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👍 | XNUMX-yen bills that you can get with New Year's gifts, in fact there is an unknown secret ... A series of praises for the miracle "synchro"


The XNUMX-yen bill that you can get with your New Year's gift, in fact, there is an unknown secret ...

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By the way, the design of Mt. Fuji is not "all the same", but the "five pick-up ticket" is Mt. Fuji seen from Mt. Mt. Fuji seen from Mt. Gangaharasuriyama is used, and in the "D XNUMX yen ticket", Mr. Okada is from Lake Motosu as well as the "E XNUMX yen ticket" which was talked about this time. The photographed Mt. Fuji is designed.

[The XNUMX-yen bill we use on a daily basis.The miraculous "synchronization" that was unexpected has become a hot topic. … → Continue reading


"Making'tell'intelligible" The news site "Sirabee" is a medium that combines survey data with news to convey information in an easy-to-understand manner.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

    B XNUMX yen ticket

    Mount Fuji

    Mount Fuji(Mt.Fuji,(English: Mount Fuji) IsYamanashi(Fujiyoshida,Minamitsuru-gunNarusawa Village)When,Shizuoka(Fujinomiya city,Fuji city,Susono City,Gotemba,Sunto-gunOyama Town)active volcanoIs[Annotation 3].elevation3776.12 m,Japan's highest peak(Kengamine[Annotation 4] OfIndependence peakAnd that graceful appearance even outside JapanJapan OfSymbolWidely known as.Used as the subject of many works of artartNot only the surfaceclimate,Strataな どGeologyIt also has a great impact on society.CatenaryHad a mountain ofbasaltqualityStratovolcanoThe mountain body is composed ofSuruga BayExtends to the coast.

    Since ancient timesSacred peakAnd especially at the summitAsama OkamiWas considered sacred because he was supposed to be seated there. To calm the eruptionRitsuryoku NationByAsama ShrineIs enshrined,Asama faithWas established.also,Mt. Fuji ShugendoIs said to be the founder ofFuji superiorBy ShugendoSacred placeIt came to be recognized as, and worship was started.theseFuji faithDiversified with the times,Murayama Shuken,Fuji lectureIt leads to the formation of such a faction.Current,Foot of Mt. FujiThere are many tourist attractions in the area, and in the summer seasonFuji mountain climbingIs thriving.

    Three famous mountains in Japan(Three sacred mountains),Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)[3],Top XNUMX geological features in JapanHas been selected. Also,1936(Showa 11)Fuji Hakone Izu National ParkIs specified in[Annotation 5]. afterwards,1952(Showa 27)Special scenic spot,2011(23)Historic site,further2013(25)6/22Together with related cultural propertiesMt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of artIn the name ofworld Cultural HeritageRegistered in[5].



    The oldest record about Mt. Fuji is "Hitachi Country Culture] InMt. FukujiIt is said that it is a word. There are many other names,FujiyamaOrInexhaustible mountain[Annotation 6]There is also an old document written as. Also,"Taketori storyThere is also a legend in[Annotation 7].. Represents a long mountain slope called "Fuji"Yamato languageThere is also a theory that it was called Mt. Fuji after that. As the etymology after modern times,MissionaryBachelorMeans the name "fire-breathing mountain"AinuHe presented the theory that it was derived from "Funchinupuri". However, this represents the fire deity god enshrined in the hearth.Ape Fuchi KamuiThere is a counterargument that it is a misunderstanding that came from[Annotation 8].. As another etymology,MalayTheory,Maori languageTheory[7],Original polynesianThere is a theory.

    Explicitly"Mount FujiIn the processSuruga countryThere is something that is said to be derived from[8], As a recordYoshika ToruIn "Mount Fuji"The name of the mountain is named Fuji."a.

    Named after Mt. Fuji

    Since Mt. Fuji is a famous peak of Japan, "Fuji" is attached to various parts of Japan.Place nameThere are many. Shizuoka Prefecture at the foot of Mt. FujiFuji city,Fujinomiya city,Fuji-gunIn Yamanashi PrefectureFujiyoshida,Fujikawaguchiko Town,Fujikawa Town(Shizuoka PrefectureAnbara-gunAlsoThe name of the town(It has been incorporated into Fuji City).Another common place where you can see Mt. FujiFujimiOr (for example:SaitamaFujimi), a mountain similar to Mt. Fuji (mainlyStratovolcano)) with the name "Fuji" (Shinano Fujiand so on.Japanese immigrated outside JapanIn some cases, the mountains near the place of residence are sometimes called "○○ Fuji".

    There are at least 321 mountains, including other names, throughout Japan, and there are mountains with the name "Fuji".Local FujiCall.

    In addition to the place name, there are many names bearing "Fuji."

    Also known as "Furong Peak" and "Futake" as synonyms.

    小 惑星Was named after Tomitake[9].

    Japan's flagship supercomputer "RIKEN Center for Computational Science"FuyueWas named as a symbol of high performance as the highest peak of Mt. Fuji and versatility as the size of the skirt.[10].

    Mount Fuji altitude

    Mt. Fuji stands out as an independent peak, and its height has attracted attention because it is the highest peak in Japan.

    Altitude measurement history

    The following is the process of measuring the altitude of Mt. Fuji from the Edo period.[11].

    The height of Mt. Fuji measured by the early Meiji era

    TimeMeasurement yearMeasurerMeasuring method or instrumentResult / mRemarks
    Edo Period1727Fukudatrigonometry3895.1According to "History of Japanese Civil Engineering before the Meiji Era", the measurer is Fukuda Riken (Fuku is a bias), and the height is 3885.96 m.[12].
    1803Tadataka Inotrigonometry3927.7
    1826SieboldExtant3793Sexent: sextant
    1834Kyō UchidaQuadrant, cylinder3475.7
    1860All cockbarometer4322*Measurement method is based on <Suzuki, 1998>
    1860Williambarometer3266*Measurement method is based on <Suzuki, 1998>
    Meiji Era1874StewartOmni meter3769
    1874Fabre Brunton3768
    1880Seiki Nakamura, Yuji Wadabarometer3823Menden Hall, Tanakakan Ai Tachibana and others carried out at the same time as the measurement of the summit gravity of Mt. Fuji
    1880Takeshi NojiriRecalculation above3812Different temperature compensation
    1880チ ャ ッ プ リ ンTriangulation3787.2
    1887Chief of StaffTriangulation and flat survey3778

    Eiichi Hakoiwa (2003): “Geological News” pp.23-30, October 2003.

    * Hiromichi Suzuki (1998): "Height of Mountains", September 1998

    Latest elevation

    There are two references to elevation:

    Triangle point elevation (3775.51 m)

    It is often quoted as the altitude of mountains. Near the highest point of the main mountainTriangular pointIs installed and its altitude is measured accurately (in cm).However, the triangulation point is not always installed at the highest point of the mountain because it is installed with an emphasis on the visibility to the nearby mountains and the stability of the installation position.[13].

    On Mount Fuji,KengamineIt is inSecond-order triangular pointThe height of "Mt. Fuji"3775.51 mIs. The figure before the elevation revision dated April 2014, 4 was 1 m.[1].

    Highest altitude of the mountain (3776.12 m)

    Since the height of the triangular point is not always the highest altitude of the mountain, the highest altitude value may be measured separately. For example,Geographical Survey InstitutePublishes about 1003 major Japanese mountains as "Japan's major mountain elevations"[14]..Since the highest altitude point is not always the altitude of a triangulation point such as the height of a rock body, the mountain altitude is displayed in units of 1 m.According to the "Major Mountain Elevation of Japan" by the Geographical Survey Institute, the height of Mt. Fuji is 3776 m, and its position is 35 degrees 21 minutes 39 seconds 138 degrees 43 minutes 39 seconds.

    The highest point of Mt. Fuji isKengamineIt is a rock about 12 m north of the location of Mt. Fuji at the second triangle, and the relative height to the second triangle is 0.61 m. Therefore, the elevation of this rock is3776.12 mAnd this is the highest altitude of Mt. Fuji[Annotation 9][15][16][1].

    Altitude of other mountains

    • Yushan(Taiwan)-In the Japanese colonial eraShin TakayamaIt was called the highest peak in Japan.Altitude 3952 m.
    • Snow mountain(Taiwan) -During the Japanese colonial eraNext TakayamaIt was called the second highest mountain in Japan.Altitude 2 m.
    • Mt. Kitadake --The second highest mountain in Japan.Altitude 2 m.
    • Mt. Ontake --The second highest volcano in Japan.Altitude 2 m.
    • Hiyoriyama (Sendai City) --The lowest mountain in Japan.Altitude 3 m.
    • Everest --The highest peak in the world.Altitude 8848 m.

    Geologically Mount Fuji

    GeologyMt. Fuji above is typicalStratovolcanoIt has a beautiful mountain body peculiar to this kind of volcano.The current body of Mt. Fuji is thought to have been formed by the following four stages of volcanic activity.

    • Sengotake volcano
    • Komitake Volcano
    • Kofuji Volcano
    • Shin Fuji Volcano

    Among them, Sakikomitake is the oldest, and it was several hundred thousand years ago.PleistoceneI was able toVolcano.Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo 2004Went in Aprilボ ー リ ン グResearch has revealed that there are older mountains beneath Komitake.AndesiteThis fourth mountain body, which is mainly composed of[17].

    Kofuji continued to erupt from about 8 years ago to about 1 years ago and erupted.Volcanic ashAs a result of the accumulation of sardines, it grew to an altitude of less than 3000 m.The top of the mountainHoei craterIt is believed to have been located 1–2 km north of.

    In June 2009,GPSIn the observation of Mt. Fuji byCrustal movementWas confirmed.This is the first time since the observation started in April 1996.This crustal movement caused a change of up to 4 cm, extending about 2 cm between Fujinomiya City and Fujiyoshida City.this ismagmaHas been accumulated (which is an active volcano)[18].

    plateFrom the perspective ofEurasia plateAt the outer edge,North American plateOrOkhotsk plateContact withFossa Magna(Just westItoigawa Shizuoka Structural Line) To the southPhilippine Sea PlateIs the position where theSagami TroughSuruga Troughas well as the Izu, Ogasawara, Mariana Island ArcIs an intersection point that extends to the land), and the boundary area of ​​the three plates (Triple junction). Underneath the Philippine Sea Plate subducting below Mt. FujiPacific plateIs sinking, and of Mt. FujimagmaIs in eastern JapanIsland arc volcanoIs derived from the Pacific plate as well as[19][20].. The characteristic of Mt. Fuji on the volcano is that there are many side volcanoes.[21]Most of Japan's volcanoesAndesitemagmaWhile many are gushing[21]Mt. FujibasaltSpewing a lot of magma[21]There is.

    Mount Fuji
    On the summitcraterThere is a (bowl) and this is called "Ouchiin". Eight peaks located to surround thisYagami PeakCall. The highest point on the southwest side of the craterKengamineThere isSecond-order triangular point(The point name is Mt. Fuji. Altitude 3775.51 m Revised on April 2014, 4[Annotation 2]), A second-class triangulation point (point name is Mt. Fuji Hakusan. Altitude 3756.23 m revised on April 2014, 4) is installed on the north side of the crater.The structure of the crater isGeographical Survey InstituteAccording to the report, the altitude of the deepest part is 3538.7 m, the depth of the crater is about 237 m, the diameter of the summit crater is 780 m, and the diameter of the crater bottom is 130 m.[22].
    #Mt. Fuji summitSee also
    Hoeizan(Hoeizan) isHoei4 years(1707)ofHoei Great EruptionIt is a side volcano (parasitic volcano) born in. Located on the southeastern slope of Mt. Fuji, the altitude is 2693 m. A huge crater opens to the west of Hoeizan. There is also a mountaineering course where you can see these things up close.

    Source river

    The following sourcesRiverIs divided into 4 water systems, allThe Pacific OceanFlows to.

    Mount Fuji and volcanic activity

    Mt. Fuji eruption

    Last glacial periodAbout 1 years before the end of the eruption, an eruption began on the west side of the mountaintop of Kofuji,溶岩Was ejected in large quantities.This lava formed Shin-Fuji, the current mountain body of Mt. Fuji.After that, it seems that the summit of Kofuji was on the east side of the summit of Shin-Fuji, but about 2500–2800 years ago.weatheringThe large summit of the old Fuji that has advancedMountain collapse("Gotemba rock avalanche") caused and collapsed.

    It is believed that lava erupted from the summit of Shin-Fuji about 1 years ago – about 1 years ago for 8000 years and about 3000 years ago – about 4500 years ago for 3200 years.The last from the top of the mountainExplosive eruption2300 years ago[23], After this, there is no eruption from the summit, but Nagaoyama andHoeizanEruptions from the volcanoes on the side and the like occur sporadically.

    Postponement19 years – 21 years of Enryaku (800 - 802)Enryaku eruption("Japanese later"In summary, "Mt. Fuji burned by itself, the light of the fire shined at night, the thunder ash fell, and the river water beneath the mountain turned red."Virtue6 years(864)Aoki gaharaSpewing lavaJogan large eruptionHappened. The last time Mt. Fuji eruptedHoei4 years(1707)ofHoei Great EruptionAnd the smoke isstratosphereReachEdoThen about 4 cmVolcanic ashWas piled up. Mt. Hoei was formed on the body of Mt. Fuji by the eruption of Hoei. Then volcanicEarthquakeAnd fumaroles have been observed, and the possibility of eruption remains in the future.

    eruptionThe oldest record that the age ofJapanese sequel],Ten ONew Year (781It was a mountain where there was ash fall from Mt. Established in the early Heian periodTaketori story] Also has a description that suggests that Mt. Fuji was in an active period when the work was established. History books from the Heian period "Japan's third generation]Jogan large eruptionThe situation of is described in a powerful style, "Sarashina diary], The fumarole of Mt. FujiFireThere is a depiction of the phenomenon.

    Hoei Great EruptionThe record aboutArai Shiroishiby"Folding shiba no ki] And many other documents, pictures, etc.
    After that, although many records of volcanic smoke and rumbling are left, from the description, it is surmised that it was a short-term and small-scale activity.

    Mt. Fuji has not been erupted for 300 years since the Hoei Great Eruption.dormant volcanoWas taught. However, as mentioned earlier, Mt.Fuji is still observing active activities.Japanese Meteorological AgencyAbolished the classification of dormant volcano,active volcanoIt is divided into.

    August 2013, 7,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIs a collection of exploration data and geological survey data for about 1999 years from 15 at Fuji VolcanoGeological mapAnnounced as the second edition (Ver.2)[24], Modifications ended in 2016[23].. At the same time, it claims that there were at least 2000 eruptions of lava flow in the last 43 years.

    Occurrence of mountain collapse

    Due to earthquake and eruption activityMountain collapse(Debris (gansetsu avalanche)) is said to have occurred 5 times, including 3 times in the southwest, 4 times in the northeast, and 12 times in the east, including those with an unclear age.[25].. In addition, it is suggested that it exists directly belowActive faultBy the activity ofmagnitudeThere is also concern about collapse due to a 7-class earthquake.

    Main occurrence history

    Disaster countermeasures

    • Volcanic eruption prediction liaison meeting -Though not limited to Mt. Fuji, study volcanic activity in Japan. We will give an opinion depending on the situation, but we will not announce the date and time of the eruption. Regular meetings are held three times a year, but are held at any time during an eruption. When the number of low-frequency earthquakes on Mt. Fuji increased in October 3, a working group was established to intensively examine the collection and arrangement of basic data on Mt. Fuji, examination of the monitoring system, and volcanic information transmission methods.
    • Cabinet OfficeWebsite "Mt. Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures[30]Fuji,"Hazard mapInformation such as the Review Committee is provided.
    • Fuji direct control erosion control project- Osawa collapseGenerated from a large-scaleEarth and stone flowFrom now on, we are implementing a sabo project to protect downstream conservation targets.
    • Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures have created an "evacuation route map for Mt. Fuji eruption"[31][32].
    • Shizuoka City MayorNobuhiro TanabeAt a regular press conference on January 2016, 1, the city fire brigade dropped a climber who slipped on Mt. Fuji from a helicopter while rescuing it in 22, and after the accident that the climber died, as a measure to prevent recurrence , City Fire Department revealed that it has set an upper limit of 2013 m for the height of the mountain that can be rescued by helicopter[33].

    Observation of crustal movements

    Government agency (Disaster Prevention Research Institute, JMA,Geographical Survey Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) and local governments (Yamanashi Prefecture Fuji Scientific Research Institute) And university (Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo) Etc. have been observed.

    • Geographical Survey Institute:GeomagnetismObservation point[34]Is installed at Kanoyama Geodetic Observatory, Mizusawa Geodetic Observatory and Esashi Observatory. Also, at the summitGPSElectronic reference point.
    • JMA Observatory[35]: Seismometer (mountain, Gotembaguchi 8th station, Yoshidaguchi 6th station, Narusawa Hiruzuka Higashi, Tarobou), inclinometer (Tarobou), aerial vibration meter (Tarobou, Uide), GSP (Tarobou), telephoto camera (Hagiwara)
    • Disaster Prevention Research Institute[36]: VIsualization system for Volcanic Activity

    Measures against eruption disasters

    Mt. Fuji and the weather


    Even in August, the warmest month of the mountain, the average temperature is only 8 ° C.[39],Köppen climate classificationThen, the warmest monthly average temperature is 0 ° C or more and less than 10 ° C.Tundra climateare categorized.Due to the Pacific climate, January and February are dry, with March, April, May and June occupying the top 1 deepest snowfalls.The lowest temperature in the history of observation was -2 ° C, which was observed on February 3, 4, and the day when the highest temperature was less than -5 ° C was observed several times in the past. A day that never exceeds -6 ° C is unprecedented in Hokkaido.[40].

    Mt. Fuji climate
    Highest temperature record ° C (° F−1.7
    Average maximum temperature ° C (° F−15.3
    Average daily temperature ° C (° F−18.2
    Average minimum temperature ° C (° F−21.4
    Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−37.3
    Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[41][42] Average temperature (1991-2020) Highest and lowest temperature records (July 1932 – 7)
    Changes in average temperature[Annotation 10]
    Changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and humidity
    Average maximum temperature[Annotation 11]
    Maximum temperature (maximum value)[Annotation 12]
    Maximum temperature (minimum value)[Annotation 13]
    Average minimum temperature[Annotation 14]
    Minimum temperature (minimum value)[Annotation 15]
    Minimum temperature (maximum value)[Annotation 16]
    Days of each class[Annotation 17]
    Changes in average humidity[Annotation 18]
    Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[43]

    Meteorological observation at Mt. Fuji

    Once meteorological agencyTokyo District Meteorological ObservatoryMt. Fuji was the meteorological office that was installed at Mt. CurrentlyMount Fuji Special Area Meteorological ObservatoryThe weather observation is performed by the automatic weather observation device.

    Meteorological phenomenon

    • When strong winds blow on the mountain body, the sand is rolled up and may fall to nearby municipalities. On December 2010, 12, it was reported that black sand was piled up from the western part to the southern part of Kanagawa prefecture, and the sand of Mt.[44].
    • Mt. Fuji's "first snowfall"Kofu Local Meteorological ObservatoryHas been observed and announced. Separately from this, the Mt. Fuji section of Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, at the northern foot of Mt. doing[45].
    • In some areas at the northern foot of Mt. Fuji (currently Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, etc.), farm birds (looks like birds) that appear near Mt. Fuji at an altitude of 2600 m.Remaining snowAccording to the time when) appears, there is a legend to judge the good harvest or bad harvest of agricultural products.[46].
    • At Mt. FujiMountain waveMay occur, and an aircraft crash has occurred (British overseas aircraft aerial disassembly accidentSuch).

    Natural environment at the foot of Mt. Fuji

    At the foot of Mt. FujiNatural treasureAs for "Mt. Fuji primeval forest andAokigahara"(Natural treasure : 1926Designated on February 2, added and renamed on March 24, 2010, "Fuji-fuana" (natural monument:1929December 12 designated) etc.

    Underground water

    Rain and snow on Mt. Fuji have taken many yearsUnderground waterAsgroundwaterIt flows and springs up in the pulse.An example of spring water that has been confirmed to spring from the highest point is at an altitude of 1670 m (near the second station of Fujinomiyaguchi), and is distributed in a band at the foot of the mountain.The total amount of spring water at the foot of Mt. Fuji was 1968 million m per day in 1.3That's all.However, there are cases where a decrease in the amount of spring water has been confirmed in recent years.[47].

    Southeast footKakita River(Japan's three major streams),Obama pond
    South footYoshiwara springs
    XiluYudama Pond(Special Natural Monument),Shiraito Falls(Specified by countryScenic spotas well as the Natural treasure), Inokashira springs
    North footOshino Hachiumi(National natural monument)

    Also, in someSuruga Bay,Fuji Five Lakes OfWest LakeIt is said that there is a gush at (around 25 m in depth)[47].

    Utilizing the underground water from Mt. Fuji, industries such as paper manufacturing and pharmaceutical-related manufacturing are actively carried out in the surrounding area. Also, the underground water of Mt. FujivanadiumBecause it contains abundantMineral waterAsPET bottlesIt is packed and sold.

    Lava cave

    More than 100 large and small around the foot of Mt. FujiLava caveA cave is formed.

    Among them, Mitsuikeana (Fujinomiya City, Shizuoka Prefecture), which has a total length of 2139 m, is the longest lava cave in Japan.Also, as the largest lava cave around the foot of the mountainWest Lake Bat Hole(Fujikawaguchiko Town, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture), and is designated as a national natural monument. Other,Narusawa Ice Cave(Naruzawa Village, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture) is also designated as a national natural monument.


    Mt. Fuji has a high altitude, but compared to other high mountains in JapanAlpine plantPoor vegetation such as. This is because of the large-scale repeated eruptions from the summit of Mt. Fuji after the end of the last glacial period.EcosystemIt was because the mountain was destroyed and it was an independent peak, so the invasion of plants from other mountains was delayed. However, some alpine plants can be seen around Hoeiyama. At the top of the mountainPolygonaceaeOn Polygonum OfOntade(Gyotaya), on the hillsideAsteraceaeThistle OfFuji thistle(Fujinagi) grows naturally[48].. Above the forest limits of the high mountains of the central mountain rangeHimatsuIt is customary for the belt to spread, but there is no Himatsu belt on Mt.LarchThe forest is wide.

    History of human relationships

    Ancient times

    Ancient timesMt. Fuji has become a subject of mountain worship, and it has come to be said that Mt. Fuji is regarded as a sacred mountain and also as an object of worship. Because it is a "sacred place"Meiji EraUntilFemale ProhibitionDue to the tradition of women, mountain climbing has long been prohibited. Especially with Asama Okami, who is considered as a spirit of Mount FujiKonohananosakubimeIs the main deityAsama ShrineAndSensetsushaAre scattered all over the country. At the foot of the main shrine of Asama ShrineFujinomiya cityIt is inMount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaIt is (Asama Shrine), and the god of Mt. Fuji is worshiped at "Hongu" in the city of Fujinomiya and "Okumiya" at the top of Mt. Fuji. From this history, Mt. Fujiworld HeritageAlso registered inworld Natural Heritage SiteWorld Cultural Heritage (Mt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of art) Was as.

    In ancient times, the idea that Mt. Fuji belonged to Suruga was universal. These are "The Takamine of Fuji, which is a high and noble river" (Akato Yamabe's "Manyoshu") and "Mt. Fuji is in the country of Suruga." "Mt. Fuji is the mountain of the country of Suruga (omitted). It is widely seen as "Aru" (Toroka, "Mount Fuji"), "Naruyama Narumu in Suruga no Kuni" ("Taketori Monogatari"). However, it is written with a shared view that it is a mountain that straddles the two countries of Suruga and Kai, such as "Surugawa no Kuni to Kochigochino" ("Takashi Mashi Maro" and "Manyoshu"). There are also valuable examples.

    Later times,Jesuits OfJoan RodriguezSaid in his book "History of the Church of Japan" that "Mt. Fuji belongs to Suruga Kuni," it is probable that the relationship of "Surukawa Kuni" was maintained.

    The mountain trail originated from the mountain trail opened by Suetsudai, and it is said that the first mountain trail was completed.MurayamaguchiIs. ThisFuji ShukenIs said to have been established. Other mountain trails are gradually being excavated, and Omiya/Murayamaguchi, Suyamaguchi, and Subashiriguchi exist.

    God Buddha practiceMt. Fuji was no exception. The summit has come to be considered the world of Buddha and has a special meaning.[49].. As a precedentMasaka3 years(1259) Is said to be an old wooden sitting image, which was the former principal image of Dainichido (Murayama). A book from the Kamakura period "Azuma mirrorThe names of "Fuji Daibosatsu" and "Asama Daibosatsu" have been confirmed in ". Eight mines at the top of Mt. Fuji (Yagami Peak) Is called "Yaha", which is also associated with the Shinto-Butsu tradition.BuneiThe annual (1264-1275) "Manyoshu Annotation" states that "there is a ridge of eight leaves."You can see the description of "Yaba" in many other books.

    Edo Period

    In the Edo period, under the patronage of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Edo Shogunate contributed more than the 18th station based on the fact that he gained priority in the construction of the main shrine, etc. The area above the seam is the precinct of Asama Taisha Shrine, except for the trail and Mt. Fuji weather station. Along with the popularization of mountain climbing, a group such as Murayama Shugen and Fuji Ko was formed, and the faith of Fuji was developed. Since the late 18th century when the rise of Fuji-ko was seen, it was considered that the use of Yoshidaguchi had become conspicuous because it could not be developed as a new religion on the old mountain trails. It was said that it was about the same as the sum total of the trailheads[49].

    People visiting Fuji are called "guides," for example, "MyohojiIn the record of 9 (1500)GuideInfinite counselors, everyone to Kanto Ran Niyori SubashiriGuide"Tsukeya". In addition, the guides/leaders in mountain climbing are called "predecessors", and it has been confirmed that the names of the predecessors can be seen ("Koubun Fuji's document" and "Eiroku 6 years" in the text).

    After the Meiji era

    KeioIn 4 years (1868)Divine and Buddhist separation orderWhen is issued, the form of these Shinto and Buddhist practices will be greatly disrupted. Demolition of Buddha statues in Mt. Fuji and Murayama progressed[50].Mount Fuji Koboji TempleIs separated, Dainichido isHuman holeBecomes Sengen ShrineGongenThe company has undergone modifications such as being abolished.Kitaguchi Motomiya Fuji Asama ShrineThen Niomon and Gomado will be demolished.[49].. The Buddhist name has also been changed, and the name of "Yaha" has also been changed. In 1883 (Meiji 16), Gotembaguchi mountain trail,1906Shin-Omiyaguchi was excavated in (Meiji 39).

    Mt. Fuji was designated as a "historic site", which is a nationally designated cultural property on February 23, 2011. Mt. Fuji as a historic site is composed of multiple assets and is included as "Historic site Mt. Fuji". The designated range is Fujinomiya City, Susono City and Oyama Town in Sunto District in Shizuoka Prefecture, Fujiyoshida City in Yamanashi Prefecture, and Fuji Kawaguchiko Town and Narusawa Village in Minamitsuru District.[51].. At this time, the mountaintops of Mt. After that, a part of the Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha Shrine's company land, the human hole Fuji Ko ruins, and each trail were designated[52].

    Mountain climbing history

    There are many legendary parts in the tradition of climbing Mt. Fuji, and there are various theories.

    Mt. Fuji's climbing history
    Japanese CalendarADMessageSupplemental
    Emperor Suiko6598Heian period OfKai's Black PieceIn tradition,Prince ShotokuThere is a description that says that he rode a Shinba and crossed Mt. Fuji.White among hundreds donated by various countriesWorthAfter seeing Kurokoma as a Shinma horse, and when the Prince went on a test ride in September of the same year, the horse jumped high in the sky and went to the eastern country, crossing Mt. Fuji.Shinano countryIt is said that he returned to the city after 3 days.
    Emperor Tenchi2663Small angleWas exiledizu-OshimaThere is a legend that he secretly escaped every night and climbed Mt. Fuji.The role of Kokaku is also known as "the founder of Mt. Fuji. The climbing of this role, Ogaku, was published in Marcel Kurtz's Chronicle of the World Climbing, and although the record was revised, it was described as "the world's first climbing".
    Virtue17875Heian periodIs a scholar ofYoshika ToruDescribes the summit crater in "Mt. Fuji".Always boils down to the summitCrater lakeThere is on the banktigerIt is thought that the person who actually climbed the mountain or interviewed the person who climbed the mountain because of the depictions that only the person who actually saw it could know, such as the rock that resembled the figure. It is not the summit eruption about 10 years agoJogan large eruptionwas there.
    Hisasu51149It is said that in the "Honcho Century", the supreme ancestors repeated hundreds of times.It is unknown whether the numbers match, but he is known as a person who has done many mountaineering.
    Edo PeriodWhen you enterFuji lectureBecame popular, and many worshipers climbed Mt. Fuji.Especially in the late Edo periodKoshaThere were a lot of people, and Fujita had the character of acting as a substitute for the local community and the village community. At the height of the peak, near Yoshidaguchi aloneShukubo(Mountain hut)was there.
    Bunsei111828Attempt to measure altitude by barometerSieboldIs a disciple ofNinomiya KeisakuClimbed,(I.e.The altitude was measured by the change of.Tadataka Ino2603–3732 m in the survey[53]However, it is calculated to be 3794.5 m in this measurement.[54].
    Tempo31832Takayama TatsuIs the first woman to climb.Female ProhibitionWas the time when was laid.
    Kaei61852Munehide Matsudaira(Munehide Honjo) Is the first ascendant as a modern-day daimyo.An old record called "Sode Nikki" written by the owner of a sake brewery, which is a tangible cultural property of Fujinomiya City,Miyazu DomainThere is a record that Munehide Matsudaira climbed Mt. Fuji. According to No. 6 of "Sleeve Diary", Munehide began to think about climbing Mt. Fuji while going back and forth between Edo and Miyazu, but the route for the change of attendance was designated by the Shogunate and deviated from this. It is not permissible to make a detour, even if you are visiting a shrine or temple.For this reason, he asked the shogunate to climb Mt. Fuji, but he did not get permission, and even after three years, he got permission, but it was up to a point called "Magare".The horseback is a place below the first station, where climbers get off the horse and climb the mountain.

    Therefore, on June 6, 1852, Munehide decided to secretly climb the mountain in the shogunate, started climbing the mountain from dawn, and reached the summit in the afternoon.Munehide's climb to Mt. Fuji was the only record of a modern daimyo climbing Mt. Fuji.

    MannobuFirst year1860British MinisterAll cockIs the first foreigner to climb."Kojien』Records of allcock climbing (Fuji Heavy[Annotation 19]Has submitted to the shrine magistrate's office), and said, "Er. Fuji, the survey of Sulni, Omiya Tsukasa Yori Notification Form... On the 7nd heavy rain of the day, the 24th day of Hiratsu, Omiya Kokyu, and Murayama Tomari. It was fine on the 26th, we stayed at the XNUMXth station of Mt. Shishi, and the summit of the XNUMXth day was the summit of the fine weather..." Allcock entered Murayama from Omiya on July XNUMX, climbed, and climbed on XNUMXth.[50].
    Meiji41872The female prohibition is lifted.Meiji EraIn that case, faith mountaineering will gradually decline, and instead, it will be possible to climb as an entertainment or sport, and modern Western mountaineering technology will be adopted.
    Meiji 251892BritishWalter WestonIs the summit.I climbed the next year. After that, he published a book and introduced Japanese mountains such as Mount Fuji to the world.[55].
    Meiji 281895Nonaka ItaruIs the first winter climb.On February 2th, we climbed the Gotemba Exit alone. Meteorological observations were made at the summit from October to December of the same year.[56].
    Taisho121923Crown Prince Hirohito (laterEmperor Showa) MountaineeringOn July 7th, after going to Subashiri, I climbed on horseback until the 26th station, and then on foot from the 8th station onwards. After worshiping Okumiya and branding the Kongo stick, we descended from Gotembaguchi[57].
    12th year of Taisho1923Chichibu PalaceMountaineeringOn the evening of August 8, we climbed from Gotembaguchi and arrived at the summit the next morning. After visiting Okumiya, go down.
    Showa 21927Teru NakamuraIs the first woman to climb in winterClimbing from Gotembaguchi on January 1, with two men[56].
    Showa 471972Mt.Fuji mass accident (1972).It was the worst distress accident in Japan, with 24 dead and missing due to avalanches and hypothermia caused by bad weather.
    Showa631988Tokujin HiromiyaMountain climbing (the then-now Emperor).8/1-2 daysI went back and forth from the Subashiriguchi to the XNUMXth station on the mountain climbing[58].. The summit was abandoned due to bad weather.
    Heisei202008Crown Prince Tokuhito has reached the summit.8/7After leaving Fujinomiyaguchi, enter the Gotembaguchi mountain trail and climb[59].

    2020(2nd year of Reiwa)New coronavirus4 trails due to the spread of infection (GotenbaRoute, Subashiri route,Fujinomiyaroot,(I.e.Route) became the first closure in history[Annotation 20][60][61].

    Conflict of rights over Mount Fuji

    Mountain service money and house spending

    There are mountain trails in each area at the foot of the mountain, especially Murayamaguchi, Omiyaguchi, Subashiriguchi and Suyamaguchi are ancient mountain trails, and Sengen Taisha in the area that manages them[Annotation 21]Had been collected. These areas are fighting each other over mountain services. Especially internal payment[Annotation 22]Is very expensive, so it was easy to become a source of contention. For example, the distribution to Subashiri Village is 1 in one year.BothIt is said that it has been exceeded, and that it will be calculated that about one car will be paid to each household[62].. The right to spend in houseDamingIt was contested mainly by the three regions based on the rights given to them. "Murayama" and "Subashiri"[Annotation 23]And "Omiya". In Murayama, 1533 (astronomical"Tsujinobo" of Sanbo Murayama in 2 years)Mr. ImakiHave been granted the right to get a house spending[63].. Subashiri in 1577 (Tensho 5th year)Mr. TakedaBy Yakushido (currentKusushi Shrine)ofOpen bookYou have the right to get the daily house spending[64].. Omiya in 1609 (Keicho14 years)Tokugawa IeyasuSent in house payment to Asama ShrineDonationAnd has the advantage of getting a house spending[49].. When Omiya Tsukasa of Asama Shrine climbed from Murayama, he had to take a mountain service, so there were some customs to avoid Murayama and worship from "Susashiri".[65].

    The current Fujiyoshidaguchi, which is a newly created mountain trail, is without permission from "Subashiri" who manages the mountain trail, and Omiya Tsukasa of Asama ShrineFuji Shinanな どMr. FujiIf they pay themselves the mountain money, it will be a controversy because they will give permission for mountain climbing (make a mountain trail and build a mountain hut) without permission, despite using the mountain trail of "Subashiri".[Annotation 24]And "Yoshida" argued in 1810 about the mountain climbing route and the method of collecting mountain services, and in "Omiya" and "Yoshida" there is a history of fighting the distribution of funds in the Yakushido.[66].

    Genroku controversy

    GenrokuIn 16 (1703), there was a dispute that Susari Village sued Fuji Sengen Shrine main shrine (Asama Taisha) over spending money and management of mountain huts.Genroku controversyIs. Subashiri sideEast Exit Motomiya Asahi ShrineShinto priests and masters of the shrineFuji Shinanな どMr. Fuji[Annotation 25]I appealed them to the shrine magistrate. The complaint was three-way. One is dissatisfaction with Asama Taisha's recognition of Yakushitake's hut by Yoshida villagers. It is said that it is a thing that violates the vested right of Subashiri, and the third is that it is the custom that the Subashi side will get the second pick up in the institution's acquisition of fines, which Asama Taisha acquired. It is a complaint that there is. In response to this, the Sengen Taisha side went to Edo, Yakushitake was not in the suburbs of Subashiri village, and the entrance to Yakushido was built by the Sengen Taisha side, so the right is to Sengen Taisha Shrine. He argued that the second picking practice was groundless. They are treated as naisha entrusted to a third party, and in that naisai, "Do not let other people hang up" "Yakushido's entrance to Buddha is done by Subashiri Village." And Subashiri are divided at 1:2, and Subashiri will get the second pick up.[67].

    Yasunaga's dispute

    Ernst & YoungIn the first year (1772), a dispute that Subashiri-mura sued Asama-taisha for controlling the mountaintop was under the control of the village.[Annotation 26] Yasunaga's disputeIs. Looking at this, Fujiminsai on the side of Asama Taisha[Annotation 27]Also raised objections. In addition, there was a dispute between Yoshida-mura and Asama-taisha to determine the territory, so it was hoped that Omiya and newcomers, Yoshida and Subashiri, would settle the dispute, and there was a major dispute involving the service of accounts. It will be carried over in 8. The conclusion is that Ieyasu TokugawaMount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaThere was consideration by the shogunate side that they believed thatThree magistratesWith the approval of, finally above the 8th station of Mt.Fuji,Mount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaIt was decided to have[Annotation 28].

    By the litigation resulting from the dispute between the two parties, the vagueness of the mountaintop and the whereabouts of other rights, which had been vague until now, have been clearly defined by the Edo Shogunate.

    The summit of Mt. Fuji

    The top of Mt. Fuji is called Kengamine[68].. According to "Kokushi Kai", it is derived from the shape of a sword.[68]..Also, according to "Suruga Kuni Shin Fudoki", the stone at this peak was sharp, so people brought it back to use it as a tool instead of a sword.[68].

    Ownership of the mountaintop

    As mentioned earlier, the Edo Shogunate1779(Ernst & YoungIn 8), the area above the XNUMXth station of Mt. Fuji was assigned to Mt. Fuji Hongu Sengen Taisha Shrine.[68]..Although the land of temples and shrines was nationalized in the Meiji era, these lands were to be returned after World War II, but the land above the XNUMXth station of Mt. Fuji remains state-owned as it is a land with high public interest. Became[68]..However, Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha has filed a lawsuit against the government to return the land above the XNUMXth station of Mt. Fuji for the sake of Mt. Fuji worship.[68].

    The proceedings between the government and Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha lasted for 17 years, but in 1974 (49), the Supreme Court issued a ruling that almost accepted the claims of Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha (however, the judgment is a necessary part for the country). Land was excluded)[68].

    Treatment of prefectural borders and municipal borders

    Above the 8th station, excluding the trail, is in Fujinomiya City.Mount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaAlthough it is a private land ofPrefectural borderThe boundary between cities, towns and villages is undecided.However, the Japan Meteorological Agency uses the location of Mt. Fuji Weather Station for convenience."Fujinomiya City Mt. Fuji Kengamine"It was decided.On the other hand, since the former Subashiri village also had a village area up to the summit, Oyama-cho still owns itself."A town with the summit of Mt. Fuji"Is advertised.

    At a press conference after the Mt. Fuji World Cultural Heritage Council in January 2014, the governors of Shizuoka and Yamanashi prefecturesHeita KawakatsuMasaaki YokouchiDeclared that it will not set the prefectural border in the future[69].Geographical Survey InstituteIs published on the InternetTopographic mapThen, from October 2013, when a point on the map is specified, the function to display the address, latitude/longitude, and altitude has been added, but if the position is unconfirmed, the nearby confirmed address is displayed. Since it is set to be displayed, it is pointed out by Yamanashi Prefecture etc. that if you specify the summit of Mt. Fuji (Kengamine), it will be displayed as Fujinomiya city in Shizuoka prefecture. Was changed to[70][71].

    Incidentally,JPJapan PostThen."XNUMXth Station, Subashiri, Oyama-cho, Sunto-gun"AddressDifficult traffic areaDesignated as, and is in charge of collection and delivery of Oyama TownGotemba Post OfficeI am dealing with keeping it in[72].

    Second World War

    1945(20) On July 7, it was at the top of Mt. FujiMt. Fuji weather stationToU.S. ForcesbyMachine gun sweepThe attack was made[73]..Mt. Fuji is an independent peak with a distant view,Japanese mainland air raidIn addition to being a place where you can see the trends of U.S. military aircraft, in 1944 with TokyoHachijojimaSince the old mountain climbing hut on the summit was used as a relay base for the wireless communication line connecting the two, power transmission was started from the foot of the mountain, and power was also supplied to the weather station, which is important as a high-rise meteorological observation base. Also, from this weather station, in TokyoLight controlWas inspecting. In addition to the cultural meaning of being a symbol of Japan, the attack on the summit of Mt. Fuji, which was also a military base, was carried out at the end of World War II, and the fact that the observer was injured is recorded through the business diary "Cantera Diary".

    Also, the U.S. militarySurrender of JapanIn order to speed up the process, he made a plan to dye Mt. Fuji bright red with paint and lower his morale.However, the amount of supplies needed for the planB-29There is also an episode that the plan was canceled because it was unrealistic because it was a huge amount of about 3 aircraft and about 12 tons of paint.[74].

    Mount Fuji and the view

    Mt. Fuji as a special scenic spot

    Mt. Fuji was designated as a "scenic spot" on October 27, 1952, and was designated as a "special scenic spot" on November 10, 7.[75].. On the Yamanashi side, the range of Fujiyoshida City, Funatsu Village (now Fujikawaguchiko Town), Narusawa Village, Nakano Village (now Yamanakako Village) was designated.[76][77]..On the Shizuoka side, the entire area surrounded by the middle road, the area with an altitude of 1500 m or more between the Fujinomiyaguchi mountain trail (Fujinomiya city) and the Gotembaguchi mountain trail (Gotemba city), and the first station or more that does not overlap with this The range is the Fujinomiyaguchi mountain trail and the Surunguchi mountain trail (Oyamacho).[78].

    View of Mount Fuji

    At 128 points, 233 views, you can get a good view of Mount Fuji.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismKanto Regional Development BureauXNUMX views of Fujimi in the Kanto regionWas selected in 2005. In 17, the Ministry of the Environment and prefectures/municipalities played a central role in selecting 2017 "landscapes with Mt. Fuji". This is associated with the 100th anniversary of the designation of Fuji Hakone Izu National Park.

    Haneda airportFor domestic flights to the west from, pass over Mt. Fuji. At that time, the captain often announces Mt. Fuji. Also for the new yearComing lightThere is also a scenic flight to see.

    Even on the Tokaido Shinkansen, in-car announcements will be made when a good view can be obtained.

    The farthest place where you can see Mt. Fuji is Wakayama PrefectureNachi Katsuura TownThe Shirakawa Fujimi Pass (separate from Mt. Myoho) is 322.9 km from the summit of Mt. Fuji.[79][80][81][82].. The northern limit of the view is Fukushima Prefecture on January 2017, 1.Kawamata TownIitate VillageStraddleHanazuka(At an altitude of 919m)Japan Map CenterCertified by (at a distance of 308 km from Mt. Fuji)[83]..Approximately 271 km away in the southeast directionHachijojimaIt can be seen from Mt. Mihara[81].. In 2014, it was theoretically possibleKyotoBy succeeding in shooting from[84], Mt. Fuji can be seen in 20 prefectures (Fukushima, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Niigata, Toyama, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Shiga, Mie, Kyoto, Kyoto. Nara / Wakayama)[85].

    Mt. Fuji with various expressions

    The expression of Mt. Fuji changes variously depending on the location, angle, season, and time. There are several figures with the name Fuji.

    imageMt. FujiCommentary
    Mount Fuji from yamankako village 2001-7-2.jpgAkafujiIn summer morning, the exposed mountain surface turned red due to the morning glow.
    Painters, including Hokusai Katsushika, left paintings depicting "Akafuji."
    Mount Fuji from yamankako village 2000-2-10.jpgRed FujiMt. Fuji covered with snow is dyed red in the morning sun and sunset.
    "Morgenroth"(GermanMorgenrot) may be used.
    01 Fujisan from Yamanakako 2004-2-7.jpgUpside down fujiAn upside-down view of Mt. Fuji reflected on the surface of the water with few ripples.
    D XNUMX yen ticketThe upside-down Fuji of Lake Motosu was used for the design on the back.
    Diamond Fuji at sunrise from Ryugatake (Yamanashi Prefecture) (photographed on December 2015, 12)Diamond FujiWhen the sun rises or sets,(I.e.Overlaps with the top of Mt. Fuji,
    Near the top of Mt. FujidiamondPhenomenon that shines like.
    Can be seen twice a year from the western or eastern location where Mt. Fuji can be seen[86].
    Kagefuji frm kengamine.jpgShadow FujiThe scenery where the shadow of Mt. Fuji is reflected in the surrounding area by the sunrise or sunset.
    From the top of the mountain when climbing Mt. Fuji,sea ​​of ​​cloudsMay be seen above.
    Fujiyama-kasagumo 01.JPGKasamomoIt is accompanied by a cloud and a lens cloud. A landscape with clouds over the top of Mt. Fuji.
    In that case, it often becomes cloudy or rainy at the base of the mountain.

    "Front Fuji" and "Back Fuji"

    Of Mt. FujiMountain hutThe expressions "front entrance" and "back entrance" can be seen as signs for mountain trails, and it is generally recognized that Mt. Fuji seen from Shizuoka prefecture is the front Fuji and the view from Yamanashi prefecture is the back Fuji.[87], This has a historical background. In the "Yaha-Kyuson-zu" created in 8, there is already a notation "Suru ga Kuchimo". There is also such a description in Volume 1680 of "Kunishi Kai".

    Climbing road Ha Kitaha Yoshidaguchi, Minamiha Subashiriguchi, Murayamaguchi, Omiyaguchi no Yotsudo Nari, (Omitted) South side, front side, north side — "Kunishi Kai"

    There are common descriptions in other materials as well, and it can be said that the idea of ​​using the southern foot as the front and the northern foot as the back was a general recognition. Separately, there is the word "Ura Fuji," which is Hokusai Katsushika's "Futake XNUMX Famous Views Ura Fuji".[Annotation 29]Some examples are used in the titles of works, such as "Thirty-six Views of Tomitake Minobu Kawaura Fuji" and Hiroshige Utagawa's "Thirty-Six Views of Fuji Kai Yumeyama Back Fuji".

    Mount Fuji culture

    Academic research

    Mt. Fuji, which is an active volcano and the highest peak in Japan and has a vast foothills,natural ScienceHumanitiesBoth sides are the subject of research. Volcanic disaster prevention, geology, meteorology,EcosystemIn Yamanashi Prefecture Fujiyama Science Institute (Fujiyoshida City) in natural sciences such as, in interdisciplinary research including humanitiesShizuoka Prefecture Mt. Fuji World Heritage Center(Fujinomiya City)Fuji SocietyThere are also specialized research institutions and organizations such as.

    Due to the steep terrain and strong winds near the top of the mountain, only about 5–10% of Mt. Fuji can be surveyed outdoors, and there are many areas where vegetation is unknown.Observation and photography from the skyDroneThere is a constraint that the climb limit of[88].

    Mount Fuji in art

    Mount Fuji painting was in the Heian periodSong pillowDraw the sights of the countries that were described asFamous placeAlthough there is no existing example, it is believed that it was drawn as a famous picture screen painting of Fuji by this time. The oldest existing Fuji map isHoryuji Dedication Treasure"Shotoku Prince Eden" (1069, first year of Enkyu)Tokyo National MuseumKura), this isKai's Black PieceI got on a black piece based on traditionPrince ShotokuIs running up the mountain, and Fuji is depicted as a mountain landscape in the style of Chinese landscape painting.

    In the Kamakura era, a method of describing a three-peaked Fuji with the summit divided into three peaks was established.Ise story"Emaki""Soga storyFuji, which is the stage with the establishment of story literature such as Fuji Makikari, is drawn.Fuji faithThe "Fuji Mandala diagram" as a worship image was also drawn with the establishment of the. Also, in pictorial maps, etc., it was recognized as a special existence because the peaks were drawn with white snow caps on other mountains that were arc-shaped and colored in green.[Annotation 30].

    Muromachi Period"Color Fuji by Kinumoto"MandalaFigure” (Mt. Fuji Hongu Sengen Taisha holdings,Important cultural property) Depicts the three peaks of Mt. Fuji and the people who climb Mt. Fuji, asama shrine and Yudama pond, which were the places of sakage, and are reminiscent of what they were like at the time. In addition,SesshuProduct "Fuji Miho Kiyomiji Figure" (Eisei Bunko(Holding) isMatsubara of MihoIt is a work that put Mt.NihondairaIt is supposed to be a view from[90].. The Sesshu-shaped map of Mt. Fuji was used as a copy model throughout the Edo period,Kano schoolMany works are derived mainly from.

    In the Edo period, in 1767 (4th year of Meiwa)Kawamura Minoru Picture bookPublished "Hundred Fuji" and presented the style of a series of Fuji diagrams.Katsushika HokusaiIs a series of prints by Fujizu, which uses the method of Minoru Kawamura.Thirty-six views of Mt.(1831-34, around Tenpo 2-5), and the picture book "XNUMX views of Futaku』(All three editions. The first edition 1834, Tenpo 5 years) was published. In the former, we drew Fuji by making full use of techniques such as indigo that made use of imported pigments, and drew summer red Fuji.Kaifu fine weatherAnd 'Yamashita white rain], depicting the raging big waves and Fuji.Kanagawa Surfing] Is known. The latter is a mono-colored black ink, and it is more abstract, such as sticking to the weather description, not sticking to traditional attractions.[91].

    In addition, Hiroshige UtagawaAlso published in the 1850s after Hokusai, "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji" and "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji". Hiroshige has traveled to various countries including Kai, and has been making sketches of actual scenes and using them in his works. 『Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido], but you can see many pictures of Mt. Fuji. Hokusai and Hiroshige et al. pioneered a series of works that had not been recognized as a good spot for Fujimi until then, and Fuji behind Kai from the side of Kai.CraftasHonamikoenCreated byEasy burning OfBowlI found the atmosphere of Mt. Fuji and called it "Fujiyama"[92].

    Fuji is treated as a motif for all art, including Japanese paintings, paintings, crafts, photographs, and designs. In modern Japanese painting, Fuji was positioned as a symbolic design of Japan through the Sangyo Kogyo industry, and is widely used in commercial design including art. In painting, a painting of Mt. Fuji drawn from a modern point of view while continuing tradition is produced. It was Also, due to the development of transportation systems such as railroads and road networks, many literary figures and painters stay at the foot of Mt. Fuji as a summer resort and recreation area to make works on Fuji. As a painter leavingTomioka Tetsusai, In Western moviesWada EisakuAnd so on.

    Mt. Fuji's motif art works were widely distributed in Europe at the time, and Mt. Fuji was also widely known in Europe. Traveled to Japan in 1893 (Meiji 26)Austria-Hungary EmpireSuccessor toGrand Duke of Franz FerdinandWrote in his diary as follows:

    Fujisan, Fujinoyama. Who on earth does not know this Japanese symbol-usually called Fujiyama in Europe? It is already familiar to us because it is drawn on lacquer ware, ceramics, Japanese paper, metal, etc. as the most popular Japanese craft design in Europe.[93]. — August 8th

    After that, Mt. FujiDainichi this empireBy the ruler of both Japanese and sacredEmperorJapan's unique political system centered onNational bodyPositioned as a symbol of, Fuji was drawn in various ways as a national symbol. this isPacific War(Second World War,Great East Asian War) Fought against JapanThe United States of AmericaMt. Fuji was also featured in the fighting spirit-enhancing creations such as anime and posters that arouse anti-Japanese sentiment. An attack on the summit of Mt. Fuji was also carried out as a military target (described later).

    After the war, as a "symbol of Japan" that was released from the image as a symbol of the national polity, the Japanese painterYokoyama Taikan,Kataoka KyokoThey drew Fuji. In the world of contemporary art, there is also a tendency to draw parody and satire as an antithesis to these traditional subjects, and Fuji as an icon.

    Fukada HisayaDescribes "Mt. Fuji in Japan" as "a big simple that does not tamper with small works" in "Japan's XNUMX Famous Mountains", and says "Even young children draw Fuji's picture, but masters of the art circle are troublesome to show its trueness". ..

    There is "Fujimi Saigyo" as a subject of all Japanese paintings, and a person like a bean kernel (monk,West lineThe composition is that the (master) looks up,Ink painting,EngravingBut it is drawn.

    In modern times, it is also used for the design of banknotes and stamps.

    • There are many examples of Mount Fuji being used in the design of banknotes. In the old days, there were 1913 yen government bills issued in 50,AtagoyamaIt is Mt. Fuji from. The subsequent 1951 yen bills issued in 1969 and XNUMXOtsuki City OfKarigagasuriBased on Mt. Fuji from. The old 1984 yen bill issued in 2004 and the XNUMX yen bill issued in XNUMX are Mount Fuji from the shore of Lake Motosu.[94].
    • Depicting Mt. Fujistamp post officeReleased by[95].
      • Lake Kawaguchi, Lake Saiko, Lake Shoji, Lake Motosu, Lake Yamanaka (1999)
      • Hokusai Katsushika (1999 (Heisei 11))
      • Evening primrose・Yamanashi Prefecture (2005 (17))

    Fuji in literature

    Mt. Fuji is a wakaSong pillowIs often mentioned as. Also,"ManyoshuIn "," there are many songs about Mt. Fuji.

    "If you go out from Tago no Ura Yuchi, you can get snow on the Takamine of Fuji, which is pure white" (3.318)Red man YamabeFamous byTanka(Antong).

    In addition, next to this antique, there is a long poem whose author is unknown. ) While extinguishing the burning fire with snow (falling on the summit) and extinguishing snow (falling on the summit) with (eruption) fire," it can be seen that Mt. Fuji was performing volcanic activity at that time.

    "Shinko Kon Wakashu] From. The smoke of Fuji is sung.

    I'm afraid of my heart to the sky of the smoke of Fuji fluttering in the wind West line (# 1613)

    Fuji is perceived as a mysterious mountain by the metropolitan people, and in the classical literature, Yoshika Tora's "Fuji Diary" records the state and tradition of Fuji.

    "Taketori storyIs set in Fuji in the latter half of the story,EmperorIt is supposed that the immortal medicine given by Princess Kaguya was burned at the summit of the mountain closest to heaven by instructing Itsuki of Itsuki and a large number of men. Then there is a naming story that the mountain was named Fujiyama (Mt. Fuji) in honor of many people. In the Hina area of ​​Fuji City, Shizuoka Prefecture, at the foot of Mt. Fuji, there is still a place known as "Bamboo Mound."[96].

    In addition,The Tale of GenjiAnd 'Ise story], but there are some points where Fuji is mentioned, but there are few cases where it becomes the main stage. It is precisely recognized that Fuji is located on the border of Koshun, and in ancient times it wasSuruga countryBecause it was attributed to, Fuji in the Suruga side is often the subject of classical literature.Tsutsumi Nakanagon Story] InWorthHe mentions Fuji on the side.

    It is said that the word "Hachimen Reiko" was born from Mt. Fuji, which means that it has a beautiful shape in all directions.[97].

    From the Middle Ages to the early modern times, Fuji worshipers traveled to the northern foothills of Fuji, and during the Edo period as a local literary artHaikuWas thriving. In modern timesTrainSuch as the development of transportation and Fuji(I.e.Under the influence ofFolklore Summer vacationI came to visit Fuji for my purpose, Jiro Nitta andShinpei Kusano,Horiguchi UniversityThey wrote works on the theme of Fuji and were drawn in many travelogues including mountain literature.

    There are many writers who have stayed at the foot of Mt.Fuji, and Taijun Takeda wrote a novel "Fuji" set in a mental hospital at the foot of Mt. Fuji, and his wife, Yuriko Takeda, wrote a record of her life at Mt. Fuji after her death. Diary”.Yushima TsushimaIs a story of a family who spent a turbulent era looking at Fuji, modeled on the maternal Ishihara family who was a geologist in Yamanashi Prefecture.Mountain of Fire-Sanmon] Was written.

    Also, as a literary man from the northern foot areaNaturalist literaturePerson ofNakamura SeikoOr postwarKorean Literature in JapanPerson ofLee RieIn each of the works, Fuji is depicted, and Seiko Nakamura also promotes regional literary arts.

    Osamu DazaiThe novel "14" written byXNUMX views of FutakuIs well-known in Yamanashi Prefecture.Fujikawaguchiko Town OfMisaka PassThe inscription stands on.Naoki PrizeIs a writerJiro NittaIs based on the experience of working at the Mt. Fuji summit station.StrongNaoki Prize-winning work "Kaiden" and "Gouriki"Mount Fuji"[Annotation 31]He has written many works related to Fuji including.

    Kyoko TakahamaOf Fujinomiya City, Shizuoka PrefectureNumakubo StationWhen I got off at, I saw the beautiful Mount Fuji and sang a song. The song monument is built in front of the station.

    "A certain stop at the foot of Mt. Fuji in the fall of bamboo/Namakubo's child-friendly flower niece"

    Mount Fuji and regional promotion

    Mt. Fuji's religious facilities, summer resorts, and tourist business for tourists aiming to climb Mt. Fuji are also actively carried out. However, at the foot of Mt. Fujihot springThe amount of hot water of the scale[98].

    Regarding the use of Mt. Fuji, the Shizuoka prefecture attaches great importance to the protection of nature and culture, while the Yamanashi prefecture traditionally attaches importance to tourism development. Mountain peak ownership problem, mountain hut toilet problem, car regulation problem[99], World Heritage Registration Problem[100]As a result, the differences between the two thoughts have become apparent from the past to the present.

    Mount Fuji and sightseeing

    Fuji mountain climbing

    Mt. Fuji's climbing knowledge, experience, and equipment are essential[101].. In general, it is possible to climb every year from the opening of the mountain on July 7st until the beginning of September.Outside the period, climbing of people who do not make thorough preparations is prohibited in principle[102]. In particularMountaineering during the snowy/remaining snow season is extremely dangerous[102].

    Other tourism

    From its graceful appearance, the place where you can see Mt. Fuji is often a famous tourist destination.

    Mt. Fuji Day (February 2)

    2/23There are some local governments that read "2:F・2:J・3:san" together and have established it as "Mount Fuji Day".

    • 2001 Ordinance was established in Fujikawaguchiko Town (then Kawaguchiko Town) in Yamanashi Prefecture.
    • 2002 (Heisei 14) Mainly in Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, approved by 10 municipal forest associations in 2 municipalities at the foot of Mt. Fuji in Yamanashi Prefecture.
    • 200912/21 The Shizuoka Prefectural Assembly passed the regulations unanimously. The regulations were established on December 12 of the same year.

    In both Shizuoka and Yamanashi prefectures, Mt. Fuji is too integrated into everyday life, and it is a kind of "natural" atmosphere. Therefore, on "Mt. Fuji Day", various local governments, companies in the prefecture, etc. hold various events and participate in it, which is an opportunity to re-recognize Mt.Fuji that is too familiar and re-recognize it as a famous peak as a symbol of Japan. .. At the same time, it is hoped that local residents will be encouraged to move toward the World Heritage registration of Mt. Fuji. Shizuoka Board of EducationSo, from 2011 (Heisei 23), "Mt. Fuji Day" will be held for each municipality.School holidaysI requested that.It is at the foot of some local governments that have been incorporated as holidays.Fuji cityThe Board of Education has not set it as a school holiday since 2011 because it is unfamiliar to set a specific day as a school holiday.However, due to the significance of Mt. Fuji day, we will provide a place to learn at school,Fuji Children's CountryWe are also requesting the free opening of the site and the implementation of projects related to Mt. Fuji at social education facilities such as libraries and museums.

    The day of Mt. Fuji was first declared at the "Forum of Mountain Views and Maps (FYAMAP)" in PC communication "NIFTY-Serve", which was announced online on January 1996, 1.

    Mount Fuji number

    Shizuoka Transport BureauWith 4 cities and 2 towns in the jurisdictionYamanashi Transport BranchSo-called targeting 1 city, 2 towns, 4 villages in the jurisdictionLocal numberAs from November 2008, 11Mount Fuji numberIssuance has started.Jurisdiction bureau spans two prefecturesLicense plateIs rare[103][104].

    Mt. Fuji test

    Sponsored by the "Mt. Fuji test executive committee"Mt. Fuji testHowever, it is carried out by five members: Fuji Chamber of Commerce, Fujiyoshida Chamber of Commerce, Shizuoka Shimbun/Shizuoka Broadcasting, Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/Yamanashi Broadcasting, and the Fujisan Kenkyukai.

    Inter-regional exchange

    Exchanges of water from Mt.Fuji into Lake Biwa and water from Lake Biwa to the summit of Mt. Fuji have been carried out since XNUMX. Fujinomiya City and Shiga Prefecture, Shizuoka Prefecture.OmihachimanContinued between. This is "digging the soil of Omi and making Mt. FujiBiwa lakeIt has become a legend. Pouring the spring water of Mt. Fuji to Lake Biwa is called "water return", and pouring the water of Lake Biwa to the summit of Mt. Fuji is called "water catching".[105][106].

    In 2014, the Japan Fujisan Association and the Republic of China Mountains AssociationYushanHas signed a friendly mountain tie-up[107]..Yushan at an altitude of 3952 mTaiwanDuring the Japanese era ofShin TakayamaIt was called the highest peak in Japan.



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    注 釈

    1. ^ The altitude of the highest point of Kengamine.The altitude of the second triangulation point "Mt. Fuji" is 3775.51 m (altitude revised on April 2014, 4).
    2. ^ a b c The altitude of the second triangulation point is3775.51 m.Reference point results browsing service, Mt. Fuji (Kofu) - Geographical Survey Institute(Retrieved September 2015, 10)
    3. ^ Mt. Fuji is the active volcano in Japan that exceeds 3000 m.Mt. Ontake-Mt. NorikuraIs one of.
    4. ^ Japan isYushan(Shin Takayama)TaiwanExcludes the period when the
    5. ^ 1936(Showa 11) Designated on February 2. The upper part of the mountain is the special protected area, and the surrounding area is the special and ordinary areas. There is also a prohibited area for vehicles[4].
    6. ^ (Example) "Yu Tago no Ura If you go out and look sincerely yoursSnow falls on the high ridges ofRed man Yamabe ("Manyoshu]). "Fuji" is said to be "there is no one in Japan's highest peak". In addition, there are books that use the letters “Nufu” and “Nunoji”.
    7. ^ In the last chapter of the Taketori story,emperorHowever, the immortal medicine given to the vassals by KaguyahimeSuruga countryThere is a description that it is ordered to burn at the summit of the highest mountain in Japan, which is closest to heaven in Japan. The mountain can be named "Fujinoyama". "Editor's footnote "The fashionable name of Mt. Fuji, a mountain rich in swords, was named because he climbed with a lot of swords (swords). At the same time, he burned an immortal drug, so he could put the spirit of "Mt. .. "[6][Detailed information for identifying documents].
    8. ^ Fuchi = Funch means "old woman", not "fire."[Source required].
    9. ^ The altitude of the second-class triangulation station "Mt. Fuji" is 2 m.The highest point is the summit of a rock about 3775.51 m north of this triangulation station, which is 12 m higher than the triangulation station (observed in 0.61).
    10. ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1970 (-8), 2014 (-7.2), 2019 (-5.7)"
    11. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-5),2006(-3.4),2008(-4),2010(-0.6),2014(-4.3),2019(-2.8)」
    12. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(13.9),2006(14.6),2008(16.7),2010(15.3),2014(16.3),2019(16)」
    13. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-27.8),2006(-26.3),2008(-25.6),2010(-27.1),2014(-24.8),2019(-22.2)」
    14. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-11.2),2006(-9.9),2008(-10.4),2010(-6.8),2014(-10.3),2019(-8.8)」
    15. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(-33.2),2006(-32.3),2008(-33.2),2010(-30.2),2014(-30.1),2019(-30.4)」
    16. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(6.3),2006(6.9),2008(6.7),2010(8.8),2014(6.7),2019(7.4)」
    17. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1970(<0 °C最低277,<0 °C最高205),2006(<0 °C最低277,<0 °C最高205),2008(<0 °C最低277,<0 °C最高207),,2014(<0 °C最低271,<0 °C最高216),2019(<0 °C最低198,<0 °C最高166)」
    18. ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載1970(64),1984(60),1986(60),1990(60),1991(61),1992(60),1995(58),1996(53),1997(58),2000(62),2001(60),2004(56),2007(59),2014(94),2019(63)
    19. ^ In the document, it says "Fushi Omiya Fushi Honmiya Asama Omiya Tsuji Fushi Yahaka".
    20. ^ The two prefectures explained that all four routes would be closed during the July-September opening period, at least since 7, when Shizuoka Prefecture began managing three mountain trails.18 daysThe policy is to close the 3th to the summit of Mt. Fuji's 5 mountain trails managed by Shizuoka Prefecture during the period from July 7 to September 10, which is the opening period. Because there is concern about infection due to crowds of mountain climbers. All mountain huts on the route will also be closed. Yamanashi Prefecture announced on May 9 that it will close the "Yoshida Route" at the same time. Mt. Fuji is expected to be closed in summer.
    21. ^ Concept like a mountain climbing fee.
    22. ^ The inn refers to the crater, and the act of spending money at this crater (the act of throwing money) was performed. The right to get that money.
    23. ^ Current Sunto-gun, Shizuoka PrefectureOyama Town.
    24. ^ An area that consists of Kawaguchi-shishi, etc. in Fuji Kawaguchiko Town, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture today. It may be written as "Kawaguchi".
    25. ^ The document says it is a Fuji obi sword (Fuji Shinan). Other proponents/Koubun etc.
    26. ^ Odawara DomainOf the shrine magistrateTadajun MatsudairaThe complaint was filed with.
    27. ^ Fuji Ouji. The document says it is Fuji Nakamitsu.
    28. ^ In addition, it was decided that the opening of the Yakushido and the in-house change would be the same as before.
    29. ^ It is said to be a view from the western part of the Kofu Basin.
    30. ^ In modern-day Kaikuni pictures and drawings, there is a tendency to describe the appearance of Kaikuni as a spiritual place surrounded by mountains, but Mt.YatsugatakeMt. Shirane (Mt. Kitadake) With a deity expression that is depicted as a snow-covered white mountain, and it is pointed out that especially Mt.[89].
    31. ^ In 1970, made into a movie, starringYujiro Ishihara.
    32. ^ From the Yuno district of Fujinomiya city.


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