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👩‍🎤 | Former Nogizaka46, Kana Nakada, aiming to be No.1 female swordsman! "Woman Ryujakushi Pro-Am No.1 Final Battle ...


Photo Former Nogizaka46, Kana Nakada, aiming to be the No. 1 female swordsman! "Woman Ryujakushi Pro-Am No.1 Final Battle Tenpai Queen Season 7" Appearance Decision

Former Nogizaka46, Kana Nakada, aiming to be the No. 1 female swordsman! "Woman Ryujakushi Pro-Am No.1 Final Battle ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
The senior professional sparrows are at too different levels, and I'm confused, but I'm really grateful to have so many opportunities to play against Aki Nikaido, who I admired.
 

Former Nogizaka46, Kana Nakada, a professional sparrow, will broadcast "Women's Sparrow Pro-Am No ..." from 11:19 on November 22th (Friday). → Continue reading

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Mahjong

Mahjong(Mahjong,Traditional Chinese: Mahjong,Simplified Chinese: Mahjong,English: Mahjong) Isテ ー ブ ル ゲ ー ムKind of.brandAs a general rule, it is done by four people.ChugokuOriginating from, it is popular all over the world.

Overview

Four players surround the table, dozens to hundredsbrandPullRoleA game in which you accumulate points by aligning the points several times.Win / loss is determined by the amount of points scored at the end of the game and the ranking.The rules of the game are very complicated, but in addition to China, the birthplaceJapan,Southeast Asia,The United States of AmericaIt is popular in such countries.

CurrentChineseIn general, "Mahjong"Mahjong(Margin pinyin: májiàng). "Mahjong"(Marchue pinyin: máquè) Is in ChineseSparrowMeans.By the way, playing mahjong is called "Uchima Sho" (Der Margin dǎ má jiàng).Cantonese,FormosanThen, as in Japan, it is common to say "mahjong" (Jyutping: Maa4zoek3,White story: Môa-chhiok / bâ-chhiok).Hong KongThen, in order to distinguish it from sparrows, it is sometimes written as "Mahjong".In prewar Japan, "Sparrow(Mojang) "[1].

In Japan, it is common to use 34 tiles of 136 types.Mahjong tableA table dedicated to mahjong called is used.A simplified version of the card is also available on the market so that you can play without special tools such as a mahjong table.There are many differences in the tools used and the rules to be adopted depending on the country or region, and there are various local rules in addition to the rules that are standard in Japan.

In Japan today, homes and mahjong stores (Sparrow) In addition to being playedArcadeAnd for homeComputer games,online gameBut you can play.Mahjong boom in the Showa periodCompared to the number of mahjong villas and mahjong magazines, the number is declining, but it is possible to play against computers.networkBy being able to play against unspecified opponents through, it has changed its shape and remains popular.Also, by thinking about efficiency and exercising your fingertipsdementiaThere is also a theory that it is useful for prevention of[2].

The number of participants in Japan is 2019 million as of 510, and has been in the 2016 million range since 500.[3]..Counting 3 million people in Asia as a whole[4].

Mahjong history 

Birth in China

There are various theories about the origin.6th century BCAroundConfuciusThere is a theory that he invented, but it is not influential[5].

The most influential theory is Chinaclear OfTongzhiYear (1862 - 1874 )NingboBut12st centuryPreviously existed "leaf(Madiao・ Madiao) "Card gamesとLightYo (1368 - 1644 ) "domino"DominoIt is said that "Mahjong" was completed by combining games like[6].

Yoko isEuropeTransmitted toPlaying cardsIt is also said that it became.

Ming dynastyFormationAccording to Lu Rong (1466-1494) "Miscellaneous Notes on the Garden"[7],At the timeKunshanA kind of card game is popular in Japan, and the total number of cards is 38, from XNUMX sen to XNUMX sen, XNUMX to XNUMX, XNUMX to XNUMX, XNUMX to XNUMX.・ It consisted of one million pieces, ten million pieces, and ten million pieces. The pattern that looks like a "pincushion" is a "bundle of threads threaded through a hole in the coin", and the figure that looks like a "dice roll" is a "view of the coin from the front".For more than XNUMX cards, "Suikoden』The picture of XNUMX people is drawn, and Mannuki was Song Jiang, XNUMX million Kan was Wu Song, etc. The name is a little different from the current Suikoden).People at that time called this kind of card "Yoko", and the card game itself using Yoko was called "Yokogi".Nowadays it is often called.

Regarding the etymology, it is said that the above-mentioned "Madiao" was transcribed in Japan and became "Mahjong".[8].

1949 ToPeople's Republic of ChinaOnce by the government, allgamblingBanned with[9]. But,Cultural RevolutionAfter the endReform and opening upAs a result, non-gambling mahjong is now allowed,1985 The ban was lifted[10].

Acceptance and development in the United States

1895 , Of the United StatesAnthropologistStewart CurinWrote an article mentioning mahjong.This was the first description of mahjong written in a language other than Chinese.1910 untilFrench,JapaneseThe literature is also available.1920 ,Aber Cromby and FitchThe company first imported and started selling mahjong in the United States[11]..Mahjong setNew York CityIt became a hit product centered on, and sold a total of 12000 sets.[11]..At the same time, it will be the world's first mahjong book. "Rules of Mah-Jongg"Published.

1920 eraMahjong is popular among all races in the United States and is AmericanRules,RoleWas born and many "Mahjong Nights" were held.People gathered in a room decorated in Chinese style and became familiar with it.[12].Eddie CantorSome popular songs with Mahjong as the theme were born, such as "Since Ma is Playing Mah Jong".[13].

1937 Will be the first rulebook for "Maajh: The American Version of the Ancient Chinese Game.With the publication of the National Mah Jongg League (NMJL), the mahjong epidemic in the United States was transient.

1980 eraComputer game "ShanghaiSince its appearance, the expressions "mahjong", "mahjongg", and "mah-jang" have become popular again, but they refer to "Shanghai" type puzzle games, some of which are mahjong. Some of them use patterns other than tiles. [2][3].

Acceptance and development in Japan

initial

Probably the first Japanese to mention mahjongNatsume Sosekiso,"Mankan Tokorodokoro』(1909 )DalianAs an observation at "Four peopleGameWas hitting. (Omitted) Both thickness and sizeShogiAbout XNUMX cards that hit the rook angle of the rook were divided by four people, and they were rearranged in various ways to never compete. "[Annotation 1].The actual tiles were introduced to JapanMeijiAt the endTaishoIt is said that after the mid-term, it spread to various places while undergoing unique changes in terms of rules, but it has become generally recognized.Great Kanto EarthquakeAfter[Source required].Kagurazaka OfCafe Printempsで文藝 春秋 OfHiroshi KikuchiThey became enthusiastic about mahjong and gradually became featured in magazines.Bungei Shunjusha sold mahjong tiles by itself.

The first national mahjong tournament was held in Tokyo on March 1929, 3, with 21 participants.[14][15].. On July 1930, 7, the Metropolitan Police Department banned the establishment of a new mahjong shop (10 stores as of May 1930).[16].

Before the start of the Sino-Japanese War, there were 2000 mahjong clubs in Tokyo, but as the wartime color became darker, mahjong had to go down, and as of 1942, the number dropped sharply to more than 230. ..Under the guidance of the Metropolitan Police Department, a group of traders changed the name of "Mahjong" to "Table Technique" from September 9 of the same year, and formed the Tokyo Table Technology Commercial Bulletin Board.Aiming for sound entertainment[17].

Second mahjong boom

With the end of the war, mahjong began to become popular again, and new rules including "midway reach" (current reach) and American-style mahjong were introduced, and mahjong with arrangements (Japanese mahjong) became the mainstream. Became.China (China) Mahjong, which was held before the war,1947 Was rebuilt inJapan Mahjong FederationAlthough it is still being done mainly in such cases, it gradually deviated from the mainstream.[18].1965 ,Tetsuya AsadaIsWeekly massStarted serialization of the "Mahjong Wandering Record" series.1970 Asada,Takeo Kojima,Gaisho FurukawaFormed[19]..same year"Weekly mass』Start with.1972 ToModern mahjong],1975 "" Was launched in Japan, and a mahjong boom occurred.1976 Sponsored by Takeshobo, the professional title match "Highest battleWas started.During this period, many college students and office workers became familiar with mahjong as an easy pocket money earner and communication tool.However, at the same time, unhealthy images such as gambling, smoking, drinking, and staying up all night spread, so it was established in 1988 with the aim of abolishing them and enjoying mahjong (#Health MahjongSee also)[20].

Popularization of mahjong games

The spread of computer games in mahjong1975 From around the time, but for business use (arcade game) Was the first mahjong computer game to introduce a game system close to the current one1981 3 of the monthJumper(Alpha electron)Met.This game was predominant and could be seen in many arcades and coffee shops.After that, the image of the opponent's computer is used as a motif of a woman, and each time the player wins, the woman's clothes are taken off, so-called "Strip mahjongThe concept was a big hit.Video technology has improved over the years, and performance and sensuality have also improved.Mahjong games at arcadesAdult gameIt was also synonymous with.

With the spread of the Internet and the development of online competition from the latter half of the 1990s to the 2000s, it became possible to easily play games at home or at an arcade.1997 Is the forerunner of online mahjongDongfeng Zhuang』Started service,2002 Is a computer mahjong game that has a communication function and can play against players from all over the country.Mahjong Fight Club』Started operation,2004 The mobile mahjong game "Jannavi Four Mahjong Online』Started operation[21].2006 In the online match mahjong "Hanjukuso (2007)TenpouRenamed to) ”has started service.

Since the 1990s

1990 ,Amano HaruoAdvocated the exclusion of abstraction from mahjong tactical theory in "Reach Mahjong Theory Reformed Church" ().Among them, Kojima, famous mahjong professionals at that time and those in the fieldShoichi SakuraiHe criticized these mahjong theories as unscientific, dominated by abstract theories such as "tsuki," "intuition," and "flow."Amano argued that considering abstract factors could be a cause of blunting accurate information judgment and would not lead to improvement in mahjong.This is the so-called "Digital sparrowIs the forerunner.

2004 years,Totsugeki Tohoku"Science Mahjong"Kodansha modern new bookPublished by.Totsugeki thoroughly denies the so-called "flow theory" that the result of the previous station affects the next station, and even in this bookProbability theoryBased onstatisticsAdvocates a typical mahjong strategy. The feature is that he clearly and logically teaches how to hit according to the situation, saying, "I hit this in such a case."There are many mahjong players who place importance on "tsuki," "intuition," and "flow" for these digital mahjong, and such tactical theory isanalog,occultIt is called a school.

International dissemination

The "2002 World Mahjong Championship" will be held in Tokyo from October 10 to 23, 27.JapaneseMai HatsuneWon the championshipJohn O'CornerWon second place[22]. In 2006World Mahjong Organization (WMO) was established and headquartered in Beijing, China.The following year, 2007, from November 11rd to 3th,Chugoku Of成都"World Mahjong Championship" was held in.Officially, this tournament will be treated as the "1st".

In addition to WMO-sponsored competitionsMacauThe prize money system sponsored by the company World Mahjong (1st place)American dollarWill be paid $ 50)World Series of MahjongIn addition, it was launched in Beijing, China.[23][24] Then,Switzerland OfLausanneHeadquarters in(English edition)by(English edition)Also exists.

2008 yearsBeijing OlympicsThen.Shogiと と も にOpen competitionWas introduced as,International Olympic CommitteeWas rejected by.The first after the Beijing OlympicsWorld Mind Sports GamesThen Chinese Xiangqi (Shangchi) Became a competition, but mahjong was removed.

RussiaThen mahjongAnimeFrom around 2009, Japanese-style mahjong began to spread among students.2012 A tournament-style reach mahjong tournament is being held in Moscow by enthusiasts from all over the country.[25].

Rules

Generally, it is a game played by four people,Three player mahjong,Two-person mahjongThere is also.

Each player has 13 tilesHandPlace it in front of you so that it is not visible to your opponent, and in order(I.e.1 tile fromSelf-relianceThen repeat the act of throwing away one sheet.This procedure is called beating, and the aim is to arrange a total of 1 tiles, including 13 hand tiles and 1 agari tile, through several to a dozen or so beatings.Point sticks are exchanged according to the combination of Agari shapes, and the winner is the one who holds the most points in the end.

As mentioned above, there are many differences in the rules to be adopted depending on the country or region, but in Japan, it is generallyPokerRule not to use (Qing Mahjong),UprightRule to adopt as a role (Riichi Mahjong) Is adopted.

Scores and roles

Tools

Below in JapanMahjongExplain the tools used in.

brand

In Japan, it is common to use 34 tiles of 136 types, which are smaller than those used in China.There are two types of tiles: Manko (Ones / Mans), Tsutsuko (Pins), Ryoko (Swords), and Zi Pai (Two Pai).There are 9 types of Manko, Tsutsuko, and Ryoko, each from 3 to 4, the character tiles are further divided into three-element tiles and four-style tiles. Is.There are a total of 34 sheets, 4 of each of these 136 types.

In addition to this, there are four types of tiles called Hanafuda, but Hanafuda is not used in general rules.For this reason, many mahjong tiles sold in Japan have no flower tiles and instead have red tiles added.

Mahjong tiles and other mahjong tiles are available at specialty stores, toy stores, thrift shops, and auctions.

Point stick

The point stick (tenbo) is for each playerscoreIt is a thin stick used to represent.FormallyChoma(Rattan horse) Called.

In particularBatonThere is no reason to have to, and cards and chips are also used abroad.

The minimum unit of points is 100 points, but several types of points are prepared so that you do not have to handle a large number of points.

  • Ten thousand points stick-1 points per stick. It is the most complicated design with two black dots on each side of five red dots (1-point sticks).It is also called the "regiment flag" because it is the most expensive point stick and only one is distributed per person in the initial state.Usually 5 pieces per set.
  • 5000 points stick-1 points per stick. Design of 5000 red dots.Usually 5 pieces per set.
  • 1000 points stick-1 points per stick. One red dot design.UprightIn the case ofDepositdo.Usually 1 pieces per set.
  • 100-point sticks-1 points per stick. Eight black dot designs.RensoAt the time ofAuthentic numberIt is also used as a stack to represent.Also called a shiva stick.Usually 1 pieces per set.
  • (500-point bar-not in the standard set, sometimes used to facilitate interactions)

There are two types of point sticks, white point sticks and color point sticks, depending on the type of shaft color.At the current mahjong stores in Japan, there are a large number of fully automatic mahjong tables, and since the point sticks in the point box are automatically calculated and the points are displayed, the 1000 point sticks are red and the XNUMX point sticks are blue. Many color sticks are color-coded to make them easier to understand.

In addition, the point bar for the fully automatic mahjong table (for the score display frame) can be divided into contact type and non-contact type according to the type of automatic reading.

Founder mark

The founder mark (chicha mark) is a mark that indicates who the first parent is.Also called the parent mark.

"East" is written on the front side and "South" is written on the back side.Although it is not common, there are some types that have "north" written instead of "south" and those that have dice-shaped ones with east-southwest-north written on them and fit into a grid.This is used to clearly indicate the wind.

Dice

To decide which mountain to take when deciding the first parent and when arrangingDiceTo use.Normally, two 6-sided dice are used, but 2-sided dice (paccolo) may be used.In that case, one dice is marked with 12 to 1, and the other dice is marked with north, south, east, and west.

The dice being played are placed in the right corner of the parent's seat as a mark to represent the parent.

Yakitori mark

There is a local rule that you will be penalized if you finish the competition unit without completing it even once, and at that time it is stillWonIt is used as a mark to indicate that it is not (Agari).Turn it over when Agari is established.This local ruleYakitoriAlso called.Also, if you do not turn over the mark within a certain period of time (until the start of the next station, etc.) after the end of the game, the yakitori state will continue, or when all four people have eliminated the yakitori, all four will return to the yakitori state. There are also local rules such as.

Mahjong table

A mahjong table or mahjong table is a table for playing mahjong, usually a 60-70 cm square table.

Generally, mahjong table isMahjong tilesA frame is provided around the table to prevent the tiles from spilling from the table, and a felt top plate mat using green or blue colors is stretched to absorb the sound of the mahjong tiles and prevent the mahjong tiles from being damaged. It is suitable for washing tiles (sea pie, work of stirring tiles) and tiles.Also, the tablePoint stickIt is equipped with a drawer to store the items (some for Kansai are equipped with a point stick box that is fixed to the frame of the table instead of the drawer and is made so that everyone can see the contents).

In addition, the point stick box is usually made in a size that can accommodate the point sticks for everyone, but in Kansai, there are many rules that expose the point sticks beyond the origin to the table, so the size is such that the point sticks for one origin can be accommodated.

Mahjong table is divided into sitting table type and standing table type depending on the shape of the table.Use the sitting table type for tatami mats at homes and inns, and the standing table type when playing mahjong while sitting on a chair.Some products have removable support columns and can be reassembled by selecting a standing table or a sitting table according to the usage environment.

In addition, the mahjong table depends on the function of the table.Fully automatic mahjong tableIt is divided into a semi-automatic mahjong table (automatically flips over, etc.) and a hand-made table.

Mahjong table was a hand-made table until the advent of automated mahjong table.RecentSparrowGenerally, all tables are operated by fully automatic mahjong tables, and in recent years, mahjong tables are often referred to as fully automatic mahjong tables.The hand-made mahjong table is a name that has come to be used to distinguish it from the newly emerging automatic mahjong table, and is sometimes called the hand-made mahjong table or the hand-made mahjong table.The Fuei Law strictly distinguishes between fully automatic mahjong tables (including Telejan) and other mahjong tables (including semi-automatic tables such as Magjan), and the upper limit of the charges that can be collected is different.

こ た つOr just the right sizeChabudaiInstead of buying a mahjong table that can only be used for mahjong, you may buy a mat for mahjong and play mahjong on them.As for kotatsu, it was common to see green felt on the back of the top plate from the beginning.

There is also an equilateral triangle table used exclusively for three-player mahjong, which will be described later.

Amusement facility

Sparrow

Jangso is a store that has mahjong equipment and allows customers to play mahjong.Customs Business Optimization LawIn the text of, it is described as "Maajiyanya".

Jakuso in Japan is defined by the Customs Business Optimization LawCustoms No. XNUMX SalesTherefore, in order to operate this, each business office has jurisdiction over the location of the business office.Public Safety CommissionMust obtain permission from.In principle, the law prohibits business from midnight to 0:6 am.However, in reality, many of the free sparrow cottages are open late at night, and the stores are secretly open to prevent sound and light from leaking to the outside, such as by pulling curtains on the windows.[26].

There are two main types of business. There are two types: a "set" format in which three to four or more people go to the store and rent a mahjong table, and a "free" format in which one person goes to play against an unspecified opponent.The set Jakuso has a signboard that says "specializing in table rental", and the free Jakuso has a sign that says "You can play alone", so you can see the business form.Most of the set sparrow cottages specialize in table rental, but free sparrow cottages often run in parallel.In the case of Free Jakuso, depending on the time of day, the table may not be established due to halfway visitors, and there are also circumstances such as not wanting to stop the progress when the customer temporarily leaves the table. The game is established by the addition of a clerk called a "member"[27].

The game fee is stipulated by the Enforcement Regulations of the Businesses Affecting Customs Law, and is currently 1 yen per hour (fully automatic table) when calculating based on the time per customer, and when calculating based on the time per table 1 The time is not to exceed 600 yen (fully automatic table).Therefore, most of the free sparrow cottages cost XX yen once, but it is illegal if the charge exceeds the above in terms of one hour.[Annotation 2] High-end set Jakuso and free Jakuso, which operate at the limit of the permissible rate, set the maximum price.

Sparrow

The qualifications and meanings of sparrows are not unique.It is often understood as a mahjong lover (synonymous with mahjong).PlayerSometimes called.

Professional sparrow

Under Japanese law, you do not need to be qualified to play mahjong as a profession, but you need to be certified by the organization that hosts the competition.Competition mahjongThere are currently 9 professional organizations in Japan.There are also free professionals who do not belong to professional organizations.

Takeshi IgarashiEtc. use the term "professional" as "professional"professionalIt is interpreted as an abbreviation for "proper" (growth) instead of ".

Boys

☆ All representatives (chairpersons) of major professional organizations are listed.

woman

A person with multiple works on mahjong

Some of the professional mahjong players listed in the previous section have published multiple mahjong tactics and instruction books.In this section, in addition to professional mahjong players, there are also people who are not professional mahjong players but have published several works related to mahjong.

Mahjong lovers celebrities

Mahjong competition

Competition group

Mahjong title match

出版物

Mahjong magazine

Specialized magazines were published during the mahjong boom in the Showa era, but nowadays there are no specialized magazines on par with general bookstores.

Commercially available
  • Modern mahjong(Take Shobo, January 1973-December 1) Phase 1987 of 12Throne Battle (Mahjong)Start
  • Rock-paper-scissors mahjong research(Take Shobo, 1975 June issue-February 6 issue) February 1977 issue 2st termHighest battleStart
  • プロ麻雀(、1975年秋号(季刊)- 1977å¹´8月号(隔月に)- 1978å¹´11月号(月刊に)- 1982å¹´10月号(銀星出版社発行に)- 2002å¹´1月号(マインドスポーツマガジン社発行に)- 2005å¹´6月号(ブレインスポーツマガジン社発行に)- 2005å¹´12月号)
  • Big mahjong (Shishobo, January 1977-December 11)
  • Separate volume Kindai Mahjong (Take Shobo, April 2004 issue-September issue of the same year)
mail order
  • Mahjong Four Seasons Report (Mahjong Fan Club, Quarterly, No. 1-17)
  • Mahjong @ (Three Arrows Communications, Bimonthly, June 2006-February 6)
  • Mahjong World (Japan Jongyukai, successor to "Mahjong Shikiho", January / February 2010 issue (bimonthly) -November 1 issue (monthly)-present)
delivery

Mahjong cartoon magazine

A magazine that publishes only mahjong-themed manga.Detail isMahjong cartoonreference.Currently issuedTake ShoboOnly one magazine published by.

Mahjong-themed work

TV program
Game
Mahjong cartoon

Culture about mahjong

All night mahjong

Mahjong is often played overnight.These mahjong are all-night mahjong, or "Tohru ManIs called.

If there are only four participants, it will not be possible to sleep and it will be physically difficult.Even so, mahjong enthusiasts, especially young people such as college students, tend to play mahjong all night long.If the number of participants is 4 or more, one cannot participate in the competitionHansoOccurs.Those who cannot participate in the competition are called "missing turns" and can take a nap to prepare for the next half-villa.

Health mahjong

Mahjong was conceived for the purpose of maintaining brain function in order to eliminate the unhealthy image of mahjong (gambling and drinking, cigarettes, all night, etc.).Health mahjongAlso called (health mahjong)Brain trainingIt is also used to prevent aging[32].

For video worksYusuke TamariThere is a feature-length documentary film directed by the director, "A Report on the Sociality of'Health Mahjong'in a Modern Society with a Declining Birthrate and Super Aging."

Museum

  • Majan Museum --A large number of valuable mahjong tiles and mahjong-related books were stored. (Closed in 2017)

Words derived from mahjong terminology

Renchan
ParentWonThen (Aga) continue to be a parent again.In turn, the same thing happens in succession.pachinkoThe jackpots are continuous, orProbability changeAnd the number of workers who work in shift-based work styles continuesCommutingOften refers to doing.
UprightIs applied (reach is applied)
MonzenでTenpaiHowever, it is a term that is spoken when declaring that you will not change your hand at all in the future (instead, you will get one translation if you win).In turn, one important thing is imminent.Also, be in a state just before the big hit with pachinko or pachislot. (Reach (Pachinko)See. )othersボ ー ド ゲ ー ム,bingoIt is also used in general games such as games to refer to the state immediately before the goal (Agari). (Reach (game)See. ) Often used as a negative expression. (Reach is required for dismissal (dismissal of the company), reach is required for parting / separation (because of many affairs / unfaithful acts), etc.)
Temper
I mean to listen.Often you are forced to choose between throwing away the dangerous tenpai or breaking the tenpai, and in turn, from a state of stalemate, a state of holding things too much, etc.パ ニ ッ クRefers to falling into.It also refers to a similar psychological state because he seems nervous toward the end of the game.There is also a theory derived from the English temper.
Auras
"All Last" (Japanglish), Which means the last station of Hanso (4 stations in the south) (EnglishThen just the last).In turn, the last meaning of things.Fuji TV quiz show "I see! The World]Kinya AikawaIt was also generalized from the phrase "Auras, choose a lover" issued by.
In front of the lath
In relation to the above "Auras", it is an abbreviation for "one station before the all-last" and refers to the three south stations one station before the last one (the last but one in English).South 1 stationsGame overSince there are various restrictions, the three unbound South stations are important stations.In turn, an important time before the end of things, or the separation of men and women and the coupledivorceRefers to the tangled period before.
Faces
A combination of tiles required for the end of the game.Also, the members needed to play mahjong.In turn, it also refers to the participants of a certain gathering.
Face-to-face (Toy Men)
The seat opposite the Mahjong table.Also, the person in that seat.In turn, the position directly opposite.Also, the person in that position.
Chombo
Also written as Owa.Declaring the end of the game even though the end of the game has not been established.In turn, it means a big mistake, a big blunder, or a foul.
White board (pie bread)
One of the three tiles.Known aswhite("Haku" or "white").Since it is in a pure white state with no letters or pictures carved, it is a hairlessness in women or a woman.pubic hairRefers to the state in which the is shaved off.
Safety tile (Anzenpai)
A tile that is unlikely to be raised even if it is thrown into the river.It refers to a person who can surely calculate the victory in sports, etc., or a person who will always be his lover or marriage partner.
Self-reliance (Tsumo)
To finish the game on your own and pull the tiles.The flow in which the number of listening tiles (chanten) progresses smoothly in front of the gate and the tiles you want often come is called "tsumo is good".Roguelike gameIn a game with strong randomness, it may be used when you get powerful equipment or items in the early stages.It is often used in pachinko lottery (probability fluctuation (probability change) was tweaked, 16R (round) was tweaked, etc.)
Both sides (Ryanmen)
It is a combination of two consecutive tiles and two tiles, and refers to a tower (tarts) that becomes Junko (Shunts) when any of the tiles on either side of the tiles arrives.American football(American Football) Is used as a term to refer to the state of participation in both offense and defense.
Fitting (Kanchan)
It is a combination of two tiles that are skipped one by one, and refers to a tower (Tarts) that becomes Junko (Shunts) if a number of tiles in between comes.baseballIn some cases, a hit in which the fly launched by the batter falls between the fielders is called a "kanchan hit" (used in the same meaning as a poten hit, a Texas hit, etc.).again,volleyballWhen two or more players block in, the gap between the blockers is commonly called "Kanchan".
Henchan
In Mahjong, we wait for Junko's 1,2,3 3 parts and 7,8,9 7 parts.Very rarely, it is used by "meaning of makeshift" and "person for insurance". Securing Penchan members (call out to people who have no plans, and if there are not enough people at a drinking party or a joint party, contact them to secure the number of people in time) ) Even in actual mahjong, waiting for Henbari (waiting for 3,7 tiles) is often used as such an expression because it often does not come.

Betting mahjong

Mahjong is generallygamblingIt is recognized as a game with a typical element,AdultNot limited toMinorOften involves the exchange of money even when playing.

In Japan, gambling other than public gambling is gambling and a criminal offense.[Annotation 3] On the other hand, in countries such as the United States where gambling between individuals is legal in principle on a liberal basis, it is not only one of the common people's culture, such as playing poker while drinking beer at each other's house with friends, but each one Bring in the same amount of stakes and the winner will finally monopolize all participants' stakesStakes methodGambling itself has almost no image of a crime, such as the fact that the game is broadcast on TV.In addition, mahjong as a pure competition, not as gamblingCompetition mahjongOr call it no-rate mahjong.

Mahjong is a zero-sum game (the total score of all players is always constant:Zero sum games), So it is easy to convert the exchange of points into the exchange of stakes as it is.In addition to being a thinking game, it also has a strong accidental element, and it is easy to get used to as a gambling because both luck and ability are reflected in the results.

結果に従ってやりとりする金額は普通、ウマ等を考慮した得失点1000点につき何円というレートが設定される。1000点あたり10円なら「点1(テンイチ)」、50円なら「点5(テンゴ)」、100円なら「ピン」(または「テンピン」)、200円なら「リャンピン」、1000円なら「デカピン」、10000円なら「デカデカピン」と言われる。日本の法律および判例では金銭については額の多少に関わらず一時の娯楽に供するものとは見なされない(大審院13th year of TaishoMay 2, MostShowa 23May 10Etc.), so in principle for all these ratesGamblingIs established. In 2011, a relatively small amount of 5 Jakuso was also caught. The case of betting a large amount of money, such as setting a high rate of over 1000 yen per 1000 points, means that it will be held in one room of the condominium in secret.Mansion MahjongAnd so on.

Other gambling (casinoAnd many things that are done inPublic competitionEtc.), which is different from the fact that different losses are made after the game depending on the movement of the point stick.Deduction rateAlthough it is difficult to calculate, it is exceptionally high for gambling compared to public competitions etc.Especially at low rates of 1000 points and 20 yen or less, the deduction rate may even exceed 100%.。例として1000点20円、2の2-4のレートで場代が1人250円の場合で30000点丁度の一人浮きトップを取った場合を例に取ればトップ者の収入(=敗者の支出合計)は800円であるがこれに対しハウスが徴収するコミッション(控除額)は1000円となる。したがって、The deduction rate will be 125%.

If the loser is not paid by the person (for example, if there is a sponsor at the tournament and the winner is offered a prize), or if the winner's profit does not fall into the hands of the person, it is a gambling offense. No.

When unspecified guests surround the table at Jakuso, the official rate is often set by Jakuso so that there is no conflict in the rate setting.This official rate isA horseIt is posted outside the store together with "Wind speed" etc.EuphemismIt is often shown with an illustration of the dice.For example, if you say "wind speed 0.5", it means that the rate is 1000 yen for 50 points.

Many sparrow cottages are called deposits, and sometimes they deposit 5000 to 1 yen from customers, so even if the customer loses and runs out of stock, they can pay a certain amount.Also, if that isn't enough, there is also a sparrow cottage called "out" where the store makes up for the shortfall.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, since the number of sheets is small, "fishingMaybe.
  2. ^ With the change in the consumption tax rate in April 26, the rule structure has been changed so that the tax-excluded price is presented and the upper limit is the sum of the consumption tax equivalent amount.
  3. ^ Anything without a definition law is illegal or a crime.

Source

  1. ^ Mahjong Test Aomoto 2015, p. 12.
  2. ^ Prevention of dementia with mahjong Saga Chubu Wide Area Union -Saga newspaper
  3. ^ "Leisure White Paper 2020" Mahjong population 510 million, down 70 from the previous year
  4. ^ Listening to the changing Hong Kong mahjong situation, a tattooist who keeps staring <below>
  5. ^ Butler, Jonathan. The Tiles of Mah Jong 1996.
  6. ^ (Kenichi Nagamatsu 2001, p. 15).
  7. ^ (Ming) Land"Shoen miscellaneous notes" Volume XNUMX: "Ruan Xiaoqi, Ruan Xiaoqi, Ruan Xiaoqi, Song Jiang Noh. To nine sen each one leaf, one hundred to nine hundred one leaf, one million to nine hundred dolls, ten million kanho Yoshi Song Jiang, ten million enthusiast Takematsu, one million kan Xiaowu, XNUMX kan live 閮 阮 Small XNUMX. Blue-faced Beast Yangshi, XNUMX Ruan Xiaowu, XNUMX Ruan Xiaowu Lei Heng, XNUMX Ruan Xiaowu, XNUMX Ruan Xiaowu Qinming, XNUMX Mixed River Ryu Lihai, XNUMX Ruan Xiaowu Li Ai, Ruan Xiaowu Shiba Susumu, Ruan Xiaoqi Seki Masaru, Ruan Xiaoqi Hirohana Sakae, Namiko XNUMX Lei Heng. Unequaled Noh, Nonya. All the thieves such as Song Jiang, detailed view "Senwa Remains" and "Spicy Miscellaneous". Hesitation, self-indulgence.
  8. ^ Named "Mahjong"
  9. ^ Carlisle, Rodney P. (2009). Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society.. p. 133. ISBN 9781412966702 
  10. ^ "Repeal Public Security Department Normativity Partial Normativity Notice". 2009/10/25Browse.
  11. ^ a b [1], A & F Careers, History, "1920"
  12. ^ Bryson, Bill, Made in America. Harper, 1996, ch. 16.
  13. ^ Eddie Cantor and his mahjong song
  14. ^ National newspaper
  15. ^ Kokumin Shinbun Kokumin Shinbun
  16. ^ Published in Showa XNUMXth year history publication
  17. ^ Renamed Mahjong as a table technique, under the guidance of the Metropolitan Police Department (September 17, 9, Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun (evening edition)) "Showa News Dictionary Vol.
  18. ^ "History Exploration" "Bakazuki Hurricane", Takeshobo, 1989, pp. 102-103.
  19. ^ "Mahjong Shinsengumi in the 70s'" "Kindai Mahjong" Vol. 30, No. 7, Takeshobo, March 2008, pp. 3-11.
  20. ^ "Japan Health Mahjong Association-Greetings from the 20th Anniversary of the Association”. Japan Health Mahjong Association (June 2008). 2012/3/8Browse.
  21. ^ History of Winlight Co., Ltd.
  22. ^ XNUMX Japan International Mahjong Match
  23. ^ "Mahjong International League Establishment Ceremony held in Beijing to promote mind sport”. Yutang Sports (May 2015, 5). 2017/6/8Browse.
  24. ^ "New Mahjong International League Elevating Mahjong As A Mind Sport”. Mahjong News (May 2015, 5). 2017/6/8Browse.
  25. ^ Russian Mahjong Clash / Mahjong Tournament in Moscow Asahi Shimbun Moscow Branch Kazuhiro Sekine Channel, 2013/05/22
  26. ^ Is the sports bar open late at night severely punished in the shadow of the lifting of the ban on "Toruman"? The impact of the revision of the Fuei Law, which goes beyond the realization of a "dancing country" --Takashi Kiso, Nikkei Business Online, May 2015, 5
  27. ^ Mahjongso Member Manual --Mahjong Festa
  28. ^ http://www.fujitv.co.jp/ana/sato/index.html Than.
  29. ^ https://www.zakzak.co.jp/ent/news/201219/enn2012190003-n1.html
  30. ^ KodanshaSaegusa's laughing beauty talkFrom page 74.
  31. ^ https://twitter.com/eyebrowman/status/1401912415638351872
  32. ^ Japan Health Mahjong Association HP

References

  • "Mahjong Test Aomoto: Your Sparrow Power One-shot Judgment !!" Takeshobo <Modern Mahjong>, April 2015.ISBN 9784801902411.
  • Kenichi Nagamatsu, "Exploring the Principles of Mahjong: The Journey of the Heart," Tokyo Book Publishing Association, September 2001.ISBN 4434011367.
  • Baba, Yuichi, Katayama, Masayuki "Bakazuki Hurricane: Mahjong Encyclopedia" Takeshobo, January 1990.ISBN 4884750438.

Related item

外部 リンク

  1. ^ Mahjong "Kurokawa Cup" in front of the public prosecutor's office

 

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