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🥾 | 24 Recommended Shooting Spots Overlooking Mt. Fuji (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Yamanashi, Shizuoka)


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24 Recommended Shooting Spots Overlooking Mt. Fuji (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Yamanashi, Shizuoka)

 
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Fuji seen from here is also famous for being painted in ukiyo-e by masters of the Edo period such as Katsushika Hokusai and Hiroshige Utagawa.
 

What is Mt. Fuji? Mt. Fuji is known as the highest mountain in Japan (3,776 meters), and its well-proportioned and beautiful mountain ... → Continue reading

 Matcha

MATCHA is a web magazine that sends information about Japan to tourists visiting Japan. Not only famous tourist destinations such as Tokyo and Kyoto, but also all over Japan from Hokkaido in the north to Okinawa in the south. In addition to recommended sightseeing spot information, we provide comprehensive support for sightseeing in Japan, including gourmet, shopping, accommodation information, how to get to famous sightseeing spots, and useful information you should know before traveling to Japan.


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Hiroshige Utagawa

Utagawa Hiroshige(Utagawa Hiroshige,Kansei9 years(1797 )- Ansei5 May 9(1858 May 10) Is from the Edo periodUkiyo-e..His real name is Shigeemon Ando.His childhood name was Tokutaro, later Shigeemon, Tetsuzo, and Tokubei. Although it was sometimes called "Hiroshige Ando", Ando's real surname and Hiroshige are issues, and it is inappropriate to call them in combination, and Hiroshige himself has never called himself that way.[1][Source invalid].

Edo OfConstant fire extinguishingBorn in the Ando familyFamilyAnd became an Ukiyo-e artist[2].. Became a very popular painter for woodblock prints of landscapes,Van Gogh,MonetAs western画家Also influenced.

People/Biography

HiroshigeEdo OfYatsushiroRiverbankConstant fireMansionConcentricBorn as a child of Genemon Ando.Genemon was originally a member of the Tanaka family, and was adopted by the Ando family to welcome his wife.The eldest daughter and the second daughter, and the eldest son Hiroshige and Hiroshige had a third daughter.culture6 years(1809 ) In February, my mother died and my father retired from the same month, and Hiroshige at the age of 2Fire extinguishingConcentricInherit the job. My father died in December of the same year.

The painting spirit from an early age has won,culture8 years(1811 ) When I was 15 years old, the first generationUtagawa ToyokuniI tried to enter the gate. However, it was said that the school was full of students,Utagawa Toyohiro(1774 -1829 ) Introduction to. following year(1812 ) Take a letter from the teacher and myselfHiroshige UtagawaGiven the name ofBunseiNew Year (1818 ) Debuted with the issue of Ichiyuusai.

Bunsei4 years(1821 ), married a daughter of Yazaemon Okabe, who has the same conscience. Bunsei6 years(1823 ), he gave over the family name to his father-in-law (Ando family), Mr. Nakajiro, renamed himself Tetsuzo and became a follower, but since Nakajiro was still 8 years old, he continued to serve as a fire extinguisher. ..

To start withActor pictureDeparting fromBeauty paintingI wasn't careful about it, but Bunsei 11 (1828 ) After the death of the teacher風景画Was mainly produced.TempoNew Year (1830 From IchiyuusaiHiroshige IchisaiAgain,Flower bird figureTo draw.

Tenpo 3 years (1832 ), Nakajiro gave up his concentric work officially because he was originally dressed at the age of 17, and decided to devote himself to the artist.One standingThe name was changed to (Iriyuusai). Also called Ritsusai. Twenty years after the introduction, the only teacher was Toyohiro.Ooka UnhoOnNangaAre learning[3].

This year, it’s officialTokaidoIt is said that he went up and drew a picture, but it is now questioned. From the following year, he announced "Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido". Fame as a landscape painter was decisive. Since then, we have released various "Tokaido" series, but we have also worked on many "Edo famous spots" series, and we have seen excellent works together. In addition, he continues to produce excellent works in the striped version of the bird and bird paintings.Historical painting-Zhang-caricature-Toy picture,Spring painting, In the later years, he also worked on three beautiful pictures. In addition,Ukiyo-e handwriting)・Sludge-Fan-Sugoroku・Picture envelopes and picture books・Enrollment,Mad songSuch as a bookIllustrationI have also left. It is said that the total number of such items is 2.

5th anniversary of Ansei. Year 62. Cause of deathcholeraIt was told that it was. CemeteryAdachi-kuIn Iko Town. The legal name is Tokuo Ritsusai Saishi, Kikoin. friendToyokuni Utagawa (XNUMXrd generation)Becomes the brush ofDeath picture(= kind of memorial portrait, see the image in this section), the song of Kiyo is left.

Take a brush on the eastern road and see the famous places of the West

("If you dieWestern Pure LandI want to see all the famous places in Japan”)

Housing in Edo

BunkyuYear (1861 から1863 ), "Edo Nihonbashi Minami no Ezu", says Nihonbashi Ooga Town (currentKyobashi) Has a Hiroshige residence[4], Next to the westEtsuo KanoThe old residence is printed.

After that, it seems to have moved to Joban Town, about 5 roads ahead of Kyobashi.[5].

deathbed poem

deathbed poemIt is,

Put a brush on the eastern road (Azumaji) and see the sights of the west of the journey

However, "Hiroshige of the next generationThere is also a view that it is a work of ".

Meiji15 years(1882 ) In April (4 years after Hiroshige's death), the gatekeepers of Sumie Susaki VillageAkiba Shrine[6]The monument was erected onSecond World War OfTokyo air raidIt has been destroyed by and has not remained.

Cemetery

Epidemic plague (cholera) By Ansei 5 years (1858 May 9Died at age 61[7].. Graveyard is in Adachi-ku, TokyoZen BuddhismTogakuji TempleIs[8].

Feature

Hiroshige Blue

Utagawa Hiroshige's work isEurope,AmericaThen, with a bold composition,blue,In particularblueIt is highly rated for its beauty.

This bright blue is the ancient Japanese indigo (Indigo), but it is a new pigment imported from Europe at that timeNavy blueIs. Due to the nature of woodblock prints, it shows a brighter color than oil.Vermeer·blue(lapis lazuli)Hiroshige BlueAlso called.

Hiroshige Blue19st centuryThe second half of theFranceOriginated in印象派Painters,Art nouveauIs said to have influenced the artists ofJaponismeIt is also considered to be one of the factors that caused the epidemic.

Tokaido round trip

Tenpo 4 years (1833 ), said to be a masterpieceFifty-three Stations of the TokaidoPicture" was born. This workperspectiveIs used for wind and(I.e.In addition to the goodness of the picture itself, such as the three-dimensional depiction that makes you feel, it was also very popular as a way to get a glimpse of the outside world that people longed for.

In the autumn of 3 (Tempo 1832), the previous year of this series, Hiroshige, who was a retainer, joined the Shogunate's group (a messenger of Mima Susumu) by relying on the legend.京都UntilTokaidoA round trip) and the opportunity to witness the actual scenery was given. On the other hand, there is also a theory that he is not actually traveling.[9].. Also, the same workShiba GanghanThere is also a theory that it was produced by converting the Western movie into bones (advocated by the former Izukogen Museum director). (There is a denial to this on the external link, "About the painting by Shiba Ganghan, which is called the original picture of Hiroshige's "Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido".)

Koshu diary

Edo PeriodFrom the improvement of productivity in the medium term, learning and entertainment in urban areas,Festival-Annual eventThe townsman culture is revitalized,Shogunate territoryOf the eraKai countryKofu(YamanashiKofu City) But in the late Edo period, a magnificent curtain picture was displayed.Kofu Dosojin FestivalIn the background of the economic power of Kofu merchants, famous artists such as Hiroshige from Edo are invited to make curtains. Hiroshige is Tenpo 12 years (1841 ) Was asked by a townsman in 4-chome, Kofu Midori-cho (now Wakamatsu-cho) to stand in Edo in April of the same year.Koshu HighwayAfter that, I went to Kofu and stayed there to make a curtain picture. The record at this time is "Koshu Diary" ("Tenbo XNUMXth year of the year of the ox of the lunar days"), and when you travel from Edo, the sketches and diaries of the way and stay are written down,Hachioji CitySeen fromMt. TakaosanSeen from Kofu cityMount FujiAnd in the cityKai Zenkoji Temple,Minobu Town OfFuji RiverIn addition to being used for studying Hiroshige's works, famous places in Koshu are drawn with brushes and ink with different thicknesses, as well as being featured at Kofu theaters and entertaining.RestaurantIt is also emphasized as a documentary material for understanding the actual condition of Kofu Castle Town in modern times.

According to the diary, Hiroshige arrived in Kofu on April 4, and was welcomed by Kofu residents during his stay.playI'm visiting the area. The diary was temporarily suspended and started in November, during which time the curtain picture was completed and the deposit was 11 cars. The Maku-e is a 5-piece work that depicts the famous Tokaido, and is said to have been displayed in Kofuyanagi Town. It is possible that he might have been devoting himself to the production of the screen picture during the period when the diary was suspended, and that he had returned to Edo for the production. Although there are few existing curtains produced by Hiroshige, the Yamanashi Prefectural Museum holds two curtains, and the old house in Kofu city still has a sketch.

Also, in addition to the curtain picture, Kofu townspeople requestedFolding screen,Fusuma pictureWe are engaged inOki collection(Yamanashi Prefectural MuseumA part of the work remains in the collection.

In addition to the record of staying in Kofu, the diary also contains sketches of Kai famous places, and some of them are "Fuji XNUMX views』It is utilized in. It was recorded and known in "Kai Shiryo Gathering" etc., but the original isGreat Kanto EarthquakeHas been burned down. The discovered sketchbook is a binding of 19 Japanese paper sheets, measuring 19.6 cm in length and 13.1 cm in width. Hiroshige the 3rd generation1894 (Meiji 27) It is said that it was leaked overseas immediately after dying,1925 ToEnglishmanIt has been missing since the researchers introduced it in the book.2005 ToUKAt the auctionAmericanIs a successful bid,TochigiNakagawa TownHiroshige Mato MuseumThe curator of mine identified it as genuine. It was discovered for the first time in about 80 years (2006 May 9Asahi Shimbun).

Handwriting

After the printmaking became popular and the ukiyoe artist became a printmaker, there were few things that could be finely drawn on paper or silk with a colored brush, but Hiroshige was also different from printmaking. I have left a wonderful picture. The famous one is "Hiroshige TendoMore than 200 handwritten drawings, also calledTendo domainIt was requested by. At that time, the finances of the clan were so tight that he was collecting donations and borrowing from wealthy merchants and farmers inside and outside the clan. In 1851, he presented Hiroshige's painting as a substitute for the repayment. Hiroshige's perspective was applied to the post-Impressionist painters, especiallyVan Gogh(1853 -1890 It is well known that it influenced ), but it was originally a style adopted by Ukiyo-e artists from Western painting, and as a predecessor,HokusaiThe originator of UtagawaToyoharu(1735 -1814 )ofFloating pictureSeen in.

Hiroshige attackers

Second generation(1826 (9th year of Bunsei)- 1869 (2th year of Meiji)[10]
The second generation Hiroshige, like the first Hiroshige, had his father's constant fire extinction.[10].Fujiya Shizuya[11]According to Hiroshige, the second generation is Hiroshige's ancestor and is commonly known as Morita Shimpei.ShigenobuSay. He married his first adopted daughter, Tatsu (16 years old).KeioNew Year (1865 ) When his wife was 22 years old, he was separated. Then oftenYokohamaHe went to the United States to sell his paintings and became known to foreigners under the name of “Tea Box Hiroshige” when foreign trade was gradually flourishing. In addition, I made it using the image name of "Kisai Ritsusho", but in it, a kind of landscape painting with flowers as the theme, "Thirty-six Flowers" is well done, and according to the request of the publisher, I made it on the vertical line of Onishiki. In addition, "XNUMX Famous Views of Edo"Akasaka Kirihata Amidaka Yui" in "Akasaka Kirihata", and the composition and color are higher than the original "Akasaka Kirihata".
Three generations(1842 (Tenpo 13 years)- 1894 (27th year of Meiji)[10]
The first Hiroshige[10].. The popular name is Torayoshi Goto. The wife after the divorce was taken as the wife. The issue is Ichijo Sai.
Fourth generation(Kiichiro Kikuchi,1849 (2nd year of Kaei)- 1925 (Taisho 14)[10]
The second generation of Hiroshige[10].. With third wife, YaekoShimizu HarukaThey consulted and made Hiroshige the fourth generation. This is because the Kikuchi family was close to the Ando family. At first, I made prints and wrote many warrior paintings, but laterCalligrapherBecame. Kiichiro publishes a book about Ukiyo-e[12].
Fifth generation(Torazo Kikuchi,1890 (23th year of Meiji)- 1968 (43)[10]
The son of the fourth generation (Kiichiro Kikuchi) has succeeded.

Monk

Hiroshige's gatekeepers are the second and third generation Hiroshige,Utagawa Hirokage,Utagawa Shigekiyo,Utagawa Shigemasa,Shigeharu Kyosai,Utagawa Shigefusa,Utagawa Shigeharu, Shigemi, Shigeka, Shigehisa, Shigeyoshi, Shigetoshi,Crimson,Utagawa YoshinobuAnd so on. Shigeharu is also known as Akifuze by Shimizu and is said to be the same person as Shigeharu. Shigefusa called his real name Katsunosuke Yoshino,AnseiI played an active part in.

Main works

Nishiki-e

  • "Teijo Teikagami" (1818), actor picture
  • "The Daiyo Nakamura Daijokichi Kiyomori Ninja Hachijo Bureau: Nakamura Shibata Aki Moriihei Kiyomori" (1818), actor's picture
  • "Mitate Zashiki Kyogen" (1818-1830), three large-format sequel actors
  • "Asakusa Okuyamagai Crafts" (1820), large-format flower and bird painting
  • "Outside and Inside Hakkei" (1821), Bijin-ga
  • "Toto famous sights" (1825-1831), 10 pieces in landscape format
  • "Asakusa Kanzeon 1827 Year Opening Book" (3), XNUMX large sheets
  • "Funyu Asanabi" (1830-1834), in large formatToy pictureSo there are two versions for boys and girls
  • "(wikidata(1830-around 1843), bird-and-flower painting
  • "Chushingura(Around 1830-1844), a large-sized horizontal 16-sheet set of actors
  • "Totou Famous Place"Kawaguchiya ShozoEdition (1832), a large horizontal format with 10 sheets, commonly known as "(wikidata'
  • "Totou Famous Place"KitsurudoEdition (1832)
  • "(wikidata』(1832), in a large strip format, although it is said to be 28 views, there are actually only two
  • "Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido"HoeidouEdition (1833-1834), 55 large assortments in horizontal format, 53 post stations, Edo and Kyoto
  • "Omi Hakkei』Yamamotoya version, Hoeidou version (1834)
  • "(wikidata] (1834), 10 large-sized assortment
  • "(wikidata] (1834), 10 large-sized assortment
  • "(wikidata』(1834), 4 pieces in medium and short strip format
  • "(wikidata(1834-1835), historical painting
  • "Country Six Tamagawa" Ivy version (1835-1936), 6 large assortment in horizontal format
  • "XNUMXth Kiso Kaido』(1835-1842), "Miyanokoshi", etc., a set of 70 large horizontal format, succeeding Keisai Eisen
  • "Edo Komei Kai Tei』(1835-1842), 30 large-sized horizontal sheets
  • "Kanazawa Hakkei] (1836), 8 large-sized assortment
  • "(wikidata] (1837), 15 large-sized assortment
  • "(wikidata(Around 1837-1848), a large-format story picture of 30 pieces, with a cloud-shaped partition at the top.
  • "(wikidata] (1838), 8 large-sized assortment
  • "Totou Famous Place" Fujihiko version (1838)
  • "(wikidata(1838)
  • "(wikidata] (1839), 8 large-sized assortment
  • "Improvisation Kagebo Shizushi" (1839-1842), a toy picture in a vertical medium format
  • "Collection of Japanese and Chinese poems" (around 1839-1842)
  • "Moryo Gekko Illustration" (1839-1844), 4 toys in horizontal format, 4 toy drawings, 16 children's lessons in caricature style
  • "Tokaido Gotokusanji" Sano Kiban (1840), popularly "Kyoka Tokaido"
  • "(wikidata(1840)
  • "(wikidata(Around 1840-1842)
  • "East view of Sumida River in Tono famous place" (around 1840-1842)
  • "(wikidata(Around 1840-1842)
  • "Sangu Road" (1840-1844), 24 cuts in XNUMX cuts, drawing from Yokkaichi to Futamiura
  • "Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido"EzakiEdition (1842), popularly, "Gyosho Tokaido"
  • "Koyo Saruhashi no Zou", "Snow in Fujikawano Zu" (1842), 2 large vertical verticals, "Kouyo" is the publisherYoshizo Tsutaya, "In the snow" is drawn by Kihei Sanoya, looking up at the precipice of the valley and Saruhashi, a towering valley, and a distant village and a full moon are drawn.
  • "Fifty-three pairs of Tokaido(1843), a collaboration with Toyokuni III and Kuniyoshi
  • "Kunishima Island Tsukushi" (1843-1846),Fan
  • "Lessons Learned for Life and Poor Life" (1843-1847), 3 horizontal toys
  • "Daughter Mortokushize Sugoroku" (1844-1848), Sugoroku with four interlaced sheets, and the ascendant is a hands-on training that is the basis of learning and art
  • "(wikidata(1846), a 100-piece set, a collaboration with Kuniyoshi, the third generation Toyokuni
  • "Shunko Hands-on Training" (1846), 2 large-sized sugoroku, with the theme of learning contents and lifestyle customs of Terakoya.
  • "Tokaido" (1847), commonly known as "Sorasho Tokaido"
  • "Five-three paintings of the Tokaido" (1847), a popular beauty picture of "Beauty Tokaido"
  • "Kyugi Performing Arts" (c. 1847-1848), a caricature of a vertical large format
  • "Soushu Enoshima Benzaiten Kaisetsu Shōdan no shouzo no zu (1847-1852)", 3 large horizontal pages
  • "(wikidata(1847-around 1852), a large-format, five-piece set of beautiful women
  • "This morning history picture picture" (1848-1854), a story picture taken from the Japanese calligraphy, with an explanation at the top and a picture at the bottom for each period of the ancient Emperor.
  • "(wikidata(1848-around 1854), Harimaze-e
  • "East view of Yukemi Higashi" (around 1850), 8 pieces in horizontal format
  • "Ise Famous Futamigaura Illustration" (around 1850), 3 large horizontal strips
  • "Fifty-three Zhangko" (1852), Zhangkoe
  • "(wikidata(1852)
  • "Genji Monogatari 1852-chou" (XNUMX), story picture
  • "The Fifty-three" (1852), commonly known as "Person Tokaido"
  • "Fuji XNUMX views(1852), a series of Fuji works by Hiroshige for the first time, the publisher is Sanoya Kihei, Musashi, Kai, Sagami, Awa, Kazusa, etc.
  • "Kokujin Zhang Kozue" (1852), Zhang Koe
  • "The figure of Jorika Shigeruhana, Joruri" (1852), a caricature of a set of 7 in a large format, and the characters in Ningyo Joruri have been replaced by merchants.
  • "Sixty-seven State Famous Sites(1853-1856), 70 large assorted pieces
  • "Soubetsu Nanayu Mura" (1854), a collection of 7 fan-fan paintings, collaborated with Toyokuni III
  • "Dōgi warrior exhaustion" (1854), caricature
  • "Toto famous sight-seeing annual event" (1854), 12 large pieces in a vertical format, 1 months of a year
  • "Sosou Fifty-three" (1854-1855), collaboration with Toyokuni III
  • "Tomori Rokkasen" (1854-1858), an actor picture of a set of 10 in a large format, with flowers in the background, collaboration with Toyokuni III
  • "Fifty-three famous landmarks" (1855), commonly known as the "Tokaido of the Vertical"
  • "XNUMX Famous Views of Edo(1856-1859), 120 large assorted pieces
  • "Countries Rokkamagawa" Marukyu Edition (1857), 6 large assortment
  • "Wuyo Kanazawa Hachikatsu Night View" "Awa Naruto Scenery" "Kisoji no Yamakawa" (1857)
  • "Mt. Ooyama Dochuhari Zoukai" (1857-1858), Zhang Koe
  • "Mountain Mimitate Sumo" (1858), 20 large assortments in horizontal format
  • "Thirty-six Views of Tomi(1859), a collection of 37 pieces in vertical large format, the sketch was drawn in April 1858, but it was released one year later in the summer of 4, and as a result, it became the last work, the publisher. Is a series of works depicting Tsutaya Kichizo and Mt. Fuji.

Ukiyo-e handwriting

  • "Ryukyujin Raigozu Maki" (1807), 1 ink painting on paper,Ukiyo-e Ota Memorial MuseumCollection, work when Hiroshige was 10 years old
  • "Leaning map" (1818-1822), coloring book,Japan Ukiyo-e MuseumHolding
  • "Matrix diagram(1832), silk coloring,Tokyo National MuseumHolding  
  • "Sakura and Poultry Drawing" (1835), Sugito board coloring, Izumidera collection
  • "A standing beauty figure with a smoke tube", silk coloring,Idemitsu Museum of ArtHolding
  • "Oninenbutsu and Bijin-zu", ink painting on paper, and Idemitsu Museum of Art
  • "Konodai-zu folding screen" (1841), one silk colored six song,Yamanashi Prefectural MuseumOki collection
  • "Tamakawa's Fuji and Tonegawa Tsukuba map" (1848-1853), silk bicolor,New Otani MuseumHolding
  • "Nikkosan Uraminotaki Nikkosan Kirifurinotaki Nikkoyama Kegonnotaki" (1849-1851), 3 silk width pairs, Ukiyo-e Ota Memorial Museum of Art
  • "Ueno Nakano Kirigareu Ueno Myogiyama in the rain Ueno Harunayama in the snow" (1849-1851), 3 colors of silk coloring, Ukiyo-e Ota Memorial Museum of Art
  • "Gotenyama Hanamizu", silk coloring, New Otani Museum Collection
  • "Tonegawa Illustration", silk coloring, New Otani Museum Collection
  • "Honmoku landscape map", silk coloring, New Otani Museum Collection
  • "Takao diagram", light-colored paper, owned by The New Otani Museum of Art
  • "Busho Famous Handbook, Funari Watarigawa" (1853), colored silk, held by Hiraki Ukiyo-e Foundation
  • "Busho Famous Handbook, Nango no Matsubara Sayuri Fuji" (1853), colored silk, held by Hiraki Ukiyoe Foundation
  • "Snow map of Takanawa, Moon map of both countries, Flower map of Gotenyama", 3 colors of silk coloring,Kamakura National Treasure MuseumHolding
  • "Fujikawa's figure", silk colored strip, held by Josai University Mizuta Museum of Art
  • "Fujibodake map", silk coloring,Kumamoto Prefectural Museum of ArtHolding
  • "Geisha of the roof boat", Kayamoto Kamimoto, Kumamoto Prefectural Museum of Art collection

Kusso Paper/Picture Book

  • "Kyoka Purple Volume" (1818)
  • "Otome Jojodo" (1820)
  • "Kumasaka Monogatari" (1821)
  • "Shogen no Muyaron" (1822), Illusion Illustration
  • "Shirai Gonpachi" (1824), illustrated in a scroll
  • "Yoshitsune Senbonzakura" (1825)
  • "Gozen Asakusa method" (1826)
  • "Botabatsu Katsura Pillar" (1827)
  • "Tamba Yosakuseki's Komanshunkoma station talk" (1827), a book illustration
  • "Kyoka Sansui Kyan" (1831), Kyoka Books with pictures
  • "Kyoka Sumida River Aftermath" (1833), Kyoka book with pictures
  • "Flag and Kozumizu Kuzuha" (1834)
  • "Haiku Thirty-Six Phrase Selections" (1837), haiku book with pictures
  • "Picture book Chushingura" (1845), picture book
  • "Sugawara Denshi Handbook" (1846), picture book
  • "Picture book Knee chestnut hair" (1846-1849), a collaborative illustration with Kuniyoshi and Eizumi
  • "Ritsusai grass brush paintings" (1848-1851), picture book
  • "Picture Book Edo Souvenir" (1850-1857), 10 picture books in total, in charge of 1 to 7 books, and the second one drawn by Hiroshige Nidaidai
  • "Abbreviated painting Kourin-Futatsusai Hyakuzu" (1851), a picture model that depicts Rinpa-style flowers, people, and genre with a light touch.
  • "Gisou Famous Place" (1851-1852)
  • "Kyoka Shiki People" (1855), illustrated Kyoka poem
  • "Kyoka Etsu Famous Views" (1856), a total of 16 pictured Kyoka books, in charge of 1 to 14 and the rest drawn by Hiroshige Nidaidai
  • "Kyokabun Shimotori" (1858), Kyokaka with pictures
  • "Fujimi Hyakuzu" (1859), a picture book that depicts the appearance of Fuji in a realistic manner, was only completed in the first part due to the death of the author.

Collection Museum

Although it is stored in various places, it is often not exhibited at all times due to deterioration due to light rays. In Japan,

It is owned by.

Abroad

There is a work in.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Hiroshige Utagawa
  2. ^ "Edo period person copy XNUMX",Hirofumi YamamotoSupervision Shogakukan, 2007, 49 pages.ISBN 978-4-09-626607-6. 
  3. ^ "Utagawa Hiroshige" "Ukiyo-e Utagawa series"
  4. ^ Shiraishi (1993)
  5. ^ Sekine (1899)
  6. ^ Current address is TokyoSumida-kuMukaijima 4-9-13
  7. ^ "Ukiyo-e Consideration], he died at the age of 62.
  8. ^ Initially, it was in Asakusa Kitamatsuyama Town,Great Kanto EarthquakeByAdachi-kuMoved to Iko Honmachi 1-6,TobuIsesaki LineTakenotsuka StationWithin walking distance.
  9. ^ Satoshi Nagata "Focusing on Hiroshige's movements and work problems"200th anniversary special exhibition Hiroshige Utagawa Exhibition, Catalog Collection, 1996
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Kazuo Shirai. “Firefighting circumstances in the Edo period 5”. General Incorporated Foundation Fire and Disaster Prevention Science Center. 2020/8/6Browse.
  11. ^ Fujikake (1924)
  12. ^ Kikuchi (1965)

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Ukiyo-e

Ukiyo-e(Ukiyo-eIt is,Edo PeriodIt was established early,A painting OfGenreOne of the.

Overview

It is a popular painting that flourished in the Edo period, and developed mainly in Edo.Yamato pictureIs the source, butKano school ,Tosa schoolAndWestern painting,SketchingWe also adopted styles such as[1]..Accepted by the common people including samurai (#price), Highly acclaimed by intellectuals in 19th century Europe (#Impact outside Japan).

The form of Ukiyo-e isHandwriting[Annotation 2](Drawing directly with a brush)woodblock printDivided into (printed matter)[2], The latter is a single pieceversionIt is divided into (books), but one of the reasons why it has spread to the general public is the print format that enables mass production and lower prices.[3]..A division of labor system for painters (drawing), sculptors (original engraving), and sushi (printing) has been established under the plan of the publisher, which is a commercial capital. I was able to rent it out[1][4].

There are a wide variety of subjects,Beauty painting,Actor picture,Famous placeDemand of the common people and at that timeCustomsReflects (#Ukiyo-e title). "Ukiyo" has the meaning of "this world that is not the equinoctial week", "the present that is neither the past nor the future", and "the secular world with a strong amorousness".ShogunateIt can be said that the place that was regarded as a "bad place" is the central subject.[1].

Since the 20th century, it has also been used as a historical material that conveys changed and disappeared sights, people's lives, livelihoods, and culture.[5].

Etymology

The word "ukiyo-e" first appeared in the 1681 (Enpo 9th year) haiku book "Soreso-kusa".[Annotation 3].

The etymology of "Ukiyo" comes from the noun "world" added to "sorrow," which is a series of "sorrows" that means "suffering" and "spicy" found in the early Heian period.[7][8][9][10],As an example"Ise storyIs used to mean "a world with many hardships"[7][11][Annotation 4]..On the other hand, "Old and modern Wakashu""Gosen Wakashū""Shu Waka Collection"ofSandaishūThen, there are many expressions such as "the time of the world" and "the world of the world", and the phrase has not been decided yet, and "the world of the world" is often used in the middle of the Heian period.Goshui WakashuAfter that[7]..At the end of the Heian period, the idea of ​​an uncertain world was added and it was written as "Ukiyo", but it is said that this was also influenced by the Chinese word "Ukisei".[7][8][10][Annotation 5].

At the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Edo period, it came to be used in the opposite sense of the world where people should live comfortably as the flip side of the misanthropic thought of the previous generation.[7][Annotation 6] [Annotation 7] [Annotation 8]..From there, it will also be used to mean "modern style", which refers to the customs of the present generation, as represented by "ukiyo-e".[7].

"Yanagitei(1826, around Bunsei 9), "There are two ukiyo-e. One is in the melancholy, and as everyone knows, this is an old lyric in a song. One ukiyo-e is known as the present. The edge. Ukiyo-e is like a picture now. "[7][13].

History

Suwa (2008)[14]According to, I will explain in the following four periods[Annotation 10].

  • Early Edo period ――From the early 1600s to the first year of Meiwa (1764), about 150 years
  • Mid-Edo period --From Meiwa 2 (1765) to Kansei 13 (1801), about 35 years
  • Late Edo --From the first year of Kyowa (1801) to the third year of Keio (3), about 1867 years
  • After the Meiji era --From the first year of the Meiji era (1868) to the present

Early Edo period

The earliest ukiyo-e had no prints,HandwritingIt was only a picture.Momoyama periodof"Rakuchu Rakugai folding screenCompared toIwasa MatabeiIn the same folding screen (commonly known as "Funakimoto" 1614-16 <Keicho 19-Genna 2nd year>), the depiction of the people became conspicuous, and from there around the Kanei era (1624-44), "Hikone folding screen"Matsuura (Matsura)[Annotation 11])folding screen[17]"(All three are national treasures), a work that shows the customs of contemporary people was born.[18][19][20][21].

Beauty paintingWas not only a development from genre painting, but also in Zen templeMing Dynasty OfYang KikiThere is a theory that the statue was applied to Japanese women[22]. AndPay offAppeared under the names of "Japanese painter Hishikawa" and "Yamato painter".Hishikawa Moronobu.AwakuniBorn in an embroidery shop (embroidery with gold and silver foil). "Beauty Looking Back" (Tokyo National MuseumIn addition to hanging scrolls (so-called "hanging scrolls") represented by Kura), scrolls (kansu, so-called "makimono"),Picture book,Ukiyo Soshi,ShungaI did various activities with printed books such as.Moronobu appeared in the latter half of the 17th century, when the culture of EdoAboveIt will be an opportunity to line up with that of[23]..At first, the printed book is all in ink, but as a later work, the ink book is painted with a brush.Tan-eAppears, and a single piece of paper also appears[24][25].

After the death of the teacherOkumura MasanobuBrushed the red dyeRed pictureOr in inkglueMix a lot to make it shinyUrushi-e,Hashira-eToFloating pictureAlso founded, enabling a few colorsBenizuri-eAndTakumotoBlack and white inversionStone slide paintingWas also involved in the founding of.And not only the painterpublisherOperated "Okumuraya" and gained free drawing and sales channels.In addition to handling his own works, he also wholesaled products with other publishers and spread business opportunities.The activity period was half a century[26][27][28].

kabukiWas born in the early Edo period and was banned by the shogunate, so only adult men played it.[29]..KabukiActor pictureThe Torii school specializes in. A depiction of a gourd-like worm-like constricted leg that makes use of the strong ink lines that make it look like a gourd worm crawling on a gourd-footed worm drawing.[30], A large format called "Large format" (approx. 55 x 33 cm)[31]) Was known.The Torii school is still inherited and is working on the Kabuki-za signboard (Kiyomitsu Torii[32].

Kaigetsudo AndoMass-produced beautiful hand-drawn paintings at the studio.The common people were the purchasers, and cheap mud paint was used.[33].

1720th generation in 5 (Kyoho 8th year)GeneralTokugawa YoshimuneRelaxed the ban,キ リ ス ト 教By allowing the import of orchid books that are not related toperspectiveDrawn usingEngravingThere was an opportunity to see such things.Perspective will produce uki-e by Okumura et al.[34][35].

Mid-Edo period

It refers to the Kansei era (1765-2) from 1789 (Meiwa 1801).

1765 (Meiwa 2),Flag bookAmong hobbyistsPicture calendarThe exchange party was popular.It was in response to their demandHarunobu SuzukiIs.Their attitude of not paying attention to gold produced multicolored (7/8 color) prints.From the beautiful color like brocade, "Nishiki-e"(Higashi / Azuma Nishiki-e)[36][37][35]..Okumura Masanobu and others mentioned above said, "A mark to prevent slippage during overlapping.RegisterAnd that it is expensive and durableEchizenVotive paperWas used as a prerequisite for producing Nishiki-e[38][39][36] .

Harunobu's Nishiki-e is not only in the picture calendarWaka,Mad song ,The Tale of Genji"The Tales of Ise" "Heike story”, Which draws medieval literature by applying it to contemporary genre paintings.Mitate-e I couldn't understand Harunobu's intention unless he was an educated person.High price for patronage[Annotation 13] OfSludge[42]AndunisexI didn't buy the common people, including the depictions of people[Annotation 14].

Instead of inkDewEtc.dye"Mizue" using "Mizue" became popular at the beginning of the Meiwa era, and Harunobu's works remain, but most of the existing works have faded.[43][Annotation 15].

Katsukawa ShunshoIs fine-grained during the Anei era (1772-81)[Annotation 16]In Nishiki-e, I made a depiction of which actor could be identified, and overwhelmed that of the Torii school, which could not be identified without the actor's name.In the same way,Sumo pictureThe market also swept.During the Tenmei era (1781-89), the focus was shifted to hand-drawn beauty paintings, and the price was so high that the samurai bought it.[47][48]..Disciple'sHaruyoshi Is an actorOkubi-eWas produced for the first time[49].

Torii KiyonagaIs from a bookstore, and the name "Shirakoya" is used as it is.During the Tenmei era (1781-1789), a group of tall beautiful women was represented in a series of two or three large-sized horizontal images.The group image in the foreground and the famous place map in the background are connected without any discomfort, and it can be seen that the understanding of perspective is more advanced than that of the previous generation Okumura et al.As a Torii school, I also drew an actor picture, but by applying the above combination, behind the actorSpeech(三味 線Tayu) Was devised[50][51][52]..Shunga "Sleeve Roll" is a small picture of 12.5 x 67 cm.[Annotation 17] It is a novel composition in which the beloved men and women are trimmed and inserted into an extremely horizontally long size like this.[54] .

Utamaro KitagawaGains fame from the publisherShibuzabu TsutayaAround 1791 (Kansei 3rd year), a beautiful womanOkubi-eAfter printing. mica"Women's Physiognomy", Ichii's beauty couldn't be named, so I used the picture "Komei Bijin Rokkasen", and lost the outline of the face.Hua KuiFrom the bottom layerProstituteVarious attempts were made under Tsutaju, such as drawing up to.In additionMad songIn the books such as "Picture Book Mushisen" and "Shio-Dori no Tsuto", luxurious paper and carving techniques were put into it. 1804 (first year of culture), "Picture book Taikoki"ButOsakaWas caught inHand chainHe was sentenced to 50 days and died two years later.[55][56][57][58].

1790 (Kansei 2nd year), "Kansei reformAs part of the "new seal" system[Annotation 18]Was done.After thatMatsudaira SadanobuUntil 1793 (Kansei 5), when he resigned from the old age, ukiyo-e was often cracked down.One of them is the "touch that Ichii's beauty can't name" that Utamaro received.The renewal system itself continues until 1872 (Meiji 5)[60].

In May 1795 (Kansei 7th year), Tsutaya JuzaburoTosusai Sharaku28 pieces of Okubi Yakusha-e by Okubi will be printed at once.It is unusual to leave a large and expensive biotite kirazuri large format to an unnamed painter.It is probable that there was some kind of sponsor, not just the judgment of the publisher.Also at that timekabukiThe seat was in a recession, and the Torii school was also eating it.Tsutaju sewed the gap.[61] ..Up until now, the actors have been beautified and drawn in order to have their favored customers buy them.悪 役Ugly,Female formI have drawn the old age of. It is unclear how 28 points were evaluated at that time, but in the subsequent works, the "Aku" at the time of appearance faded,Fixed pattern,NameYou can also see the mistake of[62],Ota NanpoOther "Ukiyo-e Thinking(1802, Kyowa 2), "If you don't draw the truth too much, you can't go to the world for a long time. It will stop in a year or two."The activity period was less than 10 months[61].

for,Utagawa ToyokuniIs a typical beautified actor picture,Kakitei Makoto-Mountain tokyoLanoReading bookDraw illustrations and gain commercial success. "Picture bookTaikoki』, But was caught with Utamaro, but it was not so badly affected, and after Utamaro died, even a bijin-ga would fill his gap.Obtained many disciples and laid the foundation for the Utagawa school, which is the largest school of ukiyo-e.[63].

Late Edo

It refers to 1801 (the first year of Kyowa) to 1867 (the third year of Keio).

Keisai Eisen TheProstituteYaWhite powderI had the experience of running a shop, and I wondered if it was utilized in Bijin-ga, "Ada[64] "The length of the face through the nose and the distorted facial expression of the socket with the slanted eyes"[65] ", Showing the beauty peculiar to that era.[66].

As the name suggests, at the same time as EizumiKyotoWas active inGion ItoAlso in the Taisho eraKaisou Kusunone,Okamoto Shinsou[67]I drew a beautiful hand-drawn painting that can be said to be abandoned[68]..During the Cultural and Bunsei period (1804-30), the lower lip looks greenSasako[Annotation 19]Is popular, and that is also a factor that makes modern people strange.

Katsushika HokusaiDraws an actor picture under Katsukawa Shunsho, and thenTawarayaHe calls himself Sori, obtains his own style of hand-drawn beauty painting, and calls himself Hokusai.EngravingPublished an experimental woodblock print of a famous place that imitatedKakitei Makoto OfReading book"Camellia theory』In charge of illustration, will continue to co-author with Bakin, gaining fame as a painter.afterwards"Hokusai cartoon] Was also a hit, and the publisherNishimuraya Yohachi"Thirty-six views of Futaki』Imported dyesBelo indigoUsing indigo one colorWiping blurIt is widely accepted by the world, including a novel composition.After that, he continued to publish "Kokutaki Around" and "Kokumeibashi Mirai" with Nishimuraya, and also published the printed book "One Hundred Views of Tomitake", establishing a new genre of famous paintings. Continued to be a painter until his death at the age of 90[70][71][72]..DaughterResponse Is said to have helped his father's drawing in his later years, and he himself left a hand-drawn drawing that emphasized light and darkness.[73] .

PeopleHiroshige UtagawaWas the first to use "Bero Ai" in "Toto Famous Places" (1830-31, Bunsei 13-Tenpo 2), but compared to Hokusai, it was a lesser color scheme. Around 1834 (Tenpo 5), publisherHoeidouFromFifty-three Stations of the Tokaido] A total of 55 sheets will be printed.From the remaining number of sheets and the degree of consumption of woodblocks, it can be inferred that they sold considerably.Also, 55 sheetsPicture bookSome of them were tailored to, and it can be inferred that they were also purchased by samurai families and wealthy merchants.The above two sets are similar to "Thirty-six Views of Mt. Fuji", but it seems that Hiroshige and the publisher were aware of Hokusai.[74]..In the last year of 1856-58 (Ansei 3-5), the publisherFishmonger (Sakanaya Totoya) Eikichi[75]Below, a total of 120 sheets including the catalog (one of them is availableHiroshige IIBrush) "XNUMX Famous Views of Edo] Will be published.

Not only the belo indigo of this seriescarmineIs also used, but like "Toto Meisho", it has a suppressed color scheme.In addition, many works use the "proximity enlargement method" that draws the foreground extremely large, such as using a wide-angle lens.The fact that they are all vertically long is unusual for a famous place painting, but it seems that there was an idea to make it into a picture book from the beginning, just like I did at "Toto Famous Place".[76] [77][78]..The picture book is currently stored in the Toyo Bunko, etc.[79].

Utagawa KunisadaMade a name for himself under Toyokuni, and took the name of Toyokuni III.Ryutei TanehikoIn combination with "Nise Murasaki GenjiSuch asEnrollmentGet success with the illustrations.Popular with Yakusha-e and Bijin-ga, the publisher in his last yearsEbisuya ShoshichiAll 60 figures in the actor Okubi-e series are carved at the hairline and are expensive.PigmentIt takes time and effort, such as using, and it seems that each piece was sold for a hundred and several tens to two hundred sentences.Although the market has matured, historical materials about investors remain in this series.[80]..As an ukiyo-e artist, he is said to have left the most works.[81][82].

yuan -LightEstablished in the period, even in JapanReading bookIt was incorporated into the popular "SuikodenAs a matter of course, "Ukiyo-e" is also used.Kuniyoshi UtagawaIs the publisherKagaya KichiemonGained popularity in the "All Men Are Brothers" series. There are a few sheets in a row, and it seems that it was as expensive as Kunisada's Yakusha-e. 2 (Tenpo 3) "Minamoto no YorimitsuThe public hall Tsuchigumo Yokaizu (Minamoto no Yorimitsu no Yakata ni Tsuchigumo Yokai no Zu) "is"TaihekiIt is an anecdote of the middle of the Heian period, which is written in Tempo reform(1831-33, Tenpo 12-14), ridiculing the ban on luxury, the 12th ShogunKeikeiOld age Mizuno TadakuniRumor has it that Kagaya has drawn the surimono.WoodblockWas scraped off,Pirated versionWas rampant[83][84]..In the Edo period,Siege of Osaka Winter / Summer AndShimabara's turbulenceExcept for, it is the world of Taihei andOriho periodLater erasatireWas forbidden [Annotation 20]Therefore, I took the method of expressing the historical facts before that as a metaphor of this world.With or without metaphors, these works are "Musha-eCall[85][86] .

In addition to the actor picture, Kuniyoshi said, "caricature, And anthropomorphize animals such as the "Goldfish Tsukushi" series, and combine multiple naked men to express their faces, such as "The apparent Hakoha is a tongue-in-cheek". Since the reform of the Tenpo banned the painting of actors, the actors were secretly expressed by scratches on the wall, as in the "Scribbles on the Wall".You can see the attitude of resisting reform and laughing away[87][88][83][89][90].

Large in Edo in October 1855 (Ansei 2)EarthquakeOccurs, and immediately after that, "CatfishWas published by many publishers.catfishHas been said to cause an earthquake since the middle of the Edo period.Catfish support the Japanese archipelago from below, and its headKashima ShrineAt that time, it was thought that the catfish were held down by the "Kanameishi" that sits in the precincts of the Jingu, but because it was Kannazuki on the day of the earthquake.Kashima Myojin Izumo Taisha The people of Edo thought that the earthquake could not be suppressed because they had been paid out at the meeting of the gods in.Therefore, an urgent version of the catfish picture that Kashima Myojin holds down the catfish with a keystone was carried out.There are many other designs, such as apologizing to the townspeople for the earthquake and helping the catfish to build a house.Since it is an urgent edition, there are no stamps or publisher / painter stamps, but it is presumed that there are many Utagawa school works from the style of painting.A glimpse of the momentum of the townspeople trying to live positively[91][92][93].

March 1854 (Kaei 7), Japan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityFor over 200 yearsIsolationIs over. In 58 (5th year of Ansei) US-Japan Amity and Trade Treatyas well as the Netherlands- Russia-France-United KingdomAn equivalent treaty was signed, and it was stipulated in the Convention of Kanagawa. Shimoda- HakodateIn addition to 2 ports, 4 ports were opened and residence there was permitted.Among them, the closest to EdoYokohamaWas opened in 59 (Ansei 6), and was opened in Edo and Kanagawa.[Annotation 21]People were fascinated by the faces, clothes, and structures of foreigners that they had never seen before.The result was "Yokohama picture". From 1860 (the first year of Ansei 7, Man'en) to 1872 (the 5th year of the Meiji era), most of it was published by the publisher of Edo.The painter Utagawa Yoshitora - YoshikazuThere are many Kuniyoshi[94][95]. Also,Goseda HoryuThe Yokohama-e also includes the "Silk Rubbing Picture" (Kinumoto Nikuhitsuga), which depicts the portrait of a resident on silk with a shade of conventional pigment and a montage of the kimono.[96] .

At the turning point of such an era, in 1866-67 (Keio 2-3), he was a student of Kuniyoshi.Yoshitoshi TsukiokaAnd Yoshitoshi's discipleYoshio Ochiai"28 Famous Murders" was published by.These XNUMX pointsTsuruya north and southWork "Tokaido Yotsuya Ghost StoryTaken from Kabuki and historical facts, all points depict murder.Bloody pictureIs[97][98]..At the same timeTosukuniTown painter,Picture moneyBased on the theme of the play, "Blood Green Painting"[Annotation 22]Leaving a folding screen[99][100]It is pointed out that these works were born because at that time there was an opportunity to see the corpse that was actually cut off.[98].

After the Meiji era

Refers to the present from 1868 (the first year of the Meiji era).

1867 (Keio 3rd year),Yoshiki Tokugawa OfResignationThis ends the 260-year history of the Tokugawa Shogunate.After that, on the anti-Bakufu sideSatsuma DomainHowever, due to pressure on Yoshinobu, in 68 (Keio 4th year),Battle of Toba and Fushimi,AfterBoshin War Leading to[101]..The version of them was "War painting, Which distinguishes it from the "Musha-e" of the Edo period.Especially Edo became a battlefield,(I.e.In the mountainsHonorable partyAnd many battles with the new government forces were carried out.The old shogunate side does not have the power to "change" the old[Annotation 23]For the new government side, it will be a self-promotion, so I tolerated the version.After that,Saga no Ran,Taiwan troops(Both 1874, Meiji 7),Southwest War(1878, Meiji 10),Sino-Japanese war(1894-5, Meiji 27-28),Russo-Japanese War(1904-5, Meiji 37-38) was published[103][104][105].

In July 1868 (Keio 4th year), Edo said, "TokyoIt was changed to "Meiji" in September, and in February 9 (Meiji 69).Emperor Former Edo CastleEnter, both in name and reality, JapancapitalWill be. In 1872 (Meiji 5),Shinbashi-Yokohama間 にTrainOpen to[Annotation 24],NihonbashiIn the surrounding area, wooden and stone materials are used together, and there are two or more floors with a balcony.Pseudo-western architectureWill be built[106]..in additionrickshaw-Carriage,Gas lamp"The transition of Tokyo is depicted in"Kaika-eIt is.Hiroshige IIIAndKunikiThe Utagawa school is a typical example, and many of them have a harsh color tone that makes heavy use of "Western red".[107][108][109][110].

Kobayashi KiyochikaIs a general as a low-ranking samuraiIchigo・ Following Yoshinobu, he joined the battle of Toba and Fushimi, and after the defeat of the former Shogunate, he followed Yoshinobu.ShizuokaWhat. In 1884 (Meiji 7), he returned to Tokyo and stood as a painter.Draw a light-conscious Tokyo famous place map, "Ray paintingIs called.In terms of drawing a city, there is also an element of "kaika-e", but it is a "modern" work with different perspectives and colors, unlike that of each artist who lacks individuality.[111][112].

Yoshitoshi Tsukioka (Daiso), who drew a bloody picture at the end of the Edo period, said, "In the mid-10s of the Meiji era,Historical paintingFocus on.This is more of a trend of the times than his intention.Due to the opening of the country and the establishment of a new government, the Europeanization policy was recommended, and in 1876 (Meiji 9)Ministry of EngineeringBut"Technical Fine Arts SchoolEstablished, an Italian painter彫刻Invite a house / architect.But as an export, the government is not imitating Europe, but traditionalCraftRecognize that it sells better.And, in order to strengthen the domestic system, the emperor's authority will be raised, the importance of "national history" will be recognized, and historical paintings will be respected.In addition, it was eaten cold by the Europeanization policy.Kano Yoshicliff-Masakuni HashimotoAnd so onTextBureaucraticOkakura TenshinAnd of political science and philosophyHired teacher After that, he opened his eyes to Japanese art and acted with Tenshin.Ernest FenollosaOf Western moviesNangaA new painting that dismissed[Annotation 25]Synchronize with the claim that produces[116].

What attracted attention in that era wasKikuchi Yosaiof"Zenken Kojitsu(10 volumes in total. 1843 <Tenpo 14> -68 <Meiji XNUMX>).Emperor JimmuからSouthern Court OfEmperor GogameyamaKuge, aristocrats, monks, samurai, until the timeswifeThe 571 people's deceased, and the costumes and faces that match them, were drawn in a double-page spread (page 2). The painter's "powder book" in the 150-10s[Annotation 26]It is actively quoted as.Here is an example of quoting Yoshitoshi.In addition, "history paintings" are drawn not only by traditional painters including ukiyo-e artists, but also by Western painters with reference to "Zenken Kojitsu".[117][118].

After the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese WarNews (Chinese),magazine,Lithograph-写真ToPostcardIs widespread, and ukiyo-e artists are forced to become illustrators.[119]..In the morning edition of the Asahi Shimbun "Nishiki-e wholesaler's recent days" on October 40, 1907, "Nishiki-e has been counted as one of the Edo specialties, and Nishiki-e has declined without a shadow seen in recent years. The collotype version has started, especially in recent years, postcards have become popular, and you should be able to see caricatures of nishiki-e. Nowadays, there are no writers or carvers. "[120]Kiyokata KaburagiBarelyTaisho eraSays that there was a Kusazoshi shop[121].

In the headwindShozaburo WatanabeIn 1905 (Meiji 38), he hired a sushi master and a sculptor to stand as a publisher.Initially, it was only a reprint of old woodblocks and woodblocks made from high-quality scraps, but in the Taisho era, we negotiated with the painter and decided to do so.New printWill be produced.Hashiguchi Goyo-Ito Shinsui-Kawase Hasui-Koka YamamuraThey were also appointed, and they were also inspired by the woodblock prints.

1923 (Taisho 12),Great Kanto Earthquake Watanabe also suffered catastrophic damage, and many publishers were forced out of business.However, he has revived and has traveled to the United States.Hiroshi YoshidaWas appointed to publish works that sell in Europe and the United States.Watanabe died in 1962 (Showa 37)[122][123]But his publisher is still alive in the 21st century[124]..In addition, Adachi Printing Research Institute also produces and sells in the same way.[125].

Ukiyo-e title

Okubo (1994)[126]Refer to and classify.Added "Shini-e", "Nagasaki-e", "History painting", and "Toy painting" that are not listed there.

Beauty painting
It depicts an adult woman and is not limited to "beautiful women" in the narrow sense.Many signboard girls of teahouses and prostitutes were drawn.
Mitate-e
Japanese and Chinese storiesPopular songThe scene is drawn by applying it to the modern costume.Although Japanese poems and Chinese poems are written, there is no detailed explanation.
Spring painting
Also called a pillow picture.It depicts the activities of men and women (some of whom are of the same sex).It was illegal and did not line up at a picture bookstore (bookstore), and wealthy people ordered hand-drawn drawings.
Actor picture
A depiction of popular Kabuki actors and performance scenes for each performance.
Death picture
It was issued as a news report when a popular actor died.Hiroshige Utagawa-Utagawa KunisadaSome[128].
Famous place
After the Meiji era, I drew a place that was widely known to people, not a place that the painter thought was good.Many of the paintings were taken from existing paintings without being interviewed by the painter.
Floating picture
A painter who saw an illustration of an orchid book exaggerated the linear perspective there and drew a building.
Flower bird painting
Although it was not the main subject, Utamaro Kitagawa, Hokusai Katsushika, Hiroshige Utagawa, Kiyochika Kobayashi and others left high-quality works.
Musha-e
Not only the deceased, but also the circumstances of the worldOriho periodThere was an example of secretly criticizing the shogunate by applying it to a former military commander (direct expression was a law).
caricature
In addition to Katsushika Hokusai's "Hokusai Manga," Kuniyoshi Utagawa was good at it.Ukiyo-e # Late Edoreference.
Sumo picture
It depicts wrestlers, wrestlers, and efforts.Like the actor picture, a new work will be released at each box office.
Nagasaki print
Orchid shipDejimaAtKapitanAnd Tang people, they drew their customs.One picture isKappazuriWas sold by the publisher in Nagasaki[129][Source invalid].
Catfish
A picture that appeared immediately after the Great Earthquake of 1855 (Ansei 2).Ukiyo-e # Late Edoreference.
Yokohama picture
After the opening of the country, it depicts the customs of foreigners set in Yokohama.Ukiyo-e # Late Edoreference.
Kaika-e
A drawing of a Western-style building, railroad, horse-drawn carriage, rickshaw, gas lamp, etc. in Tokyo after the restoration.Ukiyo-e #After the Meiji erareference.
War picture
It depicts the war from the Boshin War to the Russo-Japanese War.Ukiyo-e #After the Meiji erareference.
Shimbun Nishiki
1874 (Meiji 7),Tokyo Nichini ShimbunFor reprintYoshio OchiaiDrawn, gained commercial success,Postal newspaperAppoints Yoshitoshi Tsukioka and follows him.Since it is inferior to pure newspapers in breaking news, it describes radical subjects such as murder in harsh colors.[130][131]. 
Historical painting
It depicts successive emperors, their relatives, and Tadashi, who were conscious of raising public awareness in the 10s and 20s of the Meiji era.Ukiyo-e #After the Meiji erareference.
Toy picture
AboveThe assembled model "Tatebanko" became popular in Edo and was accepted at the end of the 18th century in Edo.In the Meiji eraUtagawa YoshitoIs active as a painter specializing in toy painting[132][133][134].

Main publishers

Dealing with entertainment publicationsChimoto wholesaler(Jihontonya Tonya) is the publisher of Ukiyo-e. "Jimoto" means that it is unique to Edo, not brought from above.[135].

How to make ukiyo-e prints

This chapter is published by Adachi and Kobayashi (1994).[136]Ikeda (1997)[137]Described based on.

The person who makes the planpublisher, The person who draws by order from the publisherartistCalled.Carving the sketch drawn by the painter on the plateTattooist, Coloring the woodblock and rubbing it on paperSurishiIs.In many cases, only the name of the publisher and the artist is mentioned in the work, but sometimes the name of the sculptor / sushi master is included.

  1. The publisher plans a plan and asks the artist to draw it.
  2. The painterPrint sketchDraw.
    The painter draws the block copy of the main edition (Omohan) using only the ink lines.
  3. The publisher is a sketchEsakoHangingLordSubmit it to, have it stamped with a publication permission, and give it to the tattooist.
  4. The tattooist carves the main plate.
    For the plate materialCherry blossom OfPlankUse wood.The size of the plate was called "large format" at the end of the 18th century.Votive paperThe size (about 39 cm x about 26.5 cm) that is cut in half vertically is the mainstream.The tattooist pastes the block copy on the wood block inside out and carves the main plate.In this process, the sketch drawn by the artist is carved and disappears.
    The main version produced in this process is called Kyogozuri.
  5. The sushi master rubs a dozen or so pieces of the main version of sumi suri (school sushi) and hands them to the painter.
  6. The painter specifies the color of each color plate in red for the school combination.Also, draw small parts such as kimono patterns.
  7. Following the instructions, the tattooist makes a color plate.
    Turn over the color-designated school sword and paste it on the woodblock, and insert the sword.First, a pattern is engraved on each plate with a triangular sword, but for the ink plate, engraving is added including the part of each color plate (called waste carving).The paper rubbed with this waste carving plate is pasted on the woodblock to carve the color plate according to the number of colors.Match the waste carved plate and the color plate, and after adjustment, scrape off the parts other than the ink on the waste carved plate.
    Next, roughly scrape the unnecessary parts of each plate with a mallet and finish carving with only finer parts.
    Leave the "key" and "attraction" for registration in the finishing carving process.A "register" that indicates the position of the paper so that the colors do not shift during multicolor printing.Dragonfly)make.
  8. The sushi master makes a trial sushi according to the instructions of the painter.
    inkUse a solid one soaked in water for half a year and crushed in a mortar.Also, for paintsRock paintToglueAnd water to make.PaperEchizen HoshoIs often used, and glue is used to prevent bleeding.AlumApply the mixed solution of "Alum".
    Ink and pigment on the woodblockBrush(In the 21st centurybrush) To rub in.Pigments are not placed on the surface of the woodblock.
  9. With the consent of the painter, the first 200 sheetsBarenRub with.
  10. EsoshiyaSell ​​works from.

price

Ukiyo-e prices are often "SobaIt is said to be the same as "one cup".Looking at the actual prices, there are variations depending on the format and age of the ukiyo-e, but the actual price of large-format nishiki-e around the 19th century was around 20 sentences, and even in the middle of the 19th century, it was generally in the 20-liter range. However, it is supported by historical materials, diaries, and travelogues at that time.Since the soba fee was 16 sentences at the end of the Edo period, it can be regarded as almost the same[138].

Mountain tokyo Ofyellow backed novelIn "Edo Boasting Specialty Cane" (published in 2nd year of Bunka <1805>), "Yakushiya in 2 sentences and Eijimai 16 in 1751 sentences and Saushi is two and forty-five. It has the phrase "Nishiki Ichimai" and is often quoted in various books.In addition, the actor picture of 61 sentences in XNUMX sheets is considered to be a small version with slightly inferior paper.Fine format around the Horeki (XNUMX-XNUMX)Benizuri-eIt is written that the actor's picture was 1 sentences per sheet (essay "Dustzuka Dan" Bunka 4th year <11>), but this is only a few colors of Benizuri-e and the paper quality is thin It is thought that it was because it was cheaper.

In the 7th year of Kansei (1795)Town touchThen, you can sell nishiki-e with 20 or more sentences as long as the stock is available, but the number of newly produced ones is limited to 16 to 18 sentences ("Kuju Senkyo").Tempo reformThen, the color is restricted to 7,8 or 1 times, and the price is restricted to 16 sentences or less per sheet.This number seems to be a strict number that could even lead to unprofitability,Fujiokaya Diary』Tenpo 14 <1843> Spring article, a colorful color that used a lot of crimsonKanda FestivalNishiki-e sold well, but at the price of 16 sentences, it is said that the more you sell, the more you lose money.

Harunobu SuzukiThe medium format was sold for about 65 sentences, and the masterpiece "Zapo Hakkei" was put in a paulownia box with eight pieces, and it cost 8 minute (= 1 sentences).[Annotation 27]..In addition, there was a rumor that it was a satire of the reform of Tenpo.Kuniyoshi UtagawaIn the large-format three-sheet series "Minamoto no Yorimitsu Kokan Dokansaku Yokaizu", after collecting the products, I saw the worries that the woodblocks would be scraped.Sadahide UtagawaThe imitation was secretly sold in 100 sentences ("Fujiokaya Diary"), and Kuniyoshi's three large-format "Hachikendennouchi Horyukaku" (1840, Tenpo 11) was 1 sentences, 38 Sold for 3 sentences as a set,Kakitei MakotoAlthough I feel that it is expensive, I heard that it takes more time than usual to use many color plates and buy it (Makoto Diary)[140].

Hokusai researcher'sSatoshi NagataWas the publisher of "Hokusai Manga"Nagoya OfEirakuya ToshiroWhen asked about the price, he testified that "the publications at that time (the beginning of the Ming dynasty) were extremely expensive, and it was not the price that ordinary people would easily buy a book."[141].

In the Meiji era, the revision of the Publishing Ordinance made it mandatory to display the list price, and the price of ukiyo-e can be known.In general, 1 piece 2 sen, 2 pieces and 3 pieces are the same, and those that take time and effort are sold at an extra price of about 5 to 1 sen to this standard price.[142].

Exhibition and preservation method

In modern museums, the center of a cardboard (mat) of acid-free paper is hollowed out, sandwiched between another mat, and preserved.Frame it at the time of exhibition[143]..To prevent fading due to UV rays, avoid direct sunlight and display under UV-blocking lighting.Must not be exhibited throughout the year[144][145].

When not on display, it is desirable to remove it from the forehead and place it horizontally to prevent discoloration.Insect repellentDoes not containPaulownia chestIt is better to put it in a box where humidity control is effective.[146].

Paint

Ukiyo-e prints were made from plantsdyeAnd mineralsPigmentHowever, in the 19th century, chemical dyes were imported and used.[147][148][149].

Black isinkIs used, and the following pigments and dyes are used in multicolor prints.

Reddish
Yellow
Cyan
  • dye
    • Commelina communis:DewConcentrated petal juice
    • blue : blueFermented leaves
  • Pigment
    • Berlin blue(Persian blue): Berlinate (both belo and belo indigo)

And so on, the neutral colors are expressed by mixing these.

In addition, the following were used to express the prints.

  • mica: Silicic acid compound (the one used for the background isMica printingCalled (Kizuri)[150].
  • 金属 : Fri,Silver,copperAs powder or foil.Because it is expensive, it is used for "surimono" for patronage, not for commercial use.
  • White pigments were rarely used, except for "surimono", which made the best use of the color of Japanese paper.

Evaluation and collection of posterity

Since the 19th century, a large number of works have traveled abroad and influenced European artists.Boston Museum of Fine ArtsAbout 5 points[151],Victoria and Albert MuseumAbout 3 points[152], 2 items at the British Museum[152],Pushkin Museum of ArtAbout 3 points[Source required], Other German, Italian, etc., Western Museums[152], Universities and other educational institutions, personal collections, etc., about 50 ukiyo-e are stored overseas, which is said to exceed 30 in Japan.[153].

There are also museums and libraries that hold woodblocks.Since woodblock prints are often destroyed after use, they are a valuable cultural heritage, and some printmakers reproduce the prints with the permission of the woodblock survey and restoration, as well as the holding facility.[154].

Japan's major personal collections

In Japan, there is a collection of daimyo and businessmen.

Impact outside Japan

As an example of Ukiyo-e's earliest arrival in Europe, in 1798 (Kansei 10),KapitanRagaKatsushika HokusaiI planned the life of Japanese men and womenScrollI ordered it and brought it back to my home country.AlsoSieboldBrought back a large amount of Japanese materials and published 1832 volumes of "Japonica" in 52-20.Hokusai cartoonIs posted[155].

1856 years,BlackmonHowever, the "anecdote" that it became known to artists by showing around the "Hokusai Manga" used for the wrapping paper of ceramics imported from Japan is now questioned.[155][156].

Van GoghBut"Old Tanguy』Drawing an ukiyo-e in the background,Hiroshige UtagawaI copied the work of.Edouard Manet,Edgar Degas,Mary Cassatt,Pierre Bonnard,Edouard Vuillard,Lautrec,GauguinAlso influenced (Japonisme[157].

I was dealing with Japanese artBingIncorporated ukiyo-e expression into his craft work[158].

Claude DebussyIs Katsushika Hokusai's "The Great Wave off KanagawaInspired by "Symphonic poem "sea"Is sometimes said to have composed[159]..However, although "Thirty-six Views of Tomitake-The Great Wave off Kanagawa" is hung on the wall of Debussy's room, and a pattern similar to the first edition sheet music is used, the material "inspired" was discovered. It has not been[160].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ There is no unified customary name.Among the various names, this is the newest name as of the latter half of the late 2010s, and it turned out that "Yakko Edobee" was the name of posterity, so "Edobei" It has been changed to.
  2. ^ Ukiyo-e handwritingAlso called
  3. ^ Retired Sugihara (1947) "Study of Edo period language" Usui Shobo[6]More grandchildren.
  4. ^ "The Tales of Ise" Hachijuni (first half of the 10th century) "If it scatters, the cherry blossoms will be happy and it will be a long time in the world."
  5. ^ "Shoko"The Fifteenth Edition of the Engraving" "Saint Nobuya Tenkou, Hisashiya Monogatari, Yasushi Yin Dodo, Metayo Yoyo Donami (Omitted) Sosei Wakafuki, His Death Wakakyu." When alive, it behaves naturally, when it dies, it follows the changes of all things, when it is quiet, it adjusts its virtue to the shadow, and when it moves, it changes to the yang. And (...) as if they were floating in the flow when they were alive, and as if they were resting when they were dying. "[12].
  6. ^ "Ryudabushi Kayo" (1593-1611, Bunroku 2-Keicho 16th year) "Living with the moon, but not so much" is not decided, so don't think seriously. The meaning of the world that should be enjoyed
  7. ^ "Ryudabushi Kayo" (1593-1611, Bunroku 2-Keicho 16th year) "Wishing for a later life, the Ukiyo is also called, and the body is more vain than the dew of the morning glory." world.Yuri.Also, be absorbed in playing Yukaku.Ukiyo play.Meaning
  8. ^ A love affair between a man and a woman in "Kanazoshi Hannosuke" (1609-1617), "The comfort of the heart is just the world."Colors.Affair.Also, the meaning of the person who is the target of love, amorousness, affair, etc.
  9. ^ Quoted from Tokyo National Museum image search"Rakuchu genre painting screen (Funakimoto)". 2020/5/3Browse.
  10. ^ The four-term division is for convenience only, and this theory is not absolute.For example, Ishida et al. (4)[15]Then, the third term, Inagaki (3)[16]Has adopted the 5th term division.
  11. ^ MatsuuraSince it is an old collection, it is wrong to read "Matsuura".
  12. ^ Quoted from Tokyo National Museum image search"Danjuro Ichikawa's figure of Goro Takenuki". 2020/5/3Browse.
  13. ^ In the Horeki year (1751-64), the fine format (about 33 x 15 cm) Benizuri-e was about four sentences, while the medium format (about 1 x 29 cm) Nishiki-e of Harunobu was 22. It was a sentence.[40][41]
  14. ^ I had an exchange with HarunobuOta NanpoIn the section of "Half-day Quiet Story" in June of the 1760th year of Meiwa, there is a statement, "I am a Yamato painter, without drawing a picture of this person's lifelong actor.Actually, there are multiple actor pictures left in the works after 10 (Horeki XNUMXth year), but it is a word that understands Harunobu's feelings with the issue of "Ancient Man Shikojin".[40].
  15. ^ At the end of the 20th century, Tachihara Inuki restored the dye used by Harunobu and others and carved it.[44][45].
  16. ^ About 33 x 15 cm[38]Yakusha-e draws a sketch after seeing the box office and engraves it, so a smaller size is advantageous because it can be printed faster.[46]
  17. ^ Over.A small picture scroll with a width of about 17 cm in the latter half of the Muromachi period[53].
  18. ^ A system in which ukiyo-e prints are investigated for problems such as criticism of the shogunate, and if there are no problems, they are stamped.[59].
  19. ^ It was printed in 1813 (10th year of culture), and was rubbed for more than 1923 years until the woodblock was burned down in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 12 (Taisho 100). Metropolitan customs makeup biography(Miyako Fuuzoku Keiwaiden) ”says," To dye the red in your mouth, apply a dark color to the lower lip and a light color to the upper lip. To do this, first apply ink to the base and then add a deep red color to it. It looks dark and glows with a bluish color of red.Lantern It's okay to take the oily smoke that collects in the brush, apply it to the tip of the brush, and add crimson on it. "[69].
  20. ^ See the above-mentioned example of Utagawa Toyokuni's "Ehon Taikoki" being caught and Kuniyoshi's "Minamoto no Yorimitsu Kokan Dokan-saku Yokaizu" collection example.
  21. ^ A place name included in the XNUMX Stations of the Tokaido, not the prefecture name Kanagawa.Initially, Kanagawa was scheduled to open instead of Yokohama.
  22. ^ Yes.Folding screen folded in half.
  23. ^ The actual revision isChimoto wholesalerSince it was self-censorship between each other, it was possible to print under confusion.[102].
  24. ^ The lower limit of "Yokohama-e" mentioned above was set to 1872, which means that the cutting edge of the times moved from Yokohama to Tokyo due to the opening of the railway.
  25. ^ Yamashita calls it "Kano school retrospective"[114]..The term "Japanese painting" is a contradictory concept to "Western painting" and appeared in the 20s of the Meiji era and became popular in the 30s.[115].
  26. ^ Poop.A picture model for apprentices used by the Kano school.I copied this and learned painting.The sketch was not respected.
  27. ^ Seiichiro Takahashi (1932) "Ukiyo-e prints as a product", "Mita Society Magazine" 32 (1).[139]More grandchildren.
  28. ^ Closed in 2014, the whereabouts of the collection have not been announced.

Source

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  2. ^ Okubo 2013, p. 8.
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  5. ^ Kamiya 2014, p. 18.
  6. ^ Tanabe 2016, p. 10.
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  18. ^ Tsuji 2005, pp. 293–294.
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  20. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 178–179 Kono "Early Modern Genre Painting"
  21. ^ Kano 2014, pp. 243–257.
  22. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 431 Motoaki Kono "Genre Painting"
  23. ^ Tanabe 2016, pp. 8–11.
  24. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 300–301 Junko Mutou "Tane"
  25. ^ Chiba City Museum of Art 2016, p. 78 Masako Tanabe "Sugimura Jihei Onna Sannomiya and Kashiwagi no Emon ”(Tokyo National Museum collection.Important artwork.. )Such
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  27. ^ Hinohara 2014, pp. 189–190.
  28. ^ Chiba City Museum of Art 2016, p. 187.
  29. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 137–138 Haruo Suwa "Kabuki"
  30. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 422 Junko Muto "Gourd-footed worm drawing"
  31. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 409–410 Masako Tanabe "Format"
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  33. ^ Chiba City Museum of Art 2016, p. 167.
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  37. ^ Chiba City Museum of Art 2016, pp. 229, 268-271.
  38. ^ a b International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 409–411 Hitoshi Iwasaki "Format"
  39. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 444 Masako Tanabe "Hoshogami"
  40. ^ a b International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 260 Murasaki Fujisawa "Harunobu Suzuki"
  41. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 409 Hitoshi Iwasaki "Format"
  42. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 266–269 Hidetake Asano "Surimono"
  43. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 463 Masako Tanabe "Water Painting"
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  46. ^ Okubo 2014, pp. 173–174.
  47. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 126–127 Masato Naito "Katsukawa Shunsho"
  48. ^ "Snow, Moon and Flowers, Katsukawa Shunsho brush. Collection of MOA Museum of Art.Important cultural property.". 2020/4/3Browse.
  49. ^ Okubo 2014, pp. 226–227 Masako Tanabe “The second generation Monnosuke Ichikawa, Goro Soga, Haruyoshi Katsukawa”
  50. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 349–350 Kohei Suzuki "Torii Kiyonaga"
  51. ^ Okubo 2014, p. 175.
  52. ^ Okubo 2014, pp. 228–229 Masako Tanabe "Hanami of Asukayama, Jibei of Sojuro Sawamura III and Koharu of Hanshiro Iwai IV"
  53. ^ Suntory Museum of Art 2017, p. 222 Maki Tsuchiya "Jizo-do Soshi Emaki"
  54. ^ Eisei Bunko Spring Painting Exhibition Japan Held Executive Committee 2015, pp. 322–330.
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  57. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 167–169 Hidetake Asano "Utamaro Kitagawa"
  58. ^ Hinohara 2014, pp. 187–188.
  59. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 14 Satoru Sato "Renewal"
  60. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 15–16 Satoru Sato "Renewal"
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  62. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 333 Shugo Asano "Sharaku Toshusai"
  63. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 62–63 Junichi Okubo "Utagawa Toyokuni"
  64. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 11Haruo Suwa"Ada"
  65. ^ Okubo 2014, p. 246 Masako Tanabe "Beautiful Senjoka Toifu Ushio Kusaki ... Keisai Eisen"
  66. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 186–187 Kohei Suzuki "Keisai Eisen"
  67. ^ Ogura 2017, pp. 6–12.
  68. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 169 Kanae Taijudo Element "Gion Ito"
  69. ^ Takahashi 1982, p. 179.
  70. ^ Suzuki 1999, pp. 13–409.
  71. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 129–131 Megumi Ito "Katsushika Hokusai"
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  73. ^ Suzuki 1999, pp. 217-218, 308-313.
  74. ^ Hinohara 2014, p. 191.
  75. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 212 Shinya Ichikawa "Sakanaya Eikichi"
  76. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 67–68 Shinya Ichikawa "Hiroshige Utagawa"
  77. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 476–478 Minoru Harashida "One Hundred Famous Views of Edo"
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  83. ^ a b International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 59–60 Shinichi Inagaki "Utagawa Kuniyoshi"
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  86. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 471–472 Yuriko Iwakiri "Musha-e"
  87. ^ Kikuchi et al. 1982, p. 36 "Nail painting"
  88. ^ Kobayashi and Okubo 1994, pp. 104–105 Okubo "Caricature"
  89. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 159–160 Shigeru Oikawa "Caricature"
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  95. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 504–505 Yoichi Yokota "Yokohama Ukiyoe"
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  97. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, pp. 283–284 Mayumi Sugawara "Yoshitoshi Oso"
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  109. ^ International Ukiyo-e Society 2008, p. 68 Shinya Ichikawa "(Third generation) Hiroshige Utagawa"
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  113. ^ Kikuchi Yosai"Zenken Kojitsu", 1868.two:10.11501/778242.
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References

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Related item

Related works

外部 リンク

  1. ^ Okubo 2013, p. 8.

 

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