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👆 | Masayuki Toyoshima, one of the leading researchers in the shogi world, said that he was "insufficiently prepared" and took off his hat.


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Masayuki Toyoshima, one of the leading researchers in the shogi world, said, "I wasn't prepared enough."

 
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If so, use shogi software, bring it to a situation that only you know, and escape by winning the strategy.
 

Shogi Souta Fujii Triple Crown (Throne, Eiou, Kisei, 19) is Yutaka at the 10nd station of the 22th game of the Ryuo match held on October 23nd and 2rd. → Continue reading

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Computer shogi

Computer shogi(Computer shogi)ComputerbyShogiBattle, computer pointing to shogi and itsProgramThat is it.

History

Dawn

Tsume shogi, which is a specialty of computers, preceded finger shogi. In 1967Hitachi, Ltd.A group led by Toshio Ochi succeeded in solving Tsume Shogi using the company's 5020E.Kato(60th dan at that time) was considered to be an amateur first dan skill, such as solving a problem in 90 seconds in XNUMX seconds.[1]..Furthermore, in 1968, Ochi et al. Announced "the first program to solve Tsume Shogi".[2].

It is said that the development of general finger shogi programs began later than this, in the mid-1970s. Takenobu Takizawa (later Waseda University Political Economy) who was a graduate student of Waseda University Graduate School of Science and Engineering who was developing a computer-based finger shogi system under the theme of "application of artificial intelligence and knowledge engineering to perfect information games" Professor of the Faculty of Political Science,Computer Shogi AssociationChairman)programmerThe project team started development in November 1974, and the one completed in May 11 was probably the first computer shogi in the world.[3]The IPSJ's challenge letter to the Japan Shogi Association in 2010 also describes the number of years of development history, which is "35 years" starting from this year. Takizawa's early computer shogi, as well as those of Osaka University's Ikuhide Okuda, Hiroshi Makino, Makoto Kizawa, and Tokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyYoshiyuki KotaniThe ones are listed. The purpose of the development of Takizawa et al.作家 OfSaito Sakae"In the Edo periodSoho AmanoIs a modern Hanagata Go player (at that time)Nakahara Makoto,Kunio Yonecho), Would you please simulate with a computer what would happen if you fought? " afterwards,Japan Information Processing Development AssociationAlthough it was demonstrated several times at the event, after the early stages, Nakahara and others in the commentary were troubled by a series of unexplained hands that "would like to cover their eyes".[4].

It was around 1980 that computer-to-computer battles began to take place. In 1979, a match was held between Waseda and Osaka University, and Osaka University won. Waseda won at Waseda University of Agriculture and Technology in 1981. At the speed of computers at that time, the sun would set rather than the sun set by the end of the match, soIkuo TakeuchiProposed a "hybrid battle method" that people point to in the order of "computer, person, person". A battle was held between Takenobu Takizawa and Yoshiyuki Kotani (and each computer) from 2 to 3 (even with the irregular rules, the year ended).[5].

Early in the 1980sPersonal computer(Microcomputer at that time) became widespread, and the ASCII Micro Othello League had been held since 1980.Gradually, the focus shifted to the more complex game of shogi, and in the mid-1980s, computer shogi game software began to hit the market.At that time, the hardware performance was low and the evaluation function was simple, so it was very weak compared to humans.ProgramMet.

In the late 1980s, a number of computer shogi programs were born, and in 1985,NESForNaito Kudan Shogi SecretHas been released, and computer shogi has come to be commercialized as game software.This attracted the interest of "which program is the strongest".

Hitoshi MatsubaraAccording to the Japanese information science community in the 1980sFirst AI boomArtificial intelligence research is viewed as a taboo in reaction toSecond AI boomUntil the latter half of the 1990s, there was a tendency in academia to study games such as shogi, chess, and go.[6]..According to Matsubara, this was one of the reasons why strong domestic shogi software was hard to come by.[7]As a result, Japan's AI research as a whole also lags behind Europe and the United States, where AI research through game research was flourishing, saying that "chess is an AI Drosophila."[6][8].

World Computer Shogi Championship

In 1986, the "Computer Shogi Program" group was established by volunteers who are interested in programming shogi software.following year,"Computer Shogi Association』Renamed to (abbreviation: CSA). They take the leadWorld Computer Shogi ChampionshipIs now held once a year[9].. The first memorable tournament was on December 1, 1990.Shogi KaikanIt was done in.The number of participating software was 6, and "Eternal Master" won the championship.

Since the 2002th meeting in 12 (until 2017), every year in early MayGolden weekIt is held during the period, and about 40 kinds of programs participate each time.In addition, in the 16th and subsequent tournaments, live broadcasts of game records are being held on the Internet during the period.

World Computer Shogi Championship Tournament Rules[10]In addition, a protocol for battles has also been established, and as of 2017, it is supposed to be performed in octet streams via the battle server. In addition, when the battle server is not available (or before), serial (RS-232) The battle will be held according to the rules of communication and manual input. It has 10 minutes, but it uses the Fisher Clock rule, which adds 1 seconds to the time each time you point.

Play with humans

In the early 2000s, computer shogi was a flat and top professionalPlayerIt was thought that the day to break was not too far away.Hitoshi MatsubaraPredicts that as of 2005, professional shogi players will lose to computer shogi from the 2010s to 2020[11]Also, Takenobu Takizawa, chairman of the Computer Shogi Association, predicted that in 2007, computers would surpass professional shogi players in 10 to 20 years.[12].

In 2011,Kunio YonechoAccording to, one move 1 seconds, etc.Quick pointingIf so, the winning percentage is 7 to 8% or more even for professional shogi players. "How to make a computer shogi that beats humans" published in 2012[13]Then, it was predicted that he would "win the top professional shogi player within a few years (play multiple times and win)". At the 2013nd Shogi Den-O Battle on March 3, 30ponanza Shinichi SatoWon. This was the first case in which a computer defeated humans on the condition that it had a long time (XNUMX hours each), a public game, and the opponent was a professional shogi player excluding active female players.

Hideki Ito, the developer of Puella α, commented that he has already surpassed professional shogi players as of 2 in the 2012nd Shogi Den-O Battle PV.[14].Yaneura KingIn 2014, Motohiro Isozaki, the developer of the software, said, "It is clear to everyone that the top software has already surpassed Mr. Hanyu under the condition of no advance lending. In the sense that the winning percentage will exceed 50% from the software side, the winning percentage is not 90% or 100%, so I think it will be a match ... "[15].

Akira Watanabe, one of the top players, mentioned Tsutsukana, who appeared in the 2rd station of the 3nd Shogi Den-O War, and said, "It is equivalent to half (160), no more than one-third (80) of about 3 active players. I have no choice but to take the view that it has power. "[16]..In October 2015, Hitoshi Matsubara said, "It's a pity that the game with Mr. Hanyu has not been realized, but it is certain that humans will not be the opponent at all in a few years, and computer shogi development with a confrontation with humans I think the era is over. "[17].

Dwango OfKawakamiAnnounced the end of the Den-O battle with the second Den-O battle to be held in 2017.Regarding the end, "The historical role of humans and computers playing seriously with the same rules is over."[18]..In this second Den-O battleAkihiko SatoMaster (at that time)ponanzaI played with.The result was Sato's two consecutive losses, which was the first time in history for a public game in which a computer beats an active virtuoso holder with a flat hand.Shogi Den-O Battle # 2nd Den-O BattleSee).

In 2014, Yoshiharu Habu replied, "What if Shogi is completely clarified by a computer?" "At that time, Keima should fly sideways or change the rules a little."[19]..However, even if the rules are changed, computers will continue to advance, so there is a problem that they will eventually be dealt with.コンピュータが人間を超えたComputers surpass humansチ ェ スIn the new rule "AlimaaWas devised, but2015 Computer program "Sharp" beats humans with 7 wins and 2 losses[20]..However, the assumption "if fully analyzed" already holds as of 2007.checkerHowever, even as of 2021, it is not said that the value of human-to-human games has disappeared.

2017 years,Sota Fujii"Compared to humans, the evolution of computer capabilities is unlimited. In that sense, I think we are no longer in an era where humans and computers compete."[21].

Features

Strength around the checkmate

In any situation, "ClogThe task of determining the presence or absence of ”is a field in which simple information processing capabilities are exerted, and computers can easily find checkmates with computing power far exceeding that of humans.

Tsume shogiIn almost every aspect of the field, computers quickly outperformed the top players. It has the ability to surpass human beings by the methodology unique to computers that searches for all possible checks and Tamakata's responses. It is already common sense to use a computer to verify the integrity of a work when creating a Tsume Shogi.[Annotation 1].Koji Tanikawa"I make tsume shogi myself, but I put the finished product on a computer. (Omitted) That's quite complicated, even if it takes about a year to make a tsume shogi, it can be solved in 1 second by putting it on a computer. It's a proof that the Tsume Shogi is made properly, but it makes me feel a little sad ... (bitter smile) "[22].

"Tsume shogi with the longest effort"Micro cosmosEven the Tsume Shogi program that succeeded in answering has been reported (Microcosmos (Shogi) #Microcosmos and spineSee).

In addition, the creation of Tsume Shogi by computer is also being attempted.[23].

Midfield strength

Participated in the 3rd Den-O BattleToyoshima MasayukiRegarding computer measures, he said, "I didn't play 1000 stations, but I played three-digit practice games." "While losing many times, I thought that there was a win for long shogi in the early stages and fierce shogi that omits the middle stage." Says[24].. I was watching the 3rd Den-O gameToyama Yusuke"Mr. Toyoshima was wary of the strength of the midfield of the computer. Even if he had a slight advantage, it would be easily reversed if the difficult phase of the midfield continued. So, to beat the computer, the early stage It seems that it is better to make a long shogi and take a big lead at the time of entering the middle stage, or conversely, it is better to develop without the middle stage and compete at the end of the game at once. It looks like you're aiming for. "[25]. Also,Sankei ShimbunIn the article summarizing the Den-O battle FINAL, "For computer opponents who read millions to 1 million moves or more per second, there is no chance of winning if they evenly rush into the final stage. Even if you point to, the computer is accurate and does not make mistakes. From the experience of the past two times, the professional side concluded that the strategy of "radically firing demons in the early stages, skipping the middle stage and bringing it to the final stage at once" is effective. " Reported[26].

Few mistakes

Toyama YusukeWas in 2011Shogi Club 24Analyzing the game with Bonkler's in Japan, he says that computers make less mistakes than humans, so computers will have an advantage in the event of a turbulent battle.also,感情It is said that it is also strength that it does not get upset on the surface or lose concentration.[27]..Also humanNotesThere is a limit to power,fatigue,錯 覚Etchuman errorMay cause[Annotation 2]..On the other hand, unlike humans, computers do not cause physical fatigue, so computers that do not get tired become relatively advantageous at the end of the game with shogi that has a long time.Also, the computer is a programバ グUnless there istwo stepsThere is no such thing as pointing to a foul move such as a two-handed move.As an example of a bug, there is a case where Selene could not correctly recognize the hand without a check and lost the foul of leaving the check at the FINAL 2015nd station of the 2 Den-O battle.[28].

Weakness of jishogi pattern and its improvement

Machine learning, which has become mainstream since Bonanza, is based on the competition data of professional shogi players.Supervised learningHowever, when it becomes a ball-filled pattern that is rarely seen in professional shogi players' games, the evaluation value regarding the placement of pieces becomes a value close to 0.Furthermore, in the case of a jishogi, there is a goal other than stuffing the opponent's ball, which is to calculate the score of the piece and aim for victory, but in many cases it is not possible to judge this and point appropriately. At the 2013th station of the 2nd Shogi Den-O War in 4, Puella α brought into the jishogi could not correctly recognize the score calculation, and as a result, a shogi (draw) was established.

However, as a result of learning a huge number of computer-generated aspects as a teacher and improving the evaluation ability of the aspects with few actual battles by increasing the parameters in learning, the pattern of computer shogi jishogi has improved significantly. At the 2015th World Computer Shogi Championship in 25, Selene was the first in the official game of computer shogi, and Selene read and judged the computer itself in the jishogi shogi.Declaratory ActWon the original prize of the tournament.The strength of jishogi shogi and the implementation of the declarative method in powerful software are almost standardized, and in the 2016th Den-O tournament in 4, ponanza and YaneuraOu won the declarative method once each in the jishogi shogi. ing.

Weakness in the early stages and its improvement

The joseki that professional shogi players have accumulated is not perfect, and it is progressing day by day through study groups, games, and impression battles, and information other than game records is only partially introduced through specialized magazines such as the world of shogi. Many will not be published.The software was building early tactics based on that limited information, but sometimes it was not possible to respond appropriately when a new move that was not in the database was pointed to.[27]..古作登も2012年現在、均衡状態でコンピュータの手待ちをすると、コンピュータがスキを作っておかしな攻め方を始めたり、穴熊に組み替えようとしてその途中でスキを作ったりすることがあると指摘したAs of XNUMX, Kosaku Noboru also pointed out that if the computer waits in equilibrium, the computer may make a ski and start a strange attack, or it may make a ski on the way to change to a bear.[29].

recent years[When?]Then.ponanzaSome software that does not rely on existing book data at the beginning has appeared.[30]..コンピュータ将棋の棋力の向上に伴い、プロ棋士が作り上げた定跡に頼らず、自身の局面評価と探索によって、定跡局面を抜けた段階で局面評価が良くなるような定跡を自らの力で作成することにより、コンピュータ将棋の序盤力は格段の向上を遂げたWith the improvement of the shogi power of computer shogi, instead of relying on the joseki created by professional shogi players, create a joseki by yourself so that the phase evaluation will improve at the stage of passing through the fixed phase by your own phase evaluation and search. As a result, the early stage power of computer shogi has improved dramatically.[Source required].

Weakness of piece drop battle and its improvement

The early-stage joseki database specializes in flat-handed battles, and computers are not good at the piece-dropping battles that are no longer pointed out in the official battles of professional shogi players.駒落ち特有の大局観を持ち合わせていないコンピュータは二枚落ちの上手を持っても穴熊に囲って自滅してしまうことがあるA computer that does not have the big picture peculiar to piece dropping may be surrounded by a bear and self-destruct even if it is good at dropping two pieces.[31].

However, this is also improved by improving the phase evaluation ability in cases where there are few phases to become teachers, and Kazunari Yamamoto, a ponanza developer who also has a high level of handicap, said in April 2016. Reported that he lost to ponanza in a row due to a loss[32].

Challenges for coaching and entertainment games

Professionals play coaching games against amateur opponents by dropping pieces or by hand, but although research has been conducted on coaching games such as "I will cut corners well and lose", such games have been conducted. Is still developing in that it is not widely practiced, and it can be said that it has not caught up with humans in this field.Yoshiharu HanyuAccording to the report, the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology is challenging the research of so-called "entertainment shogi" (software that competes well with humans and loses at the end), but do not lose too much. It's difficult to do[33].

In another interview, Yoshiharu Habu said, "It is difficult to point to entertainment shogi. Basically, entertainment shogi cannot be done unless you can guess at what level and how much shogi the other person is pointing to. I can adjust my strength, but it's too obvious and it's easy to understand. ”“ AI takes away my job, but my answer is always fixed, “Entertainment Golf. I'm trying to answer "I'll never lose a job like this" (laughs). "[34].

Strength of full-width search

On a computerFull width searchIf you are doing this, you will read all the patterns depending on what happens in the end, not on the good or bad of the middle stage, so there is an advantage that you do not overlook "humans do not consider it because it is a seemingly terrible hand, but in fact it is a good hand" ..For humans, instead of reading all the patternsIntuition,OutlookBecause we use to distinguish between good and bad hands and narrow down the scope of consideration, we may overlook it.

Anti-computer strategy

The software "Inaniwa Shogi" specializes in anti-computer shogi.これは、基本的には自陣の歩を動かさず、守備に駒を配置したあとはひたすら手待ちして相手の時間切れを目指す戦法であるThis is basically a tactic that does not move your own steps, and after placing pieces in the defense, waits and aims for the opponent's time out.[35]..This is because even a piece set that can be easily overcome by humans is a difficult hole for a computer to read.The World Computer Shogi Championship at the time when Inaniwa Shogi participated became a powerful tactic because it lost the time and there was no countdown (later, "If you run out in 10 minutes, within 1 seconds per move" → "With 10 minutes time" It changes to "add 10 seconds for each move", and you can no longer win with this strategy). 1年の第10回世界コンピュータ将棋選手権での「独創賞」は、新しい技術や工夫、面白い趣向を凝らして選手権を盛り上げたプログラムとして、丸山スペシャルをさらに進化させて実装し、コンピュータ将棋の弱点をあらわにした「稲庭将棋」が選出されたThe "Creative Award" at the 2010th World Computer Shogi Championship in 20 is a program that enlivens the championship with new technology, ingenuity, and interesting tastes, and further evolves and implements the Maruyama Special to show the weaknesses of computer shogi. The exposed "Inaniwa Shogi" was selected[36].

Anyone at the 2nd Shogi Den-O War Commemorative Event "Nico Nico Honsha (Harajuku)"GPS ShogiIf you win, the prize will be 100 million yen !! ”ponanzaDeveloper Kazunari Yamamoto uses the above-mentioned tactics of Inaniwa Shogi to invite a forced attack on GPS Shogi (Yamamoto says, "If you wait without attacking more than 400 moves, you will find a bug that will force you to attack."[37]) Was tried.It wasn't written because it took so long that people waiting in line couldn't play.Kiyokazu KatsumataIt was a draw by the ruling of.In addition, in the subsequent event, rules such as a draw are clearly stated if it is not possible to settle by pointing to the 256th move.[38].

In addition, by pointing to an normally impossible move, it is possible to make the computer behave like a bug by omitting the branch to be considered.A computer that behaves basically the same is a tactic that is disadvantageous to humans who can change the move according to the opponent.

In the general interview of the 2th station of the 5nd Shogi Den-O WarHiroyuki MiuraWas asked, "Did you notice the weaknesses of GPS Shogi in your previous research?" "I didn't find any obvious habits, but on the contrary, I'm glad I found it. For example, you might have been wondering if you should hit it. Even if you hit a weak point and win, you can say that you won. It's just a team battle, so even if you don't really want to do it, you should do it. There are also ... it's a difficult place. "[39].

Takami Taichi"(Asking what to do if I was a player of the Den-O battle) First, I tried the same strategy with the same environment and time setting as the production with the rented software, and of course I will research how likely it is to use it. Shin. Even if you can just use it,Saddle handSo, I think it's okay to play a one-shot event like this one, but in the Den-O game (as a professional)Self-esteemI think that the problem of.難しいですね」と答えているIt ’s difficult, is n’t it? ”[40].

At the second station of Den-O Battle FINALTakuya Nagase SeleneOn the other hand, he pointed to the normally impossible hand of "2 seven-sided failure".[Annotation 3]..The software improves the search efficiency by omitting the corners, jumps, and steps that cannot be taken, and by pointing to these hands and letting the software calculate from scratch, you can use your time.この対局の場合はSeleneに角不成を認識できないバグがあり、王手放置によって反則負けとなったIn the case of this game, Selene had a bug that he could not recognize the horn failure, and he lost the foul by leaving the check.[Annotation 4]..At this time, the developer was not aware of the bug in advance.

At the XNUMXth station of Den-O Battle FINALAkutsu main taxInvite the computer "2 octagon" by dare to make a gap in your own team[Annotation 5]AWAKEWon (declared by the developer)[41]..This tactic is one of the tactics that has been known for a long time as a countermeasure against ponanza, and even if computer shogi is evaluated as advantageous in the short term, it cannot be read that it will be disadvantageous after the number of lengths (due to the problem of calculation cost). Weaknesses common to computer shogi based on (stop searching before that)Horizon effect)[42]..Weaknesses were apparent before the game, but no program modifications were allowed.

Relationship between evaluation value and winning percentage

The computer quantifies the situation of the situation with the evaluation value.

An evaluation value of 0 points represents equality. If it is positive, the larger the absolute value is, the more advantageous it is, and if it is negative, the larger the absolute value is, the more disadvantageous it is.In most software, if the absolute value is 200 points or less, it is equal, if it is several hundred points, it is advantageous (disadvantage), if it is around 500 to 1000 points, it is superior (inferior), and if it is several thousand points or more, it is superior (defeat). It becomes.Immediate checkmateinevitableIf there is virtually no victory or defeat for some reason, the absolute value is "∞ points" or the maximum value that can be expressed (depending on the software. For example, "9999 points". Immediate checkmate is "99999 points" and inevitable is "50000 points". An example of distinguishing between immediate checkmate and inevitable (or one-handed one-handed) by setting "points" or by setting "9999 points" for immediate checkmate and "31111 points" for reading out such as inevitable or one-handed approach. In addition to being expressed in (there is also), it is expressed in the form of "Mate: XX" (XX is the number of steps required to complete the checkmate) depending on the software.In addition, depending on the software, "-1 point" isSennichouMay indicate that is the best.

PonanzaIn the case of, the winning percentage is about 300% with about 6 points, and the winning percentage is about 800% with 8 points.[43]..商用版のCommercial versionYaneura KingIn the case of Qhapaq recorded in, the evaluation value of 500 points means a winning percentage of over 7%, while the evaluation value of -500 points has a winning percentage of less than 2%.[44]..Tatsuya Sugimura, the developer of Mizutaku, says that in the case of a match between computers, the relationship "evaluation value ÷ 30 + 50 = winning percentage" holds.[45].

Low evaluation of Ranging Rook

Computer shogi basically underestimates the value of a rook.As a result, I was studying using a computerSota FujiiIn some cases, the static rook party's shogi player challenged the double crown with a rook that was difficult for Fujii to study and won.[46].

Advantage of the first move

Yaneura KingIsozaki, the developer of the game, said in January 2022, "The problem is that the current shogi software is too strong for humans, and the first win rate in the software tournament is too high. For example, the other day's Denryu battle. So, the first win rate was 1% and the second win rate was 70.0%. "[47].

History of games with humans

Before 2004

1968 ,Weekly AsahiIn the planning of human vs. computerTsume shogiA quick-solving competition was held.審判と解説はReferee and commentaryYasuo HaradaEight stepsKatoEight steps.The computer is "H-kun" (HITAC(Using 5020), human beings are celebrities and amateurs in various fields.The human side of the game is close to beginners, but most of them are amateurs, and some of them are student masters and tsume shogi writers.Tsume shogi was asked one question at a time, and the time was competed for each question.There are two questions per person.The result was 49 wins and 53 losses from the human side.Both Harada and Kato XNUMXth Dan have certified "H-kun"'s ability to solve the Tsume Shogi as an amateur XNUMXrd Dan.[48].

Computer shogiDawnAt that time, due to the performance of computers at that time, it was thought that it would be a while before the computer reached the level of a professional shogi player.When shogi software was first created by applying the know-how of chess software, it was a terrible situation that even beginners of amateurs could lose.However, in the 1990s, software development technology and hardware performance improved, and "Kanazawa ShogiTop-level programs such as "" are said to have reached the first level of amateurs between 1994 and 1996. In 1997, computer chess "Deep BlueIs the human championGarri KasparovDefeated.しかし、その頃のコンピュータ将棋は、アマチュア二段程度であったHowever, computer shogi at that time was about two amateurs.[49].

1994 years,YSSDeveloper Hiroshi Yamashita wrote in his memoir of the 4th Computer Shogi Championship, "8 years later. If you are reading this, unless you are a professional, you will be defeated by a computer. And in 2010, even in Hanyu. A boring era will come when no one can beat the computer. "[50].

In the "1996 Shogi Yearbook" published in 8, a questionnaire was posted to professional shogi players, "When will the computer beat the professionals? When will it come?"

  • Go player who answered that he will come in the near future

Kubo Toshiaki"Next century",Kunio Naito"I feel like it will come within 10 years",Koji Tosa"It will come in about 10 years",Maezaki study"10 years later",Hiroto Kiritani"Coming. 10 years later",Nou Ito"I think it's close to my level",Hiromitsu Kanki"Is it about five years away? I'll lose first."Haruko Saida"10 years later"

  • Go player who answered that he would not come

Kunio Yonecho"None forever",Hisashi Whereabouts"Maybe it won't come, but please do your best",Kato"Will not come",Nobuyuki Ouchi"I won't come for the time being",Fukaura City"Do not come",Osamu Nakamura"I don't think the top will lose",Murayama Kiyoshi"Do not come",Takashi Abe"I pray for the day when it doesn't come",Hatakeyama Town"Do not come",Shuji Sato"If that happens, you won't need a professional, so you have to pray not to come."Kiyokazu Katsumata"denial",Kosuke Tamura"I won't lose (what about others?)"Hiroe Nakai"Do not come",Sachio Ishibashi"Do not come",Rieko Yauchi"I don't think it will come"

  • Go players who answered "come, but far away" or "conditionally come"

Yoshiharu Hanyu"2015",Toshiyuki Moriuchi"2010",Nobuyuki Yashiki"Come. I just can't beat the top."Nakahara Makoto"I think it's a long way off, but it should come."Morishita Taku"I think it will come someday",Torahiko Tanaka"I think. While I'm alive."Keita Inoue"I don't think it will come in 10 years",Aono Teru City"Even if you can join the ranks of professionals, you can't beat the top."Yasuaki Tsukada"As a hope, I am still active",Goda ShinTakashi"Someday, but I don't think we can surpass humans."Kazuo Azuma"The Day the Seven Crowns Program",Kiyozumi Kiriyama"20 years later",Yoshikazu Minami"About 40 years ahead",Kazuo Manabe"There are various professionals, but it will be about XNUMX years before we beat the top."Tatsuya Futakami"If it's a super fast-pointing match, the pros may still lose. The point is that it depends on the conditions."Shoji Kenmochi"When professional shogi players can program",Koji Tanikawa"It's been a story since I retired."Ryoko Chiba"50 years later",Hitoshi Awaji"I'm not alive",Keiichi Sanada"I won't lose 100 years"

  • Go player who answered that he does not understand

Takahashi Michio"?",Hiroyuki Miura"I do not understand"

  • Go player who gave other answers

Shingo Hirafuji"ArcadeShogi[Annotation 6]Lost twice "

  • Go player who did not answer

Michio Ariyoshi,Tamaru Noboru,Yasumitsu Sato,Shimizu City[51][52]

Yoshiharu HanyuAfter the prediction of "2015", he answered the true intention, "I just wrote it appropriately without thinking deeply ... (bitter smile)".[53].

2001/7YSS Shogi Club 24With a record of 12 wins and 5 lossesRatingRecord 1870 ?.

June 2003 YSS participated in Shogi Club 6 and recorded a rating of 24 with a record of 39 wins and 13 losses.

May 2004 YSS participated in Shogi Club 5 and recorded a rating of 24 with a record of 41 wins and 11 losses.[54].

2005

In 2005, in an exhibition game at the Computer Shogi Championship, the winning software of the tournament "Geki finger』, But of professional shogi playersKiyokazu KatsumataToCorner dropWon in[55]..また、2005年6月の第18回Also, the XNUMXth meeting in June XNUMXAmateur Ryuo Battle"Gekishi", who participated as an invited player in the event, won three consecutive victories against the prefectural representatives and advanced to the final tournament and entered the best 3[56].

2005/5YSSParticipated in Shogi Club 24 and recorded a rating of 37 with a record of 15 wins and 2463 losses.[57].

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayBonanza ver.1.0 is released.Immediately after publicationAkira WatanabeOn his blog, "Professionals became prey"EncouragementIt seems that the stepped class is losing. "[58], Watanabe himself said, "10 seconds shogi[Annotation 7]Then you can do it once or twice in 10 times. "[59].Shogi Club 24Rating at about 2400[60]. (Pentium4 2GHz, 1 move 18 seconds)

At the event on September 2005, 9PADS Takashi HashimotoとTieI played the game.結果は橋本の勝利となったが、TACOS に敗北寸前まで追い詰められたThe result was Hashimoto's victory, but TACOS was cornered to the point of defeat.[61].. I saw "professional shogi player vs. software" as a business opportunityJapan Shogi FederationThe board of directors of the board of directors with a computer without the permission of all playersOpen gameIssued a notice prohibiting doing[62]..Later Takanori Hashimoto, TACOSEncouragementIt is so strong that it cannot pass the admission test, and there is no reason to be cornered to the point of defeat. I wrote in my book that I loosened it (because it will end soon if I take it seriously)[63].

In October 2005, in a project of Shogi WorldGeki fingerとAkira Watanabe Corner dropAkira Watanabe won the match with 40 minutes each and 1 seconds per move after the time expired.同じ条件で激指とWith a hard finger under the same conditionsKimura KazukiPlayed against each other, and Kazuki Kimura lost. (The computer used by GekifingerPentium4 2.8GHz)

2005th, April 10, 23International Shogi ForumAtYSSとToshiyuki Moriuchi Corner dropMoriuchi won the match in 1 seconds per move.

2006 to 2009

Since 2006, public games with computers have been held in a flat manner.

From March to May 2006,Weekly ShogiIn the serialization of, the 1st Weekly Shogi Amateur COM Flat Hand Battle was held.There, he played against five amateur powerhouses twice, a total of 5 times, with 2 wins and 10 losses on the computer side.On the computer sideGeki finger・ ・IS Shogi-YSS-Bonanza..The first time is 1 minutes (countdown 60 seconds) and the second time is 60 minutes (countdown 2 seconds).

2006/9YSSParticipated in Shogi Club 24 and recorded a rating of 17 with a record of 11 wins and 2508 losses.[64].

On March 2007, 3, Bonanza and the title holderAkira Watanabe(Dragon King) WithOpen game(Flat hand) was done (Bonanza # Akira Watanabe Play with Ryuoreference). Bonanza is Intel Xeon X5355 2.66GHz x 8 cores, memory 8GB, 1 million hand reading performance per second.The software has been tuned by greatly increasing the number of searches for ver.400 that was released at that time and improving the selection of tactics. Shogi Club 24Rating at 2800[65] Although he was defeated due to a misreading in the final stage, he is a professional reserve force from multiple professionals including the player Watanabe.EncouragementIt was highly evaluated that it corresponds to the ability of the first to third stages of.Since then, for six years, no public games have been held with active male professional shogi players, and the next was the second Den-O match in March 6.

2007/5YSSParticipated in Shogi Club 24 and recorded a rating of 41 with a record of 11 wins and 2744 losses.[66].

At the 2008th World Computer Shogi Championship exhibition match held on May 5, 5, the winning software's fierce finger was the amateur master Toru Shimizu, and the runner-up software Tanase Shogi was the Asahi amateur master Yukio Kato. We achieved the feat of defeating each.この対局に対し、敗れた清水上と加藤はそれぞれ、「コンピュータの読みが上回った」「完敗だった」とコメントしたIn response to this game, the defeated Shimizu and Kato commented that "the computer reading exceeded" and "it was a complete defeat," respectively.[67].. 2008年11月8日に行われた清水上、加藤と激指、棚瀬将棋との持ち時間60分、その後1手60秒の再戦では、加藤が勝利して雪辱を果たしたものの、清水上はまたも敗北を喫したIn the rematch between Shimizu, Kato and Gekishi, and Shogi Tanase for XNUMX minutes on November XNUMX, XNUMX, and then XNUMX seconds per move, Kato won and humiliated, but Shimizu I was defeated again[68]..公式対局でプロ相手に何度も勝利を上げているトップアマの二人の敗戦はプロにとっても衝撃であり、渡辺明The defeat of the two top amateurs who have won many times against professional opponents in official games is a shock to professionals, Akira Watanabe[69], Yusuke Toyama[70],Daisuke Katakami[71]These professional shogi players wrote the surprise on their blog.

2010

August 2010, 2,Weekly ShogiEditor of the former encouragement society XNUMXrd danOld work Geki fingerWe played a public game with 20 minutes of time, and the computer won.

August 2010, 4,IPSJIs the chairman'sTohoku UniversityIn the name of (Visiting Professor), he declared, "We have completed a computer shogi that is strong enough to be recognized by the Information Processing Society of Japan as having the power to compete with the master of development for 35 years," and handed a letter of challenge to the Japan Shogi Association.将棋連盟はこれに対し、会長のThe Shogi Federation, on the other hand,Kunio YonechoIn his name, he accepted the challenge, saying, "I was impressed with his courage and irreverent attitude."最初の対戦相手として女流のFemale style as the first opponentShimizu City(The two crowns of the female throne and the female general at the time of the game decision) were nominated.[72][73].

From May to July 2010, the 5nd Weekly Shogi Amateur COM Flat Hand BattleWeekly ShogiIt was held as a serialization of. OpponentTokyo University5 shogi club members. A total of 2 matches were played twice each, with Shogi Tanase losing 10 and 1 wins and 9 loss on the computer side. The participating computersGeki finger-Bonanza Feliz ・YSS-Tanase Shogi-GPS Shogi..The first time is 1 minutes (countdown 30 seconds) and the second time is 60 minutes (countdown 2 seconds).

On December 2010, 7,Geki finger Josekidojo2 Victory Commemorative Edition released, (2010)World Computer Shogi ChampionshipOf the fierce finger who won the championshipThinking routine(Equipped) The strength of the singing phrase is the net shogi rating of 3000 points (equipped)ProfessionalClass).

On August 2010, 8, the details of the game with Ichiyo Shimizu were announced, and the time control wasChess clock3 hours due to use (considered time less than 1 minute is also measured), 1 minute per move after use upMynavi Women's OpenThe conditions were the same as in the fifth game. Also, the hardware on the computer side has no cluster (Intel) Xeon W3680 3.33GHz 6 cores)GPS ShogiProvided byTokyo UniversityCluster machines (Intel Xeon 2.80GHz 4 cores: 109 units, Intel Xeon 2.40GHz 4 cores: 60 units, total 169 units 676 cores) are used together, and the software is "Geki finger""GPS Shogi""Bonanza""YSS4 types of softwareUniversity of Electro-CommunicationsA collegial system was adopted in which a majority vote was taken under the control of the manager developed by the Ito laboratory. This system is a word that indicates 10 to the 224th power, which is close to the total number of 10 possible game records of shogi to the 226th power.Agarwood'[Annotation 8]It was named "".

The weighting of the collegial system is as follows. Priority is given to no cluster, with a total of 7.7 and with a cluster of 1.3.

  • No cluster-Intel Xeon W3680 3.33GHz 6 cores
    • Geki finger-2.9
    • Bonanza-1.9
    • GPS Shogi --1.0
    • YSS-1.9
  • With cluster-Intel Xeon 4 cores, total 169 units, 676 cores
    • Geki finger-0.1
    • Bonanza-0.1
    • GPS Shogi --1.0
    • YSS-0.1

The game between Ichiyo Shimizu and Akara 2010 will be on October 2010, 10.Tokyo UniversityPointed to by the Faculty of Engineering, 86 won from the back with 2010 moves[74].. The assistant who moves the pieces of 2010 from now onUemura Wataru(Three steps at that time) served[75].

2011 to 2012

August 2011, 5,ponanza Shogi Club 24Recorded a rating of 92 with a record of 8 wins and 3110 losses.Finally, we played 2 games with "Mysterious Go Player" and it was 1 win and 1 loss.[76].

From November 2011, 11 to January 8, 2012 the following yearBonclawsParticipated in Shogi Club 24 and recorded a rating of 2406 with a record of 134 wins, 79 losses and 3364 minutes.

2013 to 2015

From May 2013th to May 5th, 6, ponanza participated in Shogi Club 5 and recorded a rating of 17 with a record of 24 wins and 92 losses.[77].

2013 Kohei FunaeとTsutsukanaIn the practice game, 4 to 10 stations were played with 15 hours of time, and Funae stated that the winning percentage against Tsutsukana was "about XNUMX minutes".[78].

From November 2013 to March 11 the following yearTatsuya SugaiとLearningSugai tells Xi Ji that "95 wins and 97 losses"[79][80]..In addition, Sugai said, "I think that there are many opinions that computers will become stronger in the future, but I think that human beings will be stronger in about 10 years. There are not many people who nod so much. I think, "[81][82].

From November 2013 to March 11 the following yearToyoshima MasayukiとYSSToyoshima said in a practice game, "I couldn't win at all in the beginning, and I felt like I could win about 5% to 7% in the end."[83].

From November 2013 to March 11 the following yearMorishita TakuとTsutsukanaMorishita stated that the winning percentage against Tsutsukana was "not 1%".[84].

From January 2015 to February 1Shintaro SaitoとAperySaito said in a practice game, "I'm stopping at a disadvantage in terms of content, so what about 10 wins, 30 losses, or 40 losses?"[85].

From November 2014 to March 12 the following yearTakuya NagaseとSeleneNagase said in a practice game, "I think the total winning percentage is about 1%. However, I thought it was possible to subtract that 1% in the actual battle."[86].

From November 2014 to March 12 the following yearMurayamaとponanzaMurayama stated that the winning percentage against ponanza was "not 1%".[87].

2015 year 6 month,Shota SendaとAperyIn practice games, he played more than 1 stations in one hour, and Senda stated that the winning percentage against Apery was "just 50%" and "what should I do if I can't beat the current computer shogi?"[88]

August 2015, 10,IPSJHas announced the end of the "Computer Shogi Project" with the analysis result that the ability of computer shogi has caught up with the top professional shogi players as of 2015 (there is a high possibility of statistically winning)[89]..There were various reactions to this declaration from multiple computer shogi software developers.[Annotation 9]..Some of them were "I don't know the activities of the Information Processing Society of Japan and it's a mystery." "Because it's a hobby program, it had nothing to do with academic significance."[93][94]AndAperySome respondents emphasized that computer shogi developers, such as developer Takuya Hiraoka, are not developing according to the Information Processing Society of Japan.

From December 2015th to 12th, 7, ponanza participated in Shogi Club 13, a record high rating of 24-69.3455Record[95][96][97](Core i7-6700K, 1 move 18 seconds).

Sota FujiiLater, "I actually pointed to 3 or 4 stations on the net with ponanza, but I lost all of them. Of course I didn't want to lose, but the moment when the computer and the shogi player fought in the long history of shogi. I'm glad I was there. "[98][Broken link].

In 2015, Yoshiharu Habu said, "Now, the artificial intelligence of shogi is, in athletics,Usain Boltit's dark. If you are lucky, you may win. But in the next few yearsF1 carWill reach the level of. At that time, humans should no longer be willing to compete with artificial intelligence. "[99].

2016

From November 2015 to March 12 the following yearTakayuki YamazakiとponanzaYamazaki said, "Quick pointingI've only done it in Japan, but when I win, it's tough to look at my thoughts and see. "[100].

August 2016, 5,Yoshiharu Hanyu War of the WisdomAnnouncement of participation in[101]..Hanyu is in the semi-final against EiouAkihiko SatoBecause he was defeated by[102]Since Sato won the Eiou battle, the first computer and title holder (master) in the Den-O battle was realized.The official game between computer and titleholder is the first in ten years since Akira Watanabe (Ryuo) vs. Bonanza.Hanyu said when he participated in the Eiou match, "I think people who know the world of shogi to some extent are no longer allergic to the fact that the program has become stronger." Regarding that, there are some things that are not suitable (laughs). Whether or not I am most suitable for it is another story. Of course, when I lose, it will have a big impact on the general public. "[103].

Hiroyuki MiuraIs the 3rd match of the Ryuo challenger deciding matchMaruyama TadahisaAlthough he won with 2 wins and 1 loss, he was accused of fraud by other Go players because he often left his seat during the game. Detail isSuspicion of illegal use of shogi softwareSee. In a column of ITmedia dealing with this problem, it was reported that "top-class software has come to have a strength that is equal to or better than the top of human beings even if it is run on a smartphone."[104].Yaneura KingMotohiro Isozaki, the developer of, said, "If it is a high-spec smartphone as of 2016,MacBook AirThere is about a quarter of the performance of the PC in the Den-O tournament.In this case, ponanza is estimated to have a strength of around R4, and about 1% of humankind will not be a match. "[105].

On December 2016, 12, a third-party investigation committee on allegations of fraud by Hiroyuki MiuraKeiichi TadakiThe chairman said, "The proof that each fact is totally white isProbatio diabolica"We have considered all of the allegations raised, but none of them have enough evidence to admit the misuse of smartphones."[106]..The committee's report states, "The Shogi Federation is now facing an unprecedented crisis due to the improvement of shogi software." In this era, we cannot overlook the fact that the suspicion that players will use shogi software has arisen in the minds of professional shogi players. "[107].

2017

From April to May 2017, the second period of the previous yearWar of the WisdomWonAkihiko SatoHowever, the second term, which is the last in this termDen-O BattleAnd played against ponanza, the winner of the 4th Shogi Den-O Tournament.The first station is on April 1stNikko Toshogu ShrineSato was defeated with 71 moves.The second station will be on May 2thHimeji castleSato was defeated with 94 moves.With two consecutive losses on the Sato side, the computer was the first in history to defeat an active master holder (see details).Shogi Den-O Battle # 2nd Den-O BattleSee).

In 2016, he became the youngest player in history (14 years and 2 months) to become a professional.Sota FujiiIn response to the question "Is the existence of software a threat?", "It feels like a tool to become stronger. I also use it for research," and "It is said to be the strongest software."ponanzaDo you think you can win if you point to it? "There is no limit to the evolution of computer capabilities compared to humans. In that sense, I think we are no longer in an era where humans and computers compete."[21].

August 2017, 12,DeepMindWas trained for 3 daysAlphaZero チ ェ ス,Shogi,GoWorld Champion Program (at that time)Stockfish,elmo,AlphaGo ZeroAnnounced that it broke (3 days study).

2020

At the 2020th Shogi Awards on April 4, 1elmoInvented by "elmo enclosureWas selected for the Kozo Masuda Award.This is the first time that a tactic devised by computer shogi software has been selected.

Shogi Den-o Battle

Shimizu CityIn response to the fact that the computer software Akara 2010 played and Akara 2010 won.Japan Shogi FederationChairman (at that time)Kunio YonechoPlays against computer shogi as a "representative of retired shogi players". At the same time, professional shogi players and computer software play regularly.Den-O BattleWas announced to be held.

At the 2012st Shogi Den-O Battle held on January 1, 14, with the US ChiefBonclawsThe main game was held at Shogi Hall, and the first player, the Bonkler's, won with 113 moves.[108][109].

2013年の3月から4月にかけて行われた第2回将棋電王戦はプロ棋士5名と2012年世界コンピュータ将棋選手権の上位5ソフトとの団体戦として行われ、プロ棋士側の1勝3敗1分(Mochi shogi) Ended[110].. In the second station, the computer won for the first time in the active professional shogi player match that was held according to the official rules.[111].

The 2014rd Shogi Den-O Battle, which was held from March to April 3, was held with 4 professional shogi players and the 3st in 5.Shogi Denno TournamentIt was held as a team battle with the top 5 software of the game, and ended up with 1 win and 4 losses on the professional shogi player side.[112].

The Shogi Den-O Battle FINAL, which was held from March to April 2015, was held as a team battle between five professional shogi players and the top five software of the 3 4nd Shogi Den-O Tournament, with the professional shogi players winning 5 wins and 2014 Lost and won for the first time[113].

The outfit has been renewed from the first Den-O match that took place from April to May 2016. Newly established in the previous yearWar of the WisdomIt was held as a second match between the professional shogi player who won the game and the computer player who won the 2015rd Shogi Den-O Tournament in 3, and ended up losing all two games on the professional shogi player side.

The Den-O battle ended with the second Den-O battle that took place from April to May 2017.About the reason for the terminationKawakami"The historical role of humans and computers playing seriously with the same rules is over."[114]..The 2nd Den-O match was held as a second match between the professional shogi player who won the 2016nd Eio match in 2 and the computer representative who won the 4th Shogi Den-O tournament. I ended up losing.

Typical software

Open Source

Freeware

Tsume shogi Answer software

Commercial software

Other

Computer shogi programming technology

Evaluation function

Since shogi is a game in which each player points one move at a time, it is necessary to evaluate the situation in order to select the move, and to rank the advantages and disadvantages of the situation.Evaluation functionis necessary.Usually the merit function is a phaseReal number(For speeding up)IntegerUse the function to be converted. In the search, the evaluation function is used to read the changes of several moves and find the move that is most advantageous to the other party when he / she has done his best. "Advantage" here is evaluated based on quantifiable criteria such as being able to clog the opponent's ball or becoming a piece. The strength of computer shogi is determined by how to create the evaluation function and how many hands are to be searched. Many of them evaluate the shape of the ball and the function of the piece, focusing on the profit and loss of the piece.

Machine learning

In the past, the evaluation function was created manually,Bonanzaョ ョ 狗 狗Kunihito HokiIt is,Machine learningCreated an evaluation function by. This has made it possible to give high marks to moves that other software has overlooked (or neglected by developers). This "automatic generation of evaluation function parameters" is "Bonanza methodIt is considered to be one of the biggest breakthroughs in the history of computer shogi.

2009 Held in19th World Computer Shogi ChampionshipThen, of the 8 software that advanced to the final, the seedGeki fingerとYSS6 software except the above adopted "Bonanza Method".As a result, the fierce finger lost 2-5 and YSS lost 1-6, and the next year's championship adopted the "Bonanza Method".

For machine learning, from past professional game recordsSupervised learningAnd by self-matchReinforcement learningHowever, until around 2015, the game record of a professional shogi player was used.Supervised learningWas the mainstream. In the case of supervised learning, the theme of machine learning is to reproduce the hands of professional shogi players. With few mistakes and a long number of readers, he is trying to surpass professional shogi players. As a drawback of supervised learningEnteringThere is a problem that patterns that do not often appear in past professional game records, such as patterns, are weakened.

In the past, professional game records were used as learning materials, but since the advent of NineDayFever, which succeeded in strengthening with self-game records, computer-to-computer game records have become more important. From 2016 onwards, NineDayFever's reinforcement learning is common, in which players do not use professional game records, but generate their own game records and learn to bring the evaluation values ​​in shallow searches closer to the evaluation values ​​in deep searches from hundreds of millions to billions of phases. The evaluation of the ball was also greatly improved.

Combination of three pieces

A method of creating an evaluation function from the combination and positional relationship of three pieces containing one or more kings. Bonanza has been adopted since Ver. 1 of 2009. YSS calculates the combination of three pieces in relative coordinates from the king. In addition, there is also software that calculates with a combination of 4 pieces.

explore

Pruning

In the case of shogi, the average number of moves that can be started is 80, soThe number of phases to the minions is approximatelyIt will be a huge number. If all of this is calculated, it will not be possible to look ahead deeply within a limited time. Therefore, reducing the number of phases actually calculated so that it can be read deeply is called pruning.

There are two types of pruning: pruning that returns exactly the same value as the result of evaluating all aspects, and pruning that allows more pruning by allowing the return of results that include errors.The former is sometimes called backward pruning and the latter is sometimes called forward pruning.

Full width search

A method of reading a hand that can be pointed under a certain situation (Brute force search).The search method is primitive and programming is simpler than others, but it was considered inefficient due to the load on the CPU.However, according to Bonanza developer Yasuki, full-width search is adopted for Bonanza because selective search complicates the selection process and is more burdensome than full-width search.[117].

Minimax method

Minimax method Theチ ェ ス, Shogi,Reversi,checkerEtc.Full information gameThe basic algorithm for deciding the next move. Read up to a few moves, and at that point, give a score (the turn is more positive) to the phase by the evaluation function, the turn has the highest evaluation value, and the non-turn has the lowest evaluation value. As you choose, choose the next move. Assuming that the number of phases branching is N and the look-ahead depth is L, the number of phases that need to be evaluated is N ^ L.

αβ search

It is basically the same as the minimax method, but when calling a function that recursively evaluates the aspect, the lower limit value (this is called the α value) and the upper limit value (this is β) of the evaluation value known at that time. Since it is useless to pass (called a value) as an argument and calculate outside the range, an algorithm that discontinues the evaluation when the value obtained in the middle of the minimax evaluation is outside the range of the α value and β value. The number of phases evaluated by the minimax evaluation is N ^ L, but it is approximately N ^ (L / 2) in the αβ search.

Realization probability search

The method used by hard fingers. At the time of search, the realization probability of the next move is obtained from the past game data, and the one with the higher realization probability is searched deeper. Geki finger is for calculation of realization probability2004 ToLogistic regressionIt was adopted.

Clustering

Once loosely coupled machinesClusteringEven if it did not become strong, in 2010 I increased the weighting without loosely coupled clustering,2011 ToBonclawsWon the 6-car clustering2012 Is 797GPS ShogiWon the championship. Hideki Ito, who developed the Bonkler's, said that if 700 Bonkler's can be used,RatingShows the view that will increase by about 200-300[118].. If the rating difference is 200-300, the expected win rate will be around 75-85% (from the higher rating). Looking back on the 2th station of the 5nd Shogi Den-O War,Hiroyuki Miura"I had only a 670 percent chance of winning," he told 5 GPS Shogi.[119].. If the chance of winning is 5%, the rating difference will be about 500.

Collaborative system

2010 Since then, a method of deciding a move by a consensus (majority vote) between multiple thinking engines has been studied. At the 2009th World Computer Shogi Championship in 19, several Bonanzas[120]"Bunshu" equipped with "Bunshu" achieved a good result of 3rd place[121].

Horizon effect

Horizon effectThis means that due to the limitation of reading depth, one of the hand options that will later become extremely disadvantageous will be selected. Or, by repeating small losses, the state of large losses is postponed, and it becomes more disadvantageous than it should be.

Deep learning

AlphaZeroSucceeded in Go AIMonte Carlo tree searchとDeep learningI left a good result.AlphaGoAnd since the appearance of AlphaZero, AobaZero aimed at retesting AlphaZero[122]And dlshogi whose development started inspired by AlphaGo[123]Shogi software that searches using deep learning has come to be developed. In the first Denryu match held in 2020, GCT, which adopted dlshogi for the search department, won the championship.[124][125][126]..With the advent of deep learning shogi software,BonanzaThere is also a view that a fundamental innovation has been brought to the conventional shogi software, which was mainly based on the method of.[127].

Yaneura KingShogi software that adopted deep learning search said, "The beginning is very strong. Because the big picture is excellent," said Motohiro Isozaki, the developer of GCT, and "GCT's big picture has reached the same level as humans. "[128].

Also, use deep learning to evaluate aspectsNNUEThe evaluation function method called "Shogi software" has achieved great results, and computer chess software has achieved great results.StockfishWas also introduced.

Programmer tools

Shogi place

Calls the program to point to shogi and displays the start on the boardGraphical user interface(GUI)[129].. Shogisho was created in 2007. Shogisho is the Universal Shogi Interface, DOORS) Is used. USI is an open communication protocol used by shogi programs to communicate with user interfaces. USI was designed in 2007 by Norwegian computer chess programmer Tord Romstad. Tord Romstad designed the USI based on (UCI). UCI was designed in 2000 by computer chess programmer Stefan Meyer-Kahlen.Shogisho can automatically play a game between two programs.This eliminates the need for programmers to develop the interface part and makes it easier to test program changes.Shogisho can be used to point to shogi by adding a shogi engine.Engines that can be operated at shogi are Blunder, GPS shogi, Laramie, Lightning, ponanza, Spear, Ssp, TJ shogi, etc.[130].. Bonanza can also be operated by using an adapter (u2b).

WinBoard / XBoard / BCM Shogi

WinBoard / XBoard and BCM Shogi are also GUIs that support shogi. In 2007, HG Muller supported shogi. WinBoard uses its own protocol () to communicate with the engine, but can connect to the USI engine via a UCI2WB adapter. Engines that natively support the WinBoard protocol are Shokidoki, TJ Shogi,GNU Shogi, Bonanza[131].. Unlike Shogisho, WinBoard is open source and is available as XBoard on Linux. BCM Shogi[132]Is a graphical user interface for the USI protocol and the WinBoard Shogi protocol.

Middle shogi,ShogiMany chess players, such as, can play against Ai by using a forked version of Winboard. Shogidoki has a piece rule5 GoshoCan point to (mini shogi). In Hachu, 5 shogi,Tori shogi,Shogi, Chu-shogi, shogi can be pointed to[133].

Floodgate

Floodgate is an automated match server for computers[134].. Programs running in shogi can connect to Floodgate. The GPS team created Floodgate. Floodgate has been in operation since 2008. Between 2008 and 2010, 167 players played 2 stations on Floodgate. Humans can also play at Floodgate. Time control is 8 minutes and loses.

ShogiGUI

ShogiGUI is a GUI for shogi that runs on Windows. By using a shogi engine that supports the USI protocol, you can study, analyze, and play game records. Shogi engines that can be operated on the ShogiGUI include Suisho, Suisho 2, and Tech 2. World Computer Shogi Online Tournament (2020th) held on May 5rd and 3th, 4World Computer Shogi ChampionshipWas canceled and replaced), and the water master won the championship.[135].

Other

Comparison with computer chess

Early computer shogiComputer chessMany were developed based on the theory of[136].. When compared to chessHolding pieceSince there is a choice of move due to the characteristic, the amount of calculation will increase.On the other hand, the development of computer chess has a long history, and since there are many articles on the theory of computation and techniques at the time of programming and open source code, the parts common to shogi are used as a reference for development.

In 1997チ ェ スWorld Champion (at that time)Garri Kasparov IBMDeveloped bydeep blue1 win, 2 losses, 3 drawsShogi worldI also had a big shock,Holding pieceDue to the large number of all phases[137]It was often considered that it had not reached the top level of active duty until the early 2000s.

In 2003General purpose computerThe software that can be purchased by the general public has performance comparable to that of a dedicated machine such as Deep Blue. In August 2009,SmartphoneInstalled inPocket Fritz 4"ButGrand MasterA grade rating was given.

An anti-computer strategy has also been devised for computer chess, and in 2008Hikaru Nakamura(World rank 46th,RatingIn the game between 2670) and Rybka (Ver3, rating is around 3000), Nakamura keeps waiting without attacking, causing Rybka to misjudgment that he is superior, and when he starts an unreasonable attack, he wins. are doing. This game was a long-term battle of 271 moves (542 moves in the shogi style).

AlphaZeroAlthough it is a single program, it performed well not only in shogi and chess, which have something in common, but also in Go.

Soft pointing problem

As a result of raising the level of shogi software, not a few users are pointing to online shogi using hint functions, examination modes, and game functions. Entering the move of shogi software and pointing to the net shogi is called "soft pointing".[138].. Shogi Club 24, a major online shogi club, established the "2008 Soft Pointing Control Committee" in 24 because it causes various inconveniences to other good members (except for official recognition). "Soft pointing" is certified based on the match rate with the move of shogi software, and bad user accounts are deleted.[139].

On the other hand, with 81dojo, if you create an account dedicated to software pointing and set it to the one with the specified name ("COM_ (arbitrary character string)"), you can point using the thinking result of the software without official approval. However, if the name does not have "COM_", 81dojo will be considered as a cheating person.[140].

The same thingチ ェ スBut it's a problem,International Chess FederationAlthough it has been notified that athletes are prohibited from bringing their smartphones into the official tournament,グ ル ジ ア OfGrand Master(Highest level of chess)Gaioz Nigalidee United Arab EmiratesI was standing in the bathroom and hiding it in the toilet paper during the gameSmartphoneIt is reported that he cheated to analyze in[141]. AlsoVladimir KramnikAbout standing in the bathroom frequently during the game in the 2006 Unified World Champion Finals (14 game matches)Veselin TopalovAfter receiving complaints from the side, troubles such as abandoning the fifth game and recording a bye have occurred.

Problems in official games

For professional shogi players, it depends on the software as of 2018CheatHowever, in October 2016, the Japan Shogi Association decided and announced regulatory measures, including a ban on bringing in electronic devices such as smartphones into the game room. It is said that the approval was obtained from more than 10% of Go players.[142].

Also, in 2016, the 29th termRyuo BattleWas decided to be a challengerHiroyuki MiuraSuspected of using software in Kudan, the Japan Shogi Association suspended Miura from participating in the Ryuo match and the official match within the year.[143].. In response to this situation, the challenger of the Ryuo battle was to be inspected with a metal detector to check the possession of electronic devices.[144]..However, an investigation by a third-party committee found no injustice in Miura Kudan, and the Japan Shogi Association apologized to Miura (Suspicion of unauthorized use of shogi software).Nobutaka Hirooka, a reporter at Nikkei Business Online, criticized the inadequacy of the Japan Shogi Association's response to this allegation, and said that it was difficult for the federation to officially play title holders with computers. He pointed out that he was not able to promptly admit that "computers surpassed humans" and said that the shogi world failed to respond to computers compared to the Go world.[145].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  2. ^ Tsume Shogi solved by a computer Toshio Ochi / Tatsuya Kamei / Shinji Tokumasu / Giichiro Uchigasaki Mathematics Seminar June 1968 Issue pp.6 Nihon Hyoronsha April 44, 2017
  3. ^ Shogi worldFrom the July 2007 issue.
  4. ^ Kyoritsu Shuppan bit separate volume "Game Programming" pp. 45-46
  5. ^ Kyoritsu Shuppan bit separate volume "Game Programming" p. 46
  6. ^ a b Satoshi Fukuhara (April 2019, 4). “The one who does game research is a waste ... Background of the delay in AI development in Japan”. Gentosha. 2021/8/8Browse.
  7. ^ Hitoshi Matsubara"About Gem's Program", "Measurement and Control", Vol. 42, No. 6, Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, June 2003, 6, pp. 10-512, two:10.11499 / sicejl1962.42.512.
  8. ^ Hitoshi Matsubara and Ikuo Takeuchi, ed (1997). "Game programming" collection "Why game research has been alienated in Japan"Kyoritsu Shuppan 
  9. ^ From the July 2007 issue of Shogi World.
  10. ^ Computer Shogi Associationreference. Rules are set and published each time.
  11. ^ From the July 2005 issue of "Information Processing"
  12. ^ From the July 2007 issue of "Shogi World"
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  14. ^ 2nd Shogi Den-O Battle PV-Nico Nico Douga
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  63. ^ How to change the world of shogi (Kadokawa Shoten) 2016/12/10
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  143. ^ Miura XNUMXth Dan, using shogi software or canceling the Ryuo battle challenge - Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  144. ^ Physical examination with metal detector at last Ryuo battle begins today Chairman Tanikawa apologizes for changing the alleged challenger --Sankei WEST
  145. ^ 60 consecutive victories of the mysterious Go player on the net, the protagonist of the enthusiastic shadow January 2017, 1 Nikkei Business Online Nobutaka Hirooka

注 釈

  1. ^ The purpose of using computer software is to check if the work is full or unfilled. It may also be used as an aid during creation.
  2. ^ Akira Watanabe ThePlace battle(One day systemTime limit6 hours), he said, "I'm getting sleepy."
  3. ^ StrugglingIn rare cases, you may choose to fail when avoiding
  4. ^ However, there were many opinions that Nagase was dominant in the phase before pointing to "unsuccessful", and even if it was achieved, the superiority would not change. Even so, Nagase said, "I thought I had the upper hand, but I pointed it just in case" and "I thought it might have been corrected." Also in the same yearMay 3Broadcast of "Session-22When he made a guest appearance in the movie, he answered the question, "Did you point if you were defeated?"
  5. ^ This horn can be a horse, but will then be captured
  6. ^ ADK,Seta (company)
  7. ^ Limit your time to 1 seconds per move.According to Watanabe, there is no room for thinking and reading in 10-second shogi, so humans have no choice but to point with intuition and first sense, and a computer that can read as it is at that time is an overwhelmingly advantageous condition. That is.
  8. ^ This word isKegon SutraIt is one of the numbers that appear in the 45th volume of Asamu Gyohin, starting with Lakh (10), Callus (1000 million), and Ayota (100 trillion) (Callus and above are squared). Then it becomes the next unit)Mysterious MysteriousIt is one of the many huge numbers of names given toNumeral system # Numerals in Buddhist scripturesSee).
  9. ^ Puella αDeveloper Hideki Ito[90][91],ponanzaDeveloper Kazunari Yamamoto[92]etc.
  10. ^ The source code is open to the public. It does not meet the "Open Source Definition" by the Open Source Initiative due to restrictions such as prohibition of use for commercial purposes.

References

  • "How to make a computer shogi that beats humans" Takenobu Takizawa, Gijutsu-Hyoronsha, 2012.ISBN 978-4774153261 .
  • "A move out of the ordinary" Koji Tanigawa Shincho Shinsho 2015 978-4106106217

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