Google official "Pixel 6a opening video" found.Is the fingerprint sensor in the display working quickly?
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As far as I can see in this video, it seems that the fingerprint authentication was successful only once and was unlocked quickly.
It is said that Google will release the latest smartphone "Pixel 6a" in late July, but the official opening is ... → Continue reading
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Biometrics(Seitai ninsho) is also called biometric authentication or biometrics authentication, and is an individual who uses information on human physical characteristics (biological organs) and behavioral characteristics (habits).AuthenticationTechnology and process[Note 1].
In biometric authentication, information usually called a "template" is collected and registered in advance, and at the time of authentication.SensorAuthentication is performed by comparing with the information obtained in.There are various levels, from a method of authentication by simply comparing images to a method of detecting a biological reaction.
PIN,PasswordIn the case of authentication by means of objects, there is a risk that even the person himself / herself cannot be authenticated due to oblivion or loss, or another person may be authenticated due to an attack such as leakage, theft, or brute force.In the case of biometric information, it is generally considered that the risk is low, so a simple authentication method (no key input or carrying of things is required) or a third party other than the person (when colluding with the person) But as a means to prevent being certified, entrances to buildings, etc.Cash card,passportIt is used as an authentication method such as (at the time of entry and departure).
However, in order to be widely used, it is necessary to deal with people who cannot be biometrically authenticated due to injuries, illnesses, birth defects, etc.In addition, it may not be possible to authenticate due to aging, or it may be broken by duplication.Since biometric information cannot be updated arbitrarily like a password, once it is breached by duplication, it has a fatal problem that security cannot be restored with the same authentication infrastructure.At this time, some products are actually questioned about their safety against duplication and spoofing of biometric information (see the security section below).
For those that are currently used frequentlyfingerprint, In the eyes虹彩Is mentioned.Financial institution TMJBy adopting it, it reads the shape of blood vessels such as fingers, palms, and backs of hands.Vein recognitionThe number of usage is increasing.Also,Mobile phone(Smartphone) Is also adopted.In addition, authentication using voiceprints, face shapes, handwriting, etc. has been put into practical use.
At the time of authentication, the identity is confirmed by having the machine read the biometric information using a dedicated reader.Not only used for biometrics alonecard,Password,PINOften combined with.
- ComputerThis is done for the purpose of confirming the person registered in advance when using a computer or at an electronically controlled doorway.
- Personal computer OfLogin Occasionally, fingerprint authentication is performed using a dedicated device.
- Mobile phone,SmartphoneWhen using, press your finger against a part of the mobile phone,Iris recognitionThere are some that perform unlocking and authentication of payment.Some simple face recognition and voice recognition are standard equipment.
- Bank'sTMJでPINAt the same time, the shape of the veins on the fingers or palm is read to confirm the identity.
- In a country or companypersonal informationTo enter a room that handles confidential informationretinaYou are using authentication.
- NaraThe Environment Bureau has decided to introduce vein recognition for checking at the time of attendance and departure in order to prevent fraudulent declarations during work and working hours.On the other hand, there are also voices of opposition from the staff, such as "It is treated as a criminal"..
- Japanese Red CrossThen,Blood donationFinger vein recognition is adopted (May 2014, 5, sequentially from Hokkaido) to verify the identity of the person..
- JapaneseMinistry of JusticeThen,fingerprintとfaceUsedImmigration controlsystem"J-BIS"Japanese airportIntroduced in.
- "India Unique Identification Number Agency" (UIDAI) was announced in 2010 for each and every citizen.fingerprint,虹彩12 digits combined with biometrics byAdher(Aadhaar) Started assigning numbers (National uniform number systemSee).It covers more than 9% of the total population, and documents that prove identity such as birth registration are inadequate.povertyLayer too社会 保障You can use administrative services such as, and it is effective in preventing fraud and improving procedure efficiency..
Biometric information used for biometric authentication
Conditions for biometric information suitable for use in biometric authentication include "characteristics that everyone has", "no other person has the same characteristics", and "characteristics do not change with time". ..
"Identical twinsIsn't the physical characteristics of the same? ”, But fingerprints, irises, vein patterns,moleThe position and number ofDNA OfNucleotide sequenceBecause it is not decided bygeneIt is also different for identical twins who have a perfect match.
It is often used in combination with other biometrics or other authentication methods when it is not possible to obtain a sufficient and reliable recognition rate by itself.
- Those that use physical characteristics (mainly static information)
- It is also used for criminal investigations and is a simple but highly reliable authentication method.In addition, since biometric authentication is one of the oldest, many methods of deception have been devised, but the authentication equipment for it is also being improved.
- DNA typingIt is often used in criminal investigations and is the most reliable and ultimate biometric authentication method, but for confirmation, a sample (a part of the subject's body such as blood or saliva) is obtained and chemically analyzed in detail. As of 2018, no device has been developed that can authenticate in real time.It has the drawback of not being able to identify identical twins.
- Palm shape
- A method of authenticating using the width of the palm or the length of the fingers.Renewal is required on a regular basis (widely used in the United States and valid for one year) as the recognition rate decreases with growth and aging.
- A method of recognizing the pattern of capillaries in the retina of the eye.Since the retina is located in the back of the eyeball, it is necessary to bring the eye close to the sensor in order to capture the pattern, and the device is also large, so the penetration rate is not very high.
- 虹彩Of the shade value of the patternhistogramAuthentication method using.Since even twins can perform accurate authentication, it has high authentication accuracy.As with the retina, a large-scale device was required in the past, and registration and operation costs tended to be higher than authentication methods such as fingerprints and veins, but unlike the retina located at the back of the eyeball, the iris is on the surface side of the eyeball. Since the information is located in, it is easier to take pictures than the retina, and in recent years, it has become possible to authenticate with a camera mounted on a smartphone.
- The recognition rate decreases due to changes in eyeglasses, facial expressions, and age.Also, in the case of identical twins, it is easy to recognize both as the same person.It is used for simple authentication methods and criminal investigations.
- Blood vessel
- Obtained by transmitting or reflecting near-infrared light to the palm, back of the hand, and fingers静脈Techniques using patterns have been put into practical use.
- VoiceprintThe one using is well known.The recognition rate may decrease depending on the health condition.It is derived from the structure of vocal organs such as the vocal cords and is basically a physical characteristic, but it also has an element of behavioral characteristics.Used for a simple authentication method.
- AuricleA method of authenticating using the shape of.
- body odor
- Research is being conducted on techniques for certification based on the chemical composition of body odors.Since it does not require the actions of the person to be inspected, it is used in situations where care must be taken not to cause discomfort to the person to be inspected, such as when finding a person with a criminal history in a security check such as at an airport.
- Those that use behavioral features (dynamic information)
- A method that utilizes habits such as changes in the trajectory, speed, and pressure when writing.Research is also being conducted on authentication methods for estimating arm rotation and finger length.Note that the method of viewing only the handwritten image after writing is not regarded as biometric authentication.Also, in Japan, seals are often used as an authentication method, and there is little custom of signing, so it is not widely used.
- Keystroke authentication
- KeyboardA method that uses the speed and timing habits of keystrokes.
- A method that uses the habit of lip movement during speech.
- A method of measuring the amount of change in the black eye area due to blinking.The unconscious blinking motion is fast, and it is said that it is difficult for others to imitate.In combination with face recognitionMobile phoneExample adopted in (P902iS) Is also available.
- An authentication method that uses human walking.Walking has physical characteristics such as skeleton and muscles, and dynamic characteristics such as how to walk.Surveillance camera OfFace recognition systemUsed in combination with.The recognition rate decreases after serious injuries such as bone fractures or long-term hospitalization.
International standards related to biometricsISO / IEC JTC 1/ SC 37 specializes in deliberations.
In addition, ISO / IEC JTC 1 / SC 17 (IC card technology), ISO / IEC JTC 1 / SC 27 (security technology), ISO / TC 68 (financial field),ITU-T/ SG17 (communication technology),ICAOInternational standardization organizations such as (IC passport) are also proceeding with standardization work related to biometrics (in cooperation with SC 37).
In biometric authentication, in principle, false recognition rate (type I error, false positive) is falsely recognized as not the person even though the person is the person, and the person is mistaken for the person despite being another person. The false acceptance rate (type II error, false negative) that is recognizedTrade offThere is a relationship of.If you try to reduce the false acceptance rate to 0, the false rejection rate will also increase.Therefore, in the biometric authentication that is generally put into practical use, the false acceptance rate is not 0 (Type I error and Type II errorSee also).Therefore, it is assumed that high security is ensured by using both biometric authentication and PIN code at bank ATMs and requiring input of both.
It is said that authentication that does not depend on the person's condition such as fingerprints, veins, and iris is more accurate than authentication methods that depend on the person's condition of the day such as voice and handwriting. There are some systems that use the method but have security questions.At present, the combined use with conventional methods such as passwords is a realistic, secure and reliable method.
There are several known attack methods that can be realized at a cost of several hundred yen.In particulargelatinAnd artificial fingers made of silicone rubber can pass through many fingerprint authentication systems.paperThere is a possibility that the artificial iris made in can pass through the iris recognition system.Some simple face recognition can be passed with a photo of the person.Even with a vein recognition system, other than living organisms (RadishThere is a device that can register the artificial finger) made in.These problems have been addressed, for example, by improving them so that they do not react to objects other than living organisms and improving the accuracy of the equipment, but the system becomes expensive, and authentication technology developers and vulnerability researchers It is a cat-and-mouse game.
- In the case of fingerprint authentication, the residual fingerprint is copied to gelatin to make an artificial finger, and the artificial finger has succeeded in passing the authentication.further,Wood glueYou can break through fingerprint authentication usinggelatinOnly then), a Japanese university student announced.In some cases, a special tape was put on the finger of the actual system to falsify the fingerprint and break through the fingerprint authentication..
- In the case of iris recognition, a research example has been published in which a perjury was made on paper printed with an iris image.
- In the case of vein authentication, as of 2005, we have only succeeded in an experiment in which artificial fingers are registered as data and passed the authentication, so it cannot be immediately stated that there is a risk of false authentication.However, the possibility that an insider or the like illegally registers the data cannot be denied, and if the data of the artificial finger is registered in such a case, the authentication can be passed with the artificial finger as a result. ..
Many of these breakthrough methods involve unusual and unnatural behavior during registration and authentication, and may be prevented by closely monitoring the situation during registration and authentication.
In addition, the following problems have been pointed out in biometric authentication.
- There is a risk that you will not be able to receive certification due to injury or illness.
- When the subject is in the growth phase, the shape and size of the biological element will change, and the false rejection rate will increase.
- Since biometric information is basically immutable throughout life, once it is broken by duplication, the security cannot be restored with the same authentication platform.
- Biological information is basically immutable throughout life, and there is a problem in handling it as personal information (individuals cannot counter malicious managers. Even well-meaning managers are sensitive information and are suitable for handling. Attention and cost are required, which are often enforced by law.)
However, these points do not necessarily apply to all biometric authentication technologies.Depending on the method, there are some that do not originally cause a problem, and some that have already developed a solution.
- ^ According to the definition by Anil Jain of Michigan State University in the United States, even a single word "biometrics" represents biometric authentication technology.According to this definition, "biometrics authentication" can be regarded as a double expression, but the word biometrics has "meaning to indicate biometric information itself such as fingerprint" and "meaning to include authentication using those biometric information". There are two ways, and if the former interpretation is adopted, the term biometrics certification is not a mistake.In fact, even in specialized literature ("Biometric Security Handbook"), the expressions "biometrics", "biometrics authentication", and "biometric authentication" are mixed as expressions representing biometric authentication, and there is no particular distinction. It is used with the same meaning.This also applies to English expressions (see the beginning of the English version of this article).However, since biometrics is a noun and biometric is an adjective, it is naturally distinguished in the context where it is necessary to distinguish between nouns and adjectives.In general books, "Biometry"ListThe notation "kusu" is often used, but this notation is not often used in specialized books and technical documents.
- ^ Nara City Environment Department: Introducing vein recognition for attendance and departure Mainichi Newspaper March 2013, 2
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- ^ The 22stNikkei Asia Prize Mr. Nandan Nilekani, Economic Sector (India Unique Identification Number Agency, First President) to 11 billion people to improve ID poverty ""Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition October 2017, 5
- ^ Kunimai Hitoshi Information security threatened by bizarre logic and good misunderstandings
- ^ "Biometrics" breached entry, Korean woman forged fingerprint with tape Yomiuri Shimbun 2009/1/1
- ^ It is said that it is only to challenge the use of biometric data for German personal identification devices used for electronic passports and the like.
- ^ Fingerprints are being targeted online! Hand images are afraid of misuse ... National Institute of Informatics aims to put new technology to practical use-Article details | Infoseek News
- "Biometrics Market Survey 2004' Fuji Chimera Research Institute, August 2004, 4.
- Tsutomu Matsumoto (PDF) Financial Services Agency, April 2005, 4. -Materials related to attacks using artificial fingers.
- Biometrics Security Consortium "Biometric Security Handbook" Ohmsha, 2006.ISBN 4274500896.