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aesthetics(Bigaku,British: aesthetics,Alsoæsthetics,esthetics, Essetics, Esthetics,Nozomi: Aesthetics) Is18st centuryWas established in哲学It is one area.Beauty Of本質And the structure,phenomenonAsNATURE-artAnd their surrounding areas経 験Target andmetaphysicsInvestigate.Aesthetic objects, aesthetic judgments, aesthetic attitudes, aesthetic experiences, aesthetic values, etc. have been questioned.[1].

In Japan,Mori OgaiBy "AestheticsWas given the translation[2] [Note 1]However, it is now called aesthetics.

Sometimes it simply expresses aesthetics and aesthetics.In recent years, it has also been used in business theory as a word to describe the appearance and atmosphere (in Japan, it is mainly called essetics in katakana).In addition, the Japanese word "aesthetics" may change from its original meaning and represent a noble and excellent belief.for example,Go player OfOtake Hideo OfKifuIs called "Otake Aesthetics".


Traditionally, aesthetics is the beauty of "what is beauty"本質, The standard of beauty, "what is beautiful", the standard of beauty, "what is beauty for?"valueHas been tackled as a problem.科学In a nutshellsenseTarget and感情OfvalueTreatLearningBut sometimes aestheticjudgment[3]It may also refer to itself.In a broader sense, by researchers in this field, aesthetics is "art,cultureas well as the NATUREAboutcriticismIt is also positioned as a "consideration"[4].

Aesthetics is oneLearningIn the 18th centuryEnlightenmentThought andnatural ScienceSurfaced with the establishment of科学OfrecognitionAnd aesthetic orsenseIt is related to the fact that there was a difference in the perception of the target.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten ThereasonRecognizing the logic peculiar to sentimental cognitionLearningFormed the aesthetics of.laterCantExamined hobbies as the ability to make aesthetic judgments in the study of aesthetics, and positioned aesthetics as a critique of beauty rather than the scholarship of beauty itself, as there is no universal principle governing it.Aesthetics from hereSchiller,Shelling,HegelThe focus shifts to the philosophical criticism of beauty developed by such means, but from the 19th century to the 20th century, from the exploration of the concept of beauty itself to the individual aesthetic experience and artistic domain, or the relationship between art and other human activities. Is also being considered.

In Germany in the latter half of the 19th century, in an attempt to separate the study of art from aesthetics,Arts(Geijutsugaku,alone: Kunstwissenschaft,British: science of art) Was proposed.Since then, aesthetics has changed by incorporating the claims of general arts, and while aesthetics is philosophical today, it has come to be called arts, referring to scientific and empirical art research.[5].

Western aesthetics


The term "aesthetics" was coined in the mid-18th century. The name of the discipline "aesthetics" (English) isGermany OfphilosopherAlexander BaumgartenDerived from Aesthetica (literally translated into Japanese) used by[6].

This aesthetica Is the classical Greek word αἴσθησις(Aisthesis) adjective αἰσθητικ-ός(Aisthtike)LatinIt was a ghost and had two meanings.One is "sensitivity" and the other is "academic" (episteme) Is an abbreviated meaning (according to Greek convention)SensitivityIt is.The meaning of Baumgarten's use of this word is ambiguous in his books, but at the latest after "Aesthetics", the latter meaning, more specifically, "Kansei epistemology It is clear that it is used to mean "scientia cognitionis sensitivae".[Source required].

According to Baumgarten, "beauty is the perfection of emotional cognition" (Aesthetics, verse 14), so aesthetica ("sensitivity epistemology") is "the study of beauty ars pulcre cogitandi" (verse 1). Is.On the other hand, aesthetica is "art theory theoria artium liberalium" (verse 1), because art in general, which is typified by "perfect sensitiva perfecta" (referring to "poetry"), is related to beauty.

(Aesthetics = Kansei Epistemology = Study on Beauty = Art Theory)

In Baumgarten's system, Kansei epistemology, which is a scientific consideration of beauty and art, is "ars analogi rationis" in contrast to rational epistemology, and "lower epistemology gnoseologia inferior" (ibid. 1). It was positioned as a section).


Aesthetics (Liberal arts theory, lower epistemology, beautiful thoughtsTechnology, Technology of reason analogues) is the study of Kansei cognition. (Section 1)

The purpose of aesthetics is the completeness of emotional cognition itself.But this perfection is beauty.And the imperfections of the emotional perception itself must be avoided, and this imperfections are ugly. (Section 14)


There was no clear terminology of aesthetics in the Greek-Roman period[6]..Even in ancient times, beauty and art were captured from ontology, metaphysics, ethics, and technical theory, but macroscopic consideration was scarce.[6]..In addition, it is believed that the ancient view of aesthetics was limited to fragmentary or individual aspects of specific aspects, and no systematic consideration was given.[6]..The source of systematic aestheticsPlatoGo back to[Source required].

Aesthetics as Philosophical Aesthetics was a British journalist in the early 18th century.Joseph addisonIs the magazine "SpectatorIt is said that it started with "the joy of imagination" serialized in the first issue of[7].

Birth of "aesthetics" as an academic discipline

The philosophical department of aesthetics was foundedLeibniz-WolfGerman philosopher belonging to the school lineBaumgarten(AGBaumgarten, 1714-62).

Baumgarten, a 1735 book, gave a new concept to aesthetics.[8],PoetryI foretold the study of aesthetica as a study of thinking about the principle of aesthetic value of.

HeFrankfurtI started a lecture on "Aesthetics" at the university in 1742, and after that, I received another request for a lecture, so I made some corrections to the original lecture content and made this.LatinPublished in[Source required].. The first volume of Aesthetica was published in 1, and the second volume was published in 1750.In this book, Baumgarten showed the idea that beauty is the essence of art, and that beauty is sensuously recognized, and established the same circular structure of art, beauty and sensibilities.[9].

Modern aesthetics

In the 18th century, when leisure activities became popular, a wide range of philosophical considerations about aesthetics were developed in earnest.[7]..In early theoryImmanuel KantWas the most influential[7].RomanticismIn the era of the emergence of and the political revolution, as an aesthetic concept related to this,SublimeGender has come to be evaluated[7]..SublimeEdmund BurkeIs the concept theorized in "A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful"[7].

Shelling"Philosophy of Art" Lecture,HegelAfter the "Aesthetics" lecture, etc.de: Konrad Fiedler) Has been criticized for "aesthetics from above" and continues to the present day.

Contemporary aesthetics

Notable in modern aestheticsExistentialism-Analytical philosophy-Post-structuralismWould be an approach by.Analytical philosophyThe discipline that deals with aesthetic problems using the method of is called analytical aesthetics.[10]..One of the main themes of analytical aesthetics is the definition of art[11]. Also,Cognitive neuroscienceIn one area, about aesthetic experience and artistic creativity, cognitive neurologyPsychologyStudy with a targeted approach(English editionThere are (neuroaesthetics)[12].

Aesthetics in Japan

Major aesthetics related in Japan学会asJapanese Society for AestheticsHas published the magazine "Aesthetics" (four times a year) and the European magazine Aesthetics (every other year).In addition to the national convention held in October every year, research presentations are held five times a year in the Kanto and Kansai regions.In 2001 (held every 4 years), it was held in Japan.


"Aesthetics" in Japanese isNakae ChominIs in France(French versionThis is because he translated his work (1878) and gave it the Japanese title "Iji Aesthetics" (1883 November, 11).The beginning of aesthetics education in Japanese higher education institutionsTokyo Art SchoolandTokyo UniversityInFenollosaLecture centered on Hegel's aesthetics, Taro Mori (Mori Ogai) At the University of TokyoEV HartmannAesthetics et al. Lectures on contemporary German aesthetics at the time, andRafael von KabelThis is an aesthetics lecture at the University of Tokyo (known as Professor Koebel).Also京都In, Western aesthetics and art history were educated with a focus on design education.The University of Tokyo is an independent courseYasuji OtsukaWas appointed as a professor and was the first in the world to hold an aesthetics course (1899 ) University.

Japanese aesthetics

In pre-modern Japan, there is no "aesthetics" as the culmination of coherent thinking like in the West.But,breath,WabiIndividual such asAesthetic senseHas existed for a long time andtea ceremony,Japanese architecture,Traditional craftsIt has been practiced in various ways.In addition, although he has achieved achievements in individual fields such as kagaku, nogaku, and painting, it is not a monolithic aesthetic because it is a feat of an isolated genius.Although these aesthetics are closely related to nature, Western aesthetics developed before modern times solely for "human" -centered "art".Therefore, Japanese aesthetics cannot be fully described and explained from the perspective of Western aesthetics.When discussing pre-modern Japanese things from the perspective of "art" in aesthetics, the discussion ignores the academic context and should be taken with caution.At present, it is difficult for the Japanese themselves to clearly define and explain the aesthetic sense of Japan.In the future, research that makes use of multiple perspectives is awaited.

Historically, the story of Amano-Iwato in Japanese mythology means that the crisis of the people was saved by the art of song and dance, suggesting the great weight of the history of the Japanese people.The ideal human being here crystallizes in the fact that there is no inner cloudiness called "Aka Kiyo Kiyo Ki Kokoro" (declaration), and sin is the end of the water by misogi and misogi. The religious magical sentiment, which is supposed to be dissipated at the end of the wind, has an aesthetic idea that beauty and cleanliness are somehow united.The description of Ame-no-Uzume's dance also mentions breasts and vulva.

The first conscious theorization of aesthetic thinking in Japan was "Old and modern Wakashu] In "Kana Preface". NoriyukiIs a "pseudonym" and states that waka is the fruit of a pure heart ("Yamato song can be traced to the leaves of all words with one heart as a seed").He said that waka was made from the time of the opening of the world, and that the art that gathered in waka was the raw expression of "living things" that made the essence bloom in humans.

ThisKagakuWas theorized as an art criticism and creative indexFujiwara no KintōIt is after "" and "", and the latter nine-division method seems to be based on the Kushin Rendai in Buddhism, but basically it is in China.The influence of the theory of goods etc. in the generation is presumed."Too much heart", which was regarded as the best song by Fujiwara no Kintō,Fujiwara no Shunzei,Mibu TadasuAndDuckIt was deepened as "Yosei" and associated with the ghost.

At that time, the song style was "Take" and "Nagataka-sama" (SublimeOr aesthetic), "Kashi" (beauty derived from the fun of taste), etc.CategoriesWas subdivided and systematized as "XNUMX Waka poems".Of the poetWest line(1118-1190) is said to have read 2300 waka poems full of aesthetics.

Fujiwara TeikeDevelops the category of "Ahare" (grace) as "Once upon a time, Ki no Tsurayuki's song is struck by the sword and the sword is struck by the interestingness of the song" ("Modern Hideka"). did.

Yugen-sama, the taste of the right heart, which was valued by the Fujiwara no TeikaZenDeepened with ideologyShotetsuSaid, "What should I call a ghost body? This is a ghost body, and I can't think of it in words or in my heart." ("Shotetsu Monogatari").

From here, the spirit of performing arts was born.theaterIn theory, NohZeami"Hana Kagami"'s "moving enough heart movement seven-part body" (move your mind enough and move your body to the seventh minute), and the secret of "the secret of the hand" that "the place is interesting" It leads to a secret that respects the "formless figure" of Noh's mysterious theory centered on "Tokoro".

This is a haiku poet's understanding that technical training is required.Matsuo BashoThis leads to the assertion of the art of "ki", "Let the haiku be a three-shaku child.This inner spontaneity, according to "Shobun no Kobun," is Saigyo's waka poem.SectRenga,SesshuPicture,Sen no RikyuIt is the spirit of elegance that pierces the tea.

To guarantee this from another side, the literary painterIke no TaigaWhen asked what was difficult with painting, he replied, "It's just that there is nothing on the paper." (Kuwayama Gyoku, "Painting").

The mysticism of this ki art originates from Japanese aesthetic thought, which starts from the self-expression of cosmic life, but is probably influenced by Chinese thought and Buddhist thought.

On the other hand, it was the national scholar who insisted on aesthetics with a pure Japanese spirit.Noricho MotoiIs.Motoori Norinaga ("Ishigami's personal words") said, "It's a good idea to get in touch with things and get to know the essence of things." The impression that is established after recognizing the essence of an event in experience is defined as "mono no aware".He argued that the person who knew this was "a person with a heart and a person without a heart" (same as above), that is, it is because human beings are human beings to know "mono no aware". Since "what you feel deeply in your heart is something that makes people feel uncomfortable" (same as above), the expression of emotion is inevitable for human beings. The essence of the means of expression is, "Even if it's a bird bug (...), it's a shameful thing to sing a song as a human being." It is a Japanese poem, such as "Obune").Norinaga was in sharp opposition to the teachings of Confucianism, and even in the point of claiming the autonomy of art, there was an aspect of anticipating the modern spirit.

Because of this ideological tradition of emphasizing beauty and art, the ingestion of Western aesthetics was also successful.West Zhou,Mori OgaiAfter that, it stands in the oriental traditiontea ceremonyInsisted on the aesthetic world view of Daojia inKakuzo Okakura"Tea Book", and studying kagaku in the method of Western aesthetics from that aspectcategorySupplemented the theoryYoshinori Onishi"Yugen and Mono no aware" is noteworthy.As modern cultural figures, Yukio Mishima, Junichiro Tanizaki, Kyoka Izumi, Ranpo Edogawa and others have presented works full of aesthetics.It can be interpreted that Shuji Terayama, Nagisa Oshima and others inherited the aesthetics after the 60s after the war.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ West Zhou,Nakae ChominThey also created translations such as "good aesthetics" and "good taste theory".The first edition of 14Tetsujiro InoueChapter "Philosophical vocabulary(Touyokan), "aesthetics" was adopted as a translation of aesthetics.


  1. ^ "The Concept of the Aesthetic”. Stanford University. 2021/10/3Browse.
  2. ^ For details on how aesthetics was imported into Japan until the translation was finalized, see Masahiro Hamashita, "Study of Ogai Mori's Aesthetics (1) -Introduction", "Studies" 45 (1), pp.69-78. (Kobe Jogakuin University, July 1998).
  3. ^ Aesthetic Judgment Items in "Stanford Encycropedia of Philisophy" (SEP).(English)
  4. ^ Kelly, Michael 1998, p. Ix.
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). “Arts”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2019/6/27Browse.
  6. ^ a b c d Tomonobu Imamichi, "Lecture Aesthetics I", 1984, p. 24.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Aesthetics”. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2021/9/30Browse.
  8. ^ Values ​​of Beauty: Historical Essays in Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press. (2005). ISBN 978-0-521-60669-1. https://archive.org/details/valuesofbeautyhi00guye 
  9. ^ Kenichi Sasaki 2004, p. 10-11.
  10. ^ "What kind of discipline is analytical aesthetics? A report on the current situation from young Japanese aesthetics”. Synodos. 2021/9/22Browse.
  11. ^ Kenichi Sasaki 2004, p. 170.
  12. ^ Tomohiro Ishizu 2018, p. 17.


  • Kimiko Niizeki"Ogai Mori and Naojiro Harada Whereabouts of Friendship Sprouting in Munich" (Tokyo University of the Arts Press, 2008)

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