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🤝 | Restoration volunteers, long-term support group activities in areas affected by heavy rain Remove fallen trees and earth and sand at tea plantations in Ureshino City


Photo Participant removing trees such as slopes that collapsed due to heavy rain in August = Ureshino City, Ureshino Town, Jinno District

Restoration volunteers, long-term support group activities in areas affected by heavy rain Remove fallen trees and earth and sand at tea plantations in Ureshino City

 
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In the Jinno area, the trees that collapsed on the slope of the tea plantation were removed.
 

Volunteers continue to work in Ureshino City to restore the area affected by the record heavy rains in August. On the 8th, inside and outside Saga prefecture ... → Continue reading

 Saga Shimbun


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Tea plantation

Tea plantationWhat is (Chaen, Saen)?ChanokiIt is a field of.Tea plantationAlso called (Chabatake).Tea plantPlantationIt is one of the typical examples of crops, but in some countries it is cultivated in a different form from plantations.The following is an overview of Japanese tea gardens.

Overview

Japanese tea gardens are per shareNative speciesTraditional tea garden made with stock, growth of stock leavesRidgeAn arc-shaped tea plantation that is tailored to draw an arc to tailor it into a shape suitable for tailoring (a structure planted in a row), a triangular tailored tea plantation that is tailored to a triangle, a horizontal tailored tea plantation that is tailored horizontally, and no shape is tailored. There are various names depending on the method of tailoring the tea plant, geography, and young trees, such as a naturally tailored tea garden that grows naturally, a steep slope tea garden that grows on steep slopes, and a young tree garden that grows young tea plants.

History

Here, we will outline the transition of tea gardens in Japan.

Since ancient times, tea gardens have long been in the form of traditional tea gardens, each of which is made with a native species.Ridge tea[1]There were also many forms called (Keihancha) or ridge tea gardens.Ridge tea is a tea plantation cultivated in a row on the ridge of a field, and it also serves as a boundary with the neighbor, windbreak, and prevention of soil outflow. The minutes were also shipped to wholesalers.

Traditional tea gardens exclusively sow and cultivate seeds (this)SeedlingsTherefore, it is also called a seed garden.After World War IIcuttingMany tea gardens have changed completely due to the establishment of technology and the introduction of cultivars that have been improved from native varieties.For more information on thisTea cultivationSee the item in.A tea plantation consisting of only tea varieties is also called a variety garden.

Garden Minister

The garden minister is an element that makes a good tea garden.It is used as a term to estimate the quality of the tea plantation, such as weather conditions, suitable soil preparation, how to attach leaves, and the power of leaves (leaf power). It is expressed as "the garden is good".When managing a tea plantation, it is important to identify the minister.

cycle

The tea plantation is planned every year.

An annual tea plantation plan will be made in January, soil will be adjusted in February, and harvesting will begin in April. The tea picked in April is called No. 1 tea, the tea picked in May is called No. 2 tea, and the tea is harvested from June to July as No. 4 tea and No. 4 tea. From August to September, typhoon countermeasures and tree trimming will begin, and in October, tea plants will bloom, so wait-and-see measures will be taken to prevent nutrients for the tea leaves from going to the flowers.Around this time, root growth and preparations for the growth of young trees began, and in November we will move on to organizing records of the tea plantations so far, growing young trees, and taking measures against cold weather in December.

yield

The yield of tea garden is that tea leaves can be takenNumber of buds, Aim for high quality tea budsBud weight, Represents the overall harvested areaPlucked areaIt is decided by.However, increasing the number of buds reduces the bud weight, and increasing the bud weight reduces the number of buds. Therefore, when considering the yield, it is important to prioritize which part according to the variety.

In addition, the yield varies depending on the plucking method.The picking method is mainly divided into hand picking, scissors picking, and mechanical picking, and while mechanical picking can significantly shorten the picking time, hand picking and hand picking because the first and second teas are picked from a certain line without distinction. Picking scissors provides a higher quality harvest.

As with mechanical picking, scissors picking is harvested in a flat manner, so the quality of picking does not change much, but it is possible to respond to changes in topography and tea trees more than mechanical picking.As for hand-picking, various plucking methods have been created as an old plucking method.Examples include methods such as folding, scraping, cutting, punching, and two-handed picking.Unlike scissors picking and mechanical picking, tea leaves are not picked more than necessary, so picking can be expected after growing with No. 2 and No. 3 teas, and the yield can also be expected.However, since the picking efficiency is nearly 10 times higher than that of scissors picking, in recent years it is often used together with scissors picking when it is difficult to pick by hand or when it is difficult to pick due to the topography.The plucked scissors were invented around 40, but the difference in quality at the time of plucking made them hesitant to use them, and it was not until the Taisho era that they were used in earnest.

weather

Meteorological conditions

Tea plants are vulnerable to low temperatures.Temperature is minus 10℃At -13 ° C, the leaves are thirsty, and below that, the leaves and branches may die.

Therefore, a large size with a temperature sensor on a high poleFan(Anti-frost fan) Is often installed.This fan lets out cold air near the surface at night, causing cold damage and freezing.FrostIt has the effect of preventing harm.Since cold air accumulates in lowlands, the places affected by cold weather may be clearly separated in tea gardens with different elevations, so it is desirable to manage and install anti-frost fans that understand the areas where cold air tends to accumulate.

For other anti-frost measures, sprinkle water at a time when it is easy to freeze, attach water droplets to the surface of the leaves in advance, and freeze the water droplets.latent heatThere is a sprinkling freezing method that uses the release of water to maintain the temperature.Also, cover the tea stock with the tea stockGeothermalThere is a coating method that prevents the temperature from dropping by using.

As a covering method, there are methods such as a shelf covering in which a covering stand is installed to cover it, and a tunnel covering in which columns are simply erected in an arc shape to cover it.However, it is also necessary to pay attention to drought damage, which causes the soil and tea plants to lack water at high temperatures.The growing temperature of tea is 20 ° C to 28 ° C.If the temperature is higher than that, especially if it exceeds 30 ° C, it will hinder the growth.In Japan, the period of temperature exceeding 30 ° C is short, so it is unlikely to cause major drought damage, but it may be damaged by sunburn on the leaves.

Damage caused by cold weather

As a measure against cold weather, grasping and treating damaged leaves can be mentioned.

Leaves freeze and die at low temperatures due to cold weatherRed withered(Freezing damage), part of the trunk freezes and the leaves die without the necessary water and nutrients.Withered(Dry damage), due to cold windFallen leaves(Cold wind damage), branches freezeWithered branches, Frozen trunk causes expansion and rupture due to sudden temperature changeTrunk crack(Tear-type frost damage).

Damage caused by drought

Damage caused by drought is due to lack of waterWithered branchesBy long exposure to sunlightSunburn,Fallen leavesand so on.

soil

The main component of tea fertilizer is nitrogen.Water pollution due to excessive use has become a problem, and activities are currently being carried out to increase the nitrogen absorption rate while reducing fertilizer.There are three main things to pay attention to in order to create soil that improves the absorption rate: liquid phase (water volume), gas phase (air volume), and individual phase (soil volume).

Since the function of the roots is to absorb a lot of nutrients from the soil and distribute them to the tea tree, it is possible to exert more effective power by spreading the roots in deeper and more detailed areas.For that purpose, measures such as cultivating the soil to facilitate root growth, raising the gas phase, adding compost, cut grass, rice straw, etc. to the soil to help the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms and increase fertilizer retention and water retention. We are trying to increase the amount of roots.

Diseases and pests

When the first tea is harvested around April, it will affect the second tea, so it is necessary to take control measures by spraying a disinfectant.

What you should pay attention to in the second tea harvest before the rainy season from MayAnthrax, In addition to (Slips), (Planthopper).

In June,NematodaSince pests such as these occur, control measures such as pheromone traps (those that attract and collectively exterminate pheromone-spawning insects) are taken before hatching.

It occurs around July, and if high-temperature drying continues, it may reoccur around September.further,Dust mitesOn the contrary, if it rains a lot and the temperature is low for a long time, anthrax and the like are likely to occur.

In August, typhoon wounds can cause red-burning bacteria to enter and become infected with red-burning disease.In addition, pests and diseases become active, and pests such as chahamaki, dust mites, anthrax, and rice cake disease occur.

When the tea tree bloomed in October, the fallen flowers rotted on the tea leaves andBotrytis cinereaMay cause the disease.In this case, it is necessary to spray the fungicide during the flowering and falling seasons.

Tea producing area

Harvest of fresh leaves

19 in the main production prefectures produced in 10aThe yield of fresh leaves and the yield of fresh leaves per hit were as follows.As this statistic shows, the yield of fresh leaves per unit area varies depending on the region (prefecture).

Prefectures10aHit
Fresh leaf yield
(kg)
Fresh leaf yield
(t)
埼 玉4484310
Gifu5283550
Shizuoka957179900
Aichi9004800
Triple117034700
Shiga9004030
京都97813400
Nara155011000
Fukuoka80611600
佐賀9058630
Nagasaki7144710
Kumamoto6038560
Miyazaki137018800
Kagoshima1520118800
Major prefectures1050430200

(From the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Statistics published on February 20, 2)[2] [3]

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