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💪 | -40kg achieved !? 4 recommended "latest recipe collection" for dieting


-40kg achieved !? 4 recommended "latest recipe collections" for dieting

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Instead of using no flour or butter, they use nutritious ingredients such as oatmeal and okara powder.

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Wheat flour

Wheat flour(Kumugiko,English: wheat flour) IswheatThemillingIt is a powder.It is mainly used for food, and is used as a material for various foods such as bread, noodles, cakes, and confectionery.Some people call it "udon flour" or "meliken flour".[1].FlourA type of (flour).Moreover, since it is the most commonly used flour, it is usually called "flour" in English.Use by humankindAncient egyptIt was known that it had already been done in Japan, and it became widely used in both the West and the East, and was used in Japan as well as in the late Middle Ages along with starchy food.

It is classified into various types according to the nature of wheat used as a raw material, the part used, and the method of grinding, and the suitable use is also different.It is classified into strong flour, medium-strength flour, weak flour, whole grain flour, graham flour, semolina flour, etc.


Ancient egyptThe history of human beings and wheat is so old that the pattern of wheat harvest is drawn on the mural painting, and it is considered to be one of the first crops of human beings.

Harvested seeds are basically ground and used as flour[2]..Early wheatPorridgeIt was eaten like this, but it had to be heated for a long time to make the grains hard and soft, and the flour dough had a peculiar stickiness and elasticity, and the texture was favorable. , Epidermis bran (Fu, Fusuma = Rice)Bran) Is hard, so if you try to remove it, the endosperm inside will break, so flour aliment was the basis.[2].

In ancient Egypt around 3,000 BC, there are records that unfermented bread was already eaten.[2][3].

Industrial revolutionOr later,Steam engineWith the use of milling, the milling became larger and distributed worldwide, and it is still used in the 19th century.Flour millWas born and improved due to both efficiency and quality[4].

History in Japan

Japanese archipelagoThen.Jomon PeriodToStone plate-Polished stoneUsing plants andnutA powder eating habit of crushing and eating was practiced.Yayoi PeriodToRice cultivationWhen farming starts, the stone plate and polishing stone disappear, and rice andbarley-MilletGrains such as have changed to grain foods that eat as they are. Wheat has been introduced to the Japanese archipelago since the Yayoi period, and in ancient times noodles貴族Are eaten between. In the early Middle Ages, processing tools such as kneading bowls and mortars appeared again.Stone millAppeared, and the eating habits of priests, samurai, and ordinary people were revived. Udon and soba are eaten in the Edo period.

In modern times, the wartime color became stronger1940/For business use from September,1941/From April, household flour will be availableDistribution systemWas the target of.The amount to be distributed was 2 momme (for 3 months) in a household of 100 to 2 people.[5]..In the event of food shortages after the war, surpluses will be supplied as relief supplies from the American wheat strategy.[6], The eating habits of bread meals have spread because of the introduction of bread meals at school lunch[7].

Characteristics of nutrition

The nutritional characteristics differ between those milled with the bran removed and those milled with the bran included.

7% to 8% of the ingredients (for milled products with bran removed)StarchOccupied byproteinAlso includes about 1%. The main proteins areGliadinとGluteninAnd these areWedAbsorbs, stickyglutenWill be.This gluten creates a unique dish and is reborn as a variety of foods.It is classified into strong flour, medium-strength flour, and weak-strength flour in order from the one with the highest amount of gluten and the highest quality.In addition to the variety, the amount of gluten is during the flowering and harvesting seasons.(I.e.It also varies depending on whether or not it falls.This is because if it rains a lot during this period, it becomes difficult for wheat to form gluten.

On the other hand, for whole grains that have been milled, including bran,Dietary fiberIn other words, 100g of wheat flour that does not contain bran contains 2.7g of dietary fiber, while whole grain flour contains 11.2g (that is, more than 1% of the flour). Is dietary fiber[9]).Dietary fiber has the effect of conditioning the intestines[9](For example, suitable for women who are suffering from constipation).Whole wheat flour is richer in vitamins and minerals than ordinary wheat flour.vitaminEspecially asB1・ There are many B2 and B6, especially for minerals.iron,potassium,calciumThere is a feature that there are many[9].

Graham flourAlthough it is a whole grain, the purification method is different from that of normal whole grain flour, and the epidermis and germ are coarsely ground, and the blood sugar level rises slowly and is healthy. (It is often used in crackers, biscuits, cereals, etc., which are especially health-conscious).


Carotenoid pigmentHas a lighter cream color[10].. Particle diameter is 150micronsAs detailed below,Dust explosionTherefore, some local governments, such as Tokyo, have designated it as a designated combustible substance.[11].. It's easy to mix with other powders. Mix powder seasoning etc.PremixIt is also applied to the addition of vitamins. It easily sticks to things that have water on the surface,MeunierSuch asclothesAlso used as a flour for noodles.smellTheadsorptionIt is easy to do and can be processed to add fragrance, but it may have an offensive odor depending on how it is stored.[10].

Processing and purification

From whole grains to pericarp and germBranAs removed, only the part of the endosperm is ground, 100 kg of whole grains yields about 72-75 kg. A pure white product can be obtained by completely removing the pericarp and the germ, leaving only the endosperm part, but when using it for bread making, it is not always good to completely remove the bran part in order to give it a flavor. Wheat bran and whole ground flour are also used to create a rustic taste and flavor.[12].


What is milled after removing bran etc. is formed by the ratio of the protein (mainly gliadin and glutenin) contained.glutenIt is classified into strong flour, medium-strength flour, and weak flour according to the properties of.Milled products, including bran, are rich in nutrients and are classified into whole grain flour and graham flour.The special product that contains only the starch component is called floating powder.

Strong flour

Powerful flour is made of 12% or more protein,Bread-Chinese noodle・It will come out at school lunchSoft noodlesIn addition to being used for, etc., partially dried domesticallypastaIs made with coarsely ground strong flour. Hard wheat mainly from the United States and Canada (Bread wheat) Is used. It is not suitable for Western confectionery because it will be a hard finish when baked. In English classification, bread flour is close to this.

Medium flour

Churyukiko has a protein content of around 9%.TakoyakiUsed for such purposes.We mainly use neutral wheat from Australia and Japan.If you mix strong flour and weak flour, the properties will be intermediate, so you can use it as a substitute for medium-strength flour, but since the processing characteristics are slightly different from the original medium-strength flour, you need to devise (average value 10.2%).


Soft flour (Hakurikiko) has a protein content of 8.5% or less.cakeSuch asConfectioneryKind・tempuraUsed for. Mainly American soft wheat is used. The more you suppress the protein content, the more delicate the finish becomes, so there are some products that are sold under the product names such as "Confectionary soft flour" and "Super Violet" that have a lower protein content ( It is also called "ultra-thin flour", but it is not sold under such a brand name). Also, although sometimes misunderstood due to the association of dried pasta ingredients, soft flour is used when making raw pasta using eggs. In the English-speaking world, cake flour is similar to this.

Whole grain

"Whole wheat" or "Whole wheat".Wheat epidermis, germ, and endosperm are all ground.Compared to refined productsDietary fiber,mineral,vitaminRich in. mainlyBread,Biscuit,Cereal foodIt is used as a material.

Graham flour

Graham flour(Grahamko) is a type of whole grain flour. After dividing wheat into endosperm, epidermis and germ, the endosperm is ground to the same fineness as the normal product, and the epidermis and germ are roughly ground and mixed. It's rougher than whole grain.


SemolinaPowder (semolina) refers to powder with coarser particles (residual residue on a 210 µm cloth sieve) than regular products.[13].. The English word Semolina comes from the Italian word Semola, which comes from the Latin word Simila (flour).CouscousUsed to make suchDurumIt is refined from flour and has more protein and less gluten than strong flour. Used in dried pasta, cereals, puddings, etc.

Floating powder

Floating flour (Ukiko) is the remaining starch that "separates gluten from the dough" (*).Floating powder is made only of starch,potato starchIt has the properties like.mainlyAkashiyaki,Japanese sweets,Hong KongOf transparent skinShrimp dumplingsIt is used as a raw material.

(*) To separate gluten, the kneaded dough is soaked in water and washed away, but the state of being soaked in this water is called dust.
(*) On the other hand, the gluten separated from the doughwheat branIt is used as a raw material for such things.

Uses for each type

Strong flour is suitable for bread and noodles, medium-strength flour is suitable for udon, okonomiyaki, takoyaki, etc., and weak flour is suitable for confectionery and tempura.Whole grainUses unrefined wheat and is rich in nutrition.cracker,Biscuit,シ リ ア ルIt is used in foods and pasta.Graham flourIs also whole grain, but the purification method is different, the epidermis and germ are coarsely ground, the blood sugar level rises slowly and it is healthy, and it is used for crackers, biscuits, cereal foods, etc.SemolinaFlour is the raw material for pasta.

(*) The flour used for pasta is coarsely ground.

In addition, as food,Manju,Monjayaki,tortillaBesides, it is also used for pizza crust.

Wheat is wheatglutenIt is made from as a raw material, and is used as a mixed powder of different types and grades depending on the type of fried rice (such as Kurumafu and Shonai Fu)[14].

Use of fabric

Prepared by adding water to flourDough(Dough)[2]..The state of wheat flour changes by adding liquid, and 100% flour becomes bread dough with 60 water and 45 water makes udon dough.

In English, dishes that apply dough are thinly stretched and wrapped with bean paste (Dumpling, Dumpling) and dishes (noodles, noodles) molded by cutting, stretching, tearing, extruding from holes or molds, etc.[2]..On the other hand, the Chinese character "noodle" originally refers to wheat flour itself, and later came to refer to foods made by kneading wheat flour.[15]..The Japanese word "noodle" has come to refer to the equivalent of Chinese noodles and udon noodles in English.[2].

Also, a loose dough mixed with twice as much water or eggs as flour(English edition)And is used for tempura clothes and cakes. Add 5-20 times more water and mix while heatingpasteAnd,PlywoodIt is also used to bond (gradeLow powder is suitable). The same amountバ タ ーRoast withRouxAnd,ソ ー スUsed to thicken stews and stews[10].

Compounding ingredients

Depending on the dish you make, choose the one that has the right proportion of protein, andFlour,baking powder,Milk powder,shortening,seasoning,spices,ColoringSuch as原料There are various types of products (prepared powder, premix) prepared by mixing[16].

Difference between Meriken and Udon

Japanese wheat flour was called udon flour, and wheat imported from the United States was called meliken flour.[17].. Meriken is American, because English sounds like that. This remnant is often still called in Kansai and other places[18].

Around the Meiji era, domestically produced products were brown and had coarse grain and were unsuitable for making bread (the refinery technology (mill milling) at that time did not produce pure white). Therefore, they imported white refined products from the United States.

In Japan, soft flour (such as tempura flour) is widely used for cooking in Japan, but it is often called udon flour other than strong flour (meaning soft flour or soft flour).

Previously, it was released under the names of "Udon flour" and "Meriken flour", but now it is almost unified under the name of "wheat flour" or "soft flour" "strong flour" ("thin flour" and "strong flour" are Because they are different, different names are used depending on the quality). Souvenir shops for tourists andAntenna ShopAlthough some stores still sell it under the name of "udon powder", there is no product already sold under the name of "Meriken powder". The manufacturer that was released until the end under the name "Meriken powder"KumamotoKumamoto-shi OfItsuki food.


It is graded using the ash content as an index. Classified into special powder (0.3-0.4%), first-class powder (around 0.4%), second-class powder (around 0.5%) third-class powder (around 0.8%), powder (1.5-2.0%).[19].. The higher the grade, the less mineral it has, and the light cream color with less dullness.[20].. Combined with the type, it is written as "strong first grade" or "medium third grade".


Flour clay

For early childhood education粘土There is a flour clay made from flour as the main ingredient in[21].. Although there is a risk of wheat allergy, safety is high compared to oil clay etc.[21].. You can also make it yourself from flour or salad oil, but it also has the drawback of perishing easily.[21].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ #Meriken powder and udon powderreference
  2. ^ a b c d e f Munehiro Yoshida. “History and classification of udon noodles". Kansai University. 2020/11/8Browse.
  3. ^ "History and Culture of Flour, Encyclopedia of Flour'' Nisshin Seifun Group, viewed May 2017, 5
  4. ^ "Classification of mills focusing on crushed parts, history of millingKinoshita Milling Co., Ltd., viewed May 2017, 5
  5. ^ Also implemented for household flour (April 16, 4 Asahi Shimbun (evening edition)) "Showa News Dictionary Volume 11 7-Showa 14" p16 Showa News Encyclopedia Compilation Committee Mainichi Communications 120
  6. ^ "History of school lunch, school lunch"National School Luncheon Federation. Viewed May 2017, 5
  7. ^ "A Japanese table that became "bread rather than rice"Nippon Putcom. Viewed May 2017, 5
  8. ^ [which one?]USDA Food Ingredient Database (English)
  9. ^ a b c [1]
  10. ^ a b c Seiichi Nagao, "A Book of Flour Written by a Flour Shop," Sansuisha, 1994.ISBN 4-915607-68-2. 
  11. ^ Tokyo Fire Prevention Ordinance
  12. ^ Jeffrey Hamelman 2009, pp. 36–38.
  13. ^ Seiichi Nagao, "Wheat Science," Asakura Shoten, 1995, p.62.ISBN 978-4-254-43038-7 .
  14. ^ Seiichi Nagao "The Science of Wheat" Asakura Shoten, 1995, pp.187-188,ISBN 978-4-254-43038-7 .
  15. ^ Minoru Toyoda "About the recent noodle situation"Cooking Science," Vol. 24, No. 1, 1991, p.36-42, two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1968.24.1_36
  16. ^ "What is a premix?"Japan Premix Association. Viewed May 2017, 5
  17. ^ "Kojien 1998th Edition" Iwanami Shoten, XNUMX.ISBN 978-4000801119. 
  18. ^ "10th Meriken powder, the world of Western confectionery"Japan Western Confectionery Association. Viewed May 2017, 5
  19. ^ "Product knowledge of wheat and flour, story of flour"Milling Promotion Association. Viewed May 2017, 5
  20. ^ "The story of flour, the story of wheat and flourKinoshita Milling Co., Ltd. Viewed May 2017, 5
  21. ^ a b c Itsuki Fujiwara. “A Study on Teaching Method for Clay Play”. Yasuda Women's University. 2019/11/11Browse.


  • Jeffrey Hamelman, Yoshifumi Inoue, Chihiro Kaneko "BREAD-Breadmaking Technology Theory and Full-scale Recipes for Bread Lovers" Asahiya Publishing, 2009.ISBN 978-4751108130. 

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