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💪 | "Extremely thin ❣️" Saki Igarashi, a female entertainer of the new comedy, becomes XX ambassador ⁉️

Photo Image / Saki Igarashi Official Instagram

"Extremely thin ❣️" Saki Igarashi, a female entertainer of the new comedy, becomes XX ambassador ⁉️

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By the way, the inauguration suit worn by Igarashi seems to be downsized from 3L to LL, and even with a unique hashtag, he reports the results of his diet to his followers.

"You've lost a lot of weight ❣️" "Amazing ❣️" Saki Igarashi (Yoshimoto Shinkigeki), a female entertainer on a diet, has her own Ins ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


Downsizing(Downsizing) orminiaturizationIs a term that refers to reducing the size (scale), and is used for various things such as things and organizations.In short, it is used as follows.

  • To reduce the size of things.cost(cost) ReductionEfficiencyTo use a smaller one for the purpose of[1]..Alternatively, use new technology to increase the density and size, and create industrial products with the same function or higher performance as before with less volume and weight. (→ →# Downsizing of industrial products
  • 組織To reduce the scale of.Generally of the enterpriseEmployeeNumber of people reduced. →#Organization downsizing
  • Aestheticindustry,FitnessThe mainstream term in the industry is to use the synonym "sizedown" for the purpose of slimming the body.

In this article, we will explain downsizing comprehensively, including things and organizations.


In a broad sense, downsizing generally refers to reducing the size (scale), and in particular, reducing the size in order to reduce some inconvenience or increase some profit.

In English, it is often used in the context of referring to the size of an organization.

The same word is used in JapanInformation processingOccupies a large space and increases operating costs, mainly in the industrymain frameOr largeOffice computerThe small computer (General purpose server) Was called this way in a series of changes, but later it was generalized and the term was also used for miniaturization in various fields.

Downsizing of industrial products

Downsizing may reduce the installation space, make it easier to carry, or collect a large number and make it highly integrated, creating new value (at the same time, reducing weight and heat generation, etc.) May be required).

Computer product downsizing

In the olden days, it started with IBM's mechanical devices and statistical devices using electric switches in the 1940s, and thenthe 1960sIn the mainstream (EIectronic Data Processing System) processing in the latter half, various large-scale statistical processing, and core processing that manages business / accounting information in a company.main frameA large computer called is used.However, this large computer called a mainframe is an integrated system of multiple computers built using a lot of dedicated hardware and software, and the computer price and operation / maintenance cost as a system are enormous. As a result, the replacement with general-purpose servers, which are cheaper and less expensive to operate and maintain, has gradually progressed.This replacement was called "computer downsizing."

In recent years, proprietary operating software (OS) Is not used, and there are many general-purpose server products that use general-purpose basic components (CPU, memory, disk, etc.) that have higher performance than the current medium-sized mainframe.

These are faster and more powerfulprocessor・ Large capacitymemoryAnd electromagneticStorage medium(hard disk) ・ With the development of various hardware that is becoming cheaper, rapidElectronicsThe above progress has led to a large amount of memory and high-speed computing power (→).Moore's Law).

またthe 1980sFrom the second halfthe 2000sIn the field of CAD / CAM, we have traditionally strengthened our powerful image processing capabilities.Work stationUsed for, etc.Super computerWas used as a graphical terminal / image processorUNIXThe system workstation can increase stability and availability and ensure reliability to perform important processing (open system).serverHas evolved into the core of a company's core system.Since then, it has replaced mainframes and has permeated society.

This progress isn't just about hardware, it's also about a lot of downsizing in software.For exampleoperating systemIn terms of (OS), the systems of general-purpose machines (mainframes) and minicomputers / office computers used to be customized for each company and provided, but UNIX-based OS is an open existence as a more flexible general-purpose OS. Windows that is versatile and low-priced while being proprietary, and various types that run on themMiddleware,Application software OfPackageAs the system is becoming more popular, it is possible to substitute a system configuration by combining general-purpose products, which helps to reduce costs.

A typical example of this general-purpose OS is an open source product with an open source whirlwind from the early 2000s.FreeBSD,LinuxIs famous.The development of UNIX-based OS, which is premised on the operation on these personal computers, gradually replaces the system from the expensive server machine that was running on the conventional general-purpose machine OS and commercial UNIX-based OS.transplantThere is also a point that helps in doing so.

Furthermore, even in application software that is application software and has been developed according to business, each OS and routine processing on it can be cut out and used as a common software platform.Packagesoft/MiddlewareIs created and offered at a much lower cost than developing it exclusively.

However, in the core system of a company and the financial institution / social infrastructure system, software specialized for business is required, and it was developed by the old-fashioned means while using a package for various common processes.ApplicationThe reality is that the provision of services by software is indispensable.

Downsizing in automobiles

Engine downsizing

DisplacementWith reduction ofFuel efficiency,Exhaust gasHow to improve cleanlinessDownsizing conceptchecking ...

American car downsizing

Conventionally in the case of the United States (the 1960sUntil),AmericaInAutomobileIt is,consumerIt was characterized by a large displacement, a large size, and a large room.Although these automobile trends in the United States have continued for a long time,the 1970s OfOil shockAwareness of the problem of low fuel consumption that spread in the wake ofthe 1960sIn response to the disregard for safety that continued to deceive American car users, the shift to small and medium-sized cars made in Japan with good fuel economy while emphasizing safety and reliability, as well as rough road running performance by FF (front wheel drive), It has been a big movement since the mid-1970s[2]..In addition, GM and Ford followed suit, expanding the lineup of small and medium-sized cars and promoting the miniaturization of existing models.

Crude oil priceAlthough there may be a temporary return to large vehicles due to the movement and the booming economy, the movement to shift to small and medium-sized vehicles has become remarkable since this movement, especially the crude oil price that soared after 2006 Due to the desire for high fuel efficiency, users have been switched to Japanese cars and German cars, which have high fuel efficiency and reliability, and small and medium-sized American cars, which have good fuel efficiency.In terms of reliability, fuel efficiency, safety and brand, Korean cars are also increasing in sales due to their low price, although they are not as good as Japanese cars and German cars.This movement is centered on small and medium-sized cars, and considering the transition from large cars, it can be said to be one downsizing.

Japanese car downsizing

From registered cars in recent years in JapanLight carThere is a movement to switch to.Behind this is a registered vehicle with many global models that has been developed with the greatest common divisor in view of expansion to Europe and emerging countries, in addition to the original low running cost (tax, fuel consumption, etc.). On the other hand, the standard for light vehicles is specialized for the needs of the Japanese market.Domestic car[Note 1]Therefore, it may be more suitable for Japanese users.For thisThe end of the era when cars were in statusThe change of values ​​is also greatly related.

Once seen as a commercial vehicleLight tall wagonWith the rise of the car, it is not uncommon for cars to have a large interior space, so many mini cars are in the hands of the general public, which are both small enough to run on narrow roads and have high utility performance that does not bother the storage of people and things. It became so.In addition, technological advances and market development have spurred the wave of downsizing, as it has become commonplace for cars to be given luxurious equipment and textures that are equal to or better than registered cars.Although the price at the time of purchase is increasing even higher than that of registered vehicles in the B segment, as mentioned above, it is selling like a mini vehicle because of its ease of use.

Downsizing on mobile phones

The most downsized area in the last 2005 years (in 20) isMobile phoneIs mentioned.the 1980sPortable phones are available in JapanShoulder phoneAs of 1985 (shoulder phone 100 type), it was a device that weighs about 3 kg including a battery.[3]..Furthermore, portability is not consideredMobile communicationAs a terminalCar phoneFor example, the first TZ-1979 type serviced in 801 for the general public in Japan weighed 7 kg.[4]..This is a device that is lighter than 1987 kg that can be held with one hand in 1.[5] And,the 1990sThrough this, it has become smaller and more sophisticated.However, since smartphones became popular, large-capacity batteries became necessary due to increased usage and increased power consumption due to higher performance, and the size of smartphones has increased, and in Asia Large smartphones of 5 inches or more are becoming popular[6].

Barcode reader downsizing

In recent years, I use a barcode reader to check the price while purchasing.SedoriWith the spread of (commonly known as), the demand for small barcode readers is increasing.

Merits and demerits of downsizing industrial products

With the progress of downsizing, equipment renewal in various fields, improvement of convenience in the general society, orAdvancement of various servicesIs progressing.However, these downsizings include aspects that are not always profitable.

MultifunctionalBehind the improvement of convenienceDigital bargainingBy a camera with a built-in mobile phone calledUnauthorized reproduction of copyrighted materialProblem orStealIn addition to the fact that some museums distribute stickers and ask them to seal the camera so that they cannot take pictures during viewing.Saudi ArabiaThen.2004In March, it banned the sale and use of camera phones in the country.After the voyeur problem became noticeable, improvements were made such that "there is a sound that can be recognized when shooting."

In computer-related downsizing, the storage capacity of portable devices is expanding at the same time, and various tasks are being performed on behalf of personal computers.Personal information leakIt is inviting the damage such as.Inexpensive, lightweight, and large-capacity devices have made it possible for more people to carry large amounts of information, which is also the reason why it is easy to promote.

Tissue downsizing

In Europe and the United States, reducing the size of an organization is also generally called "downsizing."Private enterprises OfManagementWhen people say "company downsizing", they generally sayEmployeeIt means reducing the number of people.It is an expression from the perspective and position of a manager who is in a position to control the organization.Even when asked by an employee, "Employee'sDismissal(Layoff) ”, This expression is also preferred and used because it has a softer feel.

Organization related items

Living things and downsizing

In a broad senseBiology However, some species have succeeded in prospering by downsizing in the process of evolution.bigSystem(System) is stable,HomeostasisIt is useful for maintaining the environment, but it tends to be expensive to maintain, and it is vulnerable to sudden changes in the environment due to the slow change of generations.On the other hand, in a small system, it is easily affected by changes in the environment, and it is easy for individual units to be eliminated.AdaptationIt is said that it is fast and resistant to sudden changes.[7].

In addition, miniaturization is being carried out by artificial mating.For example, dogs are being miniaturized for the purpose of pets, and for miniaturized dog breeds(English editionA group calledMameshiba InuAnd so on.In recent years, ultra-small dogs named Tiny and Teacup have also appeared (Teacup poodleSuch).

othersLaboratory animalIs also being miniaturized (Mini pig,Micro pigSuch).

Humans become smaller due to genetic diseases, etc.Dwarfism(English name dwarfism) also exists.

Miniaturization factor

Downsizing (size down) in the aesthetic and fitness industries

In a broad sense, size down is a term used for the same purpose of miniaturization and slimming as "downsizing".[9] However, the "body-centered"Size"Size down" is the mainstream term used when expressing the purpose of making "smaller, slimmer, or thinner".[10][11]

Size down related items

  • Cluster infiltrated water "Size Down" brand logo "Size Down" (商標).


注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Locally produced in PakistanSuzuki Alto (8th generation)There are exceptions such as

Related item


Number signUses> hashtag

hashtagIs before a phrase with no words or spacesHash sign (#, number sign)Is a label with a shape[1].Metadata tagType,Mini blog,Facebook,Google+,Instagram,Twitter,VK such asSocial networking servicesHashtag "#" (Half sizesymbol)[2], Is it displayed in the text (for example, "New artists announced for #SXSW2014 Music Festival")?[3], Is added to the end of the sentence. An example of a hash tag is #dontjudge. The word hashtag can also refer to its own hash symbol used in the context of the hashtag[4].

Hashtags can collect similar tagged messages and also electronically search all the messages in which they exist.JapaneseThen, collecting information using hash tags is sometimes called "tagging".[5].

Due to widespread use, "hashtag" was released in June 2014.Oxford English Dictionary][6][7].

Origin and use

Number signInformation technologyOften used to emphasize special meanings. In the 1970s example, when you put a symbol or number nextPDP-11 OfAssembly languageIn directAddress modeWas used to display[8].. 1978,Brian KanihanDennis Ritchie TheC languageC processorUsed "#" as a special keyword that must be processed first[9]. Before the invention of the hashtag, the number sign wasNorth AmericaCalled the "hash symbol" in several countries outside[10][11].

Then the number signIRCNow used to label groups and topics[12]. Channels and topics are available throughout the IRC network and are prefixed with a # hash sign (in contrast to localserverToAmpersand(&) Is used)[13].

(English editionIs inspired by the use of number symbols in IRC[14],Mini blogAdvocated using a similar system on Twitter to tag topics of interest on the network[15]. Chris posted his first hashtag on Twitter as follows:

how do you feel about using # (pound) for groups. As in #barcamp [msg]?(→ # for groupinglb<Pound>[Note 1]) How about using? Like #barcamp [message]. )
Chris Messina, His original Tweet proposing hashtag usage, August 23, 2007[16]

Internationally hashtag is(English editionTriggered byTwitterIt became a feature of how to write a post,English,Persian languageThe hashtag at(I.e.It became useful for Twitter users both inside and outside[17].

The word hashtag was first used in a blog post by Stowe Boyd on August 2007, 8, "Hashtags are groupings on Twitter."[18]And dictionary editor of the American Dialect Society(English editionSays.

Twitter has all the hashtags in the tweethyperlinkNow, you can display search results on Twitter for hash-tagged words (or the standard spelling of misspelled words in general). In 2010, Twitter began posting content that featured a booming hashtag called "Trending Topics." On the trend list on Twitterス パ ムTo prevent the entry of, and to provide the hashtag of the topic neutrallyalgorithmThere is[19].

People's Republic of ChinaThen,Sina Weibo(Weibo)Tengxiang WeChat(WeChat) Is in the form of a double hashtag called "#hashname #", but this is漢字This is because there is no space between them and a tag for closing is required. In contrast, Twitter has Kanji (and similar space problemsOrthography) Is used by the user to maintain a linguistically natural expression such as'I'm love'.[20]A space before and after the hash-tagged element (for example,'I'm love' instead of'I am love')[21]OrZWNJMoreMust be inserted.


Mini blogs andSocial networking sitesThen insert the hashtag somewhere in the text, put it in front,PostscriptCan be included later or included as a word in the text (eg, "It is #sunny today").

The number of used hashtags in a post or tweet is just as important as the type of hashtag used. Currently, it is considered acceptable to post one tag for a specific conversation and two for posting a place to add a place to the conversation, but three is the limit, and there is a risk of "buying the anger of the community". Is supposed to increase[22].

2013 year 9 month,Jimmy FallonJustin Timberlake TheLate Night With Jimmy FallonAt the show, we showed a control that satirizes repeated misuse and incomprehensible use of hashtags.[23].


Hashtags are mostly used in lively and occasional discussion forums, where hashtags are the hashtags of any combination of letters, but if you make a personalized appeal, hashtags can become a trend. You can attract more people to have a discussion with. In Twitter, when hashtags have surged in popularity, they are reflected in the "Trending Topics" of the user page, but the display trend can be selected by region or world. Hashtags cannot be registered or controlled by a single user or group of users, nor can they be "retired" from general use. It is meant to be used in a permanent reliance on the composition of. Also, the lack of any configuration definition means that a single hashtag can be used for a number of purposes supported by its users.

And the hashtags intended to be used in discussions at certain events that tend to use obscure wording are the same, like "#cakefestival" is used during cake festivals instead of simple "#cake". The intention is to avoid getting involved in general conversations on such topics. However, this can make it difficult for a topic to trend because people often use the same spelling and words when they think they are talking about the same topic. In order to put a topic in the trend, it is necessary to get agreement whether the hashtag referring to a particular topic is implicit or stated.

Hashtags also serve as a guide for finding and adding users with similar interests to follow (subscribe) or list (public contact list) users.

Is a social networkInstagramHowever, it is possible to use hashtags by adding hashtags according to photo posts and topics. For example, you can add hashtags such as #bffl or #friends to photos posted by yourself or friends. However, Instagram has disabled certain hashtags such as #photography #iPhone #iphoneography, which are too featureless to serve their purpose. It also blocks hashtags that lead to illegal activities such as drug use.[24].censorshipAnd certain hashtag bans are specific to InstagramSubaltanIt plays an indirect role in the way communities are built and maintained. Despite Instagram's content rules, users are looking for ways to continue their actions and ultimately avoid censorship[25].

Hashtags are also used informally and unintentionally in sentences based on incoming messages to practically categorize the message for later retrieval, sharing, or other reasons. It is also useful for expressing humor, sadness and other emotions such as "Monday!! #Excitement #irony".

Use outside of social networking websites

This feature isYouTube,Goker MediaIt is also installed in non-short message application services such as the user comment function in. In the case of Gawker Media, hashtags for blog comments and directly posted comments are used to maintain a fairer rating of user activity when employees are not logged in to the website.[26][27].

Hashtag compatible website



Since 2010, multiple TV stations have branded hashtags in their TV seriesdisplayI started to advertise in[29], For online discussion before, during, or after the broadcast(English editionThere is also a meaning. Hashtag display is on any corner of the screen or at the end of a promotion[30](For example, motion picture trailer)

Broadcasters, such as moderators and correspondents, are also promoting corporate or personal Twitter account names to exchange posts, and use related or branded hashtags along the account name (for example,(English editionnot only(English edition) Continues to be encouraged as a mini-blogging method to become a topical hashtag on Twitter and other search engines (to be discussed in the future). Broadcasters are also creating such formats to bring together selected posts for live broadcast. Clau Sladden, Twitter's director of media collaboration, said#SunnyFX)) is set as two types of hashtags for TV, one is for instantaneous identification and the other is temporary type for the cast to look for reaction from the viewer during the broadcast.[31]. Also, the hashtag is(English editionPart of the speculation is whether to replace or coexist with[32].

The increasing number of cases where hashtags are used as advertising media is that they were advertised at the end of commercials and series episodesAOLBranded from the late 1990s to the early 2000s(English editionCompared to[33].

There are also hashtags that become world famous, for exampleI am CharlieThis slogan was first used on Twitter as hashtags #jesuischarlie and #iamcharlie, and spread extensively on the Internet.


From February 2013 on TwitterAmerican ExpressBy collaborating with us, we are now able to buy products that are on sale at reduced prices online by tweeting a special hashtag.[34]. American Express members can sync their card and Twitter or use offers by looking for replies with tweets and confirmations from American Express[35].

Event advertising

Ad hoc lists are being created for the first time for discussions and promotions among participants when conducting real-world events. Hashtags are often used as a marker for both participants to find each other on Twitter during the exhibition period.

Companies and advocates are also engaging in discussions using special hashtags to promote their products, services and campaigns.

#OccupyWallStreet,# LibyaFeb17In the political movement in early 2010, such as was developed based on hashtags, and hashtags were used extensively to boost discussions.

Customer complaint

Hashtags are often used on social media platforms as consumers complain to large corporations about their customer service experience. In contrast, "bashtags" are created to describe situations in which social media hashtags set by a company are used to criticize the company or to accuse other vulnerable customer services. It is a term. As an example, in January 2012McDonald'sCreated a hashtag called #McDStories to share a good experience in the store, but this campaign was canceled in just 2 hours because there were many complaints tweets instead of the expected good experience.[36].

Sentiment analysis

The use of hashtags can also reveal the emotions that the author has hit the text, with clarity differing where the hashtags directly describe the state of mind. As an example, the words in the hashtag are sentencesIronicHas become the strongest predictor of whether or not[37].

In popular culture

(English editionDuring the period,New Democratic PartyWas the party leader(English edition TheCanadian Conservative Party OfStephen HarperMentioned crime-related policies by the Prime Minister as "a hashtag fail" (probably #fail)[38][39].

Kanye WestSaid[40]hashtagWrapWas devised in the 2010s to describe the style of rap,(English editionAccording to Rizoh, "metaphor, pose, in one wordPunch lineIt is often composed at the end of the rhyme."[41].Nicki Minaj,Big sean,Drake,Lil WayneWrappers such as this are raising the hashtag wrap,Ludacris,The Lonely Island[42]And several music writers blame hashtag wraps[43].

June 2013, 9, ``New York TimesTop page article headline of TwitterInitial public offeringHashtag #TwitterIPO appeared in the article about[44].

WWEWrestler'sDorf ZigglerThe ada name is "hashtagHeelIt is.

Food company(English editionIs in the form of at-marks and hashtags called "Mashtags"Mashed potatoesWas launched in 2014[45].

In May 2014, Twitter usersSex discrimination,Violence against womenHashtags have been used to increase awareness of the experience of[46].


In 2010, Twitter introduced a "hash flag" that can be used during the FIFA World Cup South Africa tournament[47]Re-introduced in 2014 at World Cup Brazil[48][49].. This is a function that, when tweeting the three-letter country codes of 32 participating countries using the hash tag method, the national flags are automatically incorporated into the tweet.

July 2012, TwitterTicker symbolIn front ofDollar signA function that can be clicked as a hash tag by adding (as an example$ AAPL) Was introduced and was called "cash tag"[50][51].. This is a feature that allows you to search for tweets that are discussing companies and stock prices.

In August 2012, British journalist Tom MeltzerGuardianPaper with both handspeace signA new version of the "finger hashtag" that mimics the hashtag of crossing fingers like a hashtag symbol(English editionIntroduced[52].. This new gesture(English edition WiredIntroduced in[53], In 2013Jimmy FallonOr show it on TV,Corvea ReportWas also used[54].

in Japan,"Nihon Keizai Shimbun"ButCapital Area"# hash tag" is used for the name of the column that covered the topic of[55].


注 釈

  1. ^ In North AmericamassUnit oflbIt is called like this because it is a symbol used to represent.


  1. ^ hashtagMerriam-Webster(Retrieved September 2020, 1)
  2. ^ Using hashtags on Twitter, support.twitter.com, http://support.twitter.com/articles/49309# April 2013, 11Browse. 
  3. ^ Best Practices for Hashtags | Twitter Developers, Dev.twitter.com, (2011-07-19), https://dev.twitter.com/media/hashtags April 2013, 11Browse. 
  4. ^ “Oxford English Dictionary-Hash”, Oxford English Dictionary, (June de 2014), http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/389023#eid301493073 
  5. ^ [Read receipt data]Kabaya food"Tough Gummy", "Taguru" popular among young boysNikkei MJ] December 2020, 1 (food side)
  6. ^ “'Hashtag' added to the OED – but # isn't a hash, pound, nor number sign”, The Register, (13 June 2014), http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/06/13/hashtag_added_to_the_oed/ 
  7. ^ “New words notes June 2014”, Oxford English Dictionary, (June 2014), originalArchived as of October 2014, 10., https://web.archive.org/web/20141007085108/http://public.oed.com/the-oed-today/recent-updates-to-the-oed/june-2014-update/new-words-notes-june-2014/ 
  8. ^ PDP-11 assembly language, Programmer209.wordpress.com, (2011-08-03), https://programmer209.wordpress.com/2011/08/03/the-pdp-11-assembly-language/ April 2014, 8Browse. 
  9. ^ Kernighan, Brian W.; Ritchie, Dennis M. (1978) (English). The C Programming Language. Prentice Hall. Pp. 86, 207. ISBN 978-0-13-110163-0 
  10. ^ Bourke, Jane (2004). Communication Technology Resource Book. Ready-Ed Publications. Pp. 19. ISBN 978-1-86-397585-8. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gPNBTmxzpIIC&lpg=PA19&dq=hash%20key%20telephone&pg=PA19#v=onepage&q=hash&f=false April 2014, 11Browse. 
  11. ^ Hargraves, Orin (2003). Mighty fine words and smashing expressions: making sense of transatlantic English. Oxford [ua]: Oxford Univ. Press. Pp. 33, 260. ISBN 978-0-19-515704-8. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dUTdk93cq9UC&lpg=PA260&dq=hash+telephone&pg=PA260&hl=en#v=onepage&q=hash%20mark&f=false 
  12. ^ "Channel Scope". Section 2.2. RFC 2811
  13. ^ Oikarinen, JarkkoReed, Darren (1993). "Channels". Internet Relay Chat Protocol (English). IETF. sec. 1.3. two:10.17487 / RFC1459. RFC 1459.
  14. ^ #OriginStory, Carnegie Mellon University, (2014-08-29), http://www.cmu.edu/homepage/computing/2014/summer/originstory.shtml 
  15. ^ Parker, Ashley (June 2011, 6). “Twitter's Secret Handshake”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/12/fashion/hashtags-a-new-way-for-tweets-cultural-studies.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all April 2011, 7Browse. 
  16. ^ Messina, Chris [@chrismessina] (September 2007, 8). "how do you feel about using # (pound) for groups. As in #barcamp [msg]?" (Tweet). As of July 2013, 11originalMore archives.TwitterThanRetrieved February 2013, 11.
  17. ^ “The story of the hashtag began with Iranians”. Deutsche Welle Persian. (2009). http://www.dw.de/حکایت-هشتگی-که-ایرانیان-آغاز-کردند/g-18012627 April 2015, 3Browse. 
  18. ^ Stowe Boyd, Hash Tags = Twitter Groupings, Stoweboyd.com, http://stoweboyd.com/post/39877198249/hash-tags-twitter-groupings April 2013, 9Browse. 
  19. ^ The Secret of Twitter's Trending Hashtags With Insight and Tips, AllISayIs.com, http://www.allisayis.com/the-secret-of-twitters-trending-hashtags-with-insight-and-tips/ April 2014, 12Browse. 
  20. ^ International services team (April 2012, 4). “Right-to-left languages ​​on Twitter”. Twitter. https://blog.twitter.com/2012/right-to-left-languages-on-twitter April 2015, 3Browse. 
  21. ^ Martin, Rick (July 2011, 7). “Twitter Rolls Out Hashtag Support for Japanese, Korean, Chinese, and Russian”Tech in Asia. https://www.techinasia.com/twitter-hashtag-languages/ April 2015, 3Browse. 
  22. ^ What is a (#) Hashtag?, Hashtags.org, http://www.hashtags.org/how-to/history/what-is-a-hashtag/ April 2014, 2Browse. 
  23. ^ The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon (2013-09-24), "#Hashtag" with Jimmy Fallon & Justin Timberlake (Late Night with Jimmy Fallon), Youtube, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57dzaMaouXA April 2014, 8Browse. 
  24. ^ Instagram banned hashtags, BBC.co.uk, (7 November 2013), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-24842750 April 2013, 11Browse. 
  25. ^ Olszanowski, M. (2014). "Feminist Self-Imaging and Instagram: Tactics of Circumventing Sensorship". Visual Communication Quarterly, 21(1), 83-95. Retrieved February 8, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15551393.2014.928154#.VNgGT7DF-7FF-7F
  26. ^ Gabriel Snyder (October 15, 2009), Anarchy in the Machine: Welcome to Gawker's Open Forums, Gawker, http://gawker.com/5382267/anarchy-in-the-machine-welcome-to-gawkers-open-forums 
  27. ^ Zachary M. Seward (October 15, 2009), Got a #tip? Gawker Media opens tag pages to masses, expecting "chaos", Nieman Journalism Lab, http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/10/got-a-tip-gawker-media-opens-tag-pages-to-masses-expecting-chaos/ 
  28. ^ Marco Wisniewski (February 6, 2012), Hashtags in Orkut communities, Orkut, http://en.blog.orkut.com/2012/02/hashtags-in-orkut-communities.html 
  29. ^ Michael Schneider (April 21, 2011), New to Your TV Screen: Twitter Hashtags, TV Guide, http://www.tvguide.com/News/New-TV-Screen-1032111.aspx 
  30. ^ Todd Wasserman (Dec 3, 2012), McDonald's Releases First TV Ad With Twitter Hashtag, Mashable, http://mashable.com/2012/12/03/mcdonalds-tv-ad-twitter-hashtag/ 
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  55. ^ As an example,"Work and meetings in the wilderness: a place to work in the Tokyo metropolitan area where there are many choices # hashtags""Nihon Keizai Shimbun" electronic version (delivered on September 2019, 9) Read on January 13, 2020.

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