • Hybrid Semperviren (H.Semperviren)
  • Hybrid Multiflora (HMult)
  • Hybrid Rugosa (HRg)
Modern rose

Refers to those created after "La France" described later.

  • Hybrid Tea (HT)-A cultivar that is arboreal and blooms in four seasons.
  • Floribunda (F or FL) --A grove that blooms in four seasons and blooms in tufts.
  • Miniature (Min)-Small variety.
  • Climbing Hybrid Tea (CLHT)-The sport of hybrid tea.
  • Climbing Floribunda (CLF or CLFL)-A branch of Floribunda.
  • Climbing Miniature (CLMin)-The sport of miniatures.
  • Climbing (CL)
  • Shrub (S or Sh)
  • English Roses (ER)-A shrub (semi-vine) modern rose that combines the characteristics of old and modern roses, announced by David Austin in 1969.It should be noted that a new system has not been created.In international registration, it is registered with Shrub Rose.
  • Landscape Roses (LS)
  • Hybrid Cordesii (H.Kordesii)

な ど

Classification by the number of petals

Classification by flower type

  • Flat bloom
  • Cup bloom
  • rosetteBloom
  • Quarter bloom
  • Pompon bloom
  • Sword valve high core bloom
  • Half-sword valve high core bloom
  • Round valve holding bloom

Classification by flowering season

  • Blooming one season
  • comeback
  • Bloom repeatedly
  • Blooming four seasons

Classification by tree shape

  • Grove (bush)
  • Semi-vine (shrub)
  • Vine (climbing)

In addition, it may be classified in detail such as small vine (short climber), large vine (long climber), weeping (rambler), and crawling (ground cover).


To appreciate the flowersCultivationIt is overwhelmingly done, but there are othersDamask rose(Damask rose) From the petalsEssential oilExtracted "Rose oil(rosé oil)”perfumeRaw materials andAromatherapyUsed for.

When extracting rose oil, petalsdistillationThe liquid obtained byRose water(rose water)”Middle East,IndiaEtcDessertFragrance[5]In addition to being used forLotionAlso used as.

For food,PesticideThe petals without the corollaEdible flowerAs a raw food or petalsjamProcessed into candied or candied or driedHerb teaDrink as and enjoy the aroma.Also, dry petalsGaram masalaOr mix inPersian foodThen.CondimentUsed as.

In addition, the fruit of the rose, "Rose hip"Vitamin CIt contains a large amount of and has a strong acidity.Like petals, it is used as rosehip oil and rosehip tea.

Cultivation history


Roses appear in human history in ancient timesBabyloniaof"Gilgamesh Epic].In this poem, there is a mention of rose thorns.[6].

Around 1500 BCAncient orientThere are about 4 kinds of wild roses in the land, from hereCrossIt is said that several varieties were born by[7]..RosesGreek eraIt will spread through and become established in European culture.[7].

The Ancient Greek-RomeThen the rose is the goddess of loveAproditeOrVenusAssociated with (Venus)[6]..He also loved the scent and made balms.Ptolemaic morningEgyptQueen ofク レ オ パ ト ラLoves roses[6],Julius CaesarIt is said that he used abundant rose flowers and balms even when he was entertained.

Rose balm is also loved in Rome,North africaAnd the Middle EastProvinceRoses were cultivated actively in Japan.The fifth generation known as a tyrant to a person who loved roses as well as CleopatraRoman emperorNeroThere is[6]..He is my favorite貴族At the banquet that we invited, roses floated in the pond of the garden and rose water spouted out.fountainThe room was decorated with roses, and when the emperor gave a signal, roses fell from the ceiling, and it is said that rose flowers were also used for cooking.

Medieval europeThen, as the beauty and fragrance of roses are "misleading people"Christian churchTabooed byConventMedicinal herbWas only cultivated as[6].

Islamic worldThen, the white rosesMuhammadThe red rose is the only godAllahWas said to represent.In addition, perfume oils were produced and loved. ""Thousand and One Nights』And so onOmar Khayyamof"Le Bayert] Also has a description of roses.

CrusaderSince then, roses from the Middle East have been introduced to Europe.RenaissanceBy that time, it became a favorite of people again.Italy OfBotticelliMasterpiece "Birth of VenusIn addition to being a symbol of beauty, roses are drawn inDanteof"Divine Comedy』In the heaven edition, it appears as a pure white" rose in heaven "where saints and angels gather in heaven.AlsoCatholic church The聖母 マ リ アIt came to be called "Rosa Mystica" as the graceful name of.

Mother of roses Empress Josephine

Napoleon Bonaparte OfQueenJosephineHe loved roses, and while his husband was at war, he exchanged information about roses with enemy nations and collected the original species.She ordered roses not only from Europe but also from Japan, China and other parts of the world.Malmaison CastleWhile planting inLuduteTo draw a "rose chart"[6].

By this time, artificial mating by Andre DuPont (Artificial pollination)bybreedingTechnology was established[6]..After the fall of Napoleon and after the death of Josephine, her rose garden collected and bred the original species, and by the middle of the 19th century, the number of rose varieties exceeded 3,000, which is the basis of the current rose as an ornamental plant. became.

Birth of modern rose

Birth of hybrid tea (HT) system

1867/ToFranceGuyot copulates a tee "Madame Blaby" with a hybrid perpetual "Madame Victor Verdier" as a mother.La FranceWas created, and this became the first modern rose.Breed improvementWill go further. The property that "La France" blooms all year round except winter is said to be "four-season blooming" and was epoch-making.

英国Bennett followed suit by mating the tea "Deboniensis" with the hybrid perpetual "Victor Verdier" and the "Lady Marie Fitzwilliam".1882/Created in, and used this as a new rose lineage "Hybrid teaIt was named as a system.Bennett's new varieties were widely used as mating parents because of their well-organized flowers.

Birth of a yellow rose

There were no pure yellow flowers in the hybrid tea rose system at that time.Therefore, the challenge was to produce yellow hybrid tea varieties. In 1900 Joseph Pernay-Duché in France (Joseph Pernet-Ducher) Is the seedling of "Antoine Duchet" and the original species "Rosa Fetida(Austrian Yellow) ”was combined to create“ Soleil Doll ”, which became the first yellow rose.However, since "Soleil d'Or" does not have "four-season blooming", further improvements were made, and in 1 the four-season blooming "Lyon Rose" and in 1907 the completely yellow rose "Subneil de." "Crouge" was completed.GermanyCordes created "Geheimrat Doisgelhi (Golden Lapitua)" in 1933 from "Julian Potan", the son of "Subneil de Cloges".This is the parent of the yellow rose now.

Progress in breeding in Europe and the United States

Cordes was instrumental in improving not only yellow but also red roses. He created the "Crimson Glory" in 1935, which will be widely used for breeding of red roses in later generations.In the UK, "Ofelia" was announced in 1912, and it became the parent of many varieties because it is not only excellent in flower volume and aroma but also easy to bear fruit.Such breeding in EuropeSecond World WarSuspend at.The center of breeding is not hit by warThe United States of AmericaMove to. In 1940, Lamartz created "Charlotte Armstrong" from "Crimson Glory", and French Meian "Madame Antoine Meian" became "Madame Antoine Meian" in the United States.pieceIt was named and was launched in 1945. "Peace" is called "giant ring" because it has big flowers, and it is used for breeding and creates the epidemic of roses after the war.

Birth of Floribanda system (FL)

DenmarkThe Paulsen brothers made the traditional "dwarf-polyansa" flowers larger,Northern EuropeI was trying to create a variety that could withstand the cold. In 1911, the Polyansa "Madame Novabad Revavasl" and the Rambler "Dorothy Perkins" were combined to create "Ellen Paulsen", and in 1924, the Polyansa "Orleans" and the hybrid tea rose. By mating "Red Star", "Elze Paulsen" and "Kirsten Paulsen" were released, and it was named "Hybrid Polyansa".

In response to this, American Boone etc. continued to improve, and this system became "(English editionIt was named "system".In addition, German Cordes announced "Pinocchio" in 1940.Following this, Booneer announced "Red Pinocchio" and "Lavender Pinocchio", which is said to be the completion of the Floribanda system.

Later, the Floribanda improvements focused on seeking color diversity, with Tantau in Germany "Floradora" in 1944, Booner "Maskellerd" in 1949, and Cordes "Independence" in 1951. Created. The "Floribunda line" is a new line, but since it is used as a spray rose in cut flowers, many varieties have been produced, and crossing with hybrid tea has been attempted, further increasing diversity. There is.

Challenge to "miracle" blue rose

"Blue rose" was known as "Cardinal de Richelieu" of Old Rose.However, creating a rose filled with pure blue is blue.TulipIt was a dream of breeders all over the world as well, and breeding competition was held in each country. In 1957, American Fisher released "Sterling Silver", which was said to be the definitive edition of "Blue Rose".However, the competition did not stop, and in 1957 Tantau announced the bluer "Blue Moon".In addition, Cordes released the "Kellner Carnival" in 1964, and Meian of France announced the "Charles de Gaulle" in 1974, and fierce breeding competition was fought.The challenge to blue roses is also active in Japan, and many varieties have been produced to date, attracting worldwide attention.

As of 2008, the varieties that are considered to be the closest to blue in breeding by general mating are:GifuIs an amateur breeder, "Blue Haven" announced in 2002.Moriharu KobayashiThe "Blue Dragon" announced in 1992 and the "Turn Blue" announced in 2006 can be mentioned.

Traditionally bluepigmentSince the original roses with the above have not been found, it has been considered impossible to produce blue roses by the conventional mating breeding method based on the original species.Therefore, there are no cultivars that can be said to be blue in the current horticultural varieties.In addition, the variety called "blue rose" is an attempt to bring it closer to purple or mauve by mainly removing the red pigment from the red rose.afterwards,SuntoryFrom the roses that have been considered to have no blue pigment by the research of Yuko Fukui et al.CyanidinDerivative rose unique blue pigment was discovered[8](From some blue roses including "Blue Dragon").It was named "" (Rosacyanin) because it is unique to the roses.

However, "Seiryu" with this pigment is not suitable as a mating parent because it produces almost no pollen.Genetic manipulationThe road to the blue roses that does not rely on is still a steep and long road.However, it can be said that the discovery of "Rosasianin" has shown a hope for breeders aiming to produce pure blue roses.


ChineseLate poet高駢(821/-887/)ofSeven words"Summer day of the mountain pavilion" ("Quan Tangshi』Volume 598 collection) contains a rose as a rose.[9].

summer mountain pavilion
Green tree shade dark summer day lengthThe green trees are shaded and the summer days are long.
The terrace reflects into the pondDefeat the shadow of the tower and enter the pond
Water blindsWater blind movement breeze occurs
One frame rose Manin incenseFragrant in a rose mansion

Eight species of roses are traditionally cultivated in Chinese gardens[7].18st centuryThe roses that Europeans who traveled to China saw in the Chinese garden were shrub-like, bloomed in four seasons, and were mostly heavy-valve varieties.[7].. EspeciallyCentral ChinaExcellent rosids are cultivated in the gardens in the area and brought to Europe[10].

Karl von Linne The1753/, (R. indica) was published in the annual report "Species Plantarum"[11]. AlsoJakan The1768/,Rosa Kinensis (R. chinensis) was described in the flora "Observationum Botanicarum Pars III"[11]..These were red flower cultivars, but are believed to have been closely related varieties.[11]..Chinese roses were introduced to Japan ahead of Europe[11].


Before modern times

Japan is known worldwide as the native rose, and three of the original species used for breeding (Neubara,Memorial rose,Hermanus) Is native to Japan.The fruit of Neurose was used for medicinal purposes such as having a diuretic effect.

In ancient times, roses were called "Ubara" and "Ubara", and they were called "Ubara".Manyoshu"The thorns to Michinono(Umara)End of(Ure)に延(Ho)There is a song that says, "I will go to you who are entwined with beans." ""Hitachi Country Culture"ofIbaraki-gunAccording to the article, "In order to destroy Saeki, a thief who threatens the inhabitants of the hole, he set a thorn in the hole and drove him into the hole."Hitachi countryIbaraki associated with this event(Ubaraki)There is a place name calledIbarakiIt is also the origin of the prefecture name of.

Also, many of the roses cultivated in ChinaEdo PeriodHave arrived in Japan by[7]..Horticulture was popular in the Edo period regardless of status or occupation, but it is a rose native to China.Lady Banks' rose,KoshinbaraEtc. were cultivated as horticultural varieties.Germans who visited Japan during the Edo periodKaempferAlso records that "roses are cultivated in Japan".AlsoYosano VillageHas left the phrase, "If you climb up to the hill while mourning, it will be a flower thorn."

After the Meiji era

Although it is a plant related to Japanese people like this, it is the reason why roses are loved as "queen of flowers" in Japan as they are today.MeijiAfter that.

Meiji RestorationThe Meiji government said,La France (Japanese name: Tenchi Kai) ”was ordered as a plant for agricultural testing, and Aoyama government farm (currently:Tokyo UniversityIt was cultivated in the Faculty of Agriculture).Onlookers often visited to smell the scent, so the stockWire meshIt is said that the fence was hung.

After that, the rosesGraftThere are excellent grafters because it can be increased withTokyoSuburbsSaitamaKawaguchi cityAngyoAndKeihanshinSuburbsHyogoTakarazukaCultivation began to be carried out in Yamamoto.Rosesroyal,Ethnic family, High-ranking bureaucratspatronAs a result, it gradually began to be loved in Japan, and the production volume began to increase.

TaishoからShowaBy that time, it became popular in ordinary households,Kenji MiyazawaLoves "(Japanese name: Nikko)",Kitahara White AutumnRoses appear in the poems ofJapanese literatureIn the case of roses, the subject matter has increased.

HoweverSecond World WarBelow, even in Japan, roses etc.flowersCultivation of vegetables was prioritized, and production stagnated once.

After the war

In 1948, immediately after the war, TokyoGinzaAn exhibition of roses was held at.Furthermore, in 1949Kanagawa横 浜 市An exhibition of roses was held in Japan, at which time flowers were airlifted from the United States and flowers for display were arranged.Ichiro Hatoyama,Yoshida ShigeruRose lovers such as contributed to the spread of roses in postwar Japan.High economic growthRoses spread in Japan on the wave ofAgricultural experimental stationBreeding has come to be carried out mainly in.It was advanced after the warInfrastructurePublic and private as part of the maintenanceBotanical garden,parkEtc. are installed all over the country, and some of them are known as rose gardens.

In Japan as well, as roses spread rapidly after the war and the number of individual growers increased, a contest was actively held to compete for the quality of hybrid tea flowers.This competes for cultivation techniques in the same way as the chrysanthemum competition, which has greatly improved the cultivation techniques.Rosescut flowersAlso popular in JapanflowersAs rosesChrysanthemum,CarnationIt has the same production output asHouse cultivationIt is supplied to the market all year round.In recent years, even in ordinary householdsgardeningHas become popular, and old roses have regained attention as planting materials and have become popular with many people.

Entry of major private railways

the 1950sIsMajor private railwayEach company began to build rose gardens as part of the development along the railway lines, and rose gardens were opened in various places.

Keihan Electric RailwayFrom before the warOsakaHirakataChrysanthemum dollHowever, we decided to open a rose garden as a spring feature to attract customers, as opposed to the autumn feature of chrysanthemums.The company planned the landscaping of "the best rose garden in the Orient", and was the only Japanese person at that time.British Horticultural AssociationAs a member, he had a track record in introducing roses and improving varieties.Kanjiro OkamotoWas appointed as the director of the rose garden construction[12].1955/Keihan Hirakata Horticultural Project (currently:Keihan Gardening) Was established in the same year12/23ToHirakata Park"Hirakata Large Rose Garden" was opened inside[13]..Currently, "Hirakata Park Rose Garden"[14]It is open under the name of.

KantoBut at the same time,Keisei Electric RailwayFrom before the warChibaNarashino-shiThe amusement park that was directly managed byYatsu YuenIn1957/Opened a rose garden.A chrysanthemum doll exhibition was held at Yatsu Amusement Park in the fall.1959/ToKeisei rose gardeningAlong with establishing Chiba PrefectureYachiyo"Keisei Rose GardenOpened[15]..Even after the closure of Yatsu Amusement Park, the rose garden remains Narashino Municipal "Yatsu Rose GardenIs left as.

continueOdakyu Electric RailwayDirectly managed amusement park "Mukogaoka Amusement"Also1958/"Baraen" opens in.After the closure of Mukogaoka Amusement ParkKawasaki CityBy "Ikuta RyokuchiIt is preserved as "Baraen".AlsoTokyoChofu CityWas inKeio Teito Electric RailwayDirectly managed amusement park "Keio Amusement Park"To1952/The Tokyo Shobuen (later Keio Hyakukaen), which opened in1997/"Keio Floral Garden ANGEIt was renewed as "Rose Garden" and "Rose Garden" was set up (2021/close).

Major private railway gardeningLandscapingAmong the companies, Keisei Rose Nurseries and Keisei Rose Nurseries not only operate the rose garden as a tourist facility along the railway line, but also breed roses and produce many new varieties.In this way, not only agricultural experimental stations and seed companies,Railway operatorIs a characteristic of Japan in that it drives the breeding of roses.

Rose production

  • Kanoya --A city in Kagoshima prefecture. It has a rose garden in the hills as a "town of roses" and boasts the largest scale in western Japan.
  • ShizuokaShizuoka CityShimizu Ward -(Old)Shimizu, Boasting the largest production of roses in Japan)
  • GifuIbi-gunOno Town -(We are proud of the largest production of rose saplings in Japan)

Rose facility

Click [View] on the right to display the list of rose facilities.
Rose garden
Sapling production facility

Rose event

Breeder and researcher collector


United Kingdom

United KingdomThen, of rosesNational collectionDifferent disciplines were maintained by David Austin and Peter Beales.Maintained them pre-1900 shrub rosesMottisfont monasteryAnd kept the collectionUniversity of BirminghamWinterbourne Botanical GardenIt is also designated as a "historical heritage of European roses".




The United States of America

Czech Republic

A proper noun that became the name of a rose variety

Click [View] on the right to display a list of proper nouns that have become rose cultivar names.

Person's name

Myths and folklore

Place name, country name, building

More informations

Culture about roses

Rose as a symbol

Socialism international,Social democracyA red rose is used as a symbol of a political party.

National and municipal flowers

Below, in order to clarify the names of countries, regions, and local governments that symbolize roses.TaiziNotated with.




North America

Formulaic language / idioms

  • under the rose --The meaning of a secret.
  • Thorn Road-A painful and steep road.
  • Blue rose(The blue rose)-God's blessing or impossible.
  • Beautiful roses have thorns-you can be in danger if you are distracted by the beauty of their appearance.
  • There's no rose without a thorn.-"There is no rose without thorns" or "There is no perfect happiness in the world."In France, it means "everyone has a weakness".
  • Run for the roses- Kentucky DerbyMeaning.



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Due to the omission of the initial vowel. Changes similar to "Idaku-> Embrace", "Izu-> Exit", "Still-> Still", etc.
  2. ^ Until it was renewed in 2013, it had 243 species and the number of shares was 4, the fourth largest in Japan.


  1. ^ a b Yoshio Kobayashi By "Rose",Tetsuo Aiga Chapter "Banyu Encyclopedia 19 Plants, 1972. 
  2. ^ Written by "Rose", edited by "Rose"Britannica International Encyclopedia(2nd edition revised edition)TBS-Brittanica, 1993. 
  3. ^ Nichigai Associates ed. "Rose" "Plant 3.2 Name Dictionary"Kinokuniya Bookstore, 2008. 
  4. ^ "Eating roses are doing well Aichi's corporate processed products sales are quintupled""Japan Agricultural Newspaper』June 2020, 3 (19 pages) Viewed June 8, 2020
  5. ^ "TOTOSK KITCHEN Vol. 24 Rose water carrot rose gratin". dacapo the web-magazine.As of August 2016, 8originalMore archives.2014/11/18Browse.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Tracing Roses: History of Roses”. Houda Rose Fragrance Research Institute. 2019/6/6Browse.
  7. ^ a b c d e Nakao 2006, p. 452.
  8. ^ Yuko Fukui "Structure of new pigments of rose petals, Rosacyanin (oral presentation)"Abstracts of the Debate on Natural Organic Compounds" 42 (0), 55-60, 2000, NOT 110006681912, two:10.24496 / tennenyuki.42.0_55
  9. ^ "Gao Pian: Yamatei Kasuga". Web Chinese writing system. 2019/6/8Browse.
  10. ^ Nakao 2006, p. 453.
  11. ^ a b c d Unraveling the Queen of Flowers Rose "China Rose-Chinese Rose" Toshio Tanaka, GARDEN STORY, Takasho Co., Ltd., January 2019, 1
  12. ^ The best rose garden in the Orient and Kanjiro Okamoto Keihan Gardening
  13. ^ Our History Keihan Gardening
  14. ^ Rose garden Hirakata Park
  15. ^ Company history Keisei rose gardening
  16. ^ "The longest" rose tunnel "in Japan, Kawajima Heiseinomori Park, illuminated". Saitama newspaper (Saitama Shimbun Inc.). (June 2016, 5). originalArchived as of October 2016, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20160515110219/http://www.saitama-np.co.jp/news/2016/05/14/06.html 2016/5/21Browse. 
  17. ^ "The largest "rose garden" in the prefecture, Ina Town System Enforcement Memorial Park”. Saitama Chamber of Commerce and Industry Association. 2019/6/6Browse.
  18. ^ "Rose garden (chosei seko memorial park)”. Ina Town (May 2019, 5). 2019/6/6Browse.
  19. ^ "Bara Koen (The Rose Park)". World Federation of Rose Societies.As of August 2018, 7originalMore archives.2019/6/6Browse.
  20. ^ "Kanoya Rose Garden Planting Picture Book”. Kanoya Rose Garden. As of October 2014, 10originalMore archives.2014/11/18Browse.
  21. ^ "Utsubo Park Rose Garden”. Osaka City Flower and Green Information Site. As of January 2015, 1originalMore archives.2015/3/7Browse.


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