Seiko Tanabe's "Youth Diary" was discovered for the first time in 75 years!
If you write the contents roughly
When I happened to go to school and take classes, an air raid warning sounded.
The adolescent diary of Seiko Tanabe, a national writer who died in 2019, was discovered this year (2021).This book "... → Continue reading
Haven't missed the book you should read? "BOOK Watch" introduces not only new books but also hidden masterpieces. We publish a wide range of works such as pure literature, romance, non-fiction, natural sciences, photo books and cooking recipes.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Air raid warningWhat is (Kushu Keiho)?戦 争In the enemy armyaircraftbyAir raidTheCitizenIs issued for the purpose of informing the public and encouraging evacuation to a safer place so as not to cause damage.alarm.Civil defenseIt is done as one of the means of.radio,サ イ レ ンIt is transmitted by various means such as.Air defense warningAlso called.
There are various specific regulations depending on the country and time, but in general, when an alarm is issued, the citizensAir defense shelterYou will evacuate to.
World War II warning
Second World WarIn Japan during the period1937/(Showa 12)Mainland air defenseLaw on Civil Defense inAir defense law(Act No. 12 of 47) was enacted, and the Air Defense Law Enforcement Ordinance of the same year (Edict No. 12 of 549) stipulated the basic provisions for air raid warnings.In Article 7 of the Air Defense Law Enforcement Ordinance, there are two types: "warning warning" issued in the case of "aircraft invasion" and "air raid warning" issued in the more urgent "aircraft invasion danger". The system is such that an alarm is issued at each stage, and it is collectively called "air defense alarm".Defense Commander in charge of the area,Division leader,FortressCommander,Guardian officeCommander-in-Chief orPort areaArmy and Navy commanders, such as commanders, had the authority to issue warnings.Of which, when a warning alert is issuedLight controlIn the event of an air raid warning, he was instructed to evacuate to the air raid shelter immediately.But detect air raidsradar,Hearing machineDue to problems such as a shortage of absolute numbers, inadequate communication equipment between the military and civilian anti-aircraft surveillance sentries (watch stands that visually monitor enemy aircraft) and the headquarters, etc.Pacific WarInJapanese mainland air raidBut it didn't always work.
In wartime Japan, it was relatively popular at that time as a means of publicizing air raid warnings to the public.AM radioWas utilized.The air raid warning broadcast repeats the standardized broadcast content twice for both warning and air defense warnings.announcerIs read aloud, and is the first bigbuzzerAfter the sound was heard, it was first read out as "○○ prefecture warning warning", and in the case of air defense warning, "○○ military information" (or military district information).Military districtAfter being clearly notified of what information was provided by, "○○ hours ○○ minutes, the enemy'sformation(Or the ladder) The XX aircraft is proceeding to XX (direction) via △△ (place name). "It seems that you will come to △△ (place name) around XX hours and XX minutes. "" △△ (place name)Anti-aircraft gun volleyPlease note that we will do. ], Which is a relatively simple short sentence that is easy to understand even for people with little military knowledge (Eastern District ArmyThen.Literary styleBut in the Central Military DistrictColloquial styleWas used) The warning text consisting of was read aloud.frequency TheNHKRadio XNUMX broadcastIn the event of an emergency, an air raid warning broadcast is inserted in the form of interrupting the general broadcast, and the refusal to that effect is read aloud in the warning broadcast, but when the mainland air raid intensifies later, an announcer in the military command center Has become resident 24 hours a day to broadcast air raid warnings.
Air defense shelterThe people who are evacuating toRadio receiverBy paying close attention to the air raid warning broadcasts that are flowing from the beginning, what is happening at the moment and against itImperial Army and NavyIt is said that the mechanism is to convey what kind of response is being taken, and sometimes the soldiers who work in places where communication means are scarce even inside the army sometimes grasp the entire war situation through air raid warning broadcasts.These air raid warning broadcasts were not recorded even on NHK, and it was assumed that there was no existing sound source for a long time after the war.Therefore, it was produced after the war.TV drama,moviesIn such cases, the reproduction broadcast produced based on the documentary records and the testimonies of the citizens at that time was used.Howeverthe 2010sEnter and during the warKobe CityHigashinada WardAtOld schoolWas attendingKumamoto-shiA resident manBlowing boardWartime radio broadcast that was secretly recorded atTheNHK ArchivesDonated to, in it1945/(Showa20 years) February 2th to Kobe at noonB-29It includes a formation air raid and an air raid warning broadcast issued by the Central District Army Command when a single aircraft flew to Osaka on the night of February 2, 18, and as of 2016, this is the only existing sound source in Japan. It has become.These air raid warning broadcasts2014/And 2015The end of the warToRadio midnight flightWas broadcast under the title of "Remaining" Air Raid Warning "-The Recording Board Talks-".
On August 1945, 8, the Air Defense Headquarters issued an order to end air defense implementation at midnight on the following day, 21nd, and the air raid warning during World War II in Japan ended..
Wartime alerts and box office
1942/5/16,TokyoThen.Metropolitan Police DepartmentとMovie theater,theaterActions at the time of warning issuance with the entertainment organization that operatesAdmission ticketAn agreement was made regarding the handling of.According to the agreement, the box office will not be canceled in principle when the warning warning is issued, but when the air raid warning is issued, the spectators will be evacuated and guided to the outside of the venue. A rule has been set that it will be invalid (no refund) if it is canceled after 5/10 of the time has passed since the start..
In the actual application example1943/ OfGrand SumoIt was held in Osaka under the warning, but in the summer of May of the same year, it was the 5th day (5/13) Was issued with a warning alert and was canceled.On the same dayKorakuen Stadium OfProfessional baseballAlso decided to cancel until the warning alert was canceled,Fuchu Racecourse OfTokyo horse racingHas been canceled and postponed.
After the war, the warning system for civil defense remained inadequate for a long time, partly because discussions in preparation for emergencies were taboo.but,the 1990sBy the timenorth korea OfBallistic missileHas come to be regarded as a threat, etc.National protectionDiscussion is in full swingNational Instant Warning System(2004/System development is underway, such as the establishment of a siren (see external link) to notify the situation of an armed attack.
Incidentally,Japan Air Self-Defense ForceInside, three levels of air defense are set, and the air defense warning is red (commonly known as).Apple Jack), Warning warning yellow (commonly known asLemonjuice), White to cancel the alarm (Snowman)However, the exact stage of each alarm is unknown.However, the means of transmitting these air defense warnings to the public in a timely manner is an issue for consideration.
- Joboji Asami "History of Japanese Air Defense" Hara Shobo, 1981.
- ^ Don't let your guard down on enemy planes ... Wartime radio broadcast, recorded by a man in Kumamoto - Asahi Shimbun,2015/12/16
- ^ Voice of Kobe air raid warning, broadcast on the day of the end of the war NHK "Radio Midnight Flight" - Kobe newspaper, August 2015, 8
- ^ General Secretary of Air Defense Orders to End Private Air Defense August 20, 8 Asahi Shimbun "Showa News Dictionary Vol. 22 8 / 17" p20 Mainichi Communications 728
- ^ The theater and movie theaters were canceled due to an air raid warning May 17, 5 Chugai Commercial Newspaper "Showa News Dictionary Vol. 17" p8
- ^ Horse racing and professional baseball canceled / postponed due to warning alert May 18, 5 Mainichi Shimbun "Showa News Dictionary Vol. 14" p8
- ^ Kinya Narazaki (October 2001, 2). “Questionnaire on future Japanese diplomatic and defense issues and emergency legislation (HTML) ”(Japanese). 2010/3/13Browse.
- ^ Mori (October 2001, 3). “Submitted by Kinya Narazaki, a member of the House of Representatives Answers to questions regarding future Japanese diplomatic and defense issues and emergency legislation (HTML) ”(Japanese). 2010/3/13Browse.
- Disaster prevention radio
- Municipal disaster prevention administrative radio
- Emergency alert broadcast
- National Instant Warning System --J Alert
- en: Air Raid Precautions --British air raid information transmission organization during World War II.
- en: Civil defense siren --Sirens to notify you of emergencies related to civil defense such as air raid warnings.