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Instagram(Instagram,Abbreviation: Instagram)Meta PlatformsAmerican photo and video sharing owned bySocial networking services(SNS)(English edition(English editionCreated by October 2010iOSThe service was started at. In April 2012AndroidLimited functionality in November 2012 after the version was releaseddesktopInterface, in June 2014Fire OSApplications for October 2016Windows 10Application has been released.Both developers have already retired.


With this service, users upload media that can be edited with filters,hashtag,GeotaggingCan be organized with.Posts can be published or shared with pre-approved followers.Users can browse other users' content and trend content by tag or location.Users can like photos and follow other users to add their content to their feeds.

By being operated by Facebook, Inc (currently Meta Platforms),FacebookIt has a strength in the function of linking with and has a mechanism for sharing user data and the same targeted advertisement as Facebook.[4].. Instagram co-founders Kevin Cistrom and Mike Krieger left Instagram in September 2018[5].. There are some major differences from Facebook, and in principle, Facebook allows individual users to register with their real names, but Instagram allows anonymous registration as with other SNS.

Kodak OfInstamaticandPolaroid Ofinstant cameraIn consideration of, Instagram posted images are basically square[6].


Brief history

San FranciscoKevin Cistrum and Mike Krieger with Baseline VenturesAndreessen HorowitzThe Instagram group was launched with financial support from the two companies.Burbn The original project, named, had a number of features.After Krieger joined, the team focused on mobile features, and what remained was Instagram.[7].

August 2010, 10,Apple OfApp StoreAppeared in[8]Instagram has 12 million registered users by December of the same year[9].. By June 2011, the number of registered users exceeded 6 million.[10]By September of the same year, the number reached to 9 million[11].

In October 2010, shortly after Instagram was announced, Josh Leidel joined as a community manager.Shane Sweeney joined as an engineer in November of the same year, and Jessica Zorman joined as a community evangelist in August 10.[12][13][14].

2011 year 1 month,hashtagIntroduced, making it easier to find photos[15].. In September of the same year, version 9 appeared on the App Store. This update has new icons with live filters, instant tilt shift, four new filters, high resolution images, optional borders and one-click rotation.[16].

In July 2011, Instagram announced that 7 million images had been uploaded to the service, reaching a total of 1 million in August of the same year.[17][18].

In October 2012Android It corresponds to devices with 2.2 or later and a camera.

The number of users worldwide exceeded 2016 million on June 6, 22.[19].

August 2016, 10,Microsoft Windows 10Corresponding to[20].

In September 2017, it announced that the Instagram story will also be published on the web version.It was also announced that it will be possible to post stories from the web within a few months.[21].. Same month,Unauthorized accessHas announced that the user's private personal information may have been stolen.Hacker groupAccording to the claim, about 600 million people have acquired[22].

In December 2017, the hash tag follow function was added. You can now browse regular posts and story posts with hashtags you follow.

June 2018, 6, an app that allows you to post and watch videos for up to 20 hour on Instagram,(English editionTheAppStoreGoogle PlayPublished to.[23]

On October 2021, 10, it became possible to upload from a web browser for desktop.[24].

Facebook, Inc announces company name on November 2021, 11Meta PlatformsBy changing to, it became a subsidiary of Meta Platforms.[25]..In addition, the number of active users in the same year exceeded 12 billion.[26].

August 2022, 2,Meta PlatformsIn February(English editionAnnounced that the service will be terminated by the end of March[27].

Dissemination in Japan

January 2014JapaneseAn account has been opened[28]、日本の月間アクティブユーザー数は2015年6月には810万人、2016年3月に1200万人、同年12月に1600万人、2017年10月に2000万人に達している[29].. Over 2019 million at the end of 3000[30].

Dentsu Media Innovation LabChief ResearcherAmano AkiraIs, based on the fact that SNS such as Instagram is changing to a place for search behavior for shopping and store selection, the encounter with information is mainly for young people.GoogleFrom tagging (hashtag search + coined word for handing information)[31].

Instant movie

Means good-looking, suitable for photos posted on Instagram,写真In 2017, the word “insta-look” means that it looks good and is suitable for photography.Yu Can New and Buzzword AwardWas selected for the annual grand prize.なお、この年間大賞はThe annual grand prize isfashion magazine"CanCam] Reader model 3 people have won[32].. Also, as a negative name,Instagram flyWas also born.


Instagram is photogenic in countries other than Japan (English: photogenic)[33]Was called and became popular. In Japan, the above-mentioned "Instagram" is more common, but when expressing the meaning of "Instagram" in a creative work, avoid the name of Instagram, which is the product name, and use "Photogenic" or "SNS". Use a name such as "Photograph".

Instagram grammar

People with many followers and strong influence on Instagram (Influencer) Is called Instagramer (English: Instagramer) and is bigPropaganda-AdsIt has an effect. Against this background, SNS marketing services such as "INSTA LIKE" that increase the number of followers at a monthly pace of about 1,000 are also appearing in order to increase the power of transmitting personal and corporate accounts. Since the latter half of 2019, regulations have been entered by Instagram, and many such tools are no longer effective[34].


On March 2010, 3, Cistrom finished raising $5 in financial support as a source capital from two companies, Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz. At that timeHTML5Check-in app Burbn Was working on[35].

August 2011, 2,Series A roundHas announced that it has raised its funding to $700 million. The participating investors areventure capital,Jack Dorsey(twitterCo-founder),(English edition(Investment through Lowercase Capital),Adam D'Angelo(QuoraCo-founder)[36].

2012 year 4 month,FacebookAnnounced that it will buy Instagram for $10 billion. Operated independently after the acquisition,TwitterIt is said that cooperation with services that compete with Facebook will continue as before[37].

Filter function

There are 2011 types including the filters introduced at the time of the "Instagram 9" update in September 2.0.

The list before update is all 15 types "X-Pro II" "Lomophi" "Early Bird" "Apollo" "Pop Rocket" "Inkwell" "Gotham" "1977" "Nashville" "Lord Kelvin" "Lily" " The names were Sutro, Toaster, Warden, and Heffe, but the names were changed because Apollo, Pop Rocket, Gotham, and Lily were abolished. The abolished "Gotham" had a clear tone with a black-and-white effect similar to the continuous "Inkwell".

At the time of the "Instagram 2012" update on February 2, 10, "Lomofi" was renamed to "Lofi", "Sierra" was added, and there were 2.1 types of filters.At the time of the "Instagram 17" update on March 3st of the same year, it became possible to select whether or not to have a border.


Changes to Terms of Use

In December 2012, the following terms were added to the Terms of Service[38].

"To help us deliver interesting paid or sponsored content or promotions, you agree that a business or other entity may pay us to display your username, likeness, photos (along with any associated metadata), and / or actions you take, in connection with paid or sponsored content or promotions, without any compensation to you.'

The word was interpreted as "the user's photo is arbitrarily used as material for corporate advertisements", and severe criticism spread. Prior to January 2013, 1, users will stop Instagram from providing their personal information to third parties (opt out), there is no other way than to delete the account, some people have deleted the account due to the change of terms of use[39][40][41][42][43].

"It's not intended to sell user photos," CEO Kevin Cistrom said in a blog. The added terms of use were meant to inform users that "I want to experiment with innovative ads that I feel fit for Instagram," but the terms of the terms were misleading and were announced for deletion.[40][43][44].

In response to this change in the Terms of Use and user opposition, there is a trend for competing photo sharing services of other companies to advertise and pay attention to privacy considerations, and there were services of other companies that drastically increased users.[45][46].

On December 2012, 12, Instagram announced that it will revert the advertising section of the Terms of Service to the 20 version[41][47].

The VergeThe original terms of use mean that Instagram has the right to use your photos in advertising for almost any purpose at any time, "place such advertising and promotions on the Instagram Services or on, about, or in conjunction states that there is a phrase "with your Content"[38].. An arbitration clause has also been added in the update of the terms of use[48].

Negative comment

Due to user harassment and negative comments on photos, Instagram has improved to give users more control over their posts and comments. In July 2016, we announced that users will be able to disable comments on their posts and technically control posts with words they think are offensive, and for celebrities to implement in August, Subsequently, it was implemented for the general public in September. In December we started introducing the ability to disable comments and removed followers for personal accounts[49][50][51][52][53][54].. In June 2017, it announced that it has developed artificial intelligence that scans words in consideration of context to detect and eliminate bad words.[55][56].

Instagram fly

People who became famous after using Instagram appeared,Instant movieIt has become a business to provide food and places where you can take pictures. Therefore, followersHow nice!People who buy fashionable food, take only pictures and throw them away, and do social harassment or etiquette violations for the sake of photogenicity are referred to as "shining".pestof"FlyThe word "insta flies" was born. According to the Yomiuri Shimbun, residents around Shin-Okubo, where many people are asking for a Korean-style American dog, "Huttogu," are troubled by littering of paper plates and skewers. The Yomiuri Shimbun is a nuisance tweet by Twitter.Butter”And is evaluated as appropriate as a critical expression[57][58][59][60][61].. Dangerous acts intended to look good on Instagram may be performed,Irabu OhashiAn accident in which a tourist man fell from the railing of a bridge and died[62]An accident in which two male tourists jumped into a waterfall and died at Oshiraji Falls[63]Is occurring.

Negative impact on mental health

2017 BritishRoyal Society for Public HealthConducted by 14 people aged 24 to 1,479不安,Depression,孤独,BullyingIn a survey of the impact of SNS on body image, Instagram showed thatmental healthThe result was that it had the most adverse effects on. Instagram said that a safe and supportive place for young people is a top priority[64][65].

University of California, Los Angeles(UCLA) asked young people aged 13 to 18 to use an Instagram-like SNS and examined their brains at that time. Young people who see their photos like "like" have extensive brain activation, and are considered to be the brain's pleasure centers.Nucleus accumbensThe part of the striatum called "" was active. SNS like Instagram is in the brain of teensた ば こ,gamblingSuggests that it may have similar effects to[66].

Trading illegal drugs

It is illegal for users to sell on InstagramDrugHas been released and has been criticized. In 2013British Broadcasting CorporationPosted a photo of the illegal drug and tagged it with a specific hashtag WhatsAppSuch asInstant messageBy using the app, I discovered that drugs are being bought and sold. Instagram blocks hashtags used in transactions and is hired by the BBCSpokespersonInstagram has clear rules for what is allowed and not allowed, not just for sharing photos and videos, but for buying and selling.Commented that if you find illegal or inappropriate content, please report it.[67][68].. However, new illegal drug trading cases have occurred since then.[69].

Censorship Request

In October 2013, Instagram was a Canadian photographer Petra CollinsI deleted my account. she isUnder hairOf the lower body of the underwear that protrudedSelfiePosted. Photographer Q. Sakamaki, Petra Collins is a jockey of "Pink Culture", a style or movement that has emerged in the photographic world, a writer with both aesthetic and message characteristics, and a female in the lower body selfie He said he had intended to blame the prejudice of the male-centered society that "the hair must be kept out of underwear and swimwear". Collins claimed it hadn't violated Instagram's Terms of Service, and there was no basis for deleting the account.[70].The Daily DotAudra Schroeder says that Instagram doesn't allow pornography or posting of sexual photos, but who knows what it is, Collins has more sexual photos on the site, which women say. femininity" (feminineIt's just because it's a place where I'm used to accepting and presenting such aspects.[71].

In 2015, he posted an account of the Australian fashion agency Sticks and Stones Agency's with a picture of pubic hair protruding from a bikini, and in March 2015 a photograph of a poet with a menstrual blood cloth.Rupee kaurAccount is suspended.Rupee kaurWith FacebookTumblr"We will not be censored" in your accountcensorshipWill not be done) "and collected more than 1 shares[72][73].

Instagram regulates photos of female nipples, but posting photos of male nipples is fine.In addition, even if a woman's nipple is visible, it is said that "this is not the case when posting for the purpose of education, humor, satire", and the problem of who decides how is pointed out.In response to the above incident, Instagram protested to remove the photo of female nipples, and the society that "male nipples" are allowed to be shown in public and women do not have "right to put out nipples" "Questioning the double standard"Free the nipple・ Campaign ”(#FreetheNipple campaign) was held.Miley Cyrus,Chelsea Handler,Naomi CampbellPosting a photo with a visible nipple and protesting Instagram regulations, knowing that many celebrities and celebrities will be removed[74][75].

Instagram hasn't said much about the movement, but CEO Kevin Cistrom said the strict restrictions on nude photos on Instagram were to clear Apple's guidelines and remain an app for ages 12 and up. There is. However, other apps on the App Store have content that exceeds the guidelines, and Instagram's inconsistent response to male and female body photos has led to doubts about whether this statement is correct. Are[76][77][78].

Hidden porn

In June 2016,Daily StarReported that a blogger found 100 million apparent pornographic videos posted. Users uploading videos that explicitly violate such guidelines escape the discovery by using Arabic hashtags[79].. SpokespersonThe SunSaid it would invest in technology to detect pornographic content and quickly remove offending accounts and content.[80].

Timeline algorithm

In April 2016, the order of photos displayed in the user's timeline was changed from chronological to algorithmic. Instagram says it's designed to prioritize the photos users like, but it received a lot of negative feedback. The company tweeted confusing users about the prospect of change, but didn't back down the app or provide a way to get it back.[81][82][83][84][85][86][87].

Shadow van

Around mid-2017, it announced that it has begun to take measures against users who use many unrelated hashtags and who pay to obtain a large amount of engagement. This measure, commonly known as Shadowban, removes the account from the search results (hashtags) and the explorer section of the app, which means it's banned. Instagram was a now-deleted Facebook post that wrote when developing content to focus on business goals rather than hashtags[88][89].


  • February 2011- Blog site"Tech crunch』" 2010 "best mobile app" in a short time[90].
  • May same year-Monthly magazine ``(English editionIn the magazine's 2011 Most Creative Business Person 100, CEO Kevin Cistrom was named 66th.[91].
  • May same year-Monthly magazine ``イ ン クCo-founders Kevin Cistrum and Mike Krieger are among the "30 under 30" in the magazine.[92].
  • September of the same year-Weekly magazine ``(English editionIn the "SF Weekly Web Awards" magazine, "Best Local App Award" won[93].
  • May same year-Monthly magazine ``(English editionIn September issue, the cover was decorated by Cistrom and Krieger and featured in the 9 The Hot 2011 issue.[94].


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外部 リンク


Number signUses> hashtag

hashtagIs before a phrase with no words or spacesHash sign (#, number sign)Is a label with a shape[1].Metadata tagType,Mini blog,Facebook,Google+,Instagram,Twitter,VK such asSocial networking servicesHashtag "#" (Half sizesymbol)[2], Is it displayed in the text (for example, "New artists announced for #SXSW2014 Music Festival")?[3], Is added to the end of the sentence. An example of a hash tag is #dontjudge. The word hashtag can also refer to its own hash symbol used in the context of the hashtag[4].

Hashtags can collect similar tagged messages and also electronically search all the messages in which they exist.JapaneseThen, collecting information using hash tags is sometimes called "tagging".[5].

Due to widespread use, "hashtag" was released in June 2014.Oxford English Dictionary][6][7].

Origin and use

Number signInformation technologyOften used to emphasize special meanings. In the 1970s example, when you put a symbol or number nextPDP-11 OfAssembly languageIn directAddress modeWas used to display[8].. 1978,Brian KanihanDennis Ritchie TheC languageC processorUsed "#" as a special keyword that must be processed first[9]. Before the invention of the hashtag, the number sign wasNorth AmericaCalled the "hash symbol" in several countries outside[10][11].

Then the number signIRCNow used to label groups and topics[12]. Channels and topics are available throughout the IRC network and are prefixed with a # hash sign (in contrast to localserverToAmpersand(&) Is used)[13].

(English editionIs inspired by the use of number symbols in IRC[14],Mini blogAdvocated using a similar system on Twitter to tag topics of interest on the network[15]. Chris posted his first hashtag on Twitter as follows:

how do you feel about using # (pound) for groups. As in #barcamp [msg]?(→ # for groupinglb<Pound>[Note 1]) How about using? Like #barcamp [message]. )
Chris Messina, His original Tweet proposing hashtag usage, August 23, 2007[16]

Internationally hashtag is(English editionTriggered byTwitterIt became a feature of how to write a post,English,Persian languageThe hashtag at(I.e.It became useful for Twitter users both inside and outside[17].

The word hashtag was first used in a blog post by Stowe Boyd on August 2007, 8, "Hashtags are groupings on Twitter."[18]And dictionary editor of the American Dialect Society(English editionSays.

Twitter has all the hashtags in the tweethyperlinkNow, you can display search results on Twitter for hash-tagged words (or the standard spelling of misspelled words in general). In 2010, Twitter began posting content that featured a booming hashtag called "Trending Topics." On the trend list on Twitterス パ ムTo prevent the entry of, and to provide the hashtag of the topic neutrallyalgorithmThere is[19].

People's Republic of ChinaThen,Sina Weibo(Weibo)Tengxiang WeChat(WeChat) Is in the form of a double hashtag called "#hashname #", but this is漢字This is because there is no space between them and a tag for closing is required. In contrast, Twitter has Kanji (and similar space problemsOrthography) Is used by the user to maintain a linguistically natural expression such as'I'm love'.[20]A space before and after the hash-tagged element (for example,'I'm love' instead of'I am love')[21]OrZWNJMoreMust be inserted.


Mini blogs andSocial networking sitesThen insert the hashtag somewhere in the text, put it in front,PostscriptCan be included later or included as a word in the text (eg, "It is #sunny today").

The number of used hashtags in a post or tweet is just as important as the type of hashtag used. Currently, it is considered acceptable to post one tag for a specific conversation and two for posting a place to add a place to the conversation, but three is the limit, and there is a risk of "buying the anger of the community". Is supposed to increase[22].

2013 year 9 month,Jimmy FallonJustin Timberlake TheLate Night With Jimmy FallonAt the show, we showed a control that satirizes repeated misuse and incomprehensible use of hashtags.[23].


Hashtags are mostly used in lively and occasional discussion forums, where hashtags are the hashtags of any combination of letters, but if you make a personalized appeal, hashtags can become a trend. You can attract more people to have a discussion with. In Twitter, when hashtags have surged in popularity, they are reflected in the "Trending Topics" of the user page, but the display trend can be selected by region or world. Hashtags cannot be registered or controlled by a single user or group of users, nor can they be "retired" from general use. It is meant to be used in a permanent reliance on the composition of. Also, the lack of any configuration definition means that a single hashtag can be used for a number of purposes supported by its users.

And the hashtags intended to be used in discussions at certain events that tend to use obscure wording are the same, like "#cakefestival" is used during cake festivals instead of simple "#cake". The intention is to avoid getting involved in general conversations on such topics. However, this can make it difficult for a topic to trend because people often use the same spelling and words when they think they are talking about the same topic. In order to put a topic in the trend, it is necessary to get agreement whether the hashtag referring to a particular topic is implicit or stated.

Hashtags also serve as a guide for finding and adding users with similar interests to follow (subscribe) or list (public contact list) users.

Is a social networkInstagramHowever, it is possible to use hashtags by adding hashtags according to photo posts and topics. For example, you can add hashtags such as #bffl or #friends to photos posted by yourself or friends. However, Instagram has disabled certain hashtags such as #photography #iPhone #iphoneography, which are too featureless to serve their purpose. It also blocks hashtags that lead to illegal activities such as drug use.[24].censorshipAnd certain hashtag bans are specific to InstagramSubaltanIt plays an indirect role in the way communities are built and maintained. Despite Instagram's content rules, users are looking for ways to continue their actions and ultimately avoid censorship[25].

Hashtags are also used informally and unintentionally in sentences based on incoming messages to practically categorize the message for later retrieval, sharing, or other reasons. It is also useful for expressing humor, sadness and other emotions such as "Monday!! #Excitement #irony".

Use outside of social networking websites

This feature isYouTube,Goker MediaIt is also installed in non-short message application services such as the user comment function in. In the case of Gawker Media, hashtags for blog comments and directly posted comments are used to maintain a fairer rating of user activity when employees are not logged in to the website.[26][27].

Hashtag compatible website



Since 2010, multiple TV stations have branded hashtags in their TV seriesdisplayI started to advertise in[29], For online discussion before, during, or after the broadcast(English editionThere is also a meaning. Hashtag display is on any corner of the screen or at the end of a promotion[30](For example, motion picture trailer)

Broadcasters, such as moderators and correspondents, are also promoting corporate or personal Twitter account names to exchange posts, and use related or branded hashtags along the account name (for example,(English editionnot only(English edition) Continues to be encouraged as a mini-blogging method to become a topical hashtag on Twitter and other search engines (to be discussed in the future). Broadcasters are also creating such formats to bring together selected posts for live broadcast. Clau Sladden, Twitter's director of media collaboration, said#SunnyFX)) is set as two types of hashtags for TV, one is for instantaneous identification and the other is temporary type for the cast to look for reaction from the viewer during the broadcast.[31]. Also, the hashtag is(English editionPart of the speculation is whether to replace or coexist with[32].

The increasing number of cases where hashtags are used as advertising media is that they were advertised at the end of commercials and series episodesAOLBranded from the late 1990s to the early 2000s(English editionCompared to[33].

There are also hashtags that become world famous, for exampleI am CharlieThis slogan was first used on Twitter as hashtags #jesuischarlie and #iamcharlie, and spread extensively on the Internet.


From February 2013 on TwitterAmerican ExpressBy collaborating with us, we are now able to buy products that are on sale at reduced prices online by tweeting a special hashtag.[34]. American Express members can sync their card and Twitter or use offers by looking for replies with tweets and confirmations from American Express[35].

Event advertising

Ad hoc lists are being created for the first time for discussions and promotions among participants when conducting real-world events. Hashtags are often used as a marker for both participants to find each other on Twitter during the exhibition period.

Companies and advocates are also engaging in discussions using special hashtags to promote their products, services and campaigns.

#OccupyWallStreet,# LibyaFeb17In the political movement in early 2010, such as was developed based on hashtags, and hashtags were used extensively to boost discussions.

Customer complaint

Hashtags are often used on social media platforms as consumers complain to large corporations about their customer service experience. In contrast, "bashtags" are created to describe situations in which social media hashtags set by a company are used to criticize the company or to accuse other vulnerable customer services. It is a term. As an example, in January 2012McDonald'sCreated a hashtag called #McDStories to share a good experience in the store, but this campaign was canceled in just 2 hours because there were many complaints tweets instead of the expected good experience.[36].

Sentiment analysis

The use of hashtags can also reveal the emotions that the author has hit the text, with clarity differing where the hashtags directly describe the state of mind. As an example, the words in the hashtag are sentencesIronicHas become the strongest predictor of whether or not[37].

In popular culture

(English editionDuring the period,New Democratic PartyWas the party leader(English edition TheCanadian Conservative Party OfStephen HarperMentioned crime-related policies by the Prime Minister as "a hashtag fail" (probably #fail)[38][39].

Kanye WestSaid[40]hashtagWrapWas devised in the 2010s to describe the style of rap,(English editionAccording to Rizoh, "metaphor, pose, in one wordPunch lineIt is often composed at the end of the rhyme."[41].Nicki Minaj,Big sean,Drake,Lil WayneWrappers such as this are raising the hashtag wrap,Ludacris,The Lonely Island[42]And several music writers blame hashtag wraps[43].

June 2013, 9, ``New York TimesTop page article headline of TwitterInitial public offeringHashtag #TwitterIPO appeared in the article about[44].

WWEWrestler'sDorf ZigglerThe ada name is "hashtagHeelIt is.

Food company(English editionIs in the form of at-marks and hashtags called "Mashtags"Mashed potatoesWas launched in 2014[45].

In May 2014, Twitter usersSex discrimination,Violence against womenHashtags have been used to increase awareness of the experience of[46].


In 2010, Twitter introduced a "hash flag" that can be used during the FIFA World Cup South Africa tournament[47]Re-introduced in 2014 at World Cup Brazil[48][49].. This is a function that, when tweeting the three-letter country codes of 32 participating countries using the hash tag method, the national flags are automatically incorporated into the tweet.

July 2012, TwitterTicker symbolIn front ofDollar signA function that can be clicked as a hash tag by adding (as an example$ AAPL) Was introduced and was called "cash tag"[50][51].. This is a feature that allows you to search for tweets that are discussing companies and stock prices.

In August 2012, British journalist Tom MeltzerGuardianPaper with both handspeace signA new version of the "finger hashtag" that mimics the hashtag of crossing fingers like a hashtag symbol(English editionIntroduced[52].. This new gesture(English edition WiredIntroduced in[53], In 2013Jimmy FallonOr show it on TV,Corvea ReportWas also used[54].

in Japan,"Nihon Keizai Shimbun"ButCapital Area"# hash tag" is used for the name of the column that covered the topic of[55].


注 釈

  1. ^ In North AmericamassUnit oflbIt is called like this because it is a symbol used to represent.


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