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Wood-burning stove

Wood-burning stove(Maki stove,British: wood-burning stove) IsfirewoodThefuelToHeating appliances.Global warmingWhen the influence ofoilWidely used worldwide as an alternative to heating.afterwardsSmokebyAir pollution,StenchAnd the health hazards caused by them (Respiratory disease,Heart diseaseEtc.) are now reported by health agencies in each country.WesternIn such cases, regulations have been tightened, and electric clean heating with less pollution (heat pump(en: heat pump) Etc.) is in progress ()#Overseas).

History

Cold protection,調理For the purpose ofTueSince ancient timesPeople OfLifeIt was an indispensable existence for.BonfireHas developed so that it can be burned indoorshearthIt was, but later because there was no smoke outletFoodA hearth with a chimney was devised.Based on that, the hearthwallThe fireplace was invented by embedding it inside.AmericaThen.Immigration EuropeI brought in a (especially British style) fireplace and used it at home, but the conventional fireplace had low heating efficiency and consumed a large amount of fuel.[1][2].

1742/,政治家,InventorKnown asBenjamin FranklinInvented the Franklin stove (Pennsylvania fireplace), which has five sides other than the front surrounded by iron plates to improve the heating efficiency of the fireplace.This stove equipped with a baffle plate was well received due to its high heating efficiency, and similar fireplaces were sold by many manufacturers and became mainstream.Franklin stove was later improved to have a door like the current wood stove.That is the beginning of the current wood stove.After that, the popularity of wood-burning stoves declined in the United States due to the development of coal and oil, but it revived in the wake of the oil crisis.[1][2].

In addition, it is known that a bronze stove with a chimney already existed in China BC.

How it works

There are mainly two heating methods, radiant type and convection type, and most products have both functions.Material Thecast ironMade andSteel plateMany are made.[1]..Of iron with a doorEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe structure with a chimney attached to is the basic form of a wood stove.The difference from a fireplace or a bonfire is that the former空 気The wood-burning stove is airtight, as opposed to the open access.Whereas fireplaces and bonfires inhale and exhaust dozens of times more air than is required for combustion, wood-burning stoves adjust the entrance of small air to take in the air required for combustion and regulate the discharge from the chimney. To.Therefore, the amount of air taken in is limited to two to three times the amount required for combustion.The former is almost the fire itselfRadiant heatOn the other hand, in the wood stove, the heat generated by the combustion inside the main body can be warmed by the radiant heat from the main body surface and the warm air convection around the main body.Wood-burning stoves are equipped with functions such as air valves and chimney dampers for combustion adjustment. In recent years, glass doors, secondary combustion, and catalysts have been added to improve combustion efficiency and taste, and to pass environmental regulations for combustion gas. , Functions such as baffle plate are now added[1].

fuel

purificationIt has not beenWood fuelIsfirewoodIs a fuel with very variable quality and should be handled with care.especially(I.e.Condition is important, moist firewood like raw wood, ieWater contentWhen you burn expensive firewoodSootOccurs in large numbers,Flue fireOr remarkableAir pollutionYou need to be especially careful because it causes.If the firewood is damp, it should be dried sufficiently before use, and it should be stored in a place where the humidity is stable and it is not exposed to rain in order to keep the firewood dry.To prevent such pollution, Germany has strict regulations on fuel quality, such as prohibiting the use of firewood with a moisture content of 25% or more.However, it is difficult to reduce the moisture content of firewood to 20% or less in a normal environment.Clean burn (complete combustion)Is difficult, less energy efficient than chemically refined fuels, and is positioned as a fuel that pollutes the atmosphere (#GermanySee).

problem

deforestation

Wood fuelIsfirewood The再生 可能 エネルギーPositioned as,Carbon neutralAnd the CO2 load is small,sustainableIs said to be.But that doesn't mean it's inexhaustible or unconditionally sustainable, and if the consumption speed exceeds the playback speed.deforestationCauses and eventually runs out.The total area of ​​forests is small with respect to human demand, and the rate of forest regeneration (tree growth rate) is slow with respect to the rate of consumption as fuel by humans, and the world's forest area continues to decline rapidly.In developing countries that use firewood as fuel for poverty, forest collapse has already progressed and carbon neutrality and sustainability have not been established.[3]..Therefore, using a wood stove means accelerating deforestation.for that reason,(en: Sustainable forest management) Is recognized for the need for a firewood certification system, but only a few countries such as France have plans to implement it, and access to sustainable firewood is extremely limited. ((#France(See also)

Air pollution

Used as fuel for wood stovesfirewood ThepurificationIt has not beenimpuritiesIt is a fuel with a lot of fuel, and the wood stoveIncineration plantBecause it does not have an advanced combustion control system likeIncomplete combustionWill be.It also does not have an advanced smoke control system.for that reason,,PM2.5Such asParticulate matterincludingSmoke,StenchWill occur and it will be released to the surroundings.The wood-burning stove guidebook created by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan publishes data on the amount of particulate matter released by the wood-burning stove.Based on the amount of particulate matter emitted by general oil heating

  • Pellet stove-37 times
  • EPA certified wood stove-107 times
  • Non-EPA certified wood stove-353x
  • Fireplace-2153 times

Emits particulate matter and pollutes the atmosphere[4].. Also,United States Environmental Protection Agency(en: United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA) Has announced a health warning against wood burning[5].

Outdoor air pollution

Soot and smoke containing pollutants are emitted from the chimney to the outside, but in ordinary housesIncineration plantSince it is impossible to install a high and long chimney like this, the smoke immediately falls to the ground and fills the surrounding area.Especially in the winter when a wood stove is used, in the atmosphereInversion layerWill cause soot and smoke to stay on the ground for a long time, and the air will be polluted over a wide area with high concentration and for a long time.[6].. as a resultHealth damagecause.

Indoor air pollution

Soot pollutes not only the outdoors but also the indoor air. In an experiment conducted by researchers at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom in 2020, indoor air was used four hours after the start of use of the wood stove.Particulate matterThe concentration increased three-fold and reached 3 μg / m at the peak. ((WHO: The regulation value set by the World Health Organization is 24 μg / m in 25 hours)[7]

Health damage

The smoke of the wood stoveた ば こSmoke (Sidestream smoke), And a study in Mexico published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine by the American Thoracic Society found that people inhaling wood stove smoketobacco OfsmokingSame clinical course as the patient (due to onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), dyspneaQOLHas been confirmed to follow a decline in death, death)[8]..Also, the smoke produced by burning wood is more than cigarette smoke.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs))Carcinogenic risk has been found to outweigh cigarette smoke due to its high content[9]. Health Canada(en: Health Canada)WhenEnvironment Canada(en: Environment and Climate Change Canada) Explains that wood smoke contains the following harmful substances.

Inhalation of smoke causes inflammation in the body,cancer,Heart disease,stroke,Diabetes mellitus,obesity,ProgeriaIt causes related diseases such as, and shortens the life expectancy of the area.[9][10]..Canadian Lung Association (en: Canadian Lung Association) Is the inhalation of smoke that burned firewoodasthma,Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)Etc.,Respiratory diseaseIt warns of the possibility of worsening, relapse and dyspnea, and recommends not to use firewood in residential areas.[11]..American Lung Association (en: American Lung Association) Says that if the air in the neighborhood is polluted by a wood stove, children, the elderly, and people with lung disease should be encouraged to stay indoors and take measures such as closing windows and ventilation openings.Especially those with lung disease are advised to use a dust mask and consult a doctor.[12]. NavajoIn many rural and tribal societies, including indoor air pollution from indoor wood burning is a major cause of respiratory infections in young children.[13] It is also the health authority department of the United States.Center for Disease Control and Prevention(en: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC) By being exposed to wood smokeCOVID-19 (new coronavirus infection)Has issued a warning that it may be susceptible to respiratory infections, including[14].

火災

A large amount of firewood, which is the fuel for wood stoves,soot,tarOccurs.It sticks to the chimney and requires regular maintenance.The Ministry of the Environment says it is necessary to clean the chimney at the beginning or end of each season and perform full maintenance by a specialist once every three to five years.Failure to clean can lead to smoke backflow into the room, tar leaks, and flue fires (chimney fires).[15].

Country situation and regulations

Japan

The countryGlobal warmingIt is showing an attitude of promoting wood stoves in the name of countermeasures, and local governments are following suit.Ministry of the EnvironmentCreated "Woody Biomass Stove Environment Guidebook",Ministry of AgricultureInstalled a wood-burning stove in the ministry and held a "living exhibition with trees and a stove"[16]..In addition, a subsidy system has been set up for the introduction of wood stoves.[17][18][19][20][21].

Legal regulation

As of 2022, there are no legal restrictions in Japan.There is no smoke emission regulation by the equipment certification system, setting of Smoke Control Area, and quality regulation of fuel such as firewood.

Neighborhood damage

The following trouble examples are introduced from the questionnaire survey in the "Woody Biomass Stove Environmental Guidelines" produced by the Ministry of the Environment.

  • I intended to use dry firewood and raise the chimney enough, but from my neighborStenchI got a complaint of stuffiness, and I raised the chimney by 1 meter, but it did not improve
  • Victims against smoke damage from wood stovesLawsuitWoke up.It was decided that the wood stove user side lost the case and ordered the use to be prohibited.
  • A complaint came from my neighborhood, and when I consulted with the city hall, the residents asked me to resolve it.I asked my neighbors for permission to use it only about 10 times a year, but it was refused and I didn't want to make my neighbors feel uncomfortable, so I voluntarily stopped using it.
  • Wood-burning stove users burn garbage, plastic, and raw wood
  • Smoke flows backwardsFire alarmWas activated
  • A fire broke out from the wood stove,火災The house burned down,burn official

[15]

Calling attention by the local government

Many local governments are calling attention to the situation where air pollution caused by wood stoves causes frequent troubles with neighboring residents.[22][23][24]However, it is not enforceable because the legislation has not caught up.The following are some of the cautions issued by the local government.

  • Do not incinerate household waste (prohibited by the Waste Management Law)
  • Do not burn scientifically treated wood such as plywood with adhesives or paints and construction waste.
  • Dry firewood sufficiently (same for pruned branches such as fruit trees. Dry conifers for more than half a year and hardwoods for more than a year. If the firewood is damp, the combustion temperature will drop and a large amount of smoke, soot, and tar will occur. When you hit dry firewood, it makes a dry sound.)
  • When storing firewood outdoors, keep it off the ground and cover it so that it does not get wet.
  • Be careful of the noise of chopping wood
  • Don't put too much firewood at once
  • Keeping the temperature inside the furnace high by adjusting the amount of air
  • Perform diligent maintenance (cleaning before and after the season, cleaning during the season, full maintenance by a specialist once every few years)
  • Before installation, carefully consider and consider the position, height, etc. of the chimney with a specialist and a construction company.Avoid the following cases
    • The chimney is close to the next house
    • Chimney is lower than the next house
  • Before installation, we will accompany an expert to explain to the neighborhood in advance and obtain their consent.Avoid the following cases
    • There are residents in the neighborhood who have respiratory illness
  • Regularly ask the neighbors if they are inconvenienced by the smoke, and if there is a problem, renew it.

[25][26][27]

Incinerator of waste

Pruned branches produced by pruning roadside trees and pruned branches discharged by farmers are originallywasteHowever, some local governments provide it for wood stoves.Details such as the dry state of pruned branches are unknown[28][29][30][31].

foreign

America

Equipment certification system

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a strict certification system for wood stoves.In the United States, the sale of wood stoves is required to clear EPA certification. In 2020, the EPA will release pollutants in flue gas (Particulate matter) Has been reduced to 2.0g / h[32].

Criticism of the EPA

American Lung Association (en: American Lung Association), Vice Chairman Laura Kate Bender, said that while reducing emissions in the short term would be beneficial, there was no such thing as exposure to scientifically safe particulate matter, and a long-term solution. It points out that it is to completely abolish the wood stove.In addition, a report by NESCAUM (Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management), an air quality monitoring organization in the northeastern United States, shows that the EPA's certification process has serious flaws and is different from the actual use of wood stoves. Criticized that it was due to laboratory testing[13].

Recommendations from state health authorities
  • OregonThe State Environment Department requires that uncertified wood stoves be removed when the home is sold, and at that time.heat pumpIt is recommended to install.Health officials also issued four combustion bans in Multnomah County in the fall and winter in response to increased pollution.After that, it announced that it could issue a ban all year round.
  • PortlandAfter a conference on wood smoke pollution in 2021 in Multnomah County, it was recommended to refrain from using even EPA-certified wood stoves.
  • California-Berkeley,Bay areaThe fines are set at $ 100 for the first offense and $ 500 for the recidivism.There is also a "Take care of the air!" Day that limits the use of wood stoves.

[13][33][34]

Replacement program

The American Lung Association recommends switching to cleaner heating[12]There are financial assistance programs in place to replace wood stoves with clean alternative heat sources.ア ラ ス カ 州-FairbanksWas recognized by the American Lung Society as the "Most Contaminated City" in the Particulate Matter Contamination Division of the "State of the Air" in 2021, but has since implemented a wood stove replacement program, with most people using oil. As a result of switching to gas heating, we have succeeded in reducing the degree of pollution by half.[13]. PortlandVerde, a non-profit organization, has urged the state to fund a program to replace wood stoves with electric heat pumps, especially for low-income households. The State of Washington Department of Ecology is campaigning to buy a low quality wood stove for $ 300 to replace it with one that meets environmental standards to reduce pollution from the wood stove.[35].

Canada

CanadaMany municipalities in Canada have air pollution caused by the use of wood stoves at home, and the Canadian Lung Association (en: Canadian Lung Association) Recommended not to burn firewood in residential areas[11].

Europe

The government's biomass burning switching subsidy program to reduce CO2 emissions was widespread, but as of 2010, scientists could "lead to burning wood in the home using a wood stove or fireplace." The sex was warned. In 2016, burning firewood at home was the second leading source of particulate pollution in London, accounting for more than 2% of total pm2018 emissions in 2.5. Although the proportion of firewood energy in the EU is only about 45% of the total energy, it is calculated that about half of the air pollutants in the entire EU are released by burning firewood.After that, the EU tightened regulations on air pollution in 2.7, and the use of heating appliances that did not meet the standards was banned.[36][37].

United Kingdom

Wood-burning stoves and fireplaces account for as much as 8% of Britain's air pollution, even though only 17% of all British people use wood-burning heating equipment such as wood-burning stoves. It occupies and is the second highest source of pollution.This exceeds 2%, which is the proportion of road traffic.Although widespread regulations have achieved significant reductions in air pollution from coal burning, industry and automobiles, about the same amount of pollution is caused by burning woody biomass in the home environment. I know that it is.People with asthmatic children and sick elderly people in their families are expressing anxiety. Imperial College London"People tend to think that burning trees is harmless because they are natural," said a researcher. [9]

According to research in the United Kingdom, wood-burning stoves cause health hazards worth £ 10 billion annually, and the social loss caused by wood-burning stoves is estimated to be 40 times that of other heating.The research found that half of the air pollution in the UK is due to indoor wood burning.European Public Health Alliance (EPHA)Pointed out that he ignores air pollution from heating and cooking.The solution is to stop using woody biomass as fuel and move to a combination of solar power and boilers.Other research data also show that using a wood stove for one year causes as much social loss as using a diesel vehicle for about four years.[36]..Another study showed that even a compliant wood stove would cause 750 times more pm2.5 pollution than a state-of-the-art transport truck, and health scientists said, "Especially because there is no smokeless fuel. Burning heating should not be selected in urban areas. "[38]

According to a survey by the British environmental group Clean Air in London, the use of wood stoves increased sharply between 2010 and 2020. You need to do it. "Another study found that 50% of exposure to carcinogens in urban areas was due to wood stoves, which also tripled the level of air pollution in the home. We conclude that the sale of wood stoves should require a health warning label.[39]..The group also appreciated the EU's tightening of regulations on wood stoves in 2022, but ultimately said it should ban wood burning altogether.[40].

The British environmental group Mums for Lungs has urged the government to ban wood stoves by 2027.In the UK, there are more than 6 complaints about wood stoves in six years.[41]


Smoke Control Area

The use of combustion equipment and fuel that do not meet the standards is restricted within the area designated as the Smoke Control Area.Violations will result in a fine of £ 1000[42]

France

France-Japan AlpsThe air is so polluted that children cannot run outside.The main cause is "the habit of burning wood", and it is shown that 6 to 8% of pollution is caused by wood stoves and fireplaces.By the inhabitantsdemoWas carried out, and a firewood heating ban was requested.[43].

In 2018, wood stoves accounted for 2.5% of PM43 and 1.0% of PM55 contamination by particulate matter throughout the country.French Public Health Agency (fr: Agence nationale de santé publique) States that the death toll from these is 4 a year.In response to the severe pollution caused by these wood stoves and fireplaces, the French Ministry of the Environment announced plans to reduce air pollution caused by household wood stoves as follows.

  • Education and enlightenment about the adverse effects of the use of wood fuel on the atmosphere
  • Strengthening the replacement promotion system for cleaner heating equipment
  • Improved performance of heating equipment.A new grade that takes air quality into consideration has been added to the label that indicates the environmental performance given to the equipment.
  • Improved fuel quality.A new label has been added to indicate that the water content is low and that it is due to sustainable forest management.Setting the upper limit of water content
  • Tightening regulations on wood fuel heating in heavily polluted areas

[44]

Germany

Germany has 1500 million fireplaces and wood stoves,PollutionIs the cause of.In Germany, the German Federal Emission Control Law strictly regulates the use and installation of wood stoves.Chimney sweepMaintenance and auditing by, but in western GermanyAachenAccording to the testimony of a chimney sweep working in Japan, worn shoes and oil-soaked firewood were dismantled.closetIt is reported that garbage such as is burned.theseDrug,paintAs a result of burning what was treated with, dioxin is generated and pollutes the atmosphere and soil.Also, regarding the quality of firewood, the moisture is clean burn (Perfect combustion), It is prohibited to burn firewood with a moisture content of 25% or more, but this is also not fully observed.In Germany, the amount of pollutants emitted from the chimney of a wood stove reaches more than 3 tons per year, and the Achen City Environmental Protection Agency has determined that the cause of pollution is a wood stove, and air pollution including the regulation of wood stoves. Established a prevention program.

German Federal Environment Agency (en: Umweltbundesamt) Is that firewood is very inefficient in energy, emits significantly more pollutants than other fuels such as oil and natural gas, and is a cause of air pollution in residential areas, and the air in the room is also significant. It warns that it will be contaminated and that there is a risk of fire, which will adversely affect the health of the users themselves and their neighbors.Specifically, the association with neurological diseases such as respiratory diseases, stroke, cancer, dementia, and Parkinson's disease has been presented.The use of wood-burning stoves that do not comply with federal emission regulations should be treated as a serious offense rather than a misdemeanor, and should be resolved through communication.Specifically, in case of damage, the actor should use the wood stove regulation law and the danger of the wood stove, the moisture measuring device of the wood should be used, and it is necessary to refrain from using the wood stove. It is recommended to report the complaint as a complaint and then contact the local government or environmental protection organization if the complaint is ignored.In addition, it is recommended that the actors who receive complaints due to inconvenience be honestly discussed with the neighborhood and settled.[45][46]

CopenhagenThe mayor has banned the use of wood stoves and is urging them to switch to new heating.[47]

Greece

Greece OfAthens"You can stop burning wood. Wood-burning stoves are used all over Europe, and the EU's action has great public health benefits," said a researcher who conducted research to capture the atmosphere of the country for a year. Conclude[9].

Norway

NorwayThe air pollution caused by the use of firewood is becoming more serious.[48]..According to the Norwegian Atmospheric Research Institute, wood stoves are the second most popular heating appliance in Norway and are therefore a major cause of air pollution.Almost all of Norway's air pollution is due to particulate matter from wood stoves, with annual pm2.5 emissions of over 800 tonnes. [49]

Finland

Research on the most effective policies for reducing air pollution in Finland has found that limiting the use of firewood in residential heating is most effective.[50]

Sweden

The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) has proposed a phasing out of old wood stoves, citing them as a source of dangerous pollution.A conservative estimate is that about 1000 Swedes die prematurely each year due to pollution from wood fuel heating.The Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association has also confirmed that there are serious problems.According to a 2018 study by the Swedish Institute for the Environment and Umeå University, air pollution causes about 7600 premature deaths annually in the country, with a society of at least 560 billion kroner (€ 53 billion) per death per year. It costs money.[37]

Netherlands

Netherlands OfUtrechtAnnounced that it will provide up to € 2,000 in subsidies to replace clean heating due to pollution from wood stoves and fireplaces.[9].

Oceania

Australia

Australia-ArmidaleA research on calculating the health costs of wood-burning stoves in households estimated that air pollution from wood-burning stoves led to the early death of 14 people each year.It was concluded that this problem could be solved, i.e. stop burning firewood,Tasmania OfLauncestonThen, a program to switch from a wood stove was implemented.The result was a 28% reduction in respiratory mortality and a 20% reduction in cardiac mortality in winter.A professor at the University of Tasmania, who was involved in the study, said, "Replacing a wood stove with a less polluted heater is immediately profitable and can avoid diseases and deaths associated with wood smoke."In addition, in order to reduce CO2 and air pollution, it is more effective to thicken the heat insulating material than to burn woody biomass.[51]

New Zealand

New Zealand Ministry of the EnvironmentAnnounced new air pollution regulations, including the regulation of older wood stoves and the establishment of a replacement support system. To meet WHO recommended air pollution levels.These bans are expected to save $ 10 million in medical costs in exchange for $ 9770 million in 8 years.By reducing exposure to PM2000, which is the cause of air pollution, premature death, respiratory illness, heart disease, and restrictions on outdoor activities due to air pollution are reduced.[52][53]

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d Earth Maru "Wood Burning Stove Encyclopedia" December 1996, 12
  2. ^ a b Morso history of wood stoves
  3. ^ What is the health hazard caused by environmental destruction and smoke caused by energy poverty?project
  4. ^ Woody Biomass Stove Environmental Guidebook Ministry of the Environment
  5. ^ Wood Smoke | US EPA
  6. ^ What Happens: Atmospheric Dirty | Our Life and Atmospheric Environment | Atmospheric Environment Information Center Kids Page | Atmospheric Environment Information Center | Atmospheric Environment / Assemblies Information Center | Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency
  7. ^ Wood burners triple harmful indoor air pollution, study finds | Air pollution | The Guardian
  8. ^ Indoor Pollution From Cooking On Wood Stoves Affects Women In Developing Countries --ScienceDaily
  9. ^ a b c d e Wood burners cause nearly half of urban air pollution cancer risk – study | Air pollution | The Guardian
  10. ^ WHO: The number one cause of death from environmental pollution is cooking fuel | National Geographic Japan version site
  11. ^ a b Residential Wood Burning | the lung association
  12. ^ a b What You Need to Know About Your Wood-Burning Stove and Heater | American Lung Association
  13. ^ a b c d The health risks of wood stoves and smoke pollution | Popular Science
  14. ^ Wood Smoke and COVID-19 | US EPA
  15. ^ a b Woody Biomass Stove Environmental Guidelines
  16. ^ Living with trees and stoves Exhibition: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  17. ^ Ministry of the Environment _ About the adoption project of the characteristic warming countermeasure equipment promotion project in the region in 22 (Notice)
  18. ^ Wood utilization point business: Forestry Agency
  19. ^ Reiwa 4th Asahikawa City Wood Stove Introduction Promotion Project Subsidy (Application period from April 4th to May 19st) | Asahikawa City
  20. ^ Woody Biomass Stove Purchase Grant | Fukushima Prefecture Wood Cooperative Association
  21. ^ We support the purchase of wood stoves, wood boilers, etc./Kami Town
  22. ^ Please be careful when using a wood stove or fireplace
  23. ^ Please be careful when using a wood stove | Tahara City
  24. ^ Precautions when using a wood stove
  25. ^ Appropriate use of "fireplace" and "wood stove" (request) | Minamiashigara City
  26. ^ Appropriate use of wood stoves and pellet stoves | Zushi City
  27. ^ Requests to those who plan to install or use a wood stove (fireplace, etc.) | Kiyose City Official Homepage
  28. ^ Pruned branches, firewood stove fuel Fukushima City, fruit tree farmers and residents matching: Fukushima Minyu News: Fukushima Minyu Shimbun Minyu Net
  29. ^ Notice of "Distribution of felled trees and pruned branches" | Notice from the park | Niigata Sports Park
  30. ^ Toride City / We will distribute felled trees free of charge.
  31. ^ About fruit tree pruning branch firewood stove utilization promotion business --Nagano-shi homepage
  32. ^ Choosing the Right Wood-Burning Stove | US EPA
  33. ^ Health hazards of backyard barbecue | IQAir
  34. ^ Coughing neighbors make California rethink outdoor cooking
  35. ^ April 11 --Kettle Falls wood stove turn-in --Washington State Department of Ecology
  36. ^ a b Home wood burning in UK causes £ 1bn of health costs a year, report says | Air pollution | The Guardian
  37. ^ a b Sweden mulls banning old wood burning stove
  38. ^ Wood burning stoves: The inconvenient truth about the homely heater
  39. ^ Wood burners emit more particle pollution than traffic, UK data shows | Air pollution | The Guardian
  40. ^ Implementation of Ecodesign Regulations from 1 January 2022 is an important step on the path to banning wood burning – Clean Air in London
  41. ^ Government urged to ban wood-burning stoves by 2027 --Energy Live News
  42. ^ Smoke control areas: the rules --GOV.UK
  43. ^ Breathtaking Reasons in the French Alps With a spectacular view ... PM2.5 --BBC News
  44. ^ France Ministry of the Environment announces action plan to halve the emission of fine particles such as household wood stoves | Environmental News [Overseas| EIC Net]
  45. ^ Wood-burning stoves ruining Germany ’s air | Environment | All topics from climate change to conservation | DW | 19.09.2013
  46. ^ Emissions from wood and coal burning stoves in residential areas | Umweltbundesamt
  47. ^ Nature News in Brief: Mayor wants to rid Copenhagen of polluting wood-burning stoves --The Post
  48. ^ It's not just car exhaust!Is Norwegian Air Pollution Caused by the Russian Winter General?Why are the alerts going on every day? (Maki Tatsumi) --Individual--Yahoo! News
  49. ^ Wood burning pollutes the urban air in Norway
  50. ^ Residential Wood Combustion in Finland: PM2.5 Emissions and Health Impacts with and without Abatement Measures --PMC
  51. ^ Pollutionwatch: the solvable problem of home wood burners | Air pollution | The Guardian
  52. ^ Government proposes phasing out of high-emitting wood burners and coal burners | RNZ News
  53. ^ Government moves to ban old-style wood and coal-fueled burners to improve air quality --NZ Herald

Related item

TV program

TV program(TV Bangumi) isTelevision broadcastingSent bycontent(program)ofGeneric termThat is.

Overview

The contents of TV programs are extremely diverse,Broadcaster OfcharacterIt also depends onTerrestrial wavebroadcastIs a general formation,Satellite broadcastingIs a specialty store type organization (Professional channel) Is commonly seen.

Of concrete TV programsNameabout,List of TV programschecking ...

Classification of TV programs

Television program classification by broadcasting law

In Article 5 of the Broadcasting Act, "type of broadcast program" is "Liberal Arts Program,Educational program,News program,Entertainment programEtc.”. Also, in Article 106, eachBroadcasterIn Japan, it is obligatory to "harmonize with each other" for each type.

And in Article 107 of the law, eachTV stationIs required to set and publish "standards of broadcast program types".Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK), 4 types each excluding "etc."[1],Private broadcastingThere are 4 types at each TV stationMail order"When"More informations) Added (example →[2][3]) Is used as a standard for publication.

In addition, although there are definitions of the contents of educational programs and educational programs in Article 2 of the Act, there are no definitions of news programs and entertainment programs, and it is entrusted to voluntary publication of this "standard for the type of broadcast program".

In this announcement, it is usually the case that one program also serves as a combination of any of the above four to six types. For the fiscal year ending April 1, 4Nippon TVTake, for example,ZIP!''Information Live MiyaneyaIs a program that belongs to any type of entertainment, news, culture, and education.Go! AnpanmanAre published as entertainment/education programs.[4].

Other TV program categories

Type announcement based on the above broadcasting law,Audience ratingSetting TV program category items, such as survey categories (described later), is an important business.

These classifications do not take the method of deciding the items in advance and then dividing all the programs into either one, but categorizing the programs having some similar composite properties as one type. May be done in. As a result, programs having similar configurations may belong to a plurality of classifications, or the classification destination may differ depending on the classifier.

For example,talentQuestions from the textbookquizIf there is a program that solves asQuiz showHowever, in the case of the above-mentioned legally required classification type announcement,quizIt may be possible to classify it as an "educational program" by paying attention to the main composition of "", and paying attention to the performer "talent"Entertainment showsIt can be classified as "entertainment program" or it can be classified as "educational program" for young people, focusing on the subject of broadcasting by paying attention to "examination questions from textbooks".

In addition, even if a program is born that does not belong to any of the items set so far, it is not possible to increase or expand the item because it causes difficulty in statistics, so it is classified as a place that does not fit as a result. Sometimes.

Type of TV program

Classification by broadcast content

Liberal Arts Program

Educational program

NHK educational TVFor all generations, represented byEducationA program to perform.

News program

Some are for the whole country and some are for the region. Many TV stations have news programsNews agencyProduced by. Because of the nature of televisions that convey information instantly in images, often from news sitesRelay broadcastIs performed.

Information program

Entertainment program

Programs with complex content

Classification by broadcast target

Program for children

Classification by broadcasting method/organization

Classification by length of broadcast time

Classification by broadcast time

Other classification

Problems of Regional Disparity in Japanese Terrestrial Television Programs

the 1950sIn Japan in the first halfCommercial broadcastWith the start of TV broadcasting, gradually in various placesLocal bureauA series of open stations, especiallyHeisei New BureauWith the opening rush of the broadcast, the broadcasting target area was expanded, but still "Terrestrial waveIn the complete form of a "TV commercial"Nationwide (simultaneous) broadcastHas not been realized. this isPublic broadcastingIsNHK Broadcasting lawIt is obligatory to cover all over Japan by the government, but it is not in each commercial broadcasting station.

In addition, 2000/BS digital broadcasting stations (BS Nippon Television,BS Asahi,BS-TBS,BS Japan,BS Fuji) Was opened, it was expected that "national broadcasting of commercial TV programs" which would not be possible by terrestrial broadcasting would be possible, but in BS digital broadcastingCopyrightManagement group (Japan Music Business Association-Japan Music Copyright Association(JASRAC) etc.), it is the current situation that there are few programs that are performing "simultaneous terrestrial/BS simultaneous or delayed nets" for each series due to reasons such as rights processing.

As if to back it up,Nippon TVAnime and eachcontentFormer business managerannouncer OfFunakoshi MasashiIs "The strongest content for TV stations is terrestrial broadcasting programs"[6].

TV Tokyo series

Key stationEspecially inTelevision Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd. TheAffiliated stationsIs overwhelmingly small compared to other series, with only 6 stations including TV Tokyo (the smallest among the four major networksTV Asahi seriesBut a total of 24 stations[Annotation 1]The difference is four times as much), which is one of the factors that widen the gap between metropolitan areas and rural areas. Local stations in "areas without affiliated stations" and Chukyo / Kansai area (both areas have affiliated stationsPrefectural broadcastfor,Wide areaCannot cover the whole area[Annotation 2]) For independent stationsBan salesSome programs are online, but only some of them are online. Also, depending on the program, there are not a few programs that are limited to only affiliated stations.

In 2007OsakaIs a regional stationTV Osaka OfKyoto-HyogoExpansion of the broadcasting area to the whole area,Miyagi-Shizuoka-HiroshimaThe president at that time announced the plan to open affiliated stations to, but no specific progress has been made since then.[7].

Significance of existence of TV programs

Every day broadcasting(MBS) Tokyo branchtv setI belong to the formation department and currentlyTelevision AnimationIn charge ofMaruyama HirooCommented that "TV programs are passive media," "TV is a medium of randomness," and that "programs that you happen to see have the potential to attract viewers." "Continuous broadcast on TV There is a strong tendency to actively watch, saying that "creating an opportunity to meet" by doingインターネットClaims a big difference from the show[8].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Cross net stationIncluding, there are a total of 26 stations.
  2. ^ Especially in the case of TV Osaka, the main Kansai areaGovernment-designated cityIsKobe City,Kyoto CityHowever, there are many areas that are difficult to receive.

Source

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