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Oda Nobunaga

Oda Nobunaga(Nobunaga Oda,astronomical3/5/121534/6/23〉- Tensho10/6/21582/6/21〉) isJapan OfSengoku periodからAzuchi-Momoyama PeriodOverMilitary commander,Sengoku Daimyo..SengokuThree heroesOne of them.

Owari(CurrentAichiI'm fromNobuhide Oda OfLegitimate man..After the turmoil of the family struggleBattle between SasakamaYoshikawa ImagawaWas defeated and the power was expanded.Yoshiaki AshikagaBy dedicating and expulsing Yoshiaki later,KinaiA unique central government centered onOda administration'[Annotation 4])People of the worldIt became.HoweverTensho10/6/2(1582/6/21), retainerMitsuhide AkechiTorebellionWoke upHonnoji TempleSuicidedid.

So far, Nobunaga's administration hasHideyoshi ToyotomibyToyotomi Administration,Tokugawa IeyasuOpenedEdo ShogunateIt was a breakthrough that created the flow to, and its political method has also been regarded as innovative.[2]..However, in recent years, the history academia has pointed out the prehistoric nature of the policy, and it is often described as the "final stage of medieval society."[2], Research that denies its innovation has become mainstream[3][4].


Nobunaga OdaOda Clan MasatadaThe head ofNobuhide OdaBorn to a childOwari(AichiAs a local lord (western), he began his life[Annotation 5]..Nobunaga succeeded the Oda clan's reign, OwariGuardian feeOda Yamato Moriya and Oda Ise Moriya are destroyed, and their younger brotherNobuyuki OdaAnd gradually solidified the rule of Owari Province[Annotation 5].

In the 3rd year of Eiroku (1560), NobunagaBattle between SasakamaInSurugaSengoku DaimyoYoshikawa ImagawaDefeated[Annotation 5]. AndMikawaLord ofTokugawa IeyasuForm an alliance with (Motoyasu Matsudaira)[Annotation 5]..Eiroku 8 (1565),Inuyama Castle OfNobukiyo OdaAchieved the unification of Owari by defeating[Annotation 5].

On the other hand,Muromachi ShogunateGeneralYoshiteru AshikagaWas murdered (Eternal political change)later,General Ashikaga OfYoshiaki AshikagaIn response to a call for the revival of the Muromachi Shogunate, Nobunaga also tried to improve in Eiroku 9 (1566).[Annotation 5].MinoSengoku DaimyoMr. Saito(Mr. Isshiki), But in 10, he succeeded in destroying Mr. Saito (1567).Battle of Inabayama Castle), Became a warring lord who controls the two countries of Owari and Mino[Annotation 5]..Then, with the intention of reviving the Shogunate again, I used the "Tenka Fubu" seal.[Annotation 5].

In October of the following year, Nobunaga went up with Yoshiaki Ashikaga.Miyoshi three peopleDefeat such asMuromachi ShogunateResurrection of[Annotation 5]..Nobunaga aimed to establish a dual government (coalition government) with the Muromachi Shogunate and realize the tranquility of "the world" (in Kinai).[Annotation 6]..However, there are many hostile forces, and in June of the first year of Kame (1570),Echizen OfYoshikura Asakura·NorthOmi OfAsai NagamasaTheBattle of AnekawaAlthough I succeeded in defeating it withMiyoshi three people,Hieizan Enryakuji Temple,Ishiyama HonganjiBe cornered by[Annotation 5]..At the end of the same year, Nobunaga and Yoshiaki finally escaped from the predicament after concluding peace with some hostile forces.[Annotation 5].

September, 2nd year of Genki (1571),Burning Mt. HieiTo[Annotation 5]..However, the difficult situation continued after that,Battle of MikatagaharaThe Oda-Tokugawa Allied ForcesShingen TakedaIn the 4th year of Genki (1573), Shogun Yoshiaki Ashikaga gave up Nobunaga after being defeated by[Annotation 5]..Nobunaga became hostile to Yoshiaki and expelled Yoshiaki from Kyoto during the same year (Battle of Yeouido Castle[Annotation 5].

Nobunaga, who had to maintain the central government in the absence of the shogun, began his career as a world man.[Annotation 5]..From GenkiTenshoToChangeIn the first year of the Tensho era (1573), Nagamasa Asai, Yoshikage Asakura,Yoshiyoshi MiyoshiSucceeded in destroying these forces[Annotation 5]..In the 3rd year of Tensho (1575),Battle of NagashinoWhile defeating Mr. Takeda inGeneral KonoeInaugurated, embarked on the construction of a new administration to replace the Muromachi Shogunate[Annotation 5]..In the next yearAzuchi castleThe construction of the castle has also started[Annotation 5]..However, after the 5th year of Tensho (1577)Hide Matsunaga,Choji Bessho,Shigeru ArakiRebuked Nobunaga one after another[Annotation 5].

Tensho 8 (1580), for a long timeIshiyama battle(Osaka Honganji War) was settled, and the following year京都Large-scale horse alignment (Kyoto Mima assortment) And show off its power[Annotation 5].

Tensho 10 (1582),Koshu conquestAndKatsuyori TakedaTo commit suicideMr. TakedaDestroyed and subordinated many of the eastern lords to themselves[Annotation 5]..Nobunaga in the same yearMinister-Kanpaku-Conqueror GeneralThe idea of ​​leaving it to one of the above has been raised (Three positions[Annotation 5]..After that, NobunagaFormer parents of ChosogabeFor subjugationShikoku attackDecide,Third son-NobutakaPreparing to send troops[Annotation 5]..And Nobunaga himselfTerumoto MoriEt al.Mr. MouriTo subdueChugoku region captureI was preparing to go to[Annotation 5]..However, on June 6nd,Mitsuhide AkechiDue to the rebellion of KyotoHonnoji TempleWas forced into suicide (The Honnoji Temple[Annotation 5].

It is generally said that Nobunaga's personality was extremely cruel, had a different sensibility from ordinary people, and was cruel to his vassals.[Annotation 7]..On the other hand, there is an objection that Nobunaga placed great importance on public reputation and listened to the opinions of his vassals.[Annotation 7]..Nobunaga worked hard to train martial arts as a hobby.Falconry-tea ceremony-SumoLoved[Annotation 7]..It is said that he was interested in foreign countries such as Nanban.[Annotation 7].

In terms of policy, Nobunaga established his own government in the form of being entrusted with "the world" by Shogun Muromachi Shogunate.[Annotation 8].Emperor,Imperial courtThe predominant view is that they have taken a cooperative stance toward[Annotation 9].

In the Edo period,Arai ShiroishiNobunaga's evaluation was low, as they strongly condemned Nobunaga's cruelty.[Annotation 10].

However, eventually NobunagaWorking royal familyBecame praised asEnshrined as a god in the Meiji era[Annotation 10].Second World WarLater, Nobunaga was evaluated as an innovator because of the new policy.[Annotation 11]..However, doubts are being raised about Nobunaga's image as an innovator, and in recent years, Nobunaga's evaluation has been reviewed in the history academia.[Annotation 11].


* The date isJapanese CalendarbyOld calendar.ADThe notation part isJulian calendarAnd

Settlement of Owari and Mino


astronomical3 years(1534/)July[Annotation 2],OwariSengoku DaimyoNobuhide OdaDaughter of Masahisa TsuchidaIn between[Annotation 12]Born as.About the place of birthShobata Castle,Nakono Castle,andOld castleIt is divided into three theories[7], The view that it is Shobata Castle is influential[7][8][9].. My childhood name isKipposhi(Kipposhi)[6][7].

Nobunaga was born in the "Bansho Tadashi" in the lower four counties of Owari Province.Guardian feeIt was a vassal and branch of the Oda Yamato Moriya (Kiyosu Oda clan).Kiyosu San-bugyWas the family[10]..At that time, in Owari Province,GuardianThe power of Mr. Shiba has already diminished, and Mr. Oda, the guardian, was also divided.[10]..Under these circumstances, Nobunaga's father, Nobuhide, was a guardian.Oda MichikatsuWith their support,Imagawa UjitoyoSteal Nakono Castle from[11]..And Nobuhide was rapidly expanding his power in Owari.[11].

Oda Nobunaga

Nobunaga was quickly handed over Nakono Castle from Nobuhide and became the lord of the castle.[Annotation 13].. According to "Shincho Koki", Nobunaga had many bizarre behaviors and was called "Great Utsuke" by the people around him.[13]..There is also an interpretation that Nobunaga had a developmental disability by doing this.In addition, Takechiyo Matsudaira who was a hostage (laterTokugawa Ieyasu), And although it is possible that he knew him when he was a child, there is no historical material to support this.[14].

Astronomy 15 years (1546/),Old castleAtFormer clothesAnd called Saburo Nobunaga[15][7]..Astronomical 16 years (1547/) Played the first team in a skirmish with Imakawa, and in 18th year of Tenbun, became involved in the political affairs of Owari Province.[16].

Nobunaga Marriage (Seishitsu)

Astronomy 17 years (1548/) Or astronomy 18 years (1549/) Around that time, I was hostile to my father, Nobuhide.Mino country OfSengoku Daimyo-Dozo SaitoWhen the peace with is established, Dosan's daughter, Dosan's daughter, as a proofNohimeMarriage of convenience was exchanged between Nobunaga and Nobunaga[Annotation 14].

By marrying Dosan Saito's daughter, Nobunaga is more likely to be the successor to the Oda clan.[16]..And probably the 21st year of Astronomy (1552/[Annotation 15]Since his father, Nobuhide, died in March, he will succeed the family.[15][16][Annotation 16][Annotation 17]..Nobunaga came to call him "Kazusa Nobunaga" when he succeeded to the family (later changed to "Kazusa Nobunaga").[22][Annotation 18].

Unification of Owari from the succession of the family

After succeeding the family, Nobunaga soon faces difficulties.Nobuhide had a great power in Owari, but it could not be said that the young Nobunaga had enough power to maintain that power.[25]..And, outside the Dansho Tadashi family, there is an opponent named Owari Shugodai and Oda Yamato Moriya of Kiyosu Castle, and inside the Dansho Tadashi family is a younger brother.Nobuyuki(Nobuyuki)[Annotation 19]There were competitors such as[25].

One theory is that Nobunaga's position as Nobunaga's successor was questioned because Nobunaga opposed the peace with Yoshimoto Imagawa who tried to do it in Nobuhide's last years, and Nobuhide also thought that the family would be divided between Nobunaga and Nobunaga. There is a theory that it may have turned to (actually, Nobunaga immediately abandoned the consensus immediately after Nobuhide's death).[26]..However, this peace mediation involves Rokkaku Sadayori, who is hostile to Nobunaga's lord, Dosan Saito, and from Nobunaga's point of view, this may be a tie to conditions that are disadvantageous to Dosan. Some say they couldn't agree with the consensus.[27].

Astronomy In August 21, the Oda Yamato Moriya in Kiyosu clarified the hostile attitude with the Dansho Tadashi family.[25].. NobunagaBattle of KiyosuAfter that, the battle with Kiyosu will continue.[25].

Seitokuji interview

Astronomy 22 years (1553/), Nobunaga's old manMasahide HirateIs suicide[28][29]..Nobunaga mourns,TakugenAs KaisanMasahide TempleWas erected and mourned the spirit of Masahide[28]..On the other hand, probably in April of the same year, NobunagaShotokuji TempleI met Dosan at[30]..At that time, there is an anecdote that Dosan spotted Nobunaga's dexterity, which was called a liar.[31].

Astronomy 23 years (1554/),Battle of Muraki CastleDefeated Imakawa[32].

In this year as well, the battle with Kiyosu was in favor of Nobunaga.[33]..July 7, the same year[Annotation 20], Owari guardianShiba YoshimuneHowever, the warlord of KiyosuSakai DaizenAn incident occurs in which they are killed[33]..This is because it was thought that Yoshimune Shiba was attached to Nobunaga, and the son of YoshimuneShiba YoshikaneRelied on Nobunaga to fall[33].

In this way, Nobunaga got a cause to denounce Kiyosu's guardian as a rebel.[33]..And a few days later,Battle of AjikiNobunaga's army using a long spear overwhelmed Kiyosu[33].

Astronomy 23 years[Annotation 21]The debilitated guardian of Kiyosu is Nobunaga and his uncle.Oda NobumitsuKiyosu Castle was robbed by the strategy ofHikogoro Oda[Annotation 22]Was forced to commit suicide[34]..The Owari Shugodai Oda Yamato family will be destroyed here.[34].

On the other hand, Nobunaga's uncle, Nobunaga, who helped overthrow the Shugodai family, also died on November 11th.[34]..It is probable that this death was due to an assassination[34]..And there is a theory that Nobunaga was involved in the assassination of Nobunaga.[34][Annotation 23].

Death of father-in-law, Dosan Saito

In April 2, his father-in-law, Dosan Saito, was a child.Saito YoshiryuDefeated in the battle withBattle of Nagara River[37]..Nobunaga crossed the Kiso River to Mino's Oura for relief, but struggled with the Yoshitatsu army that gained momentum, and Nobunaga himself was informed of the death of Dosan.PalaceRetreated while doing[38].

Battle with younger brother

For Nobunaga who lost his most influential ally, DosanHayashi Hidesada(Tung Shing) ・Hayashi Tsugu-Katsuie ShibataRaise troops to support his younger brother, Nobuyuki[39]..Nobuyuki had a strong power in the Dansho Tadashi family, such as being given influential vassals such as Suemori Castle and Katsuie Shibata by his father, Nobuhide, and having a certain degree of control in Aichi-gun.[40]..In the first year of Koji, he began to call himself "Banshochu" and was in a position to compete with Nobunaga as a candidate for successor to the Danshochu family.[41].

In August of the same year, the two clashed at Inao, but the result was Nobunaga's victory (Battle of Ino[42]..NobunagaSuemori CastleAlthough he surrounded the Nobuyuki faction, he forgave Nobuyuki and Katsuya through the mediation of his mother, Dota Gozen.[39]..However, the first year of Eiroku (1558/) Nobuyuki plots a rebellion again[39]..At this time, there was a secret notice from the Shibata Katsuie who gave up on Nobuyuki, and Nobunaga who realized the situation invited Nobuyuki to Kiyosu Castle and killed him, calling it illness.[39].

Furthermore, in July of the same year, Nobunaga became a member of the same family.Inuyama Castlemain·Nobukiyo OdaIn cooperation with Owari Kamisho-gun (Niwa-gun, Haguri-gun, Nakashima-gun, Kasugai-gun), the guardian of the Oda Ise-mori family (Iwakura Oda family)Nobuyoshi OdaTheBattle of UkinoDefeated in[39]..And the following year, Shinken's hometown,Iwakura CastleFallen[39].

Eiroku 2 years (1559/) On February 2, Nobunaga took an army of about 2 people.SuperiorityThen,Muromachi Shogunate13 feeGeneral-Yoshiteru AshikagaAudience to[43][Annotation 24]..According to Mikio Muraoka, the purpose of this Kamiraku was to have the shogunate recognize him as the new ruler of Owari.[43]..However, it is believed that this goal was not achieved.[43]..On the other hand, according to Tadayuki Amano, this Kamiraku was not only due to the problem of Owari, but also because Yoshiteru Ashikaga had to reconcile with Miyoshi Nagayoshi, who had the Emperor Ogimachi in the previous year. It is said that Nobunaga himself intended to confirm the situation as the sense of danger of the collapse of the samurai order, which stands at the top of the Ashikaga Shogunate on which various daimyo are based, has increased.[44][Annotation 25].

Battle between Sasakama

Next year, Eiroku 3 years (1560/)June,Yoshikawa ImagawaInvaded Owari Province[45].Suruga-Totomiに 加 え てMikawaguniThe Imagawa clan's army, which also controls, was a large army of 1 and 4.[45][Annotation 26]..The Oda army defended against this, but its troops were only a few thousand.[46]..The Imagawa army attacked the Oda army's fort, led by the Mikawa forces under the command of Motoyasu Matsudaira (later Ieyasu Tokugawa).[46].

Nobunaga kept quiet, but Eiroku 3 years (1560/) May 5th, 19 pm,Mai Wakawaka"AtsumoriAfter dancing[47]..Nobunaga assaulted the Imagawa army and defeated Yoshimoto[48][Annotation 27](Battle between Sasakama).

After the Battle of Okehazama, Mr. Imagawa rapidly declined his power due to the separation of Mr. Matsudaira of Mikawa Province.[Annotation 28]..Taking this opportunity, Nobunaga will join hands with Ieyasu Tokugawa (renamed from Motoyasu Matsudaira around this time), who became independent of the Imagawa clan.[53]..Both sides formed an alliance and solidified behind each other[53](So-calledKiyosu Alliance).Eiroku 6 years (1563/), Based to capture MinoKomakiyama CastleMove to[54]

Eiroku 8 years (1565/[Annotation 29], Nobunaga of Inuyama CastleNobukiyo OdaFinally achieved the unification of Owari[56]. further,Kai countrySince it was decided to form an alliance with Shingen Takeda, the warring lord of the Sengoku period, in November of the same year, Shingen's fourth son,KatsuyoriAgainst Nobunaga's adopted daughterRyusho-ji Temple)[57].

Mino Saito and Yoshiaki Ashikaga

After the death of Dosan Saito, the relationship between Nobunaga and Mr. Saito (Mr. Isshiki) had become terrible.[Annotation 30]..Before and after the battle between Okehazama, the offense and defense of both sides seemed to go up and down.However, Eiroku 4 years (1561/), Yoshitatsu Saito died suddenly, and he was a son.Saito TatsuokiWhen Nobunaga succeeds, Nobunaga dispatches to Mino Province and wins ().Around the same time[Annotation 31]To the northOmi OfAsai NagamasaAnd strengthening the check on Mr. Saito[60]..that time[Annotation 31], Nobunaga is my sisterCityWas put in[60].

On the other hand, in the center, Eiroku 8 years (1565/) May, for some timeKyotoAroundKinaiWas proud ofMiyoshi OfYoshiyoshi Miyoshi-Miyoshi three people-Matsu Eternal DoriKilled Yoshiteru Ashikaga, a general who had deepened the conflict (Eiroku strange[61][Annotation 32]..Yoshiteru's younger brotherYoshiaki Ashikaga(Ichijoin Kakukei, Ashikaga Yoshiaki)Hide MatsunagaProtected and escaped murder[63]..YoshiakiYamatoEscaped from (now Nara Prefecture) and asked various daimyo to cooperate with Kamiraku based in Wada, Omi Province, and later Yajima, Omi Province.[64].

In response to this, Nobunaga also sent a letter to Fujitaka Hosokawa in December of the same year, promising to cooperate with Yoshiaki Yoshiaki.[65][Annotation 33]..In the same year, the spirit beast that appears in the world of Zhizhi eraUnicornMeans"Rin" -shaped KaoIs starting to use[67]..In addition, Yoshiaki realized a ceasefire between Nobunaga and Mino Saito in order to eliminate the obstacles of Kamiraku.[65]..In this way, the strategy that Nobunaga went up as a service of Yoshiaki was scheduled to be carried out in August 9.[65].

However, in August 9, Nobunaga gave priority to maintaining the territorial order and resumed the battle with Mr. Mino Saito.[68]..As a result, Yoshiaki was forced to withdraw from Yajima to Wakasa, and Nobunaga was also leap in August.Battle of KonoshimaWill suffer a big defeat[68][Annotation 34].. Nobunaga, who experienced the humiliation of being ridiculed by the world, must aim to eliminate the threat of Mr. Mino Saito and realize Yoshiaki's superiority in order to restore his honor.[68].

And Eiroku 9 years (1566/), Nobunaga is a leading figure in Mino ProvinceNational peopleIsSato TadayoshiKajita ShuOn your sideNakanoGet the castles of (Dohora Castle,Siege of Seki and Kajita battle,Chuno capture battle[72], Brother-in-lawToshiharu SaitoAs an adopted child of Sato TadayoshiKajita CastleMainly[Annotation 35][73].. furtherMino Triumvirate(Inaba Yoshimichi-Ujiie NaotomoNobunaga, who had (Ando Morinari) on his side, was finally in Eiroku 10 years (1567/[Annotation 36], Saito Tatsuoki in Ise ProvinceNagashimaAnd proceeded to settle Mino Province (Battle of Inabayama Castle[75]..At this time, InoguchiGifuRenamed ("Nobunaga])[Annotation 37]

In November of the same year, the seal "TenkafubuNobunaga is beginning to use the red stamp[77][78]..The meaning of "world" in this seal does not refer to the whole of Japan.KinaiIs believed to mean[79][80], With the intention of reviving the Muromachi Shogunate[80](→# Nobunaga's administration concept). On November 11thEmperor MasachikaCompliments Nobunaga as "a master of ancient and modern times"Imperial PalaceRecovery ・Makoto MakotoI asked for the contribution of the genpuku cost[Annotation 38], Nobunaga only politely replied, "First of all, I know (think)"[81].

Double regime

Oda Nobunaga's War

On the other hand, as already mentioned, Yoshiaki escaped from Omi Province due to the danger of an attack by Mr. Miyoshi.Echizen country OfYoshikura AsakuraI was close to[82]..However, in the situation of hostility to Honganji Temple, Yoshikage could not be improved, and Eiroku 11 years (1568/) In July, Nobunaga went up to Yoshiaki.Yoshimasa WadaToMurai Sadakatsu,Fuwa Koji-Hidemitsu ShimadaAre dispatched to Echizen Province[83]..Yoshiaki on the 13th of the same monthIchijodaniLeaving and heading to Mino Province, on the 25th of Gifu CastleRyushojiI met with Nobunaga at[83].

On September 11, 1568, Nobunaga dedicated Yoshiaki Ashikaga.SuperiorityStarted[84]..Miyoshi Yoshitsugu and Matsunaga Hisahide have already cooperated with Yoshiaki's Kamiraku and have been working to restrain the anti-Yoshiaki forces.[85]..On the other hand, Rokkaku Yoshikata of Minami Omi who resisted Yoshiaki and NobunagaYoshiharuThe father and son were attacked by the Oda army and were based on the 12th.Kannonji CastleI had to abandon[84](Battle of Kannonji Castle).Hexagon father and sonKoga DistrictRetreated to, and then developed a guerrilla warfare[Annotation 39].

Furthermore, when Nobunaga marched to Otsu on September 9,YamatoThe army of the Miyoshi Sanjin who had been on an expedition also collapsed. Yamashiro on the 29thShoryuji CastleRetreated toTomonori IwanariSurrendered[88], Settsu on the 30thAkutagawa YamashiroRetreated toAkimoto Hosokawa-MiyoshiAbandoned the castle, on October 10ndShinohara ChoboSettsuKoshimizu CastleAbandonedAwakuniIt fell to.Only resistedKatsuma IkedaSurrendered to Nobunaga.

However, the people of Kyoto and its surroundings did not see Nobunaga, who had just settled Owari and Mino, as an influential person, and at first Yoshiaki led his own generals and Nobunaga It was recognized as the general of the service[89][90].

Nobunaga, who supported Yoshiaki Ashikaga as the 15th Shogun, was the Kanrei from Yoshiaki, the successor to the Shiba clan, or the Kanrei.Vice GeneralHowever, it is said that he refrained from receiving only the Ashikaga clan's paulownia seal and the Shiba clan's courtesy.[Annotation 40].

Shogunate revival

Eiroku 12 years (1569/) On January 1, when the main force of the Oda army led by Nobunaga returned to Mino Province, Miyoshi Sanjin and Saito Tatsuoki and other Ronin conspired, and Yoshiaki Ashikaga tentatively.Imperial PalaceIsRokujoHonjoji TempleAttacked[92](Honshuji strange).However, Nobunaga showed the mobility to rush to the reinforcements in just two days in heavy snowfall.[92]..However,Ken Hosokawa,Mitsuhide AkechiDue to their strenuous battle, Miyoshi and Saito troops were defeated without waiting for Nobunaga's arrival.[92]..Nobunaga took this opportunity for YoshiakiLarge-scale palace in NijoBuilt[93].

In February of the same year, Sakai was Nobunaga's messenger.Nobumori SakumaWhen Nobunaga responded to the payment in response to these requests, Nobunaga was a Sakai merchant who had been acting as a representative of the Shogunate royal palace in Sakai Hokuso and Sakai Nanso, which have long been part of Sakai.Munehisa ImaiRelieved to take over the post of Sakai and took control of Sakai by taking it under his own umbrella, around April of the following year (1570).Yuka MatsuiWas dispatched as the Sakai government office, and promoted the direct control of Sakai centered on Yuka Matsui-Munehisa Imai (later joined by Muneo Tsuda and Sen no Rikyu).[94]..In addition, it is clear that the format of the Nobunaga-issued document issued to Minami-Omi after January of the same year (in the existing documents) was the same as that of Owari and Mino, and that the area was incorporated into the Oda territory. became[Annotation 41][95].

On the other hand, on January 1, Nobunaga said, "To limit Yoshiaki Ashikaga's power as a shogun,Prince's law』\ 9 rules, and later 7 additional articles were issued, and Yoshiaki was allowed to approve them.However, this did not make the confrontation between Yoshiaki and Nobunaga decisive, and at this point the two were still in a relationship of using each other.In addition, the "Denchu ​​Gosho" and additional articles are sourced in the norms and precedents of the Muromachi Shogunate, and were enacted by Nobunaga, who advocates "Reconstruction of the Shogunate" and "Shizuka Tenka", after examining the Shogunate Law and precedents. There is also a study that it did not deviate from the way Shogun Muromachi was.[96].

In March of the same year, Emperor Ogimachi announced that he wanted to appoint Nobunaga as a deputy general, but Nobunaga did not respond and virtually ignored it.[97].(instead ofKusatsuOtsuSakaiI got the land of.)

On January 13, 1570, Eiroku 1 (former Kame 23), Nobunaga issued five more articles to Yoshiaki, who also allowed Yoshiaki to approve them.In the past, it was generally accepted that this article also strengthened the restrictions on the power of the shogun, but around this time, Nobunaga's calligraphy was written.Kanto areaSince it has been raised to the same style as (Kenshin Uesugi), Nobunaga, who has consistently refused to assume the post in the Shogunate since Yoshiaki's Kamiraku, has officially obtained a status equivalent to the Kanrei ("Associate Official Territory"). It merely stated the request of Nobunaga to assist Yoshiaki as a member of the shogunate officials (originally, Nobunaga should take up the post of shogunate and participate more actively in "Tenka Shizuka". It was Yoshiaki who asked for it), which is a completely different evaluation from the conventional wisdom.[98][99].

Nobunaga's original idea was that although he would continue to serve the shogunate after the revival of the shogunate, the government should carry out the affairs of Kyoto, and he would stay in the territory of Mino and stay in Kyoto if necessary. It is believed that he tried to take a policy of involvement through his own servants.[100][101]..When Tokitsugu Yamashina visited Gifu Castle directly and asked for the approval of the proceedings, Nobunaga stated that he would not handle any proceedings other than the proceedings in Mino ("Sir Tokitsugu" Eiroku November 12). (Article 11), after that, similar proposals were made one after another, and Mino did not accept public proceedings, and issued a ticket stating that he would not hear anything other than the attention from the team (December 12, 2nd year of the same turtle). Article)[102][103]..However, there was also a strong desire to resolve the proceedings with the help of the Oda clan, which has military coercion and the problem of delay in proceedings by the Shogunate (described later).[Annotation 42][106]..For this reason, many proceedings were brought in every time Nobunaga came to Tokyo.In addition, Nobunaga's magistrates who were in Kyoto, including Murai Sadakatsuya[Annotation 43]Some also sought similar approvals[108][109]..However, the shogunate, which Nobunaga expected to be the bearer of political affairs, sometimes became parties to the seizure of public territories and temples and shrines, and in some cases the shogunate itself confiscated and gave it to the shogunate.[110][111]..In addition, in the Muromachi Shogunate, Yoshiteru Ashikaga served as a butler for generations in Eiroku 5 (1562).Sadataka IseAideHarumon SettsuSince then, by the shogun and aidesGozenYoshiaki inherited this policy by reforming the shogunate government by strengthening the authority of the shogun, but as a result, the weakening of the mandokoro made it impossible to handle a large number of cases, causing delays in proceedings. is what happened[112][113]..And above all, Yoshiaki himself has an arbitrary approval[Annotation 44]There was also a situation where the problem was exacerbated by doing[Annotation 45]..It is believed that Nobunaga's enactment of the "Denchu ​​Gosho" was intended to stabilize the Shogunate by facilitating the proceedings in the Shogunate and by stopping arbitrary proceedings by Yoshiaki and his aides and conducting fair proceedings.[116]..However, Nobunaga's stance of actively commenting on the attitudes of the shogun and the shogunate for the revival of the shogunate was warned by Yoshiaki and his aides as the return of Miyoshi Nagayoshi during the Yoshiteru era. The possibility is also pointed out[113].

Invasion of Ise

On the other hand, the 10th year of Eiroku around the same time as the capture of Inabayama Castle (1567/), Nobunaga attacked Kita Ise and placed Kazumasu Takigawa there.[118]..further.Due to the more serious invasion of Eiroku 11 the following year, Kita Ise'sKobeTo the third sonNobutaka Oda,Mr. NaganoTo my younger brotherNobuyoshi OdaAdopted (Nobukane) and solidified control of Kita Ise Yakori[119].

Minamiise GogunKokujiIsMr. KitahataWas proud of its power[120], Eiroku 12 years (1569/) In August, Nobunaga left Gifu and advanced to Minamiise, where the Kitabatake clanOkochi CastleLed a large army and surrounded (Battle of Okochi Castle[121]..Nobunaga tried to attack Okawachi Castle using hard-line measures, but failed, and the battle was prolonged.[120]..After the siege battle, Nobunaga reconciled with the Kitabatake clan in October, and his second son,Nobuo OdaWas sent as an adopted child[121].Tensho4 years(1576/), NobunagaKitabatake TomonoriAre slaughtering the Kitabatake clan[120](Mise's strange).

In recent studies, the battle of Okawachi Castle could not be completely dropped due to the resistance of Kitabatake side despite the siege of Nobunaga side, and Nobunaga moved Yoshiaki Ashikaga and brought it to peace, but Nobunaga about the conditions of peace. There is a discrepancy in Yoshiaki's opinion, and there is a theory that this was the beginning of the conflict between the two.[122].

First Nobunaga siege network

Former turtleNew Year (1570/) In April, Nobunaga marches to Echizen to subdue Yoshikage Asakura, who does not obey himself.[123][Annotation 46]..Oda armyMr. AsakuraI will capture the castles of Zhucheng one after another, but suddenly I receive a report of Mr. Asai's departure[123]..The Oda army, which was in danger of being pinched, immediately began withdrawing andPalaceWith the work of Akechi Mitsuhide and Kinoshita Hideyoshi who served as[123](Battle of Kanegasaki).

In June, Nobunaga went to Omi to avenge Mr. Asai.AnekawaConfront the Asai-Asakura Allied Forces with the Tokugawa Army on the riverbank[125]..At the same time, the Oda-Tokugawa Allied Forces won while defeating Yokoyama Castle in the direction of Asai.[125](Battle of Anekawa).

In August, Nobunaga set out to avenge the three Miyoshi people who had been raised in Settsu, but Ishiyama Hongan-ji, who felt threatened by Nobunaga's military mobilization in the neighborhood, raised soldiers against Nobunaga.[126](Battle of Noda Castle and Fukushima Castle).In addition, 3 Asai-Asakura Allied Forces are in Omi Province.坂 本Invade[126].

However, in September, Nobunaga led the main corps and returned from Settsu to Omi.[127]..The Asakura army in a hurry resisted by standing on Mt. Hiei.[127]..Nobunaga received this and OmiUsayama CastleConfront the Asai-Asakura Allied Forces inShiga[127]..However, in the meantime, the students of Ise Province caused a riot (Nagashima Ikko Ikko), Nobunaga's younger brotherOda NobuokiDriven into suicide[127].

On November 11, Nobunaga reconciled with Rokkaku Yoshikata and his father and son, and then with Nagafusa Shinohara from Awa.[128]..And of the Emperor OgimachiImperial orderOn December 12th, he succeeded in reconciling with Mr. Asai and Mr. Asakura, and escaped from the predicament.[Annotation 47].

Second Nobunaga siege network

Former turtle 2 years (1571/) In February, Nobunaga was under the control of Nagamasa Asai.Isono KazumasaTo allies,Sawayama CastleGot[131].

In May, Nobunaga, who led 5 soldiers, set out for Ise Nagashima, but retired after attacking.However, during the withdrawal, he was attacked by a riot and the Shibata Katsuie was injured.Ujiie NaotomoWas killed[127]..In the same month, Yoshitsugu Miyoshi and Hisahide Matsunaga confronted Junkei Tsutsui and Akitaka Hatakeyama over the rule of Yamato and Kawachi, and Yoshiaki Ashikaga supported Tsutsui and Hatakeyama, so he tied up with Miyoshi Miyoshi and separated from Yoshiaki. Conflict with Nobunaga[132].

In September of the same year, the hostile Mt. Hiei Enryakuji was burned down (Hieizan grilled[131].

On the other hand, when Shingen Takeda of Kai Province annexed Suruga Province, Ieyasu of Mikawa Province andSagami country OfMr. Gohojo,Echigo country OfUesugiHowever, at the end of Genki 2 (1571), he and Mr. GohojoSupernatural AllianceWhen he recovers, he begins to invade the Tokugawa territory.Around this time, Nobunaga was arbitrating between Takeda and Uesugi at the behest of Yoshiaki Ashikaga, and although the relationship between Nobunaga and Takeda was good, the invasion of Nobunaga's ally, Tokugawa territory, took place without prior notice. It was.In recent years, it has been pointed out that Shingen's invasion of Mikawa in the 2nd year of Genki was based on an error in the age ratio of the documents, and it is possible that this was an event in the 3rd year of the Tensho era.[133][134].

Former turtle 3 years (1572/) In March, Miyoshi Yoshitsugu and Matsunaga Hisahide conspired against Nobunaga.[135]..In the same month, Yoshiaki Ashikaga recommended Nobunaga to build a mansion in Kyoto, and Yoshiaki handed over the site of the Kamigyo Mushakoji building to Nobunaga on the condition that he would give a replacement to Tokudaiji Kohei. Order the construction of a mansion.It is probable that this was not just a good mood for Yoshiaki's Nobunaga, but that he wanted to keep Nobunaga in Kyoto, being wary of the Miyoshi and Matsunaga troops going north.[136].

In July, Nobunaga was a son, Bizarre Maru (later)Nobutada Oda)First teamLet[137]..Around this time, the Oda army was repeatedly skirmishing with the Asai-Asakura Allied Forces.[137]..The subsequent war situation developed in favor of the Oda army.

It was Odakata on November 11th.Iwamura CastleOpened and was occupied by Takeda (Battle of Iwamura Castle[138]..Iwamura Castle Ruins who died of illnessKeito ToyamaAfter home (Nobunaga's aunt) IsAkiyama TorashigeMarried to (Nobutomo) and turned to Takeda[138]..In addition, in the Tokugawa territory, the Tokugawa armyBattle of IchikozakaDefeated by the Takeda army, and further in TotomiFutamata CastleWill be in a disadvantageous situation due to the opening of the castle and surrender (Battle of Futamata Castle).On the other hand, Nobunaga told Ieyasu Nobumori Sakuma.Hirohide Hirate3,000 reinforcements were sent, but in DecemberBattle of MikatagaharaThe Oda-Tokugawa Allied Forces were defeated by the Takeda Army, and Hirohide was killed.[138].

It is probable that Nobunaga sent a 12-article dissent to Yoshiaki Ashikaga at some point between December of the same year and New Year of the following year, and the relationship between Nobunaga and Yoshiaki deteriorated due to the question.[139]..This dissent book has traditionally been thought to have been issued in September of Genki 3 from the description in the September article of Genki 9 of "".[139]..However, according to the report, it is unlikely that the dissent was issued in September of Genki 3 due to the description of several other historical materials and the circumstances before and after.[139][Annotation 48]..Shiba states that Yoshiaki began to feel uneasy about the traditional cooperation with Nobunaga due to the defeat of the Battle of Mikatagahara in December of the same year.[139]..And, as a check against that, it is assumed that this dissent is issued.[139].

Former turtle 4 years (1573/), The Takeda army invaded Mikawa from Totomi, and in FebruaryNoda CastleTo capture (Battle of Noda Castle[142].

Seeing Takeda's advance, Yoshiaki Ashikaga chose to break up with Nobunaga in the same month and was hostile to Nobunaga.[143]..Nobunaga marched from Gifu to Kyoto, burning up Tokyo and trying to reconcile with Yoshiaki.[144]..Yoshiaki initially refused this, but the Emperor Ogimachi issued a decree, and on April 4, Yoshiaki and Nobunaga accepted it and reconciled.[144]..In addition, Masashi Kuno was in charge of diplomacy with Shingen Takeda as a guest.Hidemasa Ueno[Annotation 49]It is speculated that Shingen's Kamiraku and Nobunaga were recommended to raise troops to Yoshiaki, and Nobunaga's Kamiraku also aimed to dispose of Hidemasa and his sympathizers, but Yoshiaki also became Nobunaga in response to peace. It is said that the apology fulfilled the purpose for the time being[146][147]..Meanwhile, the Takeda army began withdrawing due to Shingen's worsening medical condition, and Shingen died on April 4.[148].

In addition, Mr. Takeda's invasion of Totomi and Mikawa and the confrontation with Nobunaga during the Genki era are "Operation NishikamiIt has been said that Shingen was aiming for a higher rank, but in recent years questions have been raised about the actual situation and intentions.[Annotation 50].

"Destruction" of the Muromachi Shogunate

The fall of Yoshiaki Ashikaga

However, Yoshiaki continued to resist Nobunaga, and in July of 4th year of Genki, he raised his troops again.Makishima CastleNobunaga defeated Yoshiaki and banished him.[150].

According to the common wisdom, the Muromachi Shogunate was destroyed at this point.Due to thisShogun MuromachiHas the emperor's power, controls the surrounding area centered on Kyoto, subordinates local daimyo, and mediates conflicts, etc.WorldAlthough he lost his position as the organizer, it has been pointed out that Nobunaga inherited his position as the organizer of "Tenka" and was in a position to put various daimyo under subordination and control thereafter.[151][152]..On the other hand, Yoshiaki went through various places while remaining in the position of shogun.Bingo countryTomoMove toTerumoto MoriReceive the patronage of.And, in order to overthrow Nobunaga and return to Kyoto, he issued a command document to each power, and it was also after Nobunaga's death that Yoshiaki surrendered the position of general in both name and reality.[153]..From this, the historianTatsuo FujitaHowever, Yoshiaki's power still has the reality as a shogunate (TomonouraTheory), arguing that Yoshiaki's "public ritual" and Nobunaga's "public ritual" were in a state of parallelism.[154][155]..Regardless of whether the name "Tomo Shogunate" is appropriate, Fujita's point of view is evaluated as valid.[156]..From this point of view, Nobunaga's war after that is considered to be a battle against Ashikaga and other Sengoku daimyos who support it, rather than a unified war.[156].

More than 100 magistrates, magistrates, and other members of the shogunate are accompanied by Yoshiaki's Tomo.[157]..On the other hand, many Bakushin, including Fujitaka Hosokawa, remained in Kyoto and turned to Nobunaga.[157]..These former Bakushin became the power of Akechi Mitsuhide and became involved in the rule of Kyoto in the form of taking over the organization of the Muromachi Shogunate.[157].

After the expulsion of YoshiakiEraFrom GenkiTenshoTo change toImperial courtAnd realized this on July 7th.[158][Annotation 51].

The destruction of Mr. Asakura and Mr. Asai

August 1573, 8 (Tensho 8), Asai family warlordAtsuji SadayukiIn a hurry, Nobunaga led an army of 3 people to Kita Omi.Get off the fort of Yamamotoyama, Tsukigase, and YakioOdani CastleShrinked the ring of siege. The Asakura army has been dispatched to rescue from Echizen on the 10th, but Nobunaga himself surprised and defeated the place where he was alert due to the wind and rain on the night of the 13th.The generals, who were impatient to be overtaken by the general, apologized and pursued the routing Asakura army, and invaded Echizen via Tsuruga (Wakasa).The Asakura army who abandoned the castles and fled to IchijodaniBattle of TonezakaHowever, he lost and abandoned Ichijodani Castle and escaped to Rokubo,Heisenji TempleOf the monks and the clanAsakura KageakiBetrayed by Yoshikage Asakura, he committed suicide.Kageaki surrendered with Yoshikage's head hunter.Nobunaga ordered Nagahide Niwa to be the son of the Asakura family.AiomaruSearch for and kill him, Yoshikage's neckMunehito HasegawaIn KyotoGokumonIt was said to be (Gokumon).Nobunaga made a triumphant return to the tiger Mt. Gozenyama on the 26th.

The following day, on August 8, Hideyoshi Hashiba's attack caused the Kyogoku Maru of Odani Castle to fall, and the next day.Hisamisa AsaiSuicide[161].. Honmaru also fell between 28th and 9st September, and Nagamasa Asai also committed suicide.[161]..Nobunaga is a 10-year-old son of Nagamasa, whose head is also a prison gate in Kyoto.Manpuku MaruIn SekigaharaAnd said.In addition, the younger sister Oichi and his child who were married to NagamasaNagakatsu FujikakeEscaped before the fall of the castle, Nobunaga was pleased with his sister's survival, and later his younger brotherShinoda Oda(Initially uncle'sOda NobutsuguWas entrusted to me).

On September 9, Nobunaga marched to Ise Nagashima with an army of 24 people, centered on the forces of Owari, Mino, and Ise.The Oda army dropped enemy castles around Nagashima one after another in about half a month due to the activities of Kazumasu Takigawa and others, but due to the capture of Nagashima,OminatoToKuwanaHe ordered to leave the ship, but did not comply, and on October 10, he withdrew with Kazumasu Takigawa at Yata Castle.However, as with two years ago, he was surprised by the Ikki army during the withdrawal, and in a fierce hand-to-hand combat, the corpsHayashi TsumasaReturn to Ogaki Castle at the expense of the death of[162].

In November, Yoshiaki Ashikaga was the residence of Yoshitsugu Miyoshi.Wakae CastleLeaved and moved to Kii Province[163]..In the same month, Nobunaga's army, including Sakuma Nobumori, launched an attack on Miyoshi Yoshitsugu.[163]..Yoshitsugu's elderWakae three peopleBetrayal by others causes Yoshitsugu to commit suicide on November 11th[163].. Aug. 12,YamatoMatsunaga HisahideTamonyama CastleSurrendered and surrendered to Nobunaga[163].

In the New Year of Tensho 2 (1574), in Echizen Province, which was the territory of Oda after capturing Mr. Asakura.JizamuraiAnd HonganjiMonkRebellion byEchizen Ikko Ikko) Occurred, and Mr. Asakura was appointed as a guardian by Nobunaga.Nagatoshi KatsuraWas killed in Ichijodani[164].

Furthermore, during the same month, Takeda Katsuyori of Kai Province will invade Tomino.[164]..Nobunaga set out with 3 million soldiers to intercept this, but before Nobunaga's reinforcements arrived, Tono'sAkechi CastleFallen, and Nobunaga withdrew to Gifu to avoid a collision with the Takeda army.[164]..according to,Masakage YamagataIt is said that there was a scene where Nobunaga was cornered to the brink, with 6000 of the 16 horses that solidified Nobunaga's surroundings being beaten and 9 running away after being chased by 7 separate corps.

In addition, Nobunaga told Emperor Ogimachi, "RanmamachiThe emperor asked for "cutting out"Imperial orderAcknowledged with[164].

Suppression of Nagashima Ikko-ikki

In July, Nobunaga and Nobutada were Oda Nobukatsu and Takigawa Kazumasu.Nine GhostsIseShimaLeading a large army, including the Navy, completely surrounded Ikko-Ikki on Ise Nagashima from land and water[165]..The resistance was fierce, but in August, a shortage of troops ran out, and more than 8 people who fled from the riot were defeated, making the riot inferior.[165].. Aug. 9,Nagashima CastleSurrendered and by boatOsakaNobunaga tried to move out in the direction, but Nobunaga fired a salvo of guns.[165]..This is Nobunaga's "Sudden Attack"[166]It is sometimes expressed as, but there is a theory that this is a retaliation for the fact that the Ikko sect side deceived and defeated first.[167]..On the other hand, due to the counterattack on the side of Ikki at this time, Nobunaga's older brother,Nobuhiro OdaThe influential military commander of Oda was defeated[165].

In response to this, Nobunaga surrounded the 2 Nagashima monks who had stood in the castle with a fence from around the castle and annihilated them by burning.[165]..Occupied Nagashima by this battle[165].

Battle of Nagashino

From the 2nd year of the Tensho era to the 3rd year of the Tensho era, Takeda repeatedly invaded the Oda and Tokugawa territories.[168].. Tensho 3 (1575/) In April, Katsuyori separated from Mr. TakedaTokugawaBecame a vassal ofOkudaira NobumasaSadamasa's residence to avengeNagashino CastleAttacked[168]..However, due to the good fight of Okuhira, the Takeda army takes time to capture Nagashino Castle.

Meanwhile, Nobunaga departed from Gifu on May 5, joined the Tokugawa army on the way, and set up a camp in Shitarahara, Mikawa Province on May 12.[169]..On the other hand, Katsuyori also crossed the Kansa River and set up in preparation for the Oda Toyokawa Allied Forces.[169]..The Oda Tokugawa Allied Forces had about 3 troops, while Takeda had about 1 troops.[169].

And on May 5, the battle between the Oda-Tokugawa Allied Forces and the Takeda Army begins (Battle of Nagashino[169]..Nobunaga was in the Shitarahara decisive battleNarimasa SasaMany to the five warlordsmatchlockWas made to shoot using[170][Annotation 52]..The Oda army overwhelmed the Takeda army in this battle[173]..Takeda loses many of the leading military commanders[173]..In a letter addressed to Fujitaka Hosokawa, Nobunaga stated that Honganji was the only enemy to be defeated in order to realize "safety in the world."[173].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,AikokujiNobunaga, who was a singerHitachi countryBeing a nationalMr. EdoBut originallyTendai sectSelf-belief in wearing silk garments that are only allowed by monksShingon sectI learned that the priests of the Tendai sect and the Shingon sect continued to have a controversy by admitting to the priests of the Buddhist sect.Sanjo Nishi Mie-Kajuji Haruko-Kanroji Keigen・ ・Takachika NakayamaFive of them were appointed as magistrates to solve the problem (Silk clothing theory(See)[174]..In addition, the old Sanjo Nishi declined the magistrate around November, and the remaining four people were called "four people" and began to discuss the proceedings in the imperial court including this case.[175].

On July 7, Emperor Ogimachi tried to give Nobunaga the official position, but Nobunaga did not accept it and offered to give his vassals the official position and surname.[176]..The emperor acknowledged this, and as Nobunaga offered, Sir Miyauchi's seal on Yuka Matsui,Takei YuanSecond place law seal, Akechi Mitsuhide to Mamoru Hyuga,Hiromasa HiedaBekki Ukon,Niwa NagahideGiving them the official position and surname, such as Kabane[176].

On the other hand, Nobunaga marched and settled in August against Echizen Province, which was under the control of Ikko-ikki in the previous year, and wrote in a letter that he killed a large number of Ikko-ikki.[177]..Nobunaga entrusted Echizen Yakori to the Shibata Katsuie, and the three Fuchu people (Maeda Toshiie・ Several vassals such as Sassa Narimasa and Fuwa Mitsuharu were assigned to Echizen Province to carry out divide and rule.[178]..In addition, Nobunaga issued nine articles in Echizen and requested the generals of Echizen to comply with them.[178].

The annihilation of Echizen Ikko-Ikki and the annihilation of Nagashima Ikko-Ikki that preceded it put pressure on Osaka Hongan-ji Temple, and Nobunaga took a policy of pardoning Hongan-ji Temple, so a consensus was reached between Nobunaga and Hongan-ji Temple in October.[179]..As a result, Nobunaga temporarily achieved tranquility.[179].

Inauguration of General Ukonoe

On November 3, 1575, NobunagaGondainakuIs appointed to[180].. And on August 11thGeneral KonoeConcurrently serve as[180]..It is believed that this Gondainagon / right general inauguration follows the precedent of Minamoto no Yoritomo being assigned to the same position.[180]..With his inauguration, Nobunaga addressed the official residences and temples and shrines, and tried to maintain the foundation of his existence while using the authority of the emperor and the imperial court.[180]..Since then, Nobunaga is often referred to as "Kami-sama."[180].

This makes it virtually officially recognized by the imperial court as a "world man."[181]..In addition, by this commissioner, Nobunaga became his child even after the expulsion of Yoshiaki Ashikaga.YoshihiroAbandoning the political line that tried to maintain the Muromachi Shogunate system (= Kobu unified government) in the form of holding, and denying this system (= "RetreatThere is also a view that it has changed to ").[182]..Also, Yoshiaki's fatherYoshiharu AshikagaWhen he handed over the general position to his son Yoshiteru, he served as both Gondainagon and Shogun Ukonoe.Big manThere is a precedent (Yoshiteru, who was the current shogun, had no real power), and there is an interpretation that Nobunaga tried to follow the precedent of Yoshiteru, the "great man".[Annotation 53][184]..However, there is no example of using the traditional names of Shogun Muromachi, "Muromachi-den," "Kubo," "Gosho," and "Samurai," for Nobunaga. Was regarded as the power of[185].

Appointment of Nobunaga's successor

On the same day, Nobutada OdaJosuke AkitaIs in charge of[180].

Then, on November 11, Nobunaga told Nobutada, the lord of the Oda clan, as a great family.Gifu CastleCentered onMino-OwariTransferred the territory of the Oda clan, etc.Toshiharu Saito-Kawajiri Hidetaka-Hayashi HidesadaEtc. as Fudai daimyō with Nobutada[180].

Tensho 4 (1576/) In January, Omi Province, which is a key point of transportationAzuchiToAzuchi castleNagahide Niwa was in charge of the magistrate of the castle, and the castle was actually built in April of the same year.[186]..Until Azuchi Castle was builtNobumori SakumaThe castle (mansion) was used as the residence.

As a world man

Third Nobunaga Siege Network

In January 4, he was instructed by Nobunaga.Tamba country OfHatano HideharuFlipping the flag.In addition, Ishiyama Hongan-ji also re-raised troops, and the movement of anti-Nobunaga began to intensify again.

In April, NobunagaNaomasa Harada・ We dispatched an army under the command of Araki Murashige, Akechi Mitsuhide, and Hosokawa Fujitaka to Osaka to attack Honganji Temple.[187]. But,KishuSaikashuIs on the side of the Honganji group, and on May 5rd, Hanawa was hit by the Honganji group and many soldiers including Hanawa were killed in action.[187]..The Oda army is in distressTennojiThe Honganji group, which stands in the fort but gains momentum, surrounded the Oda army.[187].. On May 5, Nobunaga, who received a request for help, issued a mobilization order and entered Wakae Castle, but due to a sudden situation, only about 5 people gathered.[187]..In the early morning of May 5, Nobunaga himself led the army and attacked the Honganji forces surrounding the Tennoji fort, and Nobunaga himself was shot and injured.[187]..The Oda army succeeded in coordinating and merging with the army of Mitsuhide's Tennoji fort, defeating the Honganji army, and pursuing it.[187].. Defeated more than 2,700 people[187](Battle of Tennoji Fort).

Nobunaga returned to Kyoto on June 6th, but at the same time, a controversy arose with him over the next Betto at Kofukuji Temple, and both sides filed a complaint with the imperial court.Since there were complaints from both sides under Nobunaga, Nobunaga avoided giving his personal name in consultation with the above-mentioned four people, but Mr. Fuji's chief, Haruyoshi Nijo, was appointed based on the tradition of Kofukuji. Haruyoshi told Haruyoshi that it should be done, and Haruyoshi, who received this as the appointment of Hiroen, took the procedure.[188]..However, Kanefuka argued that Nobunaga's opinion was intended to be appointed, but Haruyoshi was bending it, and Emperor Ogimachi and the four people who were unable to understand the meaning of Nobunaga's opinion were abstract. I accepted it[189]..However, Nobunaga, who heard it from the four people who visited the report after returning to Azuchi Castle, was furious that his opinion was denied, and sent Hidemasa Hori and others to Kofukuji to reconfirm the facts. Then, Kazumasu Takigawa and Nagahide Niwa were appointed to the imperial court again, and the four people were banished for a while.[190][Annotation 54](Tensho 4th year Kofukuji Betto theory).

Around this time, there was a cooperative relationship with Nobunaga in the past.Kanto area OfKenshin UesugiRelationship with[196][Annotation 55]..Kenshin started peace talks with Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple in April 4, concluded a peace treaty in May, and revealed a conflict with Nobunaga.[197]..Following Kenshin and Ishiyama Hongan-ji, Terumoto Mori, Hideharu Hatano, Saika Ikki, etc. agreed with Nobunaga and colluded.

After the Battle of Tennoji Fort, Sakuma Nobumori and other Oda troops surrounded Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple from land and water.[198], Economically blocked to keep supplies out.However, on July 7, Terumoto Mori dispatched him at the request of Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple.Mouri NavyAbout 700 to 800 ships, etc., as reinforcements for Honganji TempleOsaka BayKizu RiverAppeared at the estuary[198]..The Oda Navy was defeated in this battle, and the Mouri Army moved to Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple.Military resources-ammunitionWas brought in[198](The First Battle of Kizugawaguchi).

Under these circumstances, Nobunaga was promoted to the third rank and Naidaijin on November 11st.In the winter of this year, the emperor Yukiyuki Azuchi was planned, which was supposed to be carried out in the 21th year of Tensho the following year.[199]..Prior to this, Emperor Ogimachi was transferred to Prince Masahito, who was scheduled to travel as a new emperor.[199]..However, at this time, neither the transfer nor Yukiyuki Azuchi was realized.[199].

Oda Ufu

Tensho 5 (1577/) In February, Nobunaga led a large army to subdue Saika Ikki (Kishu attack) Then, in March, the head of Saika IkkiSuzuki SuzukiSurrendered and withdrew from Kii Province[200].

Tensho5 years(1577/) In August, Matsunaga Hisahide rebelled against Nobunaga and siege at his hometown, Ruins of Shigiyama.[201]..Dated October XNUMX, Tensho XNUMXShimozuma RairenFrom the contents of the letter, it is thought that Hisahide's rebellion was in response to the movements of anti-Nobunaga forces such as Ashikaga Yoshiaki and Honganji.[201]..However, after being attacked by the Oda army led by Nobutada Oda, Nobutada Yamashiro fell in October, and Hisahide was forced to commit suicide.[201].

On November 11, Emperor Ogimachi promoted Nobunaga to second rank and Minister of the Right.Tensho 20 years (1578/) In January, he was promoted to second rank.

Owari's soldiers were organized into a corps that reports directly to them, such as the archers, gunmen, horsemen, small surnames, and small people, and in 4, they were gathered in Azuchi.[202].

Invasion of China

May 6 (1578),Harima country OfChoji BesshoRebellion (Miki battle) Occurs[203].

In April, Nobunaga suddenly resigned as Minister of the Right and General Ukonoe.[204]..At this time, Nobunaga wanted to transfer his official position to Nobutada, but this did not happen.[204].

In July, the Mouri armyKozuki CastleWas abandoned by Nobunaga's orderYukimori YamanakaEt al.AmakoReconstruction forces are executed (Battle of Kagetsu Castle[205].. In October, Araki Murashige of Settsu Province suddenly separated from Nobunaga and joined hands with Yoshiaki Ashikaga, Mori, and Honganji to resist Nobunaga.[206]On the other hand, it also has a territory in Higashi SettsuKiyohide Nakagawa-Ukon TakayamaTemporarily tuned in to Murashige[206]Soon, I returned to Nobunaga[207][208][209].

On November 11, the Oda Navy, led by Yoshitaka Kuki, defeated the Mouri Navy and succeeded in blocking the supply of troops to Honganji Temple.[210](Second Battle of Kizugawaguchi). In December, the Oda army besieged Araki Murashige's caged Arioka Castle and launched a military siege (Battle of Arioka Castle[211].

Tensho 7 (1579/) In May, the castle tower of Azuchi Castle was completed as a building with 5 floors above ground and XNUMX floor below ground, and Nobunaga moved here.[186].. this is,Sakamoto CastleIt was more luxurious and larger than the preceding castle tower[186]..Nobunaga set up paintings of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism by Eitoku Kano on the castle tower, and also built a building similar to Seiryoden near the castle tower.[186]..It is also evaluated that this was intended to overcome the emperor's authority and advance into East Asian countries, but Hiroyuki Shiba says that it shows Nobunaga's stance of respecting traditional social authority.[186].

In June of the same year, by Akechi MitsuhideHachijo CastleAs a result of the siege, Hideharu Hatano is finally captured and executed[212]..Mitsuhide achieved the settlement of Tamba and Tango during the same year.[213].

On the other hand, Araki Murashige, who was cornered due to less chance of obtaining reinforcements, left Arioka Castle and broke through the siege network in September of the same year and entered Amagasaki Castle, which is a strategic point.[214][Annotation 56]..However, due to the return of the Ukita Naoie to the Oda clan, reinforcements from Mr. Mouri could not be obtained, some of the castle soldiers of Arioka Castle also separated, and Arioka Castle finally fell.[215]..And Nobunaga slaughtered Mr. Araki's wife and children and hundreds of vassals.[214].

The following year, Tensho 8 (1580/) In January, Bessho Nagaharu was seppukuMiki CastleIs open[216]..A few months later, Nobunaga captured the entire Harima province.[216].

Political situation in the 7th year of Tensho

In November, Nobunaga opened the Oda clan's KyoyashikiNijo Shin GoshoAs,Crown princeWas promoted to Prince Masahito[217][Annotation 57].

This year, Nobunaga was the son of Ieyasu Tokugawa.Nobuyasu MatsudairaIs said to have ordered seppuku[218]..This is Nobuyasu's orgy, Nobuyasu's motherTsukiyamaIt is said that Ieyasu was murdered by Lady Tsukiyama and seppuku Nobuyasu according to Nobunaga's intention, because it was said that it was due to the secret communication to Mr. Takeda.[218]..However, there are many questions about this myth, and it is believed that in recent years, due to the conflict between Ieyasu and Nobuyasu's father and son, Nobunaga was only asked by Ieyasu for his son-in-law's disposition.[219](Nobuyasu MatsudairaSee section).

Peace with Osaka Hongan-ji Temple

Tensho 8 (1580/) March 3th, KantoHojo UjimasaThere was a request for subordination from the government, and Mr. Hojo was placed under the control of the Oda administration.As a result, Nobunaga's version expanded to Togoku.[220].

In April of the same year, under the command of Emperor Ogimachi, Honganji finally gave up resistance and reconciled with the Oda clan (so-called).[221]..However, on the Honganji sideTeachingIs trying to stay in Osaka and continue the battle[221][222]..There was a great deal of resistance to peace among the students, but Kyōnyo was forced to give up on the continuation of the siege and left Osaka in August.[222].. Nobunaga carried out with the advocacy of "for the world"Osaka Honganji WarWas finally settled over 10 years[221].

The success of overthrowing Honganji is considered to be one of the milestones of the Oda administration.[223][224]..Although the Ikko-ikki battles in each region will continue, the defeat of Osaka Hongan-ji will reduce organizational resistance.[225]..From around this time, there is a theory that the meaning of "Tenka" came to refer to the whole of Japan beyond mere Kinai, and Nobunaga began to aim for "Tenka Issei".[224].

On the other hand, in August of the same year, Sakuma Nobumori, an old vassal who was the commander of the Osaka Hongan-ji War, and his son, NobumoriSakuma NobuhideIn response, Nobunaga sent a punishment letter.[226]..And he ordered the expulsion to Mt. Koya because of the inadequacy of the battle with Honganji.[226]..In addition, including Hidesada Hayashi, a senior vassalMorito AndoAnd its childSadaharu,Mr. Niwa winsWe were also banished[226][227].


Kyoto Mima alignment and Minister of the Left appointment

On January 9, 1581, Nobunaga ordered Akechi Mitsuhide to prepare for horse alignment in Kyoto.[228]..This horse alignmentMaehisa KonoeThe power of the Oda army is less than that of Emperor Odamachi by mobilizing all the daimyo and nationals of the Oda branch, including the Kuge and Kinai.Imperial courtIt was a major military parade to show off to the people of Rakuchu and Rakuchu, as well as to the military commanders of other countries.[229]..However, it is said that it was the imperial court, not Nobunaga, who requested the holding of horse alignment.[229]..Nobunaga held a firecracker festival, Sagicho, in Azuchi at the beginning of the 9th year of the Tensho era, and the imperial court saw it and asked for it to be reproduced near the Kyoto Imperial Palace.[229]..However, it was Nobunaga himself who changed Sagicho to horse alignment.[229].

February 2, KyotoInner sideA large horse lineup was held at the eastern Baba (Kyoto Mima assortment[229]..In addition to Nobunaga and Oda Ichimon, Nagahide Niwa and others showed the military power of the Oda army corps. In "Shincho Koki", it says, "I was born to the gods of the noble crowd ... (Omitted) ... Thankfully, it's a sight to see in the late Koki."

On March 3th, Nobunaga again arranged horses with more than 5 famous horses.[230]..For this reason, there is a view that this Kyoto Oma alignment was a military pressure for Nobunaga to urge Emperor Ogimachi to transfer to Prince Masahito.[229]It is said that Kyoto was in turmoil with people who heard its reputation from the neighborhood, regardless of Rakuchu or Rakuchu.[230].

On March 3, the emperor appointed Nobunaga as Minister of the Left[231].. This intention was communicated to Nobunaga on March 3, and Nobunaga replied, "I would like to receive it when Emperor Ogimachi takes over and Prince Masahito takes the throne."[231]..The imperial court discussed the matter and Nobunaga was informed of some intentions of the imperial court.[231].. On March 3, a reply from Nobunaga arrived, and the imperial court is satisfied with this.[231]..However, on April 4, Nobunaga suddenly said, "This yearGolden GodIt's the year of the year, so it's inconvenient for the transfer. "The transfer and Nobunaga's appointment as Minister of the Left will be postponed[231]..However, it was issued at this timeOnmyodo(Tsuchimikado Hisashi-Kamo Azumasa) On March 3stKanbunWas copied by Emperor OgimachiHigashiyama GobunkoSince the copy of Konjin is mentioned in the copy, the imperial court is aware of the issue of Konjin's year at least on the 21st, and the transfer and the postponement of the appointment of the Minister of the Left are also postponed. There is also a view that Nobunaga's reply on March 3 is a postponement of the request from the imperial court.[232].

At the Hassaku Festival on August 8, Nobunaga held a lineup of horses under Azuchi Castle, but this was a procession in which the Kuge people such as Konoe Sakihisa also participated, and Azuchi was the center of the samurai government. It became an event to profess to[230].

Koyasan siege

Tensho 9 (1581/),KoyasanShows a move against Nobunaga, such as concealing the remnants of Araki Murashige and communicating with Yoshiaki Ashikaga.[230].. According to "Shincho Koki", Nobunaga sent more than a dozen messengers, but Koyasan killed all the messengers (Koyasan side said that Ashigaru and his friends had defeated him because he worked a violent wolf clan instead of searching).On the other hand, in "", a letter was sent through Matsui Yuka in August of the previous year asking whether there was a relationship between the Koyasan sect and the remnants of Araki Murashige, and then on September 8st, he joined the rebellion.TakanoCaptured and imprisoned or killed[230]..For this reason, in January 9,Negoro-ji TempleKoya Hijiri formed a mass rebellion against Nobunaga in cooperation with Nobunaga.[230].

Nobunaga is a clanIzumiKishiwada Castlemain·Oda NobuharuAppointed as general general and announced the attack on Mt. Koya[230].. On January 1, 30 Koya Hijiri were arrested and executed in Ise and Kyoto.[230].. On October 10, NobunagaHidemasa HoriAfter dispatching the army of the above as reinforcements, they attacked Negoroji Temple and captured 350 people.[230].. From Koyasan Seven Entrances on October 10thJunkei TsutsuiThe army was also dispatched as a force to make a total attack, but the Koyasan side also boldly responded, the battle was prolonged, and many were killed.[230].

In the 10th year of the Tensho era (1582), Nobunaga decided to focus on the conquest of Koshu, so the battle of Mt. Koya was avoided for the time being.In April after the destruction of the Takeda clan, Nobunaga replaced Nobuharu with Nobutaka as general general.[230]..Nobutaka attacked Mt. Koya and killed 131 high priests and many sectarians[230]..However, the Honnoji Incident occurred without a settlement, and the siege of Mt. Koya by the Oda army ended, avoiding the same danger of burning as Mt. Hiei Enryakuji.[233].

Koshu conquest

In May 9 (Tensho 1581)VietnamUesugi's military commander who was protectingKawadaThe Oda army invaded Etchu and took control of the majority of the country. Etchu in JulyWooden boat castleLord'sIshiguro ShizunaWas ordered to Nagahide Niwa and killed in Omi, EtchuGankaiji Castlemain·Morinaga TerasakiI also ordered seppuku. On March 3Takatenjin CastleRegained and cornered Takeda Katsuyori.In Kishu, the Saika party split internally, and Nobunaga supporter Suzuki Magoichi became an anti-Nobunaga group.Heiji DobashiThe power was reduced by fighting with them.

Takeda Katsuyori with the Echigo Uesugi family after the defeat of the Battle of NagashinoKoetsu AllianceConclusion andShinfu CastleWhile trying to rebuild the territory by building a castle, by returning Oda Nobunaga (Katsunaga) who was a hostage, he sought peace with Nobunaga (Kazuyo Koe) through Yoshishige Satake, but did not proceed.

Tensho 10 (1582/) On February 2, he was the son-in-law of Shingen Takeda.Yoshimasa KisoTurns over to Nobunaga[234].. On February 2, Nobunaga issued a large mobilization order to Nobutada to carry out a full-scale invasion of Takeda territory.From Suruga Province to Ieyasu Tokugawa, from Sagami ProvinceHojo, From HidaKanamori Nagachika,KisoOda Nobutada started to capture Takeda territory respectively[234]..Nobutada's army is the military commander, Kazumasu Takigawa, and Hidetaka Kawajiri, who will be Nobutada's Fudai daimyō.Morinaga OK-Mori HideyoriThe number of troops in this Allied Forces has risen to more than 10.Under the leadership of the Kiso army, the Oda army will advance to Suwa Uehara on February 2nd with 2 people.[234].

In the Takeda army, the castle soldiers are castle generals.Nobu ShimojoSurrendered to the Oda army.Furthermore, in MinamishinanoMatsuo Castlemain·Nobumine OgasawaraWill surrender to the Oda army on February 2[234]..Furthermore, Nagamasu Oda,Oda Nobutsugu,Sadamichi InabaOda armyFukashi Castle OfMasafusa BabaFight the army and open it[234]..SurugaEjiri Castlemain·Shin AnaAlso surrendered to Ieyasu Tokugawa and led the Tokugawa army while going up the Fuji River from Suruga and entering Kai Province.[234]..In this way, the Takeda army surrendered to the Allied Forces in a fighting manner, and was defeated in a destructive manner without systematic resistance.The only thing the Takeda army boldly resisted wasNishina MorinobuShinano with a basketTakato CastleHowever, on March 3, the castle fell under the attack of the Oda army led by Nobutada, and more than 2 head hunters were sent to Nobunaga.[234].

During this time, Katsuyori was in Suwa, but before the Allied momentum, he withdrew Suwa and returned to Kai Province Shimpu.[234]..However, in response to the betrayal of Anayama and others and the fall of Shinano Zhucheng, Shinpu Castle was abandoned and the castle was set on fire.Katsunuma Castleentered in[234]..Oda Nobutada's army invaded Takeda territory with a tremendous force and occupied the castles on the Takeda side one after another, and Nobutada was the headquarters of Takeda territory on March 3 when Nobunaga set out to conquer Koshu.KofuOn March 3th, Kazumasu Takigawa made Katsuyori Takeda and Nobuyuki father and son suicide in Tano, Tsuru-gun, Kai Province, and Mr. Takeda was destroyed here.[234]..Katsuyori and Nobuyuki's father and son were sent to Nobunaga through Nobutada.[235].

Nobunaga will proceed from Iwamura Castle to Yabane on March 3th, and will conduct a head hunting of Katsuyori on March 13th.[236].. On March 3, I entered Hokkeji Temple in Suwa from Takato, and on March 19 I met with Yoshimasa Kiso to meet Shinano 3 counties and Nobutada Anayama to relieve the former territories of Kai and Suruga.[236].. On March 3, Kazumasu Takigawa of the former Takeda territory as this military serviceUeno countryAnd Shinano 2 counties,Kanto area[Annotation 58]Appointed toYabashi CastleStationed in[236].. On March 3, Kai Province was given to Hidetaka Kawajiri, excluding the territory of Anayama, Suruga Province was given to Ieyasu Tokugawa, and the four counties of Kitashinano were given to Mori Nagayoshi.[236]..Minamishinano was given to Hideyori Mori.At this time, Nobunaga issued a national rule to the former Takeda territory, stipulating matters related to the abolition of barriers, service, and the boundaries of territories.[236].

On April 4, Nobunaga went to see Mt. Fuji and received the generous entertainment of Ieyasu.[236].. Entered Suruga Kokokuji Castle on April 4, and received entertainment by Hojo Ujimasa.[236]..Furthermore, Ejiri Castle, on April 4thTanaka CastleEntered the castle on April 4thHamamatsu CastleEntered the castle[236]..By boat from HamamatsuYoshida CastleEntered Kiyosu Castle on April 4th.[236].. Returned to Azuchi Castle on April 4[236].

The subjugation of Mr. Takeda by Nobunaga had a great influence on the lords of Ou.Mr. NanaDispatched a messenger to Nobunaga in May and swore "unique loyalty"[238]. Also,Teremune DateAide /Endo MotonobuAs of June 6stYoshitake SatakeSend a letter to Nobunaga, calling for a struggle for Nobunaga's "Tenka Issei"[239], Reveals the attitude of Nobunaga.

Three job appointment problem

On New Year's Day in Tensho 10 (1582), there is a statement in "Nobunaga Koki" that Nobunaga showed the "Miyuki no Ma" of Azuchi Castle to those who served.[240]..And on the 7th of New Year,Harutoyo KajujiSince the saddle for Yukiyuki was completed,Emperor Masachika("Harutoyo Kaju")[240]..For this reason, it is probable that Emperor Ogimachi was scheduled to go to Azuchi in the 10th year of the Tensho era or later.[240].

April, NobunagaMinister-Kanpaku・ The idea of ​​leaving it to one of the Shoguns was with Murai Sadakatsu.Samurai Denso-Harutoyo KajujiWas discussed with[241](Three job appointment problem).This is described by Harutoyo in "", but the meaning of the phrase "I'm sorry to say that it's a good idea" is not clear.[241]..Under such circumstances, there is a dispute among researchers as to whether this appointment was due to the imperial court's proposal or Murai Sadakatsu's offer.[241]..In any case, in May, the imperial court sent a messenger to Nobunaga's castle, Azuchi Castle.[241]..Nobunaga replied to Emperor Ogimachi and Prince Masahito[Annotation 59], The content of the reply is unknown.

Honnoji Incident and the End

Under these circumstances, NobunagaShikoku OfFormer parents of ChosogabeDecided to capture, Nobutaka, the third son, Nagahide Niwa, a senior vassalYachitaka Hachiya-Nobuzumi TsudaPrepared to dispatch an army of[242]..At this time, Nobutaka was supposed to be adopted by Miyoshi Yasunaga, who has a power in Awa.[242]..And after the subjugation of Chosokabe MotochikaSanuki countryTo Nobutaka,AwakuniWas planned to be given to Miyoshi Yasunaga[242]. Also,Iyo country-TosukuniRegarding, Nobunaga was planning to go to Awaji and decide the punishment of the remaining two countries.[242]..And Nobutaka's invasion of Shikoku was scheduled for June 6.[243].

However, since Akechi Mitsuhide has traditionally been in charge of acting as an intermediary with Chosokabe Motochika, this change in Shikoku policy jeopardized Mitsuhide's position.[242][243].

On May 5, Ieyasu Tokugawa visited Azuchi Castle to thank Suruga Province.[244]..So Nobunaga orders Akechi Mitsuhide to entertain[244]..Mitsuhide welcomed Ieyasu from the 15th to the 17th.[245]..Nobunaga's trust in Mitsuhide was deep[246]..On the other hand, at the time of this entertainment, although it is not certain whether it is true or not,Frois Japanese HistoryReported that Nobunaga was dissatisfied with Mitsuhide and kicked him.[247][Annotation 60]..Nobunaga continued to entertain IeyasuBitchu Takamatsu CastleReceived a request for reinforcements from the messenger of Hideyoshi Hashiba who is attacking[245]..Nobunaga ordered Mitsuhide to go to reinforce Hideyoshi[245][Annotation 61].

On May 5, Nobunaga responded to Mori Terumoto and Mori, who are still resisting.ChugokuTo prepare for the expedition, without taking a escortSmall family nameLeading only the people from Azuchi Castle,Honnoji TempleWas staying in[244][250].

However, the Akechi army, which should have ordered Hideyoshi to reinforce, suddenly marched to Kyoto.6/2Raid Honnoji Temple before dawn[251]..At this time, Mitsuhide was hiding that the target was Nobunaga during the invasion.Honjo Soemon Memorandum』From[252]..Nobunaga was led by only a few hands, but at first he himself bowedspearI struggled with my hand.However, Nobunaga set himself on fire in the burning flames, not against the overwhelming majority of the Akechi army.SuicideAnd ended[251]..49 years old[251][Annotation 62].

Nobunaga's body was not found[254]It is probable that this was because there were too many burnt bodies and it was not possible to grasp which was Nobunaga's body.[255][Annotation 63].

Four months after the Honnoji Incident,Hideyoshi HashibaBy the hands ofDaitokuji TempleNobunaga's funeral was held grandly in[257].


Character review

HistorianYuko Ikegami"The most accurate and cohesive personal commentary" about Nobunaga by contemporaries is a missionaryLouis FroisStates to be[258]..Regarding Nobunaga, "It is undeniable that he was an extremely rare and excellent person, and as an extraordinary prominent Capitan (commander), he ruled the world with great wiseness."[259]According to Frois, who also said, Nobunaga was the following person.

He was medium-height, delicate, had few beards, had a good voice, was extremely warlike, engaged in military discipline, honored, and strict in justice.He could not help punishing the insults he had inflicted on him.In some things he showed humanity and compassion.His sleep was short and he got up early in the morning.He wasn't greedy, he had a big decision, he was extremely tactical, very hasty, and angry, but he wasn't.He obeyed little or almost no vassal's advice and was highly revered by all.He didn't drink, he ate, was extremely straightforward in treating people, and was arrogant in his own view.He looked down on all the princes of Japan and spoke to them from above his shoulders as he did to his subordinates.And people tell himAbsolute monarchSubmissive as to.He was open-minded and patient, even if his luck was against him.He had good reason and clear judgment, and was a contempt for all worship and reverence of God and Buddha, as well as all pagan divination and superstitious customs.Only the shape is initiallyHokke BuddhismHe showed an attitude that he belonged to, but after taking the position, he looked down on all the idols, and some points,Zen BuddhismAccording to his view, there was no immortality of the soul, no punishment for the afterlife.He was extremely clean in his house, did everything he did very carefully, disliked prolongation and sloppy prefaces during conversations, and spoke intimately with his sneaky servants.He especially loved the famous tea ceremony bowls, good horses, swords,FalconryAnd, in front of you, both high and low status are naked and rutal (Sumo) Was taken very much.He didn't allow him to sneak in front of him with any weapons.He had a slightly melancholy look, was extremely fearless in embarking on a difficult attempt, and in all things people obeyed his words. — From "Frois Japanese History"[260]

Hiroko Ikegami says that such an "absolute monarchy" image of Nobunaga drawn by Frois is an appropriate depiction that does not contradict Nobunaga's actual words and actions.[258]..On the other hand, the historianChisato KandaAccording to Nobunaga, there are many parts that cannot be confirmed in Japanese historical materials, and as described below, it is problematic to swallow Nobunaga's evaluation by Frois.[261]And


According to Hiroko Ikegami, Nobunaga killed many of his opponents and committed more atrocities than necessary.[262]..By doing so, Nobunaga wrote in his letter that he "dissipated his anger."[262]..One such case was the burning of 2 men and women in the annihilation of Nagashima's Ikko-ikki, and Nobunaga was distracted by this act.[263]..In addition, as seen in the response to Iwamura Castle, Nobunaga often promised to save the enemy's castle on the condition of surrender, but after surrender, he violated that promise and carried out a massacre. ing[264].

However, the massacre against hostile forces was widespread among the Sengoku daimyo at that time, and was not only carried out by Nobunaga.[265][Annotation 64]..Regarding Nobunaga's annihilation, the early Edo periodShimabara's turbulenceSimilarity to the genocide in[266].Fuyuhiko YokotaAccording to this, it is not appropriate to think that such a murderous act was an event peculiar to the early modern period and was caused by Nobunaga's cruelty, the "individuality of the despot".[266].

Anecdotes that show Nobunaga's cruelty are often mentioned at the New Year's banquet in 2.[Annotation 65].. 『NobunagaAccording toHisamisa Asai-NagamasaWith father and sonYoshikura AsakuraThree necks[Annotation 66]TheLight(Hakudami[Annotation 67]The banquet of "After leaving other countries, only Mimawari"Side dishShowed off as.Nobunaga was in a very good mood ("Nobunaga』Volume XNUMX[269]).Tadachika KuwataDescribes this as "I can see how cruel and brutal Nobunaga was."[270]..For this view of KuwataYoshimi MiyamotoIs a sign of respect for the enemy general, and in the new year, a new departure was made by mourning the bodhi of the three generals at a place of purification that combined the present life and the posterity. It is analyzed as a biased evaluation due to oversight of neck makeup customs.[271].


As described in "Shincho Koki", Nobunaga as a boy was known for his eccentricity and was called "Great Utsuke".[21]..It is said that he walked around the city wearing strange-looking clothes, eating chestnuts, persimmons, and melons.[21]..Furthermore, at the funeral of his father, he was outraged by throwing incense toward his mortuary tablet.[21]..Such eccentricities have often been regarded as a symbol of Nobunaga's genius.[272].

However, Chisato Kanda states that Nobunaga, an adult, was not the person who performed such eccentricities.[272]..From the documents left by Nobunaga himself, as seen in the XNUMX articles of dissent to Yoshiaki Ashikaga and the punishment letter to Nobumori Sakuma, it can be seen that Nobunaga placed great importance on public reputation.[273]..And Nobunaga acted according to the common sense of the time and tried to get the support of people.[272].

Treatment of vassals

With a few exceptions such as Akechi Mitsuhide and Hosokawa Fujitaka, Nobunaga appointed only Owari-born Fudai to important positions.[Annotation 68][274].

While none of these Fudai people betrayed Nobunaga, those who were "outsiders" such as Matsunaga Hisahide, Araki Murashige, and Akechi Mitsuhide eventually rebelled against Nobunaga.[274]..Hiroko Ikegami cites Nobunaga's opposition to the heavy use of Fudai as one of the factors behind the rebellion of Hisahide and Mitsuhide.[274][Annotation 69].

Also, Matsunaga Hisahide,Choji Bessho,Shigeru ArakiThere is also a theory that their rebellion is due to Nobunaga's fierce personality.Some researchers point out that they have a lot of grief, they are really capricious, their personality is suspicious and obsessive, and that has led to many rebellions.[276][277]..As seen in Frois's personal commentary mentioned above, the vassals were required to obey Nobunaga and were not allowed to dispute.[258].

On the other hand, there are some disagreements with this view.According to Chisato Kanda, Nobunaga respects the opinions of his vassals to some extent.[278]Also, I was careful in handling my vassals[279]..Kanda gives some examples of the former, but for example, Nobunaga confirms Hideyoshi Hashiba's arbitrary decision in the capture of China, and in accordance with the objection of Nobumori Sakuma, the military commander Mikayoriren Forgive[278]..There is a statement that the document "", which was previously understood to require vassals to obey, should be pointed out without hesitation if Nobunaga's opinion is wrong.[278]..And if the vassal's will is valid, Nobunaga promises to adopt it.[278]..The Sengoku daimyo at that time valued the consensus of his vassals, but Nobunaga was no exception and thought that the consensus of the whole family was necessary.[280].

Regarding the relationship with Nobunaga's vassals, it is often noted that Nobumori Sakuma, the chief vassal of Fudai, was banished.This expulsion is generally regarded as a case in which Nobunaga mercilessly expelled an incompetent vassal.[281]..For example, Hiroko Ikegami describes it as a manifestation of "the ruthlessness of truncating even Fudai and Shigeomi ..."[226]..However, according to Kanda, Nobunaga's response was ruthless, given that Nobumori was given the opportunity to regain his honor before his expulsion, and that Nobumori was thought to have lived a peaceful life on Mt. Koya. I can't say[279]..And Nobunaga's attention to the treatment of his vassals is supported by the fact that Nobunaga cites an excessive burden on the Nobumori family as one of the reasons for the expulsion of Nobumori.[279].

Originally, he was not disrespectful of his senior vassals, but due to the fact that he was placed on the front lines and territories of various places, Azuchi Castle Ruins held only two New Year's ceremonies to gather for the New Year's greetings.Furthermore, there is no council with the senior vassals, it is difficult to communicate only through Nobunaga's close servants, and there is no fear that the vassals will betray them. I was not good at it.It has been pointed out that this caused the betrayal of senior vassals and the collapse of the government.[282].

Religious Faith

Description of "Frois Japanese History" mentioned above (→#Personal review), It is generally believed that Nobunaga was an atheist and denied God and Buddha.[283]..However, in reality, it was found from many primary sources that he often prayed for victory at temples and shrines, and it is pointed out that this description of Frois is not credible.[283].

There is a tradition that Nobunaga dedicated the so-called "" of Atsuta Jingu as a tribute to the victory of the battle between Okehazama.[284]..This Atsuta Jingu andTsushima Shrine,Ota Ken ShrineNobunaga is enthusiastically supporting the shrines that are closely related to Mr. Oda.[284].

In addition, Nobunaga said, "Nanmu Myōhō RenkakyoIt is said that there is evidence that the Hokke sect also worshiped to a certain extent, such as choosing the Hokke sect temple as a lodging in Kyoto using the military flag written as[285].

In this way, Nobunaga had a normal faith in God and Buddha.[286]Disliked the harmful effects of superstition[287]..This is shown by the events of the 8th year of the Tensho era related to the traveling priest named Mube.[287]("Nobunaga Koki" Vol. XNUMX).No sideIshibajiSettled in the shukubo of Eisuibo, and became popular among people for having a mysterious power.[287]..Nobunaga looked up at Mube and asked some questions about his birthplace, but Mube deliberately gave a mysterious answer.[287]..When Nobunaga threatened, "A person who was not born anywhere may be a youkai. Let's burn it with fire, prepare a fire," Mube was forced to answer the fact honestly this time.[287]..Nobunaga couldn't show a mysterious spiritual test, so Nobunaga sparsely stripped his hair, stripped it naked, tied it with a rope, and threw him out into the town.[287]..In addition, it was discovered that Nobunaga used superstition to do nasty acts on women, so Nobunaga executed him.[287].

martial arts

Nobunaga was enthusiastic about training in martial arts, as mentioned in Frois's personal commentary mentioned above.Nobunaga in his youthEquestrianIn the seasons other than winter, without failing to train水 泳Was working hard[288]. further,Hirata third placeWith specialists such asMilitary method,Archery,GunneryI learned things like[288].

Nobunaga's hobbies include tea ceremony and sumo, which will be described later.FalconryIs known. There is already a description of falconry in the first volume of "Shincho Koki", which shows that it was a hobby from adolescence.[289].

Even after being entrusted with the politics of the world, he falconryed in Mikawa, during the camp in Settsu, and in Higashiyama, Kyoto.[290]..In February to March of the 7th year of Tensho (1579)Beef OtaHe did it so often that he wrote "every day" in "Nobunaga Koki", and also falconry "every day" in the spring of the following Tensho 8 (1580).

As mentioned above, Nobunaga seems to have been working hard on equestrian training, and in 9, he set up riding grounds in each castle of Azuchi and Gifu.[291].

During the Tensho era, when Yoshiaki Ashikaga was expelled from Kyoto and he began to control the politics of the world himself, horses and hawks began to be presented to Nobunaga by daimyo and lords nationwide.[Annotation 70].

  • In the winter of the first year of Tensho (1572), MutsuTeremune DateThe hawk was presented by Nobunaga, and Nobunaga made the branch of the Date clan a "direct wind".[294]..Other Ou lords also donated hawks and horses[295].
  • In April 4, a vassal of Mr. MouriKozagawa RiverPresented 1,000 swords, horses, and silver swords to Nobunaga, and Nobunaga thanked him through Hideyoshi Hashiba.[296].
  • March 8, 1580, Tensho 3Hojo UjimasaRaised the messenger, presented Nobunaga with 13 hawks and 5 horses, and promoted Hojo branch to Nobunaga.[297].
  • On June 8, 1580 (Tensho 6)Former parents of ChosogabeDedicated 16 hawks to Nobunaga[298].

In this way, during the Tensho era, many daimyo and lords donated hawks and horses to Nobunaga.Nobunaga relieved the division in return for these offerings.These offerings were also the result of Nobunaga's policy being accepted by daimyo and lords nationwide.[299].


Nobunagatea ceremonyShowed great interest in.Although it is not certain when Nobunaga began to enjoy tea ceremony, after Eiroku 12 (1569) after Kamiraku, he began to perform "special tea hunting" to collect famous tea utensils.[300]..This specialty hunting is "Higashiyama TreasureIt is said that the purpose was to give authority to himself by collecting things related to the Ashikaga clan.[301].

And the tea utensils obtained in this way were given to the vassals as a reward and used for political purposes (so-called ""Ochayu Omasamichi")[302]..Kazumasu Takigawa, who was successful in capturing Kai, requested Nobunaga to give him a tea set as a reward, but he was given.Kanto areaTitle of[Annotation 58]There is also an anecdote that Ueno Kazukuni was disappointed with the addition.[303].. 『Nobunaga''TaikokiAccording to "Fourth Sect," "Azuchi Question and Answer Biography," etc.Tensho7 years(1579/) On May 5th,Azuchi SoronWon inJodo sectEven though it ’s a high priestEmperor GodaigoMade byLight tea bowlIt is said that the main song (original) of "" (Kinrinji / Konrinji) was given.[304][Reliability required verification].

However, Nobunaga did not simply use the tea ceremony politically, but seemed to enjoy the tea ceremony purely.[302].

I also liked sumo wrestling.At that time, the custom of sumo was only in Saigoku, and it is thought that Nobunaga was not interested in sumo during the Owari era.[305]..However, after KamirakuSumoIt is sometimes seen in "Shincho Koki" that large-scale sumo tournaments were often held at Azuchi Castle and other places because the sights became a big favorite.[306][305].

At the sumo tournament, those with excellent grades will be rewarded.[306],AlsoAochi YoemonIt is said that it was sometimes adopted as a servant of the Oda clan.[307]..As a concrete example, the 6th year of Tensho (1578/) At the sumo tournament held in August, Nobunaga said that he had 8 excellent performers, each with 14 stones, and gave them home.[307].

Mai WakawakaWhile it is known that he loved Noh, he was less interested in Noh than Mai.[308]..In addition, the 3rd year of Tensho (1575/) Kyoto in MarchAikokujiImagawaI met with Mr. UjizaneCujuThere was an episode that he wanted to show it, and he may have been interested in Kemari, such as visiting the Kemari party hosted by Prince Masahito in July of the same year.[309].

The spirit of the wind

Nobunaga was curious about new things and had a quirky taste at various events.[310]..Osamu Wakita positions this as Nobunaga's "spirit of style."[310].

For example, on New Year's DayLeft justiceIn the town of Azuchi, I run a large number of horses while ringing firecrackers, and I enjoy lighting Azuchi Castle in Obon.[310]..The latter is recorded in both "Frois Japanese History" and "Nobunaga Koki", and while it is forbidden to turn on the lights in the castle town, only the castle tower of Azuchi Castle is lit up with lanterns, and there are many in Lake Biwa. He put a torch on the ship and made it shine, and it looked very vivid.[311].

Nobunaga was very fond of showing this Azuchi castle to others, and made many people, including messengers of other daimyo, visit Azuchi castle, which stored gold.[312]..In particular, during the New Year of Tensho 10 (1582), after inviting a large number of people inside Azuchi Castle to fully entertain, Nobunaga himself collected 1 sentences for each guest. That[312].

Interest in foreign countries

JesuitsDedicatedglobe-clockInterested in Western science and technology[313]..When Frois gave him an alarm clock, he said he was interested in it, but returned it because it would be difficult to handle and repair.[314]..Nobunaga's own letter showed that Nobunaga was interested in Western science, and he was ill.Yuka MatsuiSending Jesuit doctors to treat[313].

Nobunaga is a missionaryAlessandro VarignanoI drew Azuchi Castle inFolding screen(Eritoku KanoThe work "") is presented, and this folding screen picture is after Nobunaga's death.1585/(Tensho 13)PopeGregory XIIIIs presented to[315]..However, it is considered that this folding screen presentation is not due to Nobunaga's individuality, but rather to the tradition of presenting folding screen paintings to foreign countries as was done to the emperor of China.[315]..Also, Africa, who was a servant of Valignano (nowMozambique) FromBlackShowed interest in and took over, "YasukeIt is also known that he named it "" and made it an aide.

Apart from Nanban, there is also a theory that he had a strong admiration for China.[316].Shigetaka MiyakamiClaims that Nobunaga's Chinese hobby can be seen from the way Azuchi Castle is built.[316]..Due to Nobunaga's keen interest in China, many parts of the Azuchi Castle castle towerTangI hope the architecture was adopted[317], Also built by NobunagaSokenji TempleIs the title of Chinese landscape paintingEight Views of XiaoxiangOf these, it is also said to represent the "The Angelus"[318]..However, Katsuhiro Taniguchi states that the theory that Nobunaga had a longing for China is not well-founded.[316].

View of women and male color

There are few historical sources that specifically tell what kind of relationship Nobunaga had with his wife and concubines.[319]..In recent years, historiansKatsuta ShigeoHowever, it is theorized that Akechi Mitsuhide's younger sister was Nobunaga's concubine and was Nobunaga's "existence that had some influence on decision-making."[320].

In addition, Hideyoshi Hashiba is a regular room that is not blessed with childrenNeneIt is known that he is sending a letter of encouragement to Nene when he finds out that he is hitting hard.[321][322][Annotation 71].

There is no direct evidence as to whether Nobunaga preferred masculine. In "Toshiie Night Story", there is an anecdote that suggests that Toshiie Maeda was a young man who was in the same position as Nobunaga.[324][325][Annotation 72].

However, Katsuhiro Taniguchi points out this anecdote, but Nobunaga and ToshiieMori RanmaruIt cannot be said that it is certain that there was a physical relationship with the recent students.[325]..However, according to Taniguchi, Nobunaga and his colleagues are so-called, even considering the customs of the time.sodomyVery likely to have been in a relationship[325].


Nobunaga'sPortraitCurrently, 23 portraits and 5 portrait sculptures have been confirmed.[326].

As a representative workEritoku KanoBrother of·MunehideAichi Prefecture, which is said to have been drawn by NobunagaToyota City OfChokoji TempleCollection (Important cultural property), Also drawn on the first anniversaryHoan KokeiHave a praiseRobeOf the figureKobe City MuseumBook (Important Cultural Property)[327], Kano Eitoku The possibility of writing is rich and drawn in Nobunaga's third anniversaryDaitokuji TemplePortrait of[328],Maehisa KonoeIs drawn by Nobunaga's XNUMXth anniversarySix-character nameKyoto City with the praise of waka poems added to the written letterKamigyo WardHoonji Temple collection[329], And HyogoHikami TownThe sitting statue in the possession of#First Nobunaga Siege Network”) Etc. are reported as Nobunaga's portraits.Of these, the portraits in the Chokoji collection are drawn on bamboo paper, and the intention of using bamboo paper, which is often used for ink painting, for coloring is unknown.[330][Annotation 74].Pacific WarFrom 1944 to 1945Osaka Municipal Museum of ArtIt was repaired at2016/から2019/ByAgency for Cultural AffairsRestoration work was done under the initiative[330]..The portraits in the Daitokuji collection are2008/から2009/OverKyoto National MuseumThe restoration work led by the initiative revealed that the kosode had a bright pattern, two wakizashi were drawn, and the face was majestic.[331].

Tendo domainAt Tokudono, which was the family temple of the Oda clan, there are still photographs of what is said to be a detailed portrait.Thick and strong eyebrows, big and sharp eyes, high nose with straight nose, tight mouth, long and sharp contours, storedbeard(Beard) etc. are the features.In 4, the writerShusaku EndoHas become famous since it was introduced in a collection of discussions called "Nobunaga but Nobunaga".[332]..In the same book, Endo copied a picture drawn by a missionary after Nobunaga's death in the Meiji era.Imperial Household Agency,Oda clanIt is explained that it is shared with[332]..The existing ones at Sanpo-ji are believed to have been photographed by a photographer in the middle of the Meiji era because they are stamped with the "Otake Photo Studio".[332].


Nobunaga's administration concept

Nobunaga started out as a sovereign power that controlled part of Owari, and governed in a manner similar to other Sengoku daimyo in the eastern provinces.[223]..However, in September 11, Nobunaga was promoted to Yoshiaki Ashikaga, and Nobunaga will strengthen his authority in parallel with the power organization of the Muromachi Shogunate.[223]..Eventually, a unique central government different from the Muromachi Shogunate will be established.[223].

Before Kamiraku, Nobunaga was called "Tenka Fubu" from the time when Inoguchi was renamed Gifu after the capture of Mino.sealIs used.It is often understood to mean "take the world with force" and "control the world with the samurai government" because it is "to spread the war in the world" in the reading. "Seven virtue martial arts" quoted from Chinese history books, not military power[Annotation 75]Because of thatVirtueIt is interpreted that it was "Takeshi" of the content that preaches[334].

Traditionally, "Tenka Fubu" has been interpreted as agreeing to unify the world and conquer the whole country.[335], Nobunaga has been said to have fought a territorial expansion war to achieve "Tenka Fubu".However, in recent history, "Tianxia" in the Warring States period refers to the shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate and the politics of the Shogunate, and when it means a region, it is centered on Kyoto.Kinai(Yamashiro,Yamato,Hanoi,Izumi,Settsu5 countries.It is thought to refer to the current southern part of Kyoto prefecture, Nara prefecture, Osaka prefecture, and southeastern Hyogo prefecture.[336][337]..And "Tenka Fubu" is to establish the rule of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Kinai.[338]It is said that this was achieved during the period from September to October of Eiroku, when Yoshiaki was appointed as a shogun after he settled in Kinai with Yoshiaki Ashikaga.

And it is the word "world" that Nobunaga used as a logic to justify his rule.[151][339]..Nobunaga advocated the position that he was entrusted with "the world" by Shogun Muromachi.[151]..Historian Chisato Kanda argues that Nobunaga inherited the authority of the Shogunate during the Warring States period.[151]..According to Kanda, the burning of Mt. Hiei was the 6th Shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate.Yoshinori AshikagaIt is also regarded as an intervention of the shogun's power on the main territory of temples and shrines.[151]..In addition, peace orders and Kyoto rule for various daimyo were also traditionally carried out by the shogun, and Nobunaga gained the authority to perform these acts by being entrusted with "the world".[151].

In the Shogunate, Nobunaga issued a red seal and implemented the policy, but this red seal was from the Sengoku period Muromachi Shogunate before Nobunaga.GuardianCompliance letter・ It is considered that it corresponds to and does not have a special function.[340][341]..Nobunaga has built power on the premise of the existence of the Muromachi Shogunate, and it can be said that the initial Oda administration was a "coalition administration (double administration)" with the Shogunate.[340][341].

However, because Yoshiaki Ashikaga betrayed Nobunaga in February of the 4th year of Genki (1573), Nobunaga had to maintain the central government in the absence of the shogun.[342][Annotation 76]..However, even after Yoshiaki's expulsion, Nobunaga took the stance of taking over the "Tenka" that Yoshiaki had abandoned, and Nobunaga's position that he was entrusted with "Tenka" did not change.[339]..And Nobunaga became a "Tenkajin" who distributed "Tenka" on behalf of the Shogun.[343]..According to Hiraku Kaneko, Nobunaga's goal was to maintain the peace and order of "the world" ("the quietness of the world").[343]..As a result of eliminating the hostile forces that hinder the maintenance of the world's tranquility, Nobunaga expanded his power, but the purpose was to maintain the world's tranquility, and there was no concept of conquering all over Japan.[343]..Then, Nobunaga promoted the realization of peace in Japan by subordinating them to the Oda administration while recognizing the autonomy of the warring lords and the people of each region under "the world".[344].

On the other hand, after the expulsion of Yoshiaki, Nobunaga appointed General Right.Oda administrationWith establishmentPeople of the worldWith the formation of consciousness of the world and the change of honorific title to the superior[345]There is also a theory that the concept of the world expanded and transformed, insisting on "unification of oneself and the world", and eventually becoming the meaning of "Archipelago Japan" beyond the world regulations of Chisato Kanda's Kinai Fubu. is there[346][347]..Due to this,National lordTo follow Nobunaga to "Tenka Issei"Katsuie ShibataIt is said that the commander of the front army has sought, and has advanced to a unified war with the aim of loosely integrating daimyo throughout the country.[348].. AfterToyotomi AdministrationThere is a theory that it has come up with a government concept that will be the prototype of the unified government that is the first stage of[349].

Territory domination

In the territorial rule by the Oda administration, Nobunaga retains senior control, and the vassals stationed in various parts of the territory are given regional control to draw the lineage of guardianship on a country / county basis as a substitute.One-job ruleThere is a theory.

In this regard, Echizen in September 3 exists as an important historical source.[350]..This Echizen national rule is addressed to the Shibata Katsuie, who was entrusted with Echizen rule by Nobunaga.[350].

The contents of this national rule of nine articles were as follows.[178]..First, in the first half, principles such as Nobunaga's involvement in part of the distribution of wisdom and divisions were stipulated, and in the second half, it is said that Katsuya and others should not neglect their duties.[178]..Finally, he demanded absolute obedience to Nobunaga, and emphasized that Echizen Province was merely entrusted to Nobunaga and his colleagues.[178].

From such a description of the Echizen national rule, it is the conventional wisdom that Nobunaga is in control of all the power of territorial control, and that Katsuie remains in charge of Echizen's daikan while holding one job. Met[350]..However, there has been controversy among researchers in recent years on this point, and Kazusa Hirai summarizes it as follows.

To the myth, the historianKazuhiro MarushimaArgued that Katsuie had almost full control of Echizen since the establishment of the national rule, based on the consideration of the documents issued by both Nobunaga and Katsuie.[350]..It is said that the rule by such a victor is almost the same as the rule by the chief retainer of other Sengoku daimyo (the so-called "branch lord" who has been entrusted with the full power of regional control).[350]..And another researcher who analyzed Akechi Mitsuhide and Hashiba Hideyoshi came to the same conclusion.[350].

From the standpoint of criticizing this view, Tatsuo Fujita pointed out that Nobunaga has the final say in regional control by examining a wider range of matters.[350]..He reiterates that Nobunaga's power was different from the traditional Sengoku daimyo power, and was an innovative one that led to the Edo Shogunate.[350]..Kazuhiro Marushima criticizes this argument as being built with Nobunaga's innovation as a given, and argues that Fujita's point also applies to other Sengoku daimyo.[350].


Unlike other Sengoku daimyos, Nobunaga during the Tensho era was in the position of their superior power.[351]..For example, Nobunaga was in Tensho 7Shimazu-OtomoShimazu has issued a reply saying that Nobunaga is "superior".[351].

However, this was not backed by a clear master-slave relationship, but only a loose coalition.[351]..However, it is probable that Ieyasu Tokugawa was obedient to Nobunaga as described below.[351].

It is generally accepted that Nobunaga Oda and Ieyasu Tokugawa had a meeting in Kiyosu on New Year's Eiroku, less than two years after the Battle of Okehazama.[352]..Here, the so-called "Kiyosu AllianceThe two sides have had a strong alliance for XNUMX years.[352]..However, although this is a view based on a relatively new historical book established in the Edo period, this view is not always valid as long as it is based on historical materials of the same period.[352].

In reality, it is highly likely that Nobunaga and Ieyasu formed an alliance immediately after the Battle of Okehazama, and the anecdote that they met in Kiyosu is thought to be a creation of the Edo period.[352]..Initially, the two were on an equal footing under Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru.[353]..However, after the expulsion of Yoshiaki, Ieyasu mobilized the army in the form ordered by Nobunaga, and alsoCalligraphyBut Nobunaga is in a better position than Ieyasu[353]..And Suruga Province is also given to Ieyasu by Nobunaga as a chigyo.[353][351]..For these reasons, Ieyasu is believed to have lost his position as Nobunaga's ally and became Nobunaga's vassal.[353][351][354].

According to "Frois Japanese History", Nobunaga had a plan to send troops to Japan after unifying Japan. "When he became the absolute monarch of XNUMX countries in Japan, he formed a large fleet.LightHe had the idea of ​​conquering (China) by force and sharing the nations with his sons "(Frois Japanese History, Chapter 55).AlsoHori KyoanIn "Korean Conquest"Hideyoshi ToyotomiIt is stated that Nobunaga stated that he would send troops to the Ming and Korea areas.However, the latter is a popular theory, and it is pointed out that Nobunaga's foreign policy is less grounded than before and has no other support (of Frois).Hidetaka NakamuraNobunaga is thinking about foreign trade and Hideyoshi enters the Tang dynasty (The role of Bunroku and KeichoThe theory that) inherited the wishes of the deceased lord is that Nobunaga had no concrete plans for overseas trade or foreign expedition because he was mistaken for a person due to a misreading of "Korean Communication Daiki".[355]. However,Shin HoriSome commentators say that it may have been true to some extent that Nobunaga had a continental expedition plan because of the trends of the Oda administration and the existence of the Toyotomi administration's plan for a three-country division.[356].Kazuto HongoIt is,外交AndtransactionIt is exactly Nobunaga's hope to flourish, "There is a great possibility that Nobunaga sent troops overseas when Japan was unified."logisticsNobunaga, who emphasizes trade and trade, would probably have expanded overseas, "said Nobunaga, rather than sticking to the acquisition of territory like Hideyoshi.Portugal OfGore,Spain OfManilaAiming to get "points" likecityGet thereCitadelHe points out that he may have done something like building a trading base.[357]..As a result, if Nobunaga is alive a little longer, I don't know if it will produce good results for Japan or fall for the worse, but Japan will come sooner.InternationalizationIt is pointed out that it may have been done[357].

Imperial court policy

Nobunaga, after playing the roleImperial PalaceWe carried out financial reconstruction of the imperial court, including the recovery of the Imperial Court, and worked to maintain its existence base.[358]..However, it is believed that Nobunaga did not act because he revered the imperial family, but that he tried to use the authority of the emperor.[358]..In addition, Nobunaga has been addressing the territory of the Kuge all at once since the 3rd year of the Tensho era, General Ukonoe, and after that, Nobunaga was in a position to receive worship from the Kuge.[359].

Regarding the actual state of the relationship between Nobunaga and the imperial court, there is a theory that there was a confrontational relationship (conflict / overcoming theory) and a theory that there was a harmonious / cooperative relationship (reconciliation / cooperative theory).[360]..The relationship between the two is a major issue related to the character of the Oda administration.the 1970sMore active controversy has taken place[361].the 1990sToAkira ImayaPositioned Emperor Ogimachi as the greatest opponent to Nobunaga, "Nobunaga and the Emperor, the Overlord who challenges medieval authority"[Annotation 77]However, the subsequent empirical research almost denied Imaya's claim.[361].. As of 2017, the prevailing view is that Nobunaga had a cooperative relationship with the emperor and the imperial court.[360].

And according to Katsuhiro Taniguchi's classification, the theorists who stand for each theory are as follows.[362][360].

Relationship between Nobunaga and the emperor / imperial court
Conflict / Overcoming TheoryReconciliation / cooperation theory
Okuno TakahiroOsamu Wakita
Naohiro AsaoMasanobu Hashimoto
Hisashi FujikiSeiichiro Miki
Susumu Ike[Annotation 78]
Akira ImayaShin Hori
Kyoko TachibanaKatsuhiro Taniguchi
Joji Fujii[Annotation 79]Yuko Ikegami
Tatsuo FujitaChisato Kanda
Kirino Sakuto
Hirofumi Yamamoto
Hiraku Kaneko

Nobunaga's remarks to missionaries are often noted as to whether Nobunaga tried to transcend the emperor.[360]..According to Luis Frois's letter, when the missionary asked for an audience with the emperor, Nobunaga said, "You do not need to gain the grace of others, because you are the king and the inside." Is said to be[363]..In "Japan Patrol" (written by Valignano) translated by Kiichi Matsuda, it says "The plan is the king", but points out that this is a mistranslation.This is because the relevant part of the original text uses "Vo", which was used by missionaries to mean the emperor, instead of "rei", which means the king in Portuguese.By the way, the original text is "elle era o mesmo Vo & Dairi", which translates literally as "He is exactly O and Dairi."[364].

This remark was made just before the Kyoto horse alignment in Tensho 9[365]..In this way, some people attach great importance to Nobunaga's statement that he is the emperor and the insider, as evidence that Nobunaga tried to transcend the emperor.[360]..However, Kazusa Hirai has questioned this theory.[360], Hori Shin also states that it does not indicate Nobunaga's intention to seize the throne, but from the standpoint of the reconciliation theory ("Kobu Gattai Kingship Theory"), it means the unification of Emperor Ogimachi and Nobunaga.[365].

As a concrete clue when considering the relationship between Nobunaga and the imperial court, so-calledThree positionsIncluding the problem, the issue of the transfer of Emperor Ogimachi,RanmamachiCut out,Kyoto horse alignmentThere are various issues such as peace and peace, and the interpretations are different among researchers.[360][366][367]..Below, we will focus on the representative ones and look at them in chronological order.

The first year of Tensho after the expulsion of Yoshiaki Ashikaga1573/) In December, Nobunaga offered to transfer to Emperor Ogimachi, and the emperor accepted this.[368]..However, because the year was pressing, the transfer was not made, and in the end the transfer was not made until Nobunaga's death.[368]..Regarding this, in the interpretation of the confrontation theory, Nobunaga tried to enthronement Prince Masahito, who was his own obedience, and thought that the transfer was delayed because Emperor Ogimachi resisted this movement.[368]..On the other hand, according to the reconciliation theory, the emperor wanted to be transferred, but it was not realized due to Nobunaga's intention.[368][Annotation 80].

Nobunaga visited Nara in March 2, and on the 1574th of the same month, he visited Ranjatai, a treasure of Todaiji Temple.Tamonyama CastleIt is brought to the temple and cut out in the presence of a monk at Todaiji Temple.It is believed that it was issued just before thatHigashiyama GobunkoThe collection of "Ranjatai Incense Opening Internal Performance Draft" (Keikan 11 Hakooto-15-XNUMX) is stored.Since the content of this document expressed dissatisfaction with Ranjatai's cut-off, "Nobunaga no Illegal Wo Difficult Ceral" ("Nobunaga no Illegal Wo Difficult Ceral" from ancient timesDai Nihon ShiryoIt was interpreted as "March 2, 3") and has been understood for many years as "a letter in which Emperor Ogimachi expressed dissatisfaction with Nobunaga's request for Ranjatai cut-off."However, although the letter of introspection was originally a document issued to the emperor, a contradiction was pointed out that stated the emperor's feelings, and Saneki Sanjo Nishi, who was involved in the cutting procedure, assigned Taku Kaneko to the emperor Ogimachi. It was reinterpreted as a letter.In other words, as long as the author of this document is Saneki Sanjo Nishi, not the Emperor Ogimachi, it is not the Emperor Ogimachi who complained.He concludes that the object of dissatisfaction must be considered to be the Emperor Ogimachi, who is the recipient of the letter, and that it is not at least "a letter in which Emperor Ogimachi expressed dissatisfaction with Nobunaga's request."[369].

Nobunaga was in Tensho 9 years (1581/) Went toKyoto Mima assortmentAccording to the confrontational theory, it was a military pressure and demonstration on the imperial court.[370]..From the standpoint of criticizing this, the reconciliation theory interprets it as being done at the request of the imperial court.[370].. As of 2017, the view that it was a kind of entertainment event rather than pressure on the imperial court is predominant.[371].

Tensho 10 (1582/) September 4,Samurai Denso-Harutoyo KajujiAnd Kyoto ShoshidaiMurai SadakatsuThere was a discussion between Nobunaga's officers[372]..At this time, NobunagaConqueror General-Minister-KanpakuEither one offered to be appointed to one of them[372]..There is a dispute over whether it was the imperial court or Nobunaga who offered the commission (Three job appointment problem[372]..Since the Honnoji Incident occurred before Nobunaga's formal reaction took place, it is unclear exactly what Nobunaga had in mind.

Religious policy

The Oda administration fights fiercely with Ikko-ikki[373][Annotation 81]Also, I burned down Mt. Hiei[374]..Against this background, it was generally thought that Nobunaga tried to annihilate the Buddhist forces in a fierce conflict and, conversely, to protect Christianity.[375]..For example, a Buddhist history researcherBunshi SuekiIn his book "History of Japanese Buddhism," Nobunaga described that he "attacked violent means to destroy the Buddhist forces at once."[376].

However, in reality, Nobunaga was not in a hostile relationship with all Buddhist forces, and was trying to protect denominations that were not hostile to him.[375]..Nor did he treat Christianity specially.[375]..It is probable that the Oda administration's religious policy was based on the policy of realizing the superiority of secular power over religious power while allowing the denominations that follow it to survive.[374].

Due to Nobunaga's religious policy, "Azuchi SoronHas been attracting attention[374][377]..This Azuchi religion is that the religion was held between the Jodo sect and the Nichiren sect with the involvement of Nobunaga.[374]..The Nichiren sect was allowed to be defeated in the sect, and was forced not to argue with other denominations in the future.[374]..In general, Azuchi religions have been regarded as a crackdown on Nichiren sect by Nobunaga.For example, Seiichiro Miki described that Nichiren-shu was "surrendered by giving a fatal blow to the sect itself in the form of a defeat of the sect."Tengram Hana no RanIt states that it has eliminated the danger of cooperation between urban citizens and Nichiren sect.[378]..However, it is argued that the actual purpose of Azuchi religions was not so much as the suppression of Nichiren religions, but rather as an attempt to maintain religious order by suppressing religions.[374][377].

The priests of the Tendai sect and the Shingon sect argued whether to wear silk clothing.Silk clothing theoryThen, with the involvement of Nobunaga, it has been issued that only the Tendai sect is allowed to wear silk clothing.[379]..And, contrary to this intention, the Shingon Buddhist monk who wore a silk robe was executed.[379]..Like the measures against Ikko-ikki and Mt. Hiei, Nobunaga took strict measures against religious people who were against his intentions.[379].

In relation to the shrine, we carried out the renovation of the shrine of Iwashimizu Hachimangu and planned the reconstruction of the Shikinen Sengu of Ise Jingu.[380]..In particular, the latter plan is thought to have been an attempt to use the Ise faith for its own authority, and has been taken over by the Toyotomi administration.[380].

Missionaries of the same eraLouis FroisStates that Nobunaga tried to deify himself[381]..However, there is no description of this self-deification in Japanese historical materials.[381]..Therefore, there is a dispute among researchers as to whether or not to trust Frois's description.[381]..Affirmative theorists include, for example, Naohiro Asao and Akira Imatani.[382]..Asao positions Nobunaga's self-deification as part of the process of creating "general power" that will lead to the later shogunate nation under the background of confrontation with Ikko-ikki.[383]..On the other hand, the position of denying deification is that Frois's description is based on a biased perspective from the Christian side, and there is a view by Osamu Wakita and Seiichiro Miki that it is not credible.[384].

Economic and urban policy

So-called"Rakuichi/RakuzaThe "decree" is often said to be Nobunaga's first measure, but as far as it is currently confirmed,OmiSouthernSengoku DaimyoMetMr. RokkakuIs the first measure taken by[385]..Evaluation is divided about this "Rakuichi / Rakuza Ordinance"[386].. OnceTakeshi ToyodaIs a privileged group of commerce and industryseatWas dismantled and positioned as an innovative policy to promote distribution[386]..On the other hand, Nobunaga actually guarantees the privilege of many seats,Osamu WakitaEt al. Argue that Nobunaga did not intend to deny the seat[386].

Also unnecessaryBarrierAbolished and revitalized distribution to promote the city and develop the economy[387]..This is considered to be an innovative policy that no other Sengoku daimyo has ever done.[387].

Along with the abolition of the barrier, from the end of the 2nd year of Tensho (1574), Nobunaga and other four magistrates have been ordered to improve the road.[388]..This work continued the following year and was widely carried out throughout the territory of the Oda clan.[388][Annotation 82]..This road improvement has made it easier for people and cows and horses to pass.[388].

It was scattered all over the country at that timeMasuAs a unified standard of Oda territoryKyomasuIs also said to have been unified.This Masu was inherited by the Toyotomi administration-the Tokugawa Shogunate.This made it easier and more accurate to manage annual tribute and logistics.

And the value ratio of poor quality money to good money was set.Money orderWas announced.Compared to other daimyo and the Muromachi Shogunate's decree, Nobunaga's decree is characterized by "setting a value ratio for all coins."[389]..In addition, provisions that determine the monetary value of gold and silver[Annotation 83]Is innovative and is highly regarded as following the three-currency system of the Edo period.[390]..However, it is believed that this change order resulted in a decrease in monetary transactions and an increase in rice-based transactions, and did not achieve the expected effects.[391].

After reconciling with Ishiyama Hongan-ji, NobunagaOsakaI made a castle built on the land.It is said that "Sennuki Yakura" was entrusted to Nobuzumi Tsuda at the time of the Honnoji Incident ("Tadaoki Hosokawa").This is consistent with the description in "Frois Japanese History" that "At the time of the Honnoji Incident, Nobuzumi Tsuda was watching over the tower of Osaka Castle (torre)." According to "Shincho Koki", the location was highly evaluated, and it was planned to build a larger castle on the site.[392].


NobunagaKatsuie Shibata,Kazuyasu Takigawa,Hideyoshi Hashiba Mitsuhide AkechiIn addition to having influential military commanders such as, lead the army corps in each region, they organized horsemen etc. as their own direct reports[393]..This horse is active in Inao, Okehazama, and Mt. Tabe.[394]..Nobunaga's army is very mobile andHonshuji strangeThen, the distance that would normally take 3 days to be overcome in 2 days (and in heavy snowfall)[395]Even when the Asai-Asakura Allied Forces approached Kyoto while facing Settsu, they returned in a hurry to protect Kyoto.Hideyoshi, a subordinate, also called "Chugoku Otsukae"Battle of Mt.It has been pointed out that Chugoku Otsuka has exceeded one aspect of Nobunaga's tactics.[396].

Nobunaga also emphasized firearms[397].Battle of NagashinoAlthough the view that the three-stage shooting in is fictitious is predominant, it is certain that Nobunaga operated a large number of guns.[398]..In particular, Nobunaga's gun operation is characterized by the fact that he has strengthened the gun unit of Hatamoto, who reports directly to him, by collecting guns from various military commanders, making it possible to concentrate on one battlefield and operate guns. is there[398].

CannonAlreadyFormer turtleThere is evidence that it has been used for yearsSecond Battle of KizugawaguchiIn addition to being mounted on a ship,Kamiyoshi CastleAfter the attack, it was operated in earnest even in the siege battle[399]. So-calledIron shipIt is said that it was made, but the historical material that is the basis is "Tomonin Diary』\ Since it is only the article of July XNUMXth, XNUMXth year of Tensho, there are pros and cons about its existence.[400].

In the Oda clan, it was clearly written.military serviceNo provisions have been found other than Akechi Mitsuhide's Iechu Military Law.This "did not exist anywhere else"[Annotation 84]Or, "There was something similar to this."[402]There are some disagreements among researchers (in the first place, some researchers consider Akechi Mitsuhide's Iechu military law to be a creation of posterity.[403][404]).From the former point of view, this is one of the proofs that the Oda administration's governance method was backward compared to Mr. Gohojo and others.[401]..However, this was a story at the time of the Honnoji Incident, and Nobunaga had a plan to eventually impose military service based on the Kokudaka that was inspected.[405].

Evaluation of posterity

From "Rebellious Person" to Emperor

In the Edo period, Ieyasu Tokugawa, who was treated as a "god" as the founder of the Edo Shogunate, and "Picture book taikoUnlike Toyotomi Hideyoshi and others, who were familiar with the common people, Nobunaga's evaluation was generally low.[406]..Confucian scholarHoan Oze,Arai Shiroishi, Ota KinjoAll emphasized Nobunaga's cruelty and rated it extremely low.[406]..For example, Arai Hakuseki's criticism of Nobunaga treated his relatives like tools, betrayed his lord, Yoshiaki Ashikaga, banished Nobunaga Sakuma, an old vassal who had great achievements, and accused him of destroying other daimyo. Was a person of[407]..And Shiraishi said, "All this person (Nobunaga) is brutal and has the ambition with deceit. If you do, you will be able to get rid of it, and you will be able to take it from yourself. Positioned Nobunaga's death as self-reliant because of cruelty[407]. However,Edo ShogunateFrom the standpoint of Nobunaga, Nobunaga was an ally of Ieyasu Tokugawa, and as long as he was a person who forced Nobuyasu Tokugawa into self-harm, Nobunaga was an absolute authority to obey even "God" Ieyasu. It is also necessary to show that, which is the Masafumi of the Edo Shogunate.Tokugawa Miki』(" Toshogu Mimiki "Volume 2) was also evaluated as an existence aiming for unification of the world with Ieyasu.[408]..Nobunaga is unpopular among the people,kabuki,JoruriEven in such cases, Nobunaga remains a villain and a companion.[406].

In such a situation where Nobunaga was criticized, Nobunaga was re-evaluated.Yori SanyoIs[406]..Late Edo periodSonno movementKnown for having a great influence on[409]Yori Sanyoof"Foreign history of Japan』Highly evaluated Nobunaga as a" super talent "[410].. "Nihon Gaishi" emphasizes Nobunaga's aspect as a royal family[410]..And ChinaLater ZhouThe name of世宗The feat ofZhao Tao OfNorthern Song DynastyIt is stated that Nobunaga's supremacy made the way to the peace of Toyotomi and Tokugawa, just as it followed the establishment.[410]

HusbandOninAfter that, it splits in the sea, and under the sword, it always becomes a place for soldiers and horses.Ufu[Annotation 85]In spite of this, someone can effectively remove the grass and rebuild the royal family. — Rai Sanyo “Nihon Gaishi”[410]

He was also highly praised by national scholars as a unifying person in Japan, coupled with his negative views on Mr. Ashikaga, who was in conflict with Emperor Go-Daigo.For exampleNoricho MotoiIn "Tamaboko Hyakushu", he wrote the song "Oda no Mikoto Oda no Mikado Hashizume te soshiki minister" and said, "This minister (= Oda Nobunaga), Emperor Oda's Eiroku. Around that time, he was issued from Owari Province, stopped the turmoil in Kyoto, and defeated the neighboring countries of Kinai. It ’s going to be good for people. ”[411].

The priests at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate also respected Nobunaga as a royal family, praising the restoration of the royal palace.[412].. 2th year of Meiji (1869/)To become and,Meiji governmentInstructed the construction of a shrine dedicated to Oda Nobunaga[413].. 3th year of Meiji (1870/), The descendant of Nobunaga's second son, NobunagaTendo domain(CurrentYamagataTendo city) Governor'sNobutoshi OdaBut in Tokyo's own residence and clanMaizurusanEstablished a company dedicated to Nobunaga[413]..To NobunagaEmperor MeijiからTakeisao OfGodBut to the companyDivine OfficerWas given the company name of Takeisao Jinja and later Takeisao Jinja.[413]..After that, in the Meiji era, in TokyoJian shrineIs KyotoFunaokayamaMoving to the summit of[413].Taisho6 years(1917/) Was given the first rank[Annotation 86].

This tendency is similar in the field of history, and at that time research was conducted that emphasized Nobunaga's royal side.[141].

Whether it is an innovator or not

Second World WarLater, Nobunaga's political affairs were evaluated, and his image as a reformer became stronger.In the historical novel, in 1944, already during the warAngo SakaguchiPublished the short story "Tanegashima", clearly stating the image of Nobunaga as a modern rationalist.[415]..Nobunaga's image as a rationalist was announced during the period of high economic miracle.Ryotaro Shiba"Country theft story』, During the bubble periodYo Tsumoto"Is Shimoten a dream?It became widespread through best-selling novels such as[415].

Academically, "1963"Iwanami Lecture Japanese History],Rintaro ImaiEvaluates Nobunaga as follows.Nobunaga liquidated the complex land ownership structure of the Middle Ages and "paved the way for the establishment of a pure feudal system."[416]A person.And Imai said, "Before Nobunaga, no religious authority since the Middle Ages was valid."[417]He stipulated that Nobunaga's essence was the denial of medieval authority.By this time NobunagaEmperor SystemThere is also a theory that he was trying to overthrow, and the image of Nobunaga as an innovator will take root.[418]..Nobunaga is an extremely important person in the history of Japan because of his "innovative" policies, and he is "one of the heroes of the unprecedented".[419]Has been evaluated.

While Nobunaga's image as a person who paved the way for a new era was widely accepted, Nobunaga's era still had a strong medieval element, and was performed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.Taiko Inspection SiteThe theory that this is the turning point for the early modern period was also influential.[2].Naohiro AsaoOsamu WakitaAre representative medieval transitional researchers in the latter half of the 20th century, but their historical evaluations of Nobunaga are opposite.[420]..While Asao understood Nobunaga as the founder of the early modern period, Wakita made Nobunaga the last champion in the early modern period.[Annotation 87]I thought it was[420].

After that, in the history academia of the 21st century, research on Nobunaga more realistically progressed, and its evaluation was reviewed.[4][421]..For example, the continuity between the Muromachi Shogunate and the Oda administration was emphasized.[341], Nobunaga came to be considered to have been in a cooperative relationship with the emperor[360].. There have been many negative studies on the view that "Rakuichi / Rakuza Ordinance" is Nobunaga's own innovative policy.[422]..It has also been pointed out that Nobunaga's view of religion is not unique compared to other Sengoku daimyo.[283]..In addition, there are many doubts about Nobunaga's image as a special existence from various aspects, and many researchers are cautious about recognizing Nobunaga's breakthrough.[421][4].


The birthplace of Mr. OdaEchizen countryOda-soAnd was in the position of the villain[423]..The first look in the historical materials of a person who seems to be Mr. OdaTsurugi ShrineDated June 4, 1393, the XNUMXth year of Meitoku (XNUMX)Nobumasa Fujiwara-Hyogo Assistant MasahiroIt is said to be a text[423]..In the 8th year of Oei (1401), the Oda surname was used.Yozo OdaThe first person to appear, he is in chargeMr. SanamiPlayed an important role as a vassal of[424]..The following yearOda TsunematsuIs appointed as Owari Shugodai[424].

The Oda clan, which moved to Owari, split into the Ise Moriya based in Iwakura and the Yamato Moriya based in Kiyosu, each of which ruled the Owari Peninsula as a guardian.[10]..And in the latter branch of the Yamato Moriya,Kiyosu San-bugyOne of the families, the Dansho Tadashi family, is Nobunaga's family.[10].

As a descendant of Nobunaga, Sanboshi, a child of Nobutada (Hidenobu Oda) Formally succeeded the Oda clan's reign[425]..Hideyoshi had a territory of about 13 stones in Gifu under the Toyotomi administration, but as a result of the Battle of Sekigahara, the territory was confiscated.[425]..Hidenobu got sick a few years later and died, and the torrent ended here.[425].

On the other hand, the second son, Nobukatsu Oda, lost his territory under the Toyotomi administration,Osaka teamLater, he was given XNUMX stones to Yamato Uda-gun and other places.[425]..The descendants of Nobuo became the lords of small domains such as the Kashiwabara, Takahata, and Tendo domains, and have continued to be daimyo throughout the Edo period.[425].



Among the brothers, there is debate about the birth order of Hidetoshi (Nobutoki) and Hidetaka.Hidetoshi is Nobuhide's sixth son in the genealogy of the Edo period, and is considered to be Nobunaga's younger brother.[426]..However, according to Katsuhiro Taniguchi, Hidetoshi is Nobuhide's second son, Nobunaga's older brother, as far as the description in "Nobunaga Koki" is concerned.[426]..Similarly, in the genealogy, Hidetaka is considered to be Nobukane's younger brother, but Hidetaka is also considered to be Nobukane's older brother.[427].



息 子


Most of Nobunaga's daughters have unknown details.[428]..Moreover,"Kannaga family history』Has six daughters, while later"Hiromasa Shigeo's family history], The number of daughters is not fixed depending on the genealogy.[429]..According to Emiko Watanabe, although the "Kanenaga Family Tree" lists the daughters in the order of the eldest child, the eldest daughter is not the Matsudaira Nobuyasu room but the Gamo Ujisato room, as shown in the "Oda family tree" of Hokkeji and Tsubouchi books. Is presumed to be the eldest daughter[430][431]..In addition, regarding the daughter who does not appear in "Kanaga Morokei Zuden", it seems that the Mizuno Tadatane room was intentionally omitted due to the scandal of her husband, and the two people, Atsufusa Madenokoji and Mitsuhisa Tokudaiji, are the official family. It is probable that he was overlooked for either because he was married or because he was dependent on Oda Nobutaka.[431].

adopted daughter



Cemetery, mausoleum, temples and shrines

Nobunaga's body was not found, but the following 21 places have garment tombs and memorial towers.[443].

Related matters

historical data

It cannot be said that the historical materials of the Oriho period are relatively abundant, and even the representative historical materials cannot be said to have a solid evaluation of the reliability of each.[444].

In general, the most important basic historical material in Nobunaga's research isOkuno TakahiroThe document issued by Nobunaga ("") collected by Takahiro Okuno and the Kadokawa Bunko version of "Koki Nobunaga"[444][445].

However, according to Hori Shin, regarding the latter "Nobunaga Koki", the Kadokawa Bunko version is not a reprint of the autograph, and there is still a problem that the differences and systematic studies between the manuscripts of "Nobunaga Koki" are not sufficient. That there is[444]..Regarding documents, he points out the issue that it is necessary to collect and analyze not only documents issued by Nobunaga but also documents issued by vassals.[444].

Events, festivals

Works with the theme of Oda Nobunaga



TV drama

NHK from 1963 to 2009Taiga dramaOf the 48 works, Nobunaga's 18 works[446]However, this number is far higher than other historical figures, along with Hideyoshi Toyotomi after Ieyasu Tokugawa.[447].






[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b Masakatsu YogoTensho11/6/2(1583/7/20), And the Dharma name is usually "Souken-in's gift, Grand Chancellor of China, Iwao Takanori." It is written as "Iwajoan Daizen Gate".It is unclear about Masakatsu Yogo, but it is probable that Masakatsu was also Nobunaga's vassal because his brother Katsuhisa Yogo (Katsunao) served Nobunaga.
  2. ^ a b Nobunaga's birthday is said to be May 5th to 11th, based on the words of Luis Frois.Amano ShinkeiThere are two theories that it is May 5, based on "Shiojiri" etc.[5].
  3. ^ September 10, 9th year of TenshoKatsuie Shibata,CityThe coupleMyoshinji TempleThe name of the dharma name when the XNUMX-day memorial service was held.Amidaji(Amida Temple)Those that follow the flow of superior naming.
  4. ^ a b The political power that Nobunaga built over his life is generally referred to by the term "Oda administration" in research.[333]..Behind the use of the term "regime" is the idea that Nobunaga's power had a different aspect from the conventional Sengoku daimyo power and became a precursor to the unified power of the early modern period.[333]..HistorianNaohiro AsaoEmphasizes the difference from the Sengoku daimyo power and uses the term "Nobunaga administration", and Osamu Wakita also points out certain limits but evaluates the pioneering aspect of the unified administration and "Oda administration" Uses the term[333]..On the other hand, in 2000Kyoko TachibanaHowever, from the viewpoint of emphasizing Nobunaga's individuality and avoiding the word "unified administration" that presupposes the position of the winner, he expresses it as "Nobunaga's power" instead of "Oda administration".[333].. At the symposium held in 2010, the name "Oda power" was used to emphasize the commonalities between Nobunaga's power and the traditional Sengoku daimyo power.[333]..In addition, Tatsuo Fujita regards Nobunaga's power as "Azuchi Shogunate", considering that Nobunaga was actually inaugurated as a shogun.[333]..In this way, various names are used with the diversification of Nobunaga's perception of power.[333]..According to, these are due to different perspectives, not one of the names being appropriate.[333]..Hereinafter, for convenience, the name "Oda administration" will be used.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y For details, #LifeSee.
  6. ^ For details, # Nobunaga's administration conceptSee.
  7. ^ a b c d For details, #personSee.
  8. ^ For details, # Nobunaga's administration conceptSee.
  9. ^ For details, #Royal court policySee.
  10. ^ a b For details, #From the "rebellious person" to the royal familySee.
  11. ^ a b For details, #Innovator or notSee.
  12. ^ As a half-brotherNobuhiro OdaGaori[6], Nobunaga's brother Hidetoshi was born after Nobunaga in the genealogy, but it is undeniable that he was born before Nobunaga.[6]..These are treated as general style.
  13. ^ Although the time of transfer of Nagoya Castle is generally said to be 4 years in Astronomy, it is actually quite late, and it is possible that it is around 13 years in Astronomy.[12].
  14. ^ Kesao IharaAccording to the theory, Mr. Mino Saito, who inherited the name of Dosan, was a public house in the Muromachi period.Chikanaga KanrojiHis wife (south facing), and his grandson, the daughter, is Mr. Saito's.MouthIt was confirmed that the two families became relatives through the Kanroji family because it became the room of Owari Oda Hyogo head in (mediation).Lord Sir』September 15, 9th article, April 17th, 4st article of Meiō 4), it is understood that the marriage of Mr. Saito and Mr. Oda has a traditional background.[17].
  15. ^ There were several theories about the death of Nobuhide at that time, but as of 2011, it is the established theory that it is the 21st year of Tenbun.[18][19].
  16. ^ The end of the document issued by Oda Nobuhide is a letter of relief addressed to his grandfather Kinboshi (Tsushima Goji) dated November 19th (1550), so that Nobunaga will issue a letter of relief in December. It seems that Nobuhide was in bed at the end of the 11th year of Astronomy and was virtually replaced by Nobunaga because of this (a letter of relief for the chairman of Kasadera Nyohoin on December 12 of the same year).[20].
  17. ^ In "Shincho Koki", on the altar at Nobuhide's funeralincenseAn anecdote of throwing[21].
  18. ^ It is also possible that Nobunaga named himself Kazusasuke because he was aware that the heads of the Imagawa clan named Kazusasuke.[23]..Although Nobunaga called Kazusa Mamoru for a very short period of time,[24]There is also a theory that Nobunaga thought that "Kazusa Mamoru" was higher than Mr. Imagawa's Kazusasuke.[24]
  19. ^ Generally known as "Nobuyuki", the names that can be confirmed in contemporary historical materials are "Nobuyuki" or "Achievement" / "Nobuyuki".[25]..After that, the text is unified as "Nobuyuki".
  20. ^ According to the common wisdom, the murder of Shiba Yoshimune was carried out on July 23, 7, but according to the description in "Jokoji Chronicle", July 12, 22 is considered to be correct.[33].
  21. ^ According to the old wisdom, it was the first year of Koji, but the 23rd year of Tenbun is considered to be correct.[34].
  22. ^ The real name of the guardian, Hikogoro Oda, who committed suicide at this time cannot be determined from historical sources.[35]..Nobutomo Shimomura describes this guardian charge simply as "Oda Hikogoro" or "Oda Nobutomo".[34]..On the other hand, Hiroyuki Shiba identifies Hikogoro as the same person as "Katsuhide Yamato" who remains in the document.[35].
  23. ^ There is also a theory that Hidesada Hayashi, who had a feud with Nobumitsu, was involved in the assassination of Nobumitsu.[36].
  24. ^ According to "Shincho Koki", at this time, Yoshitatsu Saito released a thug to Kyo to murder Nobunaga, but there was an incident in which Oda's Niwa Heizo discovered this.
  25. ^ Amano thinks that it is the same purpose that Yoshitatsu Saito and Keitora Nagao (later Kenshin Uesugi) went up in the same year.[44].
  26. ^ Hiroko Ikegami states that it is unlikely that Mr. Imagawa was able to mobilize more than 3 troops at this time, and at most it would have mobilized only about 2.[45].
  27. ^ Until around 1980, Nobunaga's victory in this battle was attributed to the success of the surprise attack operation.[49]..After that, based on the description in "Shincho Koki", Masayuki Fujimoto's theory that Nobunaga made a frontal attack instead of a surprise attack became widely known.[49][50]..However, in 2006, based on the description in "Koyo Gunkan"Hideo KurodaRe-evaluates the surprise attack theory, and a dispute is taking place with Masayuki Fujimoto.[49].
  28. ^ Regarding the time of Matsudaira's separation, it was generally accepted that the battle between Mr. Matsudaira and Nobunaga continued for a while after the battle between Okehazama.[51]..However, due to the progress of research, the view that Mr. Matsudaira betrayed Mr. Imagawa immediately after the battle between Okehazama is also influential.[51]..On the other hand, Motoyasu Matsudaira (Ieyasu Tokugawa)'s return to Okazaki Castle was in line with Imagawa Ujizane's policy of being wary of Nobunaga's invasion of Mikawa.Invasion of Hojo territory by Keitora Nagao (Kenshin Uesugi)There is also a theory that the change in Mr. Ujizane's policy from the battle against Oda to the battle against Uesugi (relief of Mr. Hojo) triggered the separation of Mr. Matsudaira.[52].
  29. ^ It was generally accepted that the time of Inuyama Ochijo was 7 years in Eiroku, but Sumio Yokoyama argued that it was 8 years in Eiroku based on new historical materials.[55], Hiroyuki Shiba also supports this[56].
  30. ^ Nobunaga is a close relative of Dosan.Toshiharu SaitoCollect,Sato TadayoshiAs an adopted childKajita CastleCommanded by the Lord, territories and vassals (Kajita Shu), And it is considered that it was the trace of the Saito family after Dosan's death.[58]..This person is important as a relative in the Oda family as the official Mino Saito family.Seishitsu's older sisterNohime foster motherNext generation successorNobutada OdaWithAide(Senior vassal)[59].
  31. ^ a b It is unclear exactly when the marriage between Nagamasa Azai and the city was held, and it is difficult to determine, but as of 2017, the view that it is around Eiroku 4 years is predominant.[60].
  32. ^ At this time, Yoshitsugu and othersYoshie AshikagaIt is said that he tried to support him, but in reality, it is thought that Yoshitsugu had no intention of doing so.[61]..It was the Awa Miyoshi family who planned to support Yoshihide.Shinohara ChoboWas[62].
  33. ^ The marriage between Nagamasa Asai and the city is also of Rokkaku and the shogunate.Yoshimasa WadaThere is also a theory that it is a concept by[66].
  34. ^ When Nobunaga raised the soldiers of Kamiraku, the document stating that Tatsuoki Saito abandoned Kamiraku and withdrew because he broke away and blocked the road was a vassal of the Muromachi Shogunate.YonedaIt has been discovered in the homes of descendants of (Yuki Murai, "Phantom Nobunaga Kamiraku Operation," "Old Document Study," No. 78, 2014).In response to this, Nobunaga inevitably confronted Mino Saito and Omi Rokkaku, who had separated from Ashikaga Yoshihide, and Matsunaga Hisahide, who confronted Miyoshi Sanjin with a view to detouring from the Yamato area.Yagyu SogonIt came to have a relationship with the power of Yamato such as[69][70]..However, at the same time, it has been pointed out that the cause of the collision was that the story of the hostages for the passage of troops that Nobunaga had promised to Tatsuoki in advance was not summarized.[71].
  35. ^ Hundred kanbun (Hiraga, Seki city) Second kanbun (Kawakomaki, Tomika town) Hundred kanbun (Mt. Ooyama, Tomika town) Hundred kanbun (Hidase, Seki city) Machi Yuda) XNUMXnd kanbun (Takanosu, Kamono-cho, Tomika-shi) XNUMXnd XNUMXth kanbun (Kajita, Tomika-cho, Kinumaru) XNUMXth kanbun (Yoshida, Seki-shi) XNUMXth kanbun Sentence (Uenoho-mura, Tomika-gun, Takegi-cho) Seven-storied sentence (Kanayama-cho, Masuda-gun) Six-storied sword (Sakanohigashi, Shirakawa-cho, Kamo-gun)Yoshizawa UmemuraXNUMX Relief Convenience XNUMX Thousands of hundreds of eight rounds
  36. ^ The theory that the fall of Inabayama Castle was in the 10th year of Eiroku is predominant, but there is also a view that it is in the 7th year of Eiroku, and it is said that it is being discussed among researchers.[74].
  37. ^ It was not a completely new place name, but was used by some scholars and Zen priests along with Kiyo as a beautiful name because it is located in the north (yang) of the Kiso River.Nobunaga generalized it.[76].
  38. ^ They arePurpose,Wife HoshoAnd its companion, Mitsuhide Marikoji[81].
  39. ^ Rokkaku is from the Muromachi Shogunate twice in the pastHexagonal conquestAt that time, he abandoned Kan'onji Castle and retreated to Koka-gun, and after the withdrawal of the Shogunate army, he regained Kan'onji Castle, so it can be said that he took the same strategy at this time as well.[86]..However, unlike the Shogunate army that withdrew to Kyoto, Nobunaga, who needed a passage to Kyoto, began to transfer and rule Minami Omi into the Oda territory.[87].
  40. ^ Later, YoshiakiTerumoto MoriIs also given the Ashikaga clan[91].
  41. ^ On the other hand, the documents issued by Nobunaga to Yamashiro, Settsu, Yamato, Kawachi, etc. contain the words "Tatsunyo Tatsunyo", which means that he was dedicated to Yoshiaki, the shogun. , Oda territory and the shogunate territory were clearly separated.In addition, this division will disappear after March 4th year of Genki, when the separation between Nobunaga and Yoshiaki became clear.[95].
  42. ^ Some of them asked Nobunaga for a red seal to approve the contents while obtaining the approval of the Shogunate.Masashi Kuno is the backgroundMeiji's political changeSince then, as a result of repeated political changes and the expulsion of the shogun in Kyoto, the same situation will continue in the future-Nobunaga will be banished by Yoshiaki due to the rupture of Yoshiaki and Nobunaga, and on the contrary Yoshiaki will be banished by Nobunaga. He points out that some people wanted to get approval from both sides in anticipation of the possibility that the approval of the victim would be invalidated.[104][105].
  43. ^ Initially, in addition to Murai and Meiin, Hideyoshi Kinoshita, Nagahide Niwa, and Nobumori Sakuma served as magistrates in Kyoto, and later.Shigemasa NakagawaAlso joins.Many documents were issued by Hideyoshi and Nagahide during the Eiroku era, but with the expansion of the front, Hideyoshi was dispatched to Omi and other changes occurred one after another. During the Genki era, Sadakatsu Murai, Hideyoshi Shimada, and Naomasa Harada served in Kyoto. Serve[107].
  44. ^ When Haruyoshi Sekishiro Nijo seized the Kaga Kunii family villa on the right side of Kajuji Temple, he should stop the seizure from the Emperor Ogimachi because it is clearly in Haruyoshi.Wife HoshoDespite the fact that was issued, Yoshiaki dismissed Haruyoshi's proceedings, saying that "Haruyoshi supported himself until he went down to Echizen, while Haruyoshi was supportive of Ashikaga Yoshihide." ("Sir Tokitsugu", former Kame March 3, 20st year article)[114]..Also, it started in the first year of the original turtleIse Jingu Yoshinori(Succeeding the death of Fusahiko Matsuki, who was the third graceYanagihara ShisadaSadayuki Watanabe, the priestYasutada FujinamiIn the case of arguing with Mr. Yaohiko Matsuki), Yoshiaki, who was asked to mediate by the imperial court, often changed his opinion and prolonged the discussion, and canceled the ruling once issued when he received a protest from Yasutada Fujinami. Disposing of Harumon Settsu, the deacon of the government office who made the evaluation[115](This also violates the "Rules of the Lord" that the Shogun decided to obey the ruling of the magistrate's rating.[116]).
  45. ^ Nobunaga was dissatisfied with the delay in the proceedings of the Shogunate and the arbitrary approval of Yoshiaki ("Hiroshiki", Genki, February 4, 2th year).[117].
  46. ^ In addition, although the excuse for this dispatch was to subdue Muto Tomomasu of Wakasa Province, Masashi Kuno was raised by Yoshiaki's order because Muto was in the position of anti-Yoshiaki even in the Wakasa Takeda family, and Nobunaga. Suppose that he mobilized the army according to his life[124]..However, Wakasa was under the control of Yoshikage Asakura at that time, and Tomomasu Muto was also a pro-Asakura faction who opposed the revival of the Takeda clan by Yoshiaki, so it is said that he eventually clashed with the Asakura forces.[124].
  47. ^ However, Shin Hori said that it was the Asakura side who actually offered the peace.[129], Masahiko Katayama says that Nobunaga was about to reach an agreement with Yoshikage in a favorable situation, but Enryakuji continued to oppose the peace, so a decree was needed.[130].
  48. ^ Masashi Kuno also supports this theory of Shiba, and more specifically, it is estimated that a dissent book was issued in December of 3rd year of Genki.[140]..Kazusa Hirai also takes up Shiba's theory positively[141].
  49. ^ According to "Hosokawa Family Record", Hidemasa Ueno is Yoshiaki's "AppearanceIt is said that he was evaluated as a "favorite" of "Daiichi" and advised Yoshiaki to eliminate Nobunaga during the siege of Mount Hiei, and argued in front of Yoshiaki and Fujitaka Hosokawa who defended Nobunaga.Also, the predecessorNobutaka UenoAlso known as an aide to Yoshiteru Ashikaga who planned to eliminate Nagayoshi Miyoshi, Kuno unifies the power of the shogunate to Yoshiaki and confronts the governing policy such as the relief that occurred between the shogunate and Nobunaga. I think that he planned to eliminate Nobunaga for the purpose of eliminating it.[145].
  50. ^ For example, Tatsuo Kamogawa "Takeda Shingen and Katsuyori"[149], Hiroyuki Shiba "Reconsideration of Takeda's Invasion of Toe and Mikawa", "Takeda Research" No. 37, 2007, Shunroku Shibatsuji "Takeda Shingen's Kamiraku Strategy and Oda Nobunaga" "Takeda Research" No. 40, 2009, etc. ..
  51. ^ However, the imperial court has already decided to change the era in the third year of Genki, and on March 3 of the same year, he sent a messenger to Nobunaga and Yoshiaki.[159]..However, Yoshiaki is reluctant to change the era, and is listed as one of the criticisms in Nobunaga's 17-article questionnaire.Nobunaga argued that by supporting the era, he gained the legitimacy of Yoshiaki's exclusion, which showed a negative attitude, and by realizing the era desired by the imperial court, he made himself recognized by the imperial court as the head of the samurai government in place of the Muromachi Shogunate. Have a rating[160].
  52. ^ The number of matchlock guns at this time has traditionally been said to be 3,000,Masayuki FujimotoBased on the examination of the autographed book of "Shincho Koki", he proposed the theory that about 1,000 pieces are correct, and the myth became questionable.[171]. But,Masaru HirayamaHas been controversial, claiming that 3,000 are still correct through the systematic study of "Shincho Koki".[171]..There was a strong opinion that this gun unit also denied the existence of the so-called "three-stage shooting" (a method of dividing the unit into three units and firing them in rotation to enable continuous shooting of matchlock guns). The theory that there was an attempt to shoot continuously was also proposed, and it is controversial.[171]..According to Takayuki Nagaya, the cause of these controversies is the lack of reliable primary sources, making it difficult to grasp the exact reality of the Battle of Nagashino.[172].
  53. ^ During his tenure, successive Shoguns Ashikaga had the custom of advancing to Naidaijin as both Gondainagon and Right General, but Yoshiharu Ashikaga (at that time, only Gondainagon) tried to retire by handing over the general position to Yoshiteru.Emperor Gonara,Konoe-san familyAfter persuading (Yoshiharu's brother-in-law) to be the right general, he continued to be involved in the shogunate government as a guardian.[183].
  54. ^ Kofuku-ji's Betto was a procedure in which Mr. Fuji was selected from those who satisfied his family and career, and the emperor appointed him accordingly. The scholars who rebelled if they did not meet the requirements were the ones who supported the former Betto.[191]..In the letter that Nobunaga devoted to Harura, he was appointed in accordance with the "Modern Temple Law", stating that he would not "get rid of his thoughts", and implicitly appoint Kanefuka, who did not meet the qualifications of Emperor Ogimachi. Was a request to avoid[192]..However, he found a precedent that was appointed without qualification during the Eitoku era (1380s) at the end of the Northern and Southern Dynasties and reported it to the imperial court.[193]Kanefuka interpreted that "modern temple law" includes the precedent of Eitoku.[194]..Furthermore, Kanefuka's older sisterKuniko HirohashiHas been born to the half-sister of Emperor Ogimachi in the favor of Emperor Go-Nara, and before the controversy, Emperor Ogimachi promised to make Kanefuka a bettō of Kofukuji Temple in the future without consulting Haruyoshi. There is evidence that it was done[195]..It seems that Nobunaga did not anticipate the situation where Emperor Ogimachi was showing his thoughts about Kofukuji Betto without consulting with Mr. Fuji.
  55. ^ Nobunaga was mediating the peace between Takeda and Kenshin Uesugi at the request of Shingen Takeda (Kazuyo Kogoshi).Former turtle3 years(1572/) In October, Shingen invaded Oda and Tokugawa's territory without prior notice to Nobunaga, and Nobunaga and Takeda were cut off, and Uesugi was challenged to fight together.Kenshin responds to this, but he does not actively cooperate, and he is proposing peace when Mr. Takeda changes his head to Katsuyori.
  56. ^ In the past, it was thought that Murashige abandoned his wife and children and secretly escaped from Arioka Castle based on the description in "Shincho Koki".[214]..However, according to Tadayuki Amano, according to Murashige's letter addressed to Nomi Munekatsu, it is probable that Murashige's move to Amagasaki Castle was accompanied by a horseman and was intended to counterattack.[214].
  57. ^ Incidentally,Tomonin DiaryAccording to Nobunaga, the original opponent who advanced to the Imperial Palace was not Prince Masahito, but Prince Qing, Nobunaga's grace child.[217].
  58. ^ a b "Kanto Kanrei" is assigned to Kazumasu Takigawa as "Taikoki" and "Taikoki".Samurai"by. In "Shincho Koki", it is called "Kanpachi no Gokoku", "Togoku ritual agency", and in "Dateji family record", it is called "Togoku magistrate".[237].
  59. ^ "Anyway, I'm sorry to say that there is a sickness, and I'm going to reply to both of you again." Power and Court ”)
  60. ^ At this timeHonzen cuisine OfmenuIs "Tensho XNUMXth Anniversary Menu" "Sequel to documentHowever, it is pointed out that the menu at this time is comparable to the menu ("Menu Collection") at the time of Ieyasu entertainment (the role of the receptionist is unknown) in the previous year.[248].
  61. ^ It is generally said that Nobunaga has released the role of Mitsuhide's entertainer.[249]..However, according to Hiraku Kaneko, it is thought that Mitsuhide continued to entertain Ieyasu as originally planned due to misreading of historical materials.[249].
  62. ^ After the Honnoji Incident,Yoshida KanemiNobunaga's death is only coldly written in his diary.[253]..And, on the contrary, he is trying to act immediately with Mitsuhide's will, and it seems that there is almost no sign of sadness for Nobunaga's death.[253].
  63. ^ Heisei19 years(2007/), The excavation of the Honnoji site found a moat site and a large number of burnt roof tiles that were said to have been around the same time as the Honnoji Incident.[256].
  64. ^ For example,Hojo SounSlaughtered hostile people, including women and children[265]..Date Masamune is doing the same[265].
  65. ^ The following anecdote about Nobunaga's cruelty is also famous.9th year of Tensho (1581/) On April 4, NobunagaBiwa lake OfTakeo IslandFor worshipAzuchi castleDeparted.The maids who thought that Nobunaga would not return until the next dayKuwanomideraI vacated the castle without permission, such as going to visit.However, Nobunaga returned on the same day.Nobunaga was furious when he learned of the maids going out without permission, tied up the maids, and all succeeded.The elder of Kuwanomidera, who prayed for mercy on the maids, was also defeated (Nobunaga Koki, Vol. XNUMX).[267]).In Frois's Japanese history, an incident similar to this is written, although the age is unknown, "After punishing them severely, one or two of them fled to the temple, so the monks of the temple who accepted them. Were killed. "[268].
  66. ^ In "Shincho Koki", it is not written that it was a skull just by saying "neck".With a tail finCup the skullThere is a story that he gave it to his vassals, but it is only transmitted to popular books.
  67. ^ lacquerBigGold paintEtc.
  68. ^ Although Kazumasu Takigawa is from Omi, he has been following Nobunaga since the early days of the astronomical year, so he can be equated with Fudai.[274].
  69. ^ As an example, Araki Murashige was strongly dissatisfied with the fact that Hideyoshi Hashiba had taken over the position of commander of the Mori attack, so he decided to take hostility with Nobunaga.[274][275].
  70. ^ The act of offering horses and hawks in the Middle Ages had political implications.The act of offering horses and hawks during the Muromachi period was customary as a salute when the salute lord was authorized by General Ashikaga to take control of the horse and hawk.During the Warring States period, it was an extremely politically colored act that was linked to senior sovereign power and aimed at obtaining official recognition of territorial rule.[292]..In particular, the hawk was recognized as a sign of hero, martial arts, and power.[293].
  71. ^ Until the early Showa period, this ancient document was thought to be Nobunaga's autograph, but the one on the rightCamphor treeBy the brush of[323]
  72. ^ In addition, it is a later historical materialKaga DomainIn the compilation "Asokou Oyawa"Maeda ToshiieThe relationship with Toshiie is left as "a story of crane juice (an anecdote that Toshiie was envious of his colleagues when he showed off at a martial arts banquet that he had a mistress relationship with Toshiie when he was young)".
  73. ^ At Daitokuji Temple and its tower Soken-in, there is a statue of Nobunaga wearing a bandage.
  74. ^ Another example of using bamboo paper for coloring paintings is "Paper Book Colored Azai Nagamasa Statue" (Important Cultural Property) by Koyasan Jimyoin (Mainichi Shimbun, May 2019, 5).
  75. ^ Using martial arts, it realizes the seven virtues of prohibiting violence, stopping war, keeping greatness, determining merits, resting the people, reconciling the people, and enriching the fortune.
  76. ^ Traditionally, in the battle between Nobunaga and the anti-Nobunaga forces during the Genki era (so-called), Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru was considered to be the leader of the anti-Nobunaga forces.[342]..However, Hiroyuki Shiba has revealed that Yoshiaki actually supported Nobunaga until the Battle of Mikatagahara.[342]..Therefore, it is probable that Nobunaga became a "world man" not because of Nobunaga's administration concept from the beginning, but because of the result of the Genki conflict.[342].
  77. ^ Akira Imatani "Nobunaga and the Emperor-The Overlord Who Challenges Medieval Authority" Kodansha <Kodansha's New Book>, 1992.ISBN 978-4061490963. AfterKodansha Academic LibraryReprinted in 2002 ISBN-978 4061595613.
  78. ^ Kazusa Hirai classifies it as a cooperative theory, and Katsuhiro Taniguchi classifies it as a confrontational theory.
  79. ^ Strictly speaking, the imperial court tried to cooperate with Nobunaga, but Fujii's theory was classified as the theory that Nobunaga denied cooperation with the imperial court.[360].
  80. ^ From Emperor Gotomimon to Emperor Ogimachi, the imperial court has not been transferred due to financial difficulties.Emperor GohanaenThe successive emperors of the Middle Ages have been transferredEmperorOrPopeAnd,Haritoku no KimiAsPoliticsIt was basic to lay.However, the transfer of the emperor required enormous expenses such as various ceremonies up to the new emperor's practice, the construction of the Sento Imperial Palace after the abdication, and the relocation cost for that purpose.In other words, the transfer at that time could not be realized only by the emperor's personal will, and it was necessary to have a person in power who could bear huge expenses (Hideyoshi Hashiba ostensibly blamed the achievements of the construction of the Sento Imperial Palace).KanpakuAscended to).For this reason, during the Warring States period, both the imperial court and the Muromachi Shogunate were unable to cover the costs required for the transfer due to financial difficulties, so it happened that the emperors after Emperor Gotomimon collapsed for three consecutive generations. The transfer was rather thought to revert to traditional court practices.
  81. ^ In research, the theory that the confrontation with Ikko-ikki was the driving force that created the unified power in the early modern period was predominant, but now the mainstream view is that the confrontation with Ikko-ikki is not so important. Has become[373].
  82. ^ Frois's unpublished letter dated May 1575, 5 states that these road contracts were carried out in eight countries: Owari, Mino, Omi, Yamashiro, Settsu, Kawachi, Mikawa, and Totomi (" Complete translation Frois Japanese history Nobunaga Oda Hen I Chapter 4 ”).Such roads were built for the convenience of the conquered nations. ("Complete Translation Frois Japanese History Oda Nobunaga II" Chapter 8
  83. ^ "Additional articles for coins addressed to Tokyo with the XNUMXth year of Eiroku", "Revised Oda Nobunaga Document Study".
  84. ^ Yuko Ikegami[401]etc.
  85. ^ Nobunaga.
  86. ^ Nobunaga is the last person to receive the first rank at this time.
  87. ^ Osamu Wakita, 1987, "Oda Nobunaga, the last champion of the Middle Ages", Chuokoron-sha <Chuko Shinsho> ISBN 9784121008435.
  88. ^ Nobumasa, who is considered to be the eldest son, is often questioned for his existence.
  89. ^ Akiyama appears as the person who plays Nobunaga in the play within the play "Oda Nobunaga", but in credits it is just "Oda Nobunaga".


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  209. ^ HidaKokujiBecameAkanekoji YoritsunaIs my fatherAnegakoji YoshiyoriIn 1570SuperiorityWith Nobunaga from time to timeGuest·relatives,Kenshin UesugiFrom around 1578 after his deathNohimeSisters (Anegakoji Yoritsuna Seishitsu) Relationship relativesallianceIs tied.
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Related literature

  • Masayoshi Kawauchi, 2018, "Nobunaga and Kyoto as seen from the transition of lodgings", Tankosha PublishingISBN 9784473042774.
  • Masayoshi Kawauchi, 2020, "The strange city surrounded by the castle of Sengoku Kyoto seen by Nobunaga" Hozokan BunkoISBN 9784831826145

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外部 リンク

Naotora Ii

Naotora Ii(Ii Naotora) isSengoku periodからAzuchi-Momoyama PeriodOverTotomiIinoya[Annotation 1] OfLord.

There is only one letter of contemporary historical material about a person named "Ii Naotora", but it is a popular theory.Edo PeriodMid-termKyoho15 years(1730/) Written inMr. IiFamily biography "Ii family biography』, Although it was described as a woman, she became the head of the Ii family.Naomori IiDaughter of·Jiro HoshiIt is considered to be the same person as (Jirohoshi).Jiro HoshiNaochi IiIt is said that he was engaged, but he was never married and was a deceased child of his immediate parent.Tokugawa Shitenno-Naomasa IiIt is transmitted with the foster mother of.

The myth is as above, but historians and researchers have different opinions about the origin of Naotora and whether Naotora and Jiro Hoshi are the same person.#Discussion about the relationship between "Naotora" and "Jiro Hoshi"reference).

Jiro Hoshi and Mr. Ii

Jiro HoshiTotomiIinoya Castlemain(Chinese)ofNaomori IiBorn as a daughter of[8].. Mother isShinno ChikinoriSister of·Yutsubaki[2]..I'm not sure about the year of birth,astronomical5 years(1536/) There is a theory that it may have been born before and after[1]..Childhood and common names are unknown.His father, Naomori, has no boys, and Naomori'sCousinHitNaochi IiTheSon-in-lawIt was planned to meet at.astronomical13 years(1544/),ImagawaForce OfOno MasanaoBy the praise ofNaomitsu IiIs my younger brotherDirect meaningWithYoshikawa ImagawaSuspected of rebellion against, he was made to commit suicide, and his immediate parents also escaped from the territory of the Ii family.(I.e.TerritoryShinanoEscaped to.In the Ii family, whereabouts and life and death were kept secret in order to protect the lives of his immediate parents.Naotora, who was her daughter-in-law, is Ryutaiji (later)Ryutanji Temple), AndJiro Hoshi(Jiro and Hoshi are two of Mr. IiTerritoryNamed as a combination of names)[2]..NaochikaKojiNew Year (1555/) And adopted directly, but of the clanAsari OkuyamaDaughter of·HiyoIt is said that Naotora missed her marriage because she was in the regular room.

Eiroku3 years(1560/)ofBattle between SasakamaIn, his father, Naomori, died in the war.Naochika, who inherited the trace as an adopted child, was in Eiroku 5 years (1562/)Ono MichiyoshiBy the praise of (Masanao's child)ImagawaWas killed by.When Naotora and his family were approached, he was the older brother of his mother, Yutsubaki, and his uncle.Shinno ChikinoriWas saved by the defense of.Eiroku 6 years (1563/), Great-grandfather'sNaohira IiIs by Imagawa Ujizane's orderMr. AmanoSuddenly died during the attack[Annotation 2]..7 years of Eiroku (1564/), Mr. Ii followed Mr. Imagawa.Hikima CastleAttacking Shinno Chikinori and ShigeomiNaoyuki NakanoThey were killed, and those who supported the whole house were lost.Ii familyBodhi TempleThe chief priest of Ryotanji TempleNankei MizumonBy, the child of the immediate parent, Toramatsu (laterNaomasa Ii) IsHorai TempleWas moved to.Eiroku 8 years (1565/), "Ii family biography"Jiro Hoshi became the head of the Ii family, as it says," Jiro Hoshi is a woman who lives in the Ii family's territory. "Due to the death of his immediate parents, only Jiro Hoshi had a successor.[9]Therefore, Naotora's widow and Kazuhisa Minamiki of Ryotanji Temple consulted and created "Woman Jito".[Annotation 3][11]..According to the theory that Jiro Hoshi and Naotora Ii are the same person, at this time, the name was changed to "Jiro Naotora".[Annotation 4].

On September 8, 9th year of Eiroku, Jiro Hoshi received a donation letter to Ryotanji Temple.Black sealI stamped and confirmed the temple territory.Although it is a family temple of my own house, it is publicSealI was working on territorial control as a lord because the wording was "Shinjuku".[11][Annotation 5]..In November of the following year, under the name of Jiro Hoshi, Kawana's to mourn the bodhi of his grandfather Naotora.Fukumanji TempleDonating a bell to[14].

Eiroku 9 years (1566/), Imagawa Ujizane has issued a Tokuseirei to the Iitani area (Iitani and Miyakoda River), but it has not been implemented for two years.It is said that this is because Mr. Ii rejected Imagawa Ujizane's Tokuseirei, but in the 2th year of Eiroku (1568/) Finally, I had no choice but to implement the Tokuseirei. The judgment that the Tokuseirei was carried out on November 11th was written by Shigeomi Imagawa.Mr. SekiguchiCo-signed with "Naotora JiroThis document is the only issued document indicating the existence of "Ii Naotora".[15][16]..Behind this is the situation in which Naotora did not try to enforce Tokuseirei in collusion with his creditor, Qian, and the farmers relied on Mr. Imagawa to implement Tokuseirei.[17]..In other words, it connects Naotora and the lord of the Tokuseirei with the Tokuseirei refusal group and Mr. Ii's chief retainer, Ono Michiyoshi.Yoshinori KyodaThere is a conflict between Tokuseirei demanders[18]It can be said that this situation was a great opportunity for Mr. Imagawa to intervene in the Ii family.[19].

Ono Michiyoshi's profession continues, and Eiroku 11 years (1568/) Is a castleIinoya CastleWas robbed, but he turned against Ono's sideIitani three people(Kondo Kou-Suzuki Shigetoki-Tadahisa Suganuma)Mikawaguni OfTokugawa IeyasuParticipated and restored the real power by the power of Ieyasu.Former turtleNew Year (1570/) Pleads with Ieyasu, who accuses Michiyoshi of his immediate parents and executes him.However, Genki 3 years (1572/) From Shinano in autumnMr. TakedaInvaded, and Iinoya Castle was a vassal of Takeda.Yamaken MasakageAfter surrendering to Hamamatsu Castle, he escaped to Tokugawa's Hamamatsu Castle.After that, he faced Mr. Takeda in Tokugawa.OdaAllied forcesBattle of Mikatagahara,Battle of Noda CastleAlthough he lost the war until, Takeda was the owner.Shingen Takeda4 years since Genki fell ill1573/) Withdrew in April.Meanwhile, Naotora adopted his ex-wife, Naochika's bereaved child, Toramatsu (Naomasa).Tensho3 years(1575/), When Naomasa was 15 years old, he sent Mr. Tokugawa to serve, and at that time Naomasa was given 300 stones.[20].

It is said that he spent his later years at the Matsudake-in Temple in Ryotanji, where his mother spent his time after the decoration, and at his own cultivating hermitage.Tensho 10 years (1582/) Died August 8[3]..His corpse is said to have been buried in a self-cultivating hermitage[6]..The name of the priest is "Yuen Tsukiizumi Zen Nun"[2]..The name "Myounin-den Tsukifune Yuen Dai-nee" by a memorial service in later years[2]The self-cultivation hermitage was changed to Myounji Temple.[5]..At Ryotanji, the Ii family's family temple, the tomb of Jiro Hoshi is next to his immediate family.[4].

Discussion on the relationship between "Naotora" and "Jiro Hoshi"

To the influential people in KyodagoTokusei OrdinanceIn addition to the signature of "Jiro Naotora" being seen in the letter ordering the implementation of , There is a different theory.

The reason why Naotora Ii = Jiro Hoshi (female) was that "there was a lord who called himself" Jiro Naotora "at that time" from the signature of the letter of the Tokuseirei mentioned above, and during the Warring States period.Naohira IiAnd the activities of his descendants, until the childhood of Naomasa Ii is described.Ii family biography], "Jiro Hoshi" is from the same countryNational people-Mr. IiServed as the de facto head of the[Annotation 3], According to the description.There is no clear description in the primary sources at that time or in the "Ii Family Biography" itself that Jiro Hoshi called himself "Naotora".[21].. Also,"Ii family biography』Itself is described based on local folklore including misrepresentations, and it is a historical material with many contents that cannot be said to be historical facts.In particular, the fact that he was married to Naochika Ii meant that Naochika escaped to Shinshu.astronomical13 years(1544/) At that time, Naochika was 10 years old and Naotora was 19 years old. There is also an idea to assume[22].."I can't tell if Jiro Hoshi and Naotora are male or female," he said, but "it's hard to imagine that there were two people inside the Ii family who called themselves" Jiro "at the same time. Hoshi and Naotora Jiro will be the same person. "[23].

Under these circumstances2016/(Heisei28 years) August,Kyoto City Of[Annotation 6]The director announced that "Ii Naotora is not a woman (Jiro Hoshi) but a different man".According to it, "'Ii Naotora' is a vassal of Mr. Imagawa.Mr. SekiguchiHis son (the person who is the maternal cousin of Jiro Hoshi) was named "Ii Jiro" and was the head of the family, and he is a different person from Jiro Hoshi, the daughter of Naomori Ii. "The discovered historical materials areKyoho20 years(1735/), "Moriyasu Secretary" (12 volumes in total), among whichKanei17 years(1640/)Shinno ChikinoriHe was the grandson of (Naomori Ii's wife and brother of Mr. Sekiguchi) and was the chief retainer of the Ii family.Moriyasu KimataThe record that was written down by the descendantsMorisada KimataThere was also a "Miscellaneous Theory Copy" that was copied by.It is in the historical materials that Director Ii obtained at an antique store about 50 years ago, and when he read it back after the interview, he found the description of "Ii Jiro".In the historical materials, it is written about the Ii family who was under the control of Imagawa Ujizane, and later wrote that the territory of Iitani was given to "Ii Jiro" who was the nephew of Shinno Chikinori and the child of Mr. Sekiguchi mentioned above. There is a description in the added form, which is the basis of another person's theory.On the other hand, the description in the historical materials was limited to "Ii Jiro", and the pseudonym "Naotora" was not found.[25][26].

Claims of Naotora Ii and Jiro Hoshi
ClaimantRelationship between the twoSexFrom
Tatsuo IiAnother personWoman (Jiro Hoshi)
Male (Naotora)
Daughter of Naomori Ii (Jiro Hoshi)
Child of Mr. Sekiguchi (Naotora)
Tetsuo OwadaFanFemaleDaughter of Naomori Ii
Motoki KurodaFanMaleChild of Mr. Sekiguchi
Michishi IsodaAnother personWoman (Jiro Hoshi)
Male (Naotora)
Daughter of Naomori Ii (Jiro Hoshi)
Child of Mr. Sekiguchi (Naotora)

Tetsuo OwadaIs that "Moriyasu Secretary" was written in the Edo period and is not a historical source of the same period, there is no description that "Ii Jiro" is Naotora, and "Jiro" is from the generations of the Ii family.KanaIt is pointed out that it is unlikely that another person will call himself "Ii Naotora" when Jiro Hoshi exists.[27]..In addition, there is an imbanjo issued under the name of Jiro Hoshi in the "Ryotanji Document", and it is clear that the Jiro Hoshi who was a priest temporarily ruled Iitani. "[27].

Motoki KurodaRegarding the description that "Ii Jiro" is the son of Mr. Naotora in "Miscellaneous Theory", Mr. Sekiguchi's relationship with Naotora was unknown in the only confirmed document issued by Naotora. It is said that it is sufficient as a reason for co-signing, and it is concluded that Naotora's origin is Mr. Sekiguchi "it can be said that it has been confirmed".[28]..In addition, in the Ryotanji donation letter issued by Jiro Hoshi in the 8th year of Eiroku, the format is the true name used by men, and the black seal is used instead of Huaya. It is presumed that Jiro Hoshi was Naotora's childhood name because it is believed that he was a boy.[29].

Michishi IsodaIt is,Fukuhisa SetoAccording to Imagawa Ujizane, he pointed out that in September 11, Mr. Imagawa recognized that Jiro Hoshi was the ruler of Iitani, and then wrote a letter in November of the same year. Since the name "Naotora" suddenly appeared, Isoda was on the verge of extinction under the pressure of Takeda and Tokugawa, and sent a puppeteer, Naotora, to Iitani, which is controlled by Jiro Hoshi. It is speculated that Ieyasu was expelled by Ieyasu Iitani and the Imagawa clan in December.[30]..This claim is consistent with Ii Naotora in that "Ii Jiro Hoshi (female) ≠ Ii Naotora (male)", but both are in the position of the head of the family.

またWatanabe Daimon"The" Secretary of Moriyasu "and" The Secretary of Miscellaneous Secrets "are compilations that were established in the middle of the Edo period, and cannot be recognized as historical facts as they are. Taking a posture[31].

Related works


Children's book


TV drama


  • "The Story of the Birth of Naomasa Ii" (September 2013, 9), Jingujigawa Ryokuchi, Kita-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture) → "Naotora Ii and Ieyasu Tokugawa" (Theatrical company Sand Eating CompanyPerformance (October 2015-)
  • "The story of the birth of Naotora Ii" (TEAM NaotoraPerformance, (January 2017-)


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ ShizuokaHamamatsu cityKita(OldInasa-gunInasa Town
  2. ^ There are various theories about the cause of death of Naohei.Detail isNaohei's death theoriesSee.
  3. ^ a b "Jito" in this era was used not as the meaning of the Kamakura period but as the meaning of the lord.[10].
  4. ^ "Naotora" in this case is a pseudonym, not a real name.[12].
  5. ^ Regarding the reason why the signature of this document is "Jiro Hoshi" in the Jiro Hoshi repatriation theory, by giving such a name, the right to claim the construction of a religious order centered on Ryotanji, and the right as the Ii family's territory. Obtained and described as having religious and substantive power[13]
  6. ^ oldYoita DomainAn art museum specializing in armor, armor, and swords, run by Tatsuo Ii, who was adopted by the descendants of the Ii clan.[24].


  1. ^ a b Natsume 2016a, p. 151.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Jiro Hoshi (Naotora Ii)". Ryutanji Temple. 2017/8/11Browse.
  3. ^ a b Inasacho 1991, pp. 565.
  4. ^ a b "Ryotanji Temple Precincts Cemetery Map (Ii Family, Ryotanji Temple Chief Abbot Nankei, Jieshan, Hyoten, Vassal)". Ryutanji Temple. 2017/8/11Browse.
  5. ^ a b "Naotora's mortuary tablet, released from 16th found at Bodaiji Temple in Hamamatsu". @S (at S) (Shizuoka Shimbun,Shizuoka broadcasting). (January 2016, 4). originalArchived as of October 2016, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20161104141336/http://www.at-s.com/news/article/culture/shizuoka/229482.html 2016/11/4Browse. 
  6. ^ a b "Land related to | Naotora Ii site". "Lady Lord Naotora" Promotion Council. Hamamatsu cityIndustry Department TourismCity promotionDivision. 2017/6/24Browse.
  7. ^ "Naotora Ii Tomb--Google Maps". Google. 2017/8/11Browse.
  8. ^ Inasacho 1991, p. 560.
  9. ^ Inasacho 1991, pp. 560–561.
  10. ^ Inasacho 1991, p. 563.
  11. ^ a b Inasacho 1991, p. 561.
  12. ^ Natsume 2016a, p. 148.
  13. ^ Natsume 2016a, p. 167.
  14. ^ Inasacho 1991, pp. 563–564.
  15. ^ Wakabayashi 1955.
  16. ^ Inasacho 1991, pp. 564–565.
  17. ^ Inasacho 1991, pp. 570.
  18. ^ Kubota 1980.
  19. ^ Keiji Nagahara Seminar "Social and Economic Structure of Toe in the Warring States Period-In the Case of Iitani Area-" "Hermes (Hitotsubashi University Student Research Journal)" No. 28.
  20. ^ Natsume 2016a, pp. 177–178.
  21. ^ Tatsuo Ii 2016.
  22. ^ Hiroko Noda "Historical Characters of" Ii Family Biography "" "Bulletin of Hikone Castle Museum" No. 26, 2015.
  23. ^ Oishi 2016.
  24. ^ Ii Museum "The Road to the Ii Museum" Senjin Armor Material Reference Center ""
  25. ^ "Ii Naotora" Wasn't she a woman?Ii Museum is a new historical material ". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2016, 12). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLZO10673470U6A211C1CR8000/ 2016/12/16Browse. 
  26. ^ "Is" Naotora the Lady Castle "a man?New historical materials for the main character of the taiga ". Asahi Shimbun(July 2016, 12). http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASJDB62T9JDBPLZB00K.html 2016/12/16Browse. 
  27. ^ a b "The grounds that the" Taiga drama "era witnesses can argue against the" male theory "..." Naotora was a woman "<dot.>". dot.(July 2017, 1). https://dot.asahi.com/dot/2017012600151.html 2017/1/29Browse. 
  28. ^ Kuroda 2017, § Origin of Naotora.
  29. ^ Kuroda 2017, § The appearance of Naotora.
  30. ^ Michifumi Isoda, "Inner Curtain of Japanese History, From the Real Face of Sengoku Women to the Mysteries of the End of the Edo Period and Modern Times," Chuokoron-Shinsha, 2017, pp. 114-116. 
  31. ^ Daimon Watanabe, "The Disturbed Life on behalf of the Ii Family Head," edited by the Institute of History and Culture, "All About the Ii Clan," Yosensha, 2017. 


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