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📷 | "There is an expression I don't know even if I climb 100 days a year" The true charm of the photographer who continues to shoot Mt. Taisetsuzan


写真 

"There is an expression I don't know even if I climb 100 days a year," says the photographer who continues to shoot Mt. Taisetsuzan, the true charm.

 
If you write the contents roughly
When I took my camera to the forest where Ezomomonga lived, I encountered it at Beginner's Luck.
 

"Mt. Taisetsuzan" is not the name of a specific mountain, but the highest peak of Hokkaido, Mt. Asahidake (2,291m), Mt. Kurotake, Mt. Hokuchin, ... → Continue reading

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Ezomomonga

Ezomomonga(Ezo small flying squirrel,Pteromys volans oriiKuroda, 1921>[2]) IsRodents(Rodents)Squirrel familySciurinaeFlying squirrelFlying squirrelSiberian flying squirrel species Pteromys volans (Linnaeus, 1758) ofSubspeciesIn JapanHokkaidoInhabitEndemic subspeciesIs[5](→写真).

Name

Nagamichi Kuroda 1921/(TaishoIn the subspecies of Siberian flying squirrel recorded in 10 years)[2], The first official record is the same yearLake Utonai(Current:Tomakomai)[6]..The name of the Japanese name "Ezo Small Flying Squirrel" isKyukichi Kishida[Note 1][8], Subspecies nameorii TheOrii YojiroToDedication.

AinuThen, "Atsu Kamui" (Atsu = "group living", Kamui = "god", that is, "group living god")[9]Or it was called "Ak Kamui" (meaning "children's guardian deity", also called "Ak Kamui").[10],1940 eraUntilHunter・ (Yamago)[Note 2]Was called by the common name "BanG Dream!"[8].

distributed

This species is from all over Hokkaido[12]Hiranobe- Subalpine zoneDistributed over[13],forest(Evergreen coniferous forest-Deciduous forest) Inhabit[Note 3][15].Sapporo内 のForest Park-Maruyama ZooAlthough it lives in the vicinity[3], Hokkaido Islands ・Kuril IslandsDoes not inhabit[13].

This species depends on trees for its place of residence, food, and means of transportation, and cannot live in places without trees.[16]..On the other hand, it can live in forests with trees of a certain area and thickness that can be burrowed.[9], City park / school forest[16]・ Along the railroad tracksWindbreak・ Near a residential areaWooded area[Note 4]Also inhabits the environment such as[9]..However, in addition to being nocturnal and alert, it is difficult to continuously observe because it spends most of its life on the tree, and the detailed ecology is not well known.[9].

Inhabits Honshu, Shikoku, and KyushuJapanese flying squirrel(Endemic to Japan)Flying squirrelIt is relatively common in highlands because it competes with burrows, but since flying squirrels do not inhabit Hokkaido, this species inhabits a wide range from lowlands to highlands.[Note 5][12]..It is an animal of the squirrel family that lives in the same Hokkaido.Squirrel(Red squirrelSubspecies) ・Ezo Chipmunk(ChipmunkSince each of the three species uses resources such as activity time, space, food and nest properly, all three species can live in the same environment without competing with each other.[16].

Features

For the size of an adult beastmale-FemaleThere is a difference inLength(Head and body length) is longer for males 16-18Centimeter (cm), female is about 15 cm[8].WeightIs about 120 malesG (g) [8]81-120 g for data that do not distinguish between males and females[15]Or 100-120 g[12],妊娠150-160 g for a scalpel[17].

Ear length is 18-22Mm (mm) ・ is 32 --35 mm[15], Hair color is year-round[8]Abdomen[12](cheek - chest-Lower abdomenIs white, but the other parts are white or brown and the lower part of the hair is black.[8]..The hair color on the back is a protective color[18], Summer hair is light brown, winter hair is light gray brown[12]Or whitish[Note 6][19]..The eyes are 7-9 mm in diameter, which is larger than the physique.[Note 7], The coat color around the eyes is black because the black hair legs are bare[8].

toothThe number isincisorIs the top two, the bottom two,Caninestory,PremolarsThere are 4 upper and 2 lower molars, and 6 upper and 6 lower posterior teeth, for a total of 22 (12 upper and 10 lower).[8].nippleThe number ischest2 pairsabdomen1 pairsInguinal regionA total of 1 pairs (8 pairs)[8][Note 8]..The number (number of fingers) isForelimb4 (× 2 = 8)1st fingerThere is no) ・Hind limbsThere are 5 (× 2 = 10), a total of 18[8]..The fingers of the hand are long and suitable for grasping and grasping things.[8]While having sharp claws to climb trees[20], The palm of the foot is hairless and has a body that makes it easy to grasp thin branches etc.[23].

BaculumIs elongated and bifurcated[8][Note 9].Number of chromosomesIs the same as this species, Japanese dwarf flying squirrel, 2n = 38.[12].

Is 5.0-5.6 cm in length and 2.2-2.5 cm in tail length.Body hairIs barely growing,vision-HearingNot yet[8].

Patagium / tail

This species isGlideI have a patagium to do[8], Patagium is posterior cheek-to the forelimbs, from the forelimbs to the side of the bodyHind limbsFrom the hind legstailThere is even the base of[8][24]..ForelimbswristHard to support the patagium at the tip ofcartilage(Approximately 4 cm in length) is stretched, and the patagium also extends along this cartilage.[8].

The tail length is almost the same for both males and females, about 10 cm (tail ratio = ratio of tail to body length: 52.3% -72%)[8] ―― 12 cm[12]..The cross section of the tail is flat[8], When glidingRudderPlay the role of[3].

Ecology

Activity time

This species isNocturnalIn addition to being a small animal, it is extremely difficult to find and track because it travels a high distance by one gliding.[12]..In addition, it is difficult to capture because most of the life is spent on the tree and the old hollows of natural tree hollows and Piciformes are used as burrows.[12]..In addition to these characteristics, it has received little attention because it is an animal that has little interest to humans, and although the ecology of this species has not been studied much in the past, a birdhouse for small birds is used as a nest box. It turned out that a radio wave transmitter was used.Telemetry methodFollow-up survey became possible, and its ecology became clear[12].

The activity start time and end time change in proportion to the seasonal changes in sunset and sunrise times.[12]..Spring-Autumn (May-October)[12]It takes about 15-20 minutes on average from sunset to get out of the nest, start activities, and return to the nest several times to rest.[16]..Approximately 75% of the time out of the nest is used to eat food[12], The last activity often ends around 20-25 minutes before sunrise[16]..This species is mainly nocturnal[25], Spring-Breeding season through summer[16]・ And in the midwinter, it is active not only at night but also during the day.[26].

Wintering

This species eats a large amount of acorns and stores subcutaneous fat in preparation for wintering in the fall.[27]Gain 15-20% weight by getting abundant nutrition[12].

This species is different from Ezo chipmunk in winter (November-April)hibernationInstead, the temperature drops below freezing to 25 ° C or less, and the beard freezes white.[28]Even in the midwinter, when a blizzard blows so hard that a small body is blown away, I go out of the burrow to eat and work.[29]In winter, the activity time is extremely short to keep the activity to the minimum necessary, and the activity start and end times are very irregular.[Note 10][12].

In addition, this species is a group of multiple individuals (usually 1-2 animals, in most cases about 5 animals) gathering in one burrow for the purpose of bringing the bodies together and increasing the heat retention effect.WinteringHave a habit of doing[19]..This species does not like unnecessary conflicts, and even if other individuals of the same species come to their burrows in the winter, they will survive the harsh winter of each other without refusing.[30].

Scope of activity

The range of activity is the area centered on the nest[25]The area is about 2 hectares (ha) for males and about 1 hectare for females.[Note 11][15]..Females have territories at least during the breeding season and the territories do not overlap each other, but males do not have territories and have a wider home range than females, and the home ranges of males overlap greatly.[31].

This species lives mostly on trees or similar.[20], Rarely landed on the ground[13]Although you rarely see footprints on the snow surface or the ground, lift is applied to reduce the landing pressure because the patagium is expanded even when jumping on the ground, and the landing marks on the limbs tend to be unclear, but on the fresh snow. Then, there are many cases where patagium marks remain on the snow surface.[24]. AlsoclawIs sharp and verticalTree・ Buildings, etc.mortarYou can freely move the surface of the wall vertically, up, down, left and right.[13].

nest

The behavioral unit is basically one animal except for females raising children, but it is not uncommon for multiple individuals to live together in one nest.[25]Especially in winter, as mentioned above, multiple individuals may gather in one nest and overwinter.[19].

This species isキ ツ ツ キIs a type ofGreat spotted woodpeckerOld nest (Tree hollow[32]・ Naturally created tree hollow ・ ArtificiallyTreeHang on(I.e.ForBirdhouse-HouseSuch asattic-SquirrelVarious things such as old nestsnestTo use as[33]..Tree hollows with an almost circular entrance-oval-shaped and 4-6 cm in diameter are preferred.[Note 12]In some cases, the shape may be improved by biting the doorway with teeth.[13]..Tree hollows used by Ezomomonga as burrows are roughly divided into two types: "breeding burrows" and "temporary burrows (for temporary evacuation from approaching natural enemies)", but they are used for the former purpose. Tree hollows are limited to those that meet all the favorable conditions such as "height from the ground", "size and direction of entrance", "medium size", "nest feeding ground and evacuation site for coniferous trees".[36].

In addition, this species is dry and soft in the nest.Vegetative(Dried endothelium of dead wood loosened, dried moss ・Beard lichen・ Bring in dead grass, etc.) and sleep in it[13]..In addition, when making a nest on a tree branch using twigs and bark,[15]In some cases, the cracks in frozen trees are used.[30].

When this species wakes up in the evening and exits the burrow, it first excretes manure, but if it does not feel dangerous to the surroundings, it should be used in a low place, and if it feels dangerous, it should be used in a high place.[37]..Feces are roughly divided into three types: rice granular feces with a length of 7-15 mm and a diameter of 3-5 mm, feces collected with soft rice granular feces, and amorphous loose stools, but in most cases, they are about the length. 3 cm, about 10 cm in diameter[38]..The color of the feces varies from yellowish brown to greenish brown, or dark green to bronze.[38], Feces are often scattered under trees that have eclipse marks, trees with burrows (nests), and resting places on the movement route.[38]..Has a habit of dropping feces in trees near the burrow[30], It is normal to excrete while stopping on the tree surface near the burrow of the burrow, and the tree surface under the burrow and the snow surface at the base may be dirty with manure.[39].. The amount of excrement at one time is about 1 grains at most, and if multiple individuals live together in the same nest, 40-2,000 grains may be accumulated under the nest tree.[39]..From this, as a guideline for finding a nest tree of Ezomomonga, in addition to "confirming that Ezomomonga has entered and exited from the tree hollow", "the bark surface is dirty with Ezomomonga manure, or a large amount of 50 cc or more in total near the root of the tree. Feces (multiple defecations) are scattered. "[40].

Food habit

Food habit TheOmnivoreSo basicallyVegetativeEating stuff[13]..Trees in plantsSprout-flower-leaf-barkCuticleseedEtc,Pine treeKind of cone (Pine cone) SeedsAcorn,Yamagwa-Yew-Cherry blossomI also eat the fruit ofWalnutDon't eat[13]..The main foods for each season are as follows.

  • Winter-mainlyTodomatsuLeavesLarch-BirchWinter buds and twig skins[41]・ Hanaho etc.[17][17].
  • Spring-Young leaves of willows, birch, alder, etc.[17].. Around MarchAlderMale flower spikes[41], In late MarchItaya mapleI like to eat sweet sap[42].
  • Summer / Autumn-Eat fruits such as Yamagwa, Sakura, Birch, Maple, and immature acorns (Kashiwa, Quercus crispula, etc.)[17].

This species is almost a complete herbivore[17],昆虫Eat animal foods such as[Note 13][13]..This species has long fingers, so you can hold and eat food with your hands.[13]..Since there are many natural enemy carnivores on the ground, we do not go down to the ground and drink the water of rivers and lakes, and hydration is done on the tree.[Note 14][43].

Basically, when this species finds the target tree, it does not move much until the end of the meal, and by eating in one tree, it saves physical strength and overwinters without hibernating in order to suppress extra energy consumption. Can be[30]..However, on the other hand, on the way back to the nest after finishing the meal, there are cases where a tree hollow different from the burrow is searched for, and this behavior investigates evacuation areas when approaching natural enemies and places suitable for winter communal living and child-rearing.[44]..In addition, this species does not eat up the buds of one tree, and if it eats about one-third of the buds of the whole tree, it will not eat any more in that tree and will eat in other trees.[36].

There have been no reports of hoarding for a long time[Note 15], Matsuoka Shigeru's continuous research and observation suggests that he may be hoarding.[45].

Glide

This species can open the patagium and glide from high to low, and can glide up to about 50 m.[Note 16][13], TailRudderIt is possible to turn while gliding by using it as[20], Can be cut and climbed[46]..This species first runs up a vertical trunk with sharp claws, and when it reaches near the tree, it jumps toward the target tree while watching the surroundings, stretches both hands and feet to the full, spreads the patagium and glides.[20]..Then, move the limbs slightly, fly downward while adjusting the lift using the patagium, rise slightly in front of the target tree, and cling to the tree surface.[40].

When there is no wind, it jumps from Takagi and glides, while when there is a tailwind, it rides on the tailwind, and when there is a headwind, it flies slowly.[47]..If the height difference between the detached tree position and the landing position is large, the gliding distance becomes long, and the landed tree can move to the next tree.[20]..Since this species rarely descends to the ground, it does not leave footprints during the snowy season, and by gliding, it is possible to spend more time on meals by shortening the travel time between trees.[20].

Breeding

BreedingPeriodEarly spring - Summer: [8], Late February-First time in late MarchEstrusWelcome[12]..February, the first breeding season-March is a period of low activity, with the exception of males that have reached the breeding season, with the exception of males that leave their nests and squeal before sunset.[12]..In this species, a few males may compete for one female, but they do not compete as fiercely as flying squirrels.[12]..Females stick to the trunk when accepting mating with males, but stay on the laterally protruding branches when refusing to mate.[12].. One mating time is 1-7 minutes, and mating is repeated many times during the night.[12].

Births are once or twice during the breeding season of the year, usually once.[8]..After mating, females nest alone in hollows and hives in mid-April-early May.birthTo[12]..The gestation period is unknown and the number of newborns per birth is 1-2.[8]Or 2-6, often 3[15]..Parenting is done only by females, but mothers and children and adult males may live together.[Note 17][49]..This species isChiselSuch asParasiteIncrease ・ Relocate the nest several times during childcare to deal with the contamination of the nest due to excrement of the child, but the child may be accidentally dropped during the movement.[48]..In that case, the child who has fallen to the ground may cry like an adult and inform the parent of his place until the mother finds it or is exhausted.[50].

Will crawl about 20 days after birth and will be able to walk off the ground around 30 days, but the ear holes will open on average 20 days after birth and the eyes will open about 35 days after birth.[12]..After the eyes are opened, they grow faster than before the eyes are opened, and they start to walk out of the nest by themselves 40 days after birth. When they start gliding practice in about 50 days, they grow about 60 days after birth (mid-June-early July). Weighs 6-7 g and is independent of the mother[12]..Separated cubs will be able to breed the following year[8].

Sometimes individuals estrus in the summer[8]The second mating period is June when the child leaves the nest.[51].

鳴 き 声

This species screams "jijii"[13]..Adults rarely squeal except during the mating season, but young squirrels, unlike other squirrel pups, squeal very often when they are separated from their mother when moving their nests.[Note 18][48]..In addition, when the child opens his eyes and becomes able to act on his own, the separated mother and child walk up to each other while crying in the same voice, and in the case of a further grown child, the mother's voice crying in the nest. Return to the nest on your own[48].

Natural enemy / life

Ezomomonga inhabiting urban areas and agricultural landsNatural enemyIs a sableEzo Owl-High hawk-cat(Both domestic cats and stray cats)[Note 19]And so on[17]. AlsoSnowy owl-Bear hawkRare birds of prey also feed on Ezomomonga[17].

This species has many natural enemies but no attack power[53]..Therefore, it is necessary to move quickly and surely.[36], Always watch out for natural enemies, and be careful not to find your body on the tree[Note 20][54]..When this species notices a natural enemy, it does not move so that it will not be noticed until it leaves, but sometimes it can take up to 1 to 2 hours.[13]..In addition, this species in the nest hole (hollow) will not come out in the nest if vibration is applied to the trunk.[36].

wildOf an individuallifeIs often less than 3 years,RearingThe lifespan of an individual is said to be about 4-5 years.[15].Sapporo Maruyama ZooThere is an example of a male individual "Taro" that was protected at the cub stage and survived for about 9 years and 4 months in artificial captivity.[Note 21].

Relationship with human

This species isア イ ヌ 民族Known as "Akamui" from the beginning, it was recorded late due to its nocturnal nature, and the first official record was in 1921.[6].

In 1957 (Showa 32), in the document "Lumber damage caused by Ezomomonga" by Masayoshi Goda, "Hokkaido Nakashibetsu Forestry Office Yoroushi National Forest (Hokkaido)Shibetsu-gunNakashibetsu Town)soLarchThere have been reports of cases where the tips of 120 tree branches were damaged. "[57][58],VerminIt is said that no actual damage has occurred to the extent that it is exterminated.[59][60].

It is a species that lives in the green areas around the city and has a large number of individuals.[31], The population is declining due to deforestation / isolation and food shortages.[61]..Especially for Ezomomonga that inhabit the remaining forests of urban areas and agricultural lands, windbreaks (lined with trees) that connect the forests are useful as passages, but if those windbreaks are cut off, Ezomomonga that cannot move down to the ground will move to other forests. It becomes impossible to move, breeding and dispersion cannot be performed normally, leading to a decrease in the number of individuals.[52]..There have been several accidents in which people were caught in barbed wire and died, and the area around the human living environment is not a safe place for Ezomomonga.[52].

Sapporo Maruyama ZooSince 1967, we have been working on breeding and breeding this species.[61],Kushiro City Zoo[62]-Obihiro Zoo[63]-Asahikawa City Asahiyama Zoo[64]But this species is bred.The fur of Siberian flying squirrel is quite thin and cannot withstand endurance, but because of its soft quality, it is used as an ear hook in cold regions.[65].

Photobooks and related books

  • 富士元寿彦 『子ども科学図書館 飛べ!エゾモモンガ』大日本図書、1998年1月。ISBN 978-4477008820. 
  • 福田幸広 『風の友だちモモンガ Little Friends』リベラル社、2007年10月1日。ISBN 978-4434110856. 
  • 西尾博之 『えぞももんがのきもち』北海道新聞社、2016年4月20日。ISBN 978-4894538245. 

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Doctor of Science / Doctor of Agriculture[7].
  2. ^ What is "Yamako"?WoodcutterPeople who work in the mountains[11].
  3. ^ Ezoris is an evergreen coniferous forest, Ezoshimaris is Quercus crispulaKashiwaIt prefers to live in deciduous broad-leaved forests, but Ezomomonga prefers to live in both forests.[12].Spruce・ Evergreen conifers such as Abies sachalinensis do not shed their leaves even in winter, so you can hide yourself from natural enemies in the air in evergreen coniferous forests.[14].
  4. ^ Observed in several hectares of residual forest around a private house[12].
  5. ^ The habitat altitude of this species isAbove sea level0 - 2,500Meters (m) and wide range[1].
  6. ^ In the case of Japanese flying squirrel, the back is brown with summer hair and grayish brown with winter hair, and the abdomen is white like this species.[12].
  7. ^ The big eyes are because of nocturnal nature[20]Its eyesight is high enough to fly without touching branches even in a pitch-black night forest[21].
  8. ^ The number of nipples of Japanese flying squirrels is 5 pairs (10), so it can be distinguished in that respect.[22].
  9. ^ The baculum of the Japanese flying squirrel is extremely short, wide and twisted[8].
  10. ^ Under the breeding experiment, the total daily activity time in winter was 1 minutes on average.[12].
  11. ^ According to Yanagikawa (2002), the average territory of females measured by telemetry is 1.7 hectares, and the home range of ♂ is 4.8 hectares. 1.1 hectares, ♂ was 2.2 hectares[31].
  12. ^ You can go in and out if you have a size of about 500 yen coin[34]..If the entrance to the burrow is wideSable(Ezo sable) Etc., because there is a high risk of being attacked by natural enemies, prefer narrow burrows[35].
  13. ^ InsectsAdult-Larva-pupaI eat the[13].
  14. ^ Water droplets on the leaves of trees in the summer and snow on the branches in the winter to replenish water by eating and drinking[43].
  15. ^ "We don't store seeds in the fall like Ezo chipmunk and Ezoris."[12]There is a document stating that "no hibernation or food storage"[27].
  16. ^ Seiichi Meguro stated in his observation record that "when he flew the longest, he flew more than 150 m."[36].
  17. ^ In all cases of cohabitation between a lactating mother and child and a male, it is extremely rare for a lactating mother and child and a male to cohabit in mammals with the child not leaving the nest but with the eyes open and growing.[31]..In the summer, some males enter the burrows of females raising their children and live with their mothers and children to ensure that they mate with the females.[48].
  18. ^ It is thought that the reason why the pups of Ezomomonga cry frequently unlike Ezoris is that "because they are nocturnal, it is almost impossible to search for the pups visually."[31].
  19. ^ Cats are the main predators in urban areas[52].
  20. ^ Seiichi Meguro (1981), who has been active as an animal photographer in Hokkaido since 2000, said, "I've been shooting Ezomomonga for a long time, and I learned that'if I'm by my side, I won't be targeted by natural enemies.' I couldn't escape even if I approached about 20 cm from the tip of the squirrel. "[36].
  21. ^ "Taro" was released on May 2004, 5 (at that time, a dozen days after birth).Maruyama ParkProtected by[55]Was bred in Maruyama Zoo, but died of senility on September 2013, 9.[56].

Source

  1. ^ a b IUCN 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Pteromys volans orii" (English). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  3. ^ a b c Maruyama 2008.
  4. ^ a b National Institute of Science.
  5. ^ Kadozaki 1974, p. 249.
  6. ^ a b Editorial department (November 2009, 5). “Ezoris, Ezoshimaris, and Ezomomonga”(Japanese). Hokkaido fan magazineHokkaido Relations. As of January 2020, 1originalMore archives.2020/1/23Browse.
  7. ^ Kadozaki 2009, p. 397.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Kadozaki 2009, p. 345.
  9. ^ a b c d Fujimoto 2001, p. 3.
  10. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 3.
  11. ^ Kojien 2018, p. 2962.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Yanagawa 2002, p. 84.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kadozaki 2009, p. 347.
  14. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 16.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Ishii 2008, p. 124.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Shin Keishiro 2019, p. 83.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Shin Keishiro 2019, p. 84.
  18. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 53.
  19. ^ a b c Fujimoto 2001, p. 54.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Ota 2017, p. 67.
  21. ^ Meguro & Tanaka 2002, p. 5.
  22. ^ "Kyoto Prefecture Alien Species Data (Siberian Flying Squirrel)”(Japanese). Kyoto Prefecture Alien Species Information. Kyoto.As of August 2019, 9originalMore archives.2019/9/15Browse.
  23. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 48.
  24. ^ a b Kadozaki 2009, p. 94.
  25. ^ a b c Kadozaki 2009, p. 346.
  26. ^ Ota 2017, p. 71.
  27. ^ a b Komiya 2002, p. 17.
  28. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 67.
  29. ^ Fujimoto 2001, p. 66.
  30. ^ a b c d Ota 2017, p. 69.
  31. ^ a b c d e Yanagawa 2002, p. 86.
  32. ^ Fujimoto 2004, p. 39.
  33. ^ Kadozaki 2009, pp. 346–347.
  34. ^ Fujimoto 2001, p. 6.
  35. ^ Fujimoto 2001, p. 23.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Dormitory & Meguro 2000, Imprint.
  37. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 33.
  38. ^ a b c Kadozaki 2009, p. 238.
  39. ^ a b Kadozaki 2009, p. 239.
  40. ^ a b Kadozaki 2009, p. 54.
  41. ^ a b Fujimoto 2001, p. 27.
  42. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 47.
  43. ^ a b Meguro 1994, p. 32.
  44. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 56.
  45. ^ Shigeru Matsuoka "Possibility of food storage of Ezomomonga Pteromys volans-Observation by automatic imaging device- (PDF) "Forest Research and Management Organization (Bulletin of FFPRI)" Vol. 14, No. 1 (Vol. 434),Forest Research Institute, November 2015, pp. 3-37,2020/2/10Browse.
  46. ^ Meguro 1994, pp. 18–19.
  47. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 46.
  48. ^ a b c d Yanagawa 2002, p. 85.
  49. ^ Kadozaki 2009, pp. 345–346.
  50. ^ Yanagawa 2002, pp. 85–86.
  51. ^ Yanagawa 2002, pp. 84–85.
  52. ^ a b c Yanagawa 2002, p. 87.
  53. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 30.
  54. ^ Meguro 1994, p. 62.
  55. ^ "A baby Ezomomonga was born for the first time in 45 years”(Japanese). Sapporo City Maruyama Zoo Official Website. Sapporo Maruyama Zoo (February 2012, 7). As of February 19, 2020originalMore archives.2020/4/10Browse.
  56. ^ "Ezomomonga's "Taro" has died.”(Japanese). Sapporo City Maruyama Zoo Official WebsiteMaruyama Zoo, Sapporo (September 2013, 9). As of October 18, 2015originalMore archives.2020/4/10Browse.
  57. ^ Abe 1967, p. 120.
  58. ^ Asari, Yanagawa & Ando 2014, pp. 12–13.
  59. ^ (日本語) Nuisance wildlife management of trees in Hokkaido (Report). Local independent administrative corporation : Hokkaido Research Organization(Abbreviation: "Dosoken"). originalArchived as of October 2018, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20181221095758/https://www.hro.or.jp/list/forest/research/fri/kanko/fukyu/jumoku/doubutu/gaiju.htm 2018/12/19Browse.. 
  60. ^ Asari, Yanagawa & Ando 2014, p. 14.
  61. ^ a b Maruyama 2013.
  62. ^ Kushiro City Zoo.
  63. ^ Obihiro Zoo.
  64. ^ Asahiyama Zoo.
  65. ^ Okada 1988, p. 679.

References

Website
出版物
  • 黒田長禮(種の解説)・岡田要(書籍の著者) 『新日本動物圖鑑』 下巻(9版発行版)Hokuryukan、1988年5月10日 (原著1965年1月25日・初版印刷)、679頁。ISBN 978-4832600225. 
  • 柳川久 著「エゾモモンガとニホンモモンガ」、Toshitaka Hidaka(Supervision) ・Takeo Kawamichi(編集) 編 『日本動物大百科 哺乳類I』 第1巻(初版第3刷版)平凡 社、2002年3月22日・初版第3刷発行 (原著1996年2月21日・初版第1刷発行)、84-87頁。ISBN 978-4582545517. 
  • Teruyuki Komiya「エゾモモンガ(タイリクモモンガ)」 『日本の哺乳類』 11巻(増補改訂版)Gakken〈フィールドベスト図鑑〉、2010年2月16日 (原著2002年3月29日・初版発行)、17頁。ISBN 978-4054013742. 
  • Nobuo Ishii 著「タイリクモモンガ」、阿部永(監修)・Natural Environment Research Center(編集) 編 『日本の哺乳類』(改訂2版)Tokai University Press、2008年7月5日・第1刷発行 (原著1994年12月20日・初版第1刷発行 / 2005年7月20日・改訂版第1刷発行)、124頁。ISBN 978-4486018025. 
  • Masaaki Kadosaki "Wildlife Survey Traces Encyclopedia"Hokkaido Publishing Planning Center、2009年10月20日、38-39,54,64,94-97,169-171,173-174,176,183,223-224,238-240,321,345-347頁。ISBN 978-4832809147. 
  • 目黒誠一 『エゾモモンガ 目黒誠一写真集 -アッカムイの森に生きる-』(第5刷版)Kodansha, December 1997, 10 (Original work December 13, 1994).ISBN 978-4062068833. 
  • Dormitory Michiko(文)、目黒誠一(写真)「森に生きる小さな命(動物写真家:目黒誠一)」 『モモンガ かぜにのる』 11巻(第1刷発行版)Child headquarters〈チャイルド絵本館 どうぶつ感動ものがたり〉、2000年2月1日。ISBN 978-4805422069. 
  • 富士元寿彦 『エゾモモンガ』(第2刷版)Hokkaido Shimbun, December 2001, 4 (Original work December 10, 2001).ISBN 978-4894531338. 
  • Seiichi Meguro,Minako Tanaka 『モモンガの森へ』(第1刷版)講談社、2002年5月20日。ISBN 978-4062663724. 
  • 富士元寿彦 『モモンガにあいたい』(初版第1刷版)青菁社〈seiseisha mini book series〉、2004年12月24日。ISBN 978-4883502035. 
  • 太田達也 『モモンガだモン! 北の森からのメッセージ』天夢人、2017年12月11日。ISBN 978-4635820257. 
  • 進啓士郎 『世界一かわいいエゾモモンガ』(初版第1刷発行版)パイインターナショナル、2019年10月7日。ISBN 978-4756252678.  -Released January 2019, 10.
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外部 リンク

Beginners rack

Beginners rack(British: Beginner's luck) is the luck that beginners often get.[1][2].Horse racing[3],Boat racing(boat race)[4],Mahjong[5],pachinko[6],Lottery[7]Such as gamblingGame,Sports,Advance Your CareerAnd say about various things.

Examples / Examples

Cases in horse racing

In horse racing, "The betting ticket I bought for the first time was right.[8]"I won a XNUMX horse race ticket in my first horse race[9]Is an example of Beginner's Luck.

Regarding the presence or absence of Beginner's LuckmotherAt Soken's "Umabe", all members bought betting tickets for the first time, and as a result, two members hit the mark, so we conclude that Beginner's Luck exists.[10]..game"Uma Musume Pretty DerbyThere is also a case where fans who started horse racing in the wake of ”hit the betting ticket with Beginner's Luck.[11].

On the other hand, there are many cases in which beginner's luck has led to addiction to horse racing and gambling addiction.[12][13][14].

Cases in sports

In sports, "I did it for the first timeGolfAchieved a hole-in-one in[9]""firstBowlingStrike in[15]And the like.

As an example in a sports competition2008 Beijing Paralympics50 metersBreaststrokeWon a gold medal inTakayuki SuzukiTalks about this as "almost a beginner's luck"[16]..Also, in the March 2020, 3 issue of the sports magazine "Sports Graphic Number",Shibuno Hinako British OpenAbout winning the game with golf leadersAyako OkamotoDescribes as "Beginner's Luck, to be clear"[17].

Web media ArtRoot isダーツ,ビ リ ヤ ー ドIn sports such as, beginners can not get the form and challenge in their own way, so it fits well and it explains that beginner's luck will occur.[18].

The identity of Beginner's Luck

Psychologists explain the identity of Beginner's Luck as it was only memorable to people because the results from beginners were noticeable and impressive when compared to the results from professionals.[9].

Of the sparrowShoichi SakuraiIn his own book, beginners have no knowledge of gambling and have to rely on their own intuition.Therefore, he states that he can win because he doesn't think about anything extra.[19].

Sales consultants say that when it comes to beginner's luck, where newcomers win big contracts, newcomers always think about their customers in their minds trying to deal with them hard, resulting in the best approach and even more emotional empathy. We analyze that efforts to do so will move customers' hearts and lead to contracts.[20].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Daijirin Third Edition" Sanseido, 2014, p. 2113. 
  2. ^ "What is Beginner's Luck?”. Kotobank. 2021/9/14Browse.
  3. ^ "Does Horse Racing Beginner's Luck Really Exist?Hit episode and one truth”(Japanese). Thorough research on horse racing forecasting companies (March 2021, 3). 2021/9/14Browse.
  4. ^ Takashi Harada "A miracle happened when I grabbed 10 and went to "the first boat race in my life"! It was the tipster and Naomi Watanabe who hit the trifecta ..."RocketNews24", March 2019, 3.2021/9/14Browse.
  5. ^ "One week to learn mahjong Shoko Nakagawa fulfills the role of Suuankou! "Beginner's Luck Scary""ABEMA Mahjong TIMES", February 2019, 2.2021/9/14Browse.
  6. ^ Pop'n'Roll editorial department "Yuki Fujiki fires a big hit at Beginner's Luck in his second home, Aichi! "FLASH" appeared"Pop'n'Roll", June 2021, 6.2021/9/14Browse.
  7. ^ "A secret story that calls the lottery "XNUMX million", a beginner's luck for sales staff!"Women themselves," November 2020, 11.2021/9/14Browse.
  8. ^ Akio Wada ""The wonder of horse racing that I can't hear anymore" (Akio Wada)"Keibabook Column", June 2021, 6.2021/9/14Browse.
  9. ^ a b c tell me! goo staff "The identity of Beginner's Luck is revealed"Excite News", October 2015, 10.2021/9/14Browse.
  10. ^ Aiko Saito (November 2015, 11). “[300 yen to 2 yen !?] Beginner's Luck Explosion Soken-ryu "Horse Racing Winning Step5"”(Japanese). Anan Soken. 2021/9/14Browse.
  11. ^ "Dangerous popular horse of Oka Sho is found in "Uma Musume"!With the voice actor's Osaka Cup 10 betting ticket get, there is a sign of turmoil on Sunday, which is the waka fan vs the old horse racing fan "nutrient"?"MONEY VOICE", April 2021, 4.2021/9/14Browse.
  12. ^ Daisuke Kaga ""It was a hit at the 1997 Satsuki Sho. It was an oversized 500 betting ticket that was more than 40 times the number of horses. This was the trigger ..." A man in his XNUMXs suffering from gambling addiction"Calicone News", April 2021, 4.2021/9/14Browse.
  13. ^ "[Actual record] 100 million yen in debt for horse racing | Beginner's Luck and the darkness of gambling addiction”(Japanese). Debt repayment textbook (August 2020, 8). 2021/9/14Browse.
  14. ^ Miki Okamoto ""Beginner's Luck", the trigger for gambling addiction, is dangerous"Diamond Online", February 2017, 2.2021/9/14Browse.
  15. ^ 植西聰 『我欲を捨てるとうまくいく』毎日コミュニケーションズ、2011年9月24日、66頁。ISBN +978-4-8399-4029-4. 
  16. ^ "I want you to see and feel it freely Para swimming, Takayuki Suzuki <Believe in the power of sports and move forward Athletes' thoughts>"Tokyo Shimbun", September 2021, 1.2021/9/14Browse.
  17. ^ ""Ayako of the world" bites Hinako Shibuno!British V is also "Beginner's Luck""Asahi biz", May 2020, 5.2021/9/14Browse.
  18. ^ "Beginners are more likely to get lucky! ??3 Reasons for Beginner's Luck”(Japanese). ArtRoot. 2021/9/14Browse.
  19. ^ 桜井章一 『カンの正体 「直勘力」で逆境に強くなる』イースト・プレス、2011年5月10日。ISBN +978-4-7816-0588-3. 
  20. ^ Masatoshi Yokota "Why Beginner's Luck Happens"President Online," March 2011, 3.2021/9/14Browse.

 

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