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The frequency of meals, the time of intake, etc. are also elements of food culture.What you usually eat, and what you eat on a special day on the calendar.
modern society OfglobalismIn some respects, each food culture is heading toward uniformity.WesternCompanyMainlyfast foodThe store世界Expanding to each countryInstant Food,SnacksEtc. are in circulation.That said, in every household around the world, traditional home-cooked food continues to be taught from parents to children.local cuisineRe-evaluation and evaluation of dishes using local ingredients (Local production), "Slow food"Exercise" is also happening.In addition, due to the problem of succession, there is a movement to train successors who are familiar with not only home-cooked dishes but also local dishes unique to the region.
Food culture of each country
For exampleJudaismIsCachet"Or"KosherThere is a food regulation called.If you trace this backThe Old TestamentThis is because there are detailed descriptions and regulations regarding what you can eat, what you cannot eat, what you should not eat together, how to slaughter animals, and how to cook.In strict denominations, many Jews still strictly adhere to this. Pesaḥ (Pesaha.Passover festival, Sugishikoshi Festival, Nisan The night of the 14th of March.In March or April of the solar calendar (starting on the day of the move and continuing for a week), God killed babies all over Egypt when he tried to escape Egypt under the leadership of Moses when his ancestors were Egyptian slaves. However, only the Hebrew house, which had the blood of the lamb smeared on the entrance of the house, recalled the fact that it "passed" (not killed), and on the first night of the Passover, "SederWe hold a banquet called ".Lamb, bittersweet,MazzerEat (unleavened bread, bread without yeast for swelling).And "HaggadahTo commemorate the rescue of our ancestors from slavery in Egypt by reading the story and psalms about Exodus.
Muslim(Islamic) do not eat pork as unclean.Do not eat anything that contains pigs, blood or alcohol.Although chickens and sheep can be eaten, the method of handling is decided, and it is stipulated that they should be judged with a sharp knife while chanting the name of God (Allah).Islamic law"Food that makes sense"Halal".In the Middle East, more Muslims are tolerant of halal, but many Indonesian Muslims are strict about halal.
MuslimsRamadan monthFrom sunrise to sunset (one of the Islamic calendar months)fasting(Also forbidden to drink, smoke, have sexual intercourse, think lewd things, lie, deceive people, etc.).Such fasting is one of the most important Islamic beliefs.Increase Takuwa (awareness of God) by doing what God has commanded by fasting and, conversely, keeping away all prohibited acts.Fasting Muslims are said to be saved from many sins and protected from Jahanam (hell).Fasting allows us to feel the suffering of poor and uneaten people and to be close to their feelings.In the month of Ramadan, all Islamic people go straight home after work, and after sunset, their families and relatives get together and enjoy eating together (a meal after fasting).Therefore, in the month of Ramadan, there will be no customers at the restaurants in the city.In the month of Ramadan, I realize that Islamic people from all over the world are united, and my faith grows.
Western EuropeThen until the Middle AgesCatholicChristianity had no particular food-related bans based on scriptures such as Judaism and Islam (Christianity still bans certain foods on the basis of the Bible). There are no rules).However, there isConventThere were strict rules established by the abbot in favor of austere life, and the monastery was (accidentally) so influential that it even affected the eating habits of the general congregation outside the monastery.specifically,530/By the timeSt. Benedictus of NursiaByBenedictine OrderWas foundedBenedictus preferred fasting and asked monks for a modest diet and adopted a diet that was basically meat-free.As a result of the Benedictine norms spreading as the basis for many Christian churches14st centuryEating fish has become commonplace in (Western) European countries(As a result, fishing has become a major industry in Western Europe).At that time, freshwater fish was a luxury item, and of the sea fish that can be eaten on a daily basis.HerringとCodWas a source of protein for Europeans..Herring is a lot of fat and perishable, so it wasn't used as a preserved food.,Atlantic codIs a white fish with a light taste and less fatDried fishSuitable forCod that has been salted and processed into dried fish has been preserved for over 5 years..中 世Then, << dried cod >>, which was dropped in various parts of Europe, became a daily food and was called stockfish (preserved fish)... Dried herring and cod in the 15th centuryTrade Hanseatic AllianceBecause it was monopolized byEnglandFishermen sought a new Tara fishing ground, far away from the waters they were previously fishing forアイス ランドI started to go off the southern coast and take cod(As a result, he fished in the rough winter waters of the north and was often in distress.)
The << dried cod >> is one of the few that can cross the equator without rotting (as I explained above, because it is so good that it can be preserved for more than 5 years if it is salted and dried).proteinBecause it was the sourceAge of DiscoveryBecame a food that supports(That is, to put it the other way around, Western Europeans happened to have a food called << dried cod >> and had a dietary habit of eating it, so even if they couldn't procure protein at all during their trip, they would be protein. I knew that I wouldn't fall into the urgent situation of a shortage, so I was able to take on the challenge of a long-term voyage).ThenAge of DiscoveryWhen you rush into, you can make "geographical discoveries" (that is, "discover" the continents of North America and South America) in North America, South America, Asia, Africa, etc.ColonyBy obtaining the seeds of plants in North America, South America, Asia, Africa, etc.SpicesWill be brought to Western Europe,European food cultureWas also heavily influenced by it (for example, as seeds such as potatoes and tomatoes native to South America were brought back and cultivated in Europe, they were incorporated as (basic) ingredients in European cuisine. For example, the tomatoes brought back by the SpanishItalian foodPotatoes have become a common ingredient throughout Europe, especially in Belgium.Fritz(French fries) Is treated as a staple food. )
In this way, there are various food cultures.People of various food cultures can be passengers on international flights of aircraft, so some are assumed to be typical people such as Jews, Islam, and Hindus.In-flight mealMenus are often prepared, and if you specify it at the time of booking, you can eat it.
Chinese food culture
In China, which has a vast land area, trends differ from region to region..wheat,cornIn regions with high productionManju,Gyoza, FlournoodlesEtc. are mainly eaten.. On the other handIndica riceIn the south, where production is highCooked rice,Rice noodlesEtc. are the staple food..I often eat fish dishes in the coastal areas.
Incidentally,Chinese cuisine OfStereotypeIt should be noted that this image can be a source of misunderstanding in understanding the history of Chinese food culture.To give a specific example, the history of shark fin cooking is at most 300 years., Peking duck has a history of at most 100 years..I didn't eat that kind of food before that.
Since there are no religious restrictions on food in China, the Chinese people are willing to accept foreign tastes as the economy develops in recent years.For example, regarding meat, restaurants from all over the worldMcDonald's OfHamburger,KentuckyFried chicken,YoshinoyaGyudon, etc. have opened many stores in China, and the world's diverse food culture is rapidly permeating..
Looking at the statistics of dietary content, the amount of rice began to decrease after 1985, and in recent years the amount of wheat has also decreased...Instead, livestock products are increasing in particular.At the same time, the amount of heat supplied increased from 1985 kcal in 2,572 to 2003 kcal in 2,872...It can be said that eating habits are changing toward Western food cultures that make heavy use of meat and oil..USDAEven if you look at the data ofbeefConsumption was 1989 tons in 101, but increased to 5,000 million tons in 2008, about six times as much...The annual per capita consumption is 0.9 kilograms (1989) → 4.7 kilograms (2008), which is about five times higher..
Taiwanese food culture
In order to understand Taiwan's food culture, it is better to know the mechanism of Taiwanese culture in general.Head minister"When"ForeignerYou should know the term.Also, Taiwanese food (for about 50 years)Japanese ruleIt is also influenced by the food culture ofChiang Kai-shekLed byTaiwan National GovernmentYou should also know that it is also influenced by.
In other words, Taiwan's food culture is influenced by the food culture of southern China (southeast), the food culture of Taiwan's indigenous people, and the food culture of Japan. It is also influenced by the food culture of Hong Kong.
It is also said that the mixed ethnicity is expressed by the phrase "development of the uniqueness of Taiwanese culture" in Taiwan..
For example, the influence of Cantonese cuisine.Guangdong Province is the home of gourmet food, which is said to have food in Guangzhou.Abundant seafood, delicacies such as shark fin and abalone,Dim sumFamous for its culture.Taiwanese food culture is influenced by such food culture.
Jiang Zhe cuisine, the cuisine of the people who ruled Taiwan's "central" government, has been positioned as "elegant cuisine" in Taiwan's culinary culture..Originally a traditional and popular culture, dim sum rose when it was introduced to Taiwan via Hong Kong, and it was a "new dish" for the "upper class", only for the upper and wealthy classes. Became a symbol of..Eating dim sum and dim sum fits in with the cultural habit of eating with the whole family...After various backgrounds, "Taiwanese Hong Kong style"Dim sumBecame unique to Taiwan.
Korean food culture
The climate and geographical characteristics of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula enrich Korean food, and it is one of the characteristics of Korean food culture.Non-staple foodCreated a habit of clearly separating.
Confucianism attaches great importance to valuing the elders and the elderly, and expresses it in words and actions at the dining place.cheersAt that time, in front of the elders and superiors, the glasses were supposed to be fitted slightly lower than the superiors (rather than presenting them at the same height), and were taken into consideration by the elders. In case, receive with both hands.When drinking, it is said that you should avoid the eyes of the elders and lie down (shrink a little) from the elders' point of view and drink inconspicuously.
Confucianism is KoreanGrilled meatCulture also nurtured.garlicRegarding the heavy use of, Lee Sung-woo (author of Lee Sung-woo's “Korean Cuisine Culture History”) said, “Our country (= Korea) is worshiped.Confucianism・ AbolishedBuddhaBecause of his principle, he did not accept the Buddhist taboo taboo and was willing to eat garlic without any resistance. ".
Japanese food culture
JapanInBuddhismMonk'smenu(EspeciallyVegetarian food),Heian period Of貴族 OfBanquetInGreat drinkIt became a ceremonial dish at a banquet in the samurai society, inheriting the genealogy of cooking and large-scale cooking.Honzen cuisineEtc. were established.Honzen-ryori is served on the table of each customer, soOne soup and three vegetablesIt was composed of "juice" and "vegetables", and had a great influence on the Japanese food culture later.In addition, a simplified version of Honzen-ryori was born.afterwards,Meiji RestorationAccompanyCivilizationWithbeefMeat culture that eats such as is influx.Other,Pacific WarFood shortage inside,Allied Supreme Commander General CommandFood aid in Japan under occupation,High economic growthHowever, the food culture changed rapidly.
- ^ a b c d e f g Brian Fagan en: Brian M. Fagan"A distant history of humankind across the sea, the voyage of ancient marine people" Kawade Shobo Shinsha (2018)
- ^ Points of View / Issues "Cod and Herring in World History"(NHK)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tadashi Oikawa, "Introduction to Illustrated Business, A Book that Understands the Basics and Karakuri of the Latest Food Problems," Shuwa System, 2009. p.116.
- ^ a b c Jing Zhang "Cultural History of Chinese Cuisine" Chikuma Shobo, 2013
- ^ a b c d e Tetsuo Yamaori, "Asia's Environment, Civilization, and Humans," 1998, pp.123-126
- ^ When I went to Taiwan, the "vegetarian" food was too great-Taiwanese food that will satisfy non-vegan people
- ^ a b Hatsue Shigenobu "Delicious Korean Rice at Home" p.13.
- ^ Asian Studies (No. 91-94), p.114
- ^ a b Dowd Timothy Jung, Food and Sake on the Korean Peninsula: A Folk Tradition Fostered by Confucian Culture, Chuokoron-sha, 1998
- ^ Michio Sasaki, "Korean Food and Culture: What You Can See from a Comparison with Japan and China," Mukuge Monographs (4), 1996. p.13
- "Introduction to Food Culture" Naomichi Ishige, Dowd Timothy Jung Kodansha ISBN 4061397729
- "Mystery of Food and Culture" Marvin Harris (Marvin Harris), Translated by Sakumi Itabashi Iwanami Hyundai Bunko Iwanami Shoten ISBN 4006030460
- "Encyclopedia of Food Culture" Tetsu Okada Tokyodo Publishing ISBN 449010507X
- "World Map of Food" Edited by 21st Century Study Group Bunshu Shinsho Bungei Shunju ISBN 4166603787
- "How to read the history of food from a world map-What is the surprising fact hidden in the spread of food and ingredients?" Yasuo Tsujihara KAWADE Yumeshinsho
- "History of Food XNUMX" JL Flandran, M. Montanari, Shoko Kikuchi, Yuji Sueyoshi, Chikako Tsuruta, Makoto Miyahara, Miwako Kitadai Translated by Fujiwara Shoten ISBN 4894344890
- "History of Food XNUMX" JL Flandran, M. Montanari, Shoko Kikuchi, Yuji Sueyoshi, Chikako Tsuruta, Makoto Miyahara, Miwako Kitadai Translated by Fujiwara Shoten ISBN 4894344904
- "Myths full of misunderstandings World food culture" Osamu Ogura Leed Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN 4845837519
- Food taboo
- Cuisine --List of dishes from each region
- Alcoholic beverage
- List of soft drinks
- List of herbs
- List of vegetables
- List of fish dishes
- List of seafood dishes
- Insect food
- Dog food culture
- Cat food culture