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🤝 | Surprisingly fun pee watcher The dentist entertainer who volunteered at Tokyo Oripara was memorable


Photo At the Paralympics, Mr. Chen Ming Yu, a dentist entertainer who volunteered for doping control (provided by himself)

It was surprisingly fun to watch the pee, and the dentist entertainer who volunteered at Tokyo Oripara left a lasting impression on me.

 
If you write the contents roughly
Usually, during the summer vacation, I am giving a lecture at the State University at Buffalo as a dentist.
 

The Paralympics were more impressed than the Olympics.He showed us the potential of human beings ... → Continue reading

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Hello. This is the "Maidena News", a soft news site from Kansai. We will introduce in a timely manner what has become a hot topic on the internet and in the Kansai area centered around Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto. Introducing and commenting deeply on the news and seasonal information that disturbs society from the perspective unique to Kansai. We can answer the "feelings we want to know" of all our users with the spirit of "Kotekote" service unique to Kansai.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Dentist

Dentist(OnlyEnglish: Dentist, Doctor of Dental Surgery, Doctor of Dental Medicine) IsDentistryOn the basis ofInjury Ofprevention,Diagnosisand治療Andpublic healthIs responsible for disseminatinghealth care worker.

Japanese dentist

Regarding the duties in Japan,Dentist lawStipulated byBusiness monopoly qualificationandExclusive qualificationIs a medical qualification of.

Business

What is a dentistDentist law"It is our duty to contribute to the improvement and promotion of public health and to ensure a healthy life for the people by exclusively taking charge of dentistry and health guidance." .. What is "dentistry"?BiteActions involved in construction (Prosthesis,filling,Orthodontics),Tooth-jawbone-Oral mucosa-tongue-Lips-Salivary glands-Masticatory musclesAnd the like, such as the treatment of diseases that occur in the lower face, the treatment of diseases that show symptoms in the oral cavity or the lower face of systemic diseases, and training for recovery of function, etc.

The parts that overlap with the medical practice of the Medical Practitioners Law are oral diseases (oral cancer, tongue cancer, etc.) in otolaryngology, oral mucosal diseases in dermatology, etc. We are providing medical care.However, when oral cancer has spread to organs throughout the body other than the oral cavity, doctors and dentists exchange opinions on treatment policies with each other, and medical and dental cooperation treatment is performed there.

In addition, doctors advocate otolaryngology and head and neck surgery, and dentists and oral surgery only advocate dentists.Doctors cannot advocate dental and oral surgery.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who performs dentistry related to occlusion, which is not allowed by a doctor.It is a violation of the Dental Practitioners Act if a doctor performs "occlusal medical care" such as dentures and orthodontics.In addition, "stand-by surgery for the purpose of jaw position modification only" such as osteotomy orthodontic surgery is a dentist's business, and if it is performed by anyone other than a dentist, it violates the Dental Practitioners Act.

The anatomical area around the oral cavity is not limited to the scope of diagnosis and medical practice, but also includes drug dependence that causes diseases of the teeth and oral cavity, for example.There are many dentists who are good at psychiatry and psychiatry as part of the treatment of teeth and oral cavity (however, it is not possible to diagnose general mental illness and addiction or perform medical treatment based on the dentist. No).

Bachelor of Science

In Japan today,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareSpecified byUniversityRegular course of dentistry in (Dentistry, 6 years),Dentist National ExamIf you don't pass Therefore, all dentistsBachelor (dentistry)With a degree of. However,"Doctor (dentistry)Is not necessarily a dentist. Published several papers in a doctoral program at a graduate school of dentistry or in a laboratory of a dentistry schoolPhDIf it is appropriate to apply for and give a PhD in the examination of graduate professors,PhDEven if you are not a dentistDoctorIs alwaysBachelor (Medical), ButDoctor (medicine)Is not necessarily a doctor).

National dentist qualification

In Japan, dentistsDoctorIt is another national qualification. To become a dentist,Dentist National ExamMust pass. You cannot become a dentist just by graduating from the dental school and earning a bachelor's degree (dentistry).

Dentist National ExamAs a general rule, those who have graduated from a university who have completed a regular course in dentistry and who are expected to graduate (undergraduate (dentistry)) are eligible to take the examination. Those who have graduated from the regular course, passed the examination, and registered in the dentist registryMinister of Health, Labour and WelfareA dentist's license will be granted, which allows the dentistry to work independently. Usually, insurance doctor registration is also often performed. Further medical institutions (Clinic,hospital) (Both become the founders and managers of clinics that practice dentist practice, mainly hospitals that practice dentist practice) That is, to open a dental clinic and become the director of the clinic, it is more than one year after obtaining a dentist license. After graduationClinical trainingMust be completed.Dental hygienistOnly some dentists are allowed to carry out dentistry based on the instructions of others, except for some acts that are allowed by. Also mainly engages in dentistryhospitalandClinicIt is stipulated that the dentist should also be the administrator of. Currently, there is no renewal deadline for dentist licenses, so you can suspend your dentist's business or cancel your license.Medical CouncilValid for life unless otherwise determined by

Dentist licenseDepartmentIt is not issued for each. Therefore, in each medical field学会Is an academic societyCertifying physicianHave been certified. Since these are not legally binding qualifications, advocacy department names (currently recognized as 4 departments of dentistry, dental surgery, orthodontics, and pediatric dentistry) can be advocated freely. In addition, you cannot advertise the specialist qualifications unless you have a specialist from each academic society (unlike the doctor's specialty doctor system).

History

Meiji RestorationBefore: Before the Meiji Restoration, there were doctors who specialized in oral dentistry and oral and mid-orthodox medicine, and they treated the mouth, throat, and teeth. There are dentures that are estimated to have been around 2500 BC around the world.GizaIt has been excavated from.

After the Meiji Restoration: In August 1874 (Meiji 7)Medical systemWas promulgated, and a medical system modeled after the West began to be put in place. Due to the "medical system", in order to become a doctor, it was required to pass the medical practice examination. 1875 (Meiji 8),Einosuke ObataApplied for and passed the first medical practice examination, specializing in "dentistry".Obata was registered with Medical Register No. 1.This means that he was "registered as a doctor majoring in dentistry", but Obata was a pioneer majoring in Western dentistry and used the word "dentistry" for the first time, making it the first (modern) in Japan. ) It is said to be a dentist. In 4 (Meiji 1883), a dentist's register was created separately from the medical register, and doctors and dentists became independent and separate entities. In 16 (Meiji 1906), the Dental Practitioners Law was enacted by Law No. 39. In 48 (Showa 1942), in order to establish a medical system during the war, it became a national medical law in combination with the Medical Practitioners Law, but the dentist system itself did not change.After the war, the National Medical Care ActDoctor law,Dentist law,Medical lawI am divided into (regulation about medical institution) and reach the present.

Specialist/certified doctor qualification

Specialist qualification

Academic certified specialist

Certifying physician

  • Certified Orthodontist of Japan (Japan矯正 歯 科Society)
  • Japan Dental Anesthesia Society Certified Doctor (Japan Dental Anesthesia Society
  • Japanese Society of Adult Orthodontists Certified Doctor (Japan Adult Orthodontic Association
  • Japanese Dental Aesthetic Society Certified Doctor (Japanese DentistryAestheticsMeeting)
  • Japan Prosthodontic Society Certified Doctor (JapanProsthesisDental Society)
  • Certified Japanese Oral Hygiene SocietyHygieneMeeting)
  • Japan Dental Radiology Society Certified Doctor (Japanese DentistryradiationSociety)
  • Japan Disability Dental Society Certified Doctor (JapanhandicappedDental Society)
  • Certified by the Japanese Society of Jaw and Occlusion (Japanese Society of Jaw and Occlusion)
  • Certified physician of the Japan Temporomandibular Joint Society (JapanTemporomandibular jointSociety)
  • Certified by the Japanese Society of Systemic Occlusion (Japanese Society of Total Occlusion)
  • Japanese Endodontic Society Certified Doctor (Japan Endodontics Society
  • Japan Dental Association Oriental Medicine Certified Physician (Japanese DentistryOriental medicineMeeting)
  • Certified Doctor of Japan Sports Dental Association (JapanSportsDental Association Certified Doctor)
  • Certified Doctor of Japan Laser Dentistry (JapanlaserDental Society)
  • Japanese Dental Psychosomatic Association Certified Physician (Japanese DentistryPsychosomatic medicineMeeting) etc.

Qualifications granted to dentists

statistics

Changes in the number of dentists nationwide
Survey yearNumber of dentistsMaleFemale
1955 (Showa 30)31,109--
1960 (Showa 35)33,177--
1965 (Showa 40)35,55831,7103,848
1970 (Showa 45)37,85933,7564,103
1975 (Showa 50)43,58638,7004,886
1980 (Showa 55)53,60247,0126,590
1984 (Showa 59)63,14555,0498,096
1986 (Showa 61)66,79758,1808,617
1988 (Showa 63)70,57261,1899,383
1990 (Heisei 2 year)74,02863,82210,206
1992 (Heisei 4 year)77,41666,50110,915
1994 (Heisei 6 year)81,05569,04812,007
1996 (Heisei 8 year)85,51872,25213,266
1998 (Heisei 10 year)88,06173,66914,392
2000 (Heisei 12 year)90,85775,67115,186
2002 (Heisei 14 year)92,87476,54916,325
2004 (Heisei 16 year)95,19777,30117,896
2006 (Heisei 18 year)97,19878,25418,944
2008 (Heisei 20 year)99,42679,30520,121
2010 (Heisei 22 year)101,57680,11921,457
2012 (Heisei 24 year)102,55180,25622,295
2014 (Heisei 26 year)103,97280,54423,428
2016 (Heisei 28 year)104,53380,18924,344
2018 (Heisei 30 year)104,90879,61125,297

Japanese universities (29 schools) with department of dentistry

National university corporations (11 schools), public university corporations (1 school)

Private (17 schools)

US dentist

statistics

The total number of dentists in the United States in 2012 was about 20[1].. The largest number is about 3 in California, followed by about 1 in New York, and dentist excess problems are pointed out in the urban areas of these areas.[1].

However, most states in the United States have a shortage of dentists, with the fewest at 293 in Wyoming, followed by 373 in Vermont.[1].

annual income

In 2009, the average annual salary of US dentists was $19 for general practitioners and $4 for specialists[1].

Specialist/quasi-dentist

The American Dental Association has nine types of endodontics, periodontists, prosthetics, orthodontists, pediatric dentists, oral surgeons, oral pathologists, dental radiologists and public health specialists.[1].

In the United States, in addition to specialists certified by the American Dental Association, special specialist programs for oral medicine, geriatric dentistry, orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, etc. and doctors are positioned as quasi-dentist specialists.[1].

Medical insurance system

There is no national health insurance system in the United States, and individuals often take out private insurance through companies and schools.[1].. Medical insurance includes narrowly defined medical insurance and dental insurance, but the latter is particularly expensive, so more than 1 million Americans do not have dental insurance.[1].

Medicaid has medical insurance for low-income people and people with physical disabilities, and the federal and state governments share the cost of medical care.[1].. However, low-budget states have limited coverage for treatment, most states only provide emergency treatment, and few facilities accept Medicaid, which requires a long period of treatment.[1].

組織

For dentist organizations,学会,Professional organization(Union), and regulatory bodies.

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Dental Situation in the United States Takanori Suzuki”. International Dental Association Japan Subcommittee. 2018/6/4Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク

New York State

New York State
State of New York
New York State FlagNew York State sign
(State flag(State emblem)
State nickname: Empire StateempireState")
Empire State
State motto: To a higher height
Latin: Excelsior
Location in New York
State capitalAlbany
Largest cityニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク
GovernorKathy Hochul
Official terminologyEnglish(in fact)
No legal designation
area
 - Grand total
 -Land
 -Water area
27th in the US
141,299 km²
122,283 km²
19,016 km² (13.5%)
population(2020
 - Grand total
 - Population density
4th in the US
20,201,249People
165.2 people/km²
Join US
 -Turn
 -Date of subscription

11th
1788 May 7
Time zoneUTC -5
STD -4
latitudeNorth latitude 40° 29'-45°
longitudeWest longitude 71°47'-79°45'
East-west width455 km
North-south length530 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

1,629 m
305 m
0 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-NY
WebsiteNew York State Government
SenatorChuck Schumer
Kirsten Gilibrand

New York State(New York,British: State of New York) IsThe United States of America大西洋Located in the central shore and in the northeastern region of the continental United StatesState..It is also the 27th largest state in terms of area.Once the most populous in 50 states, but now the 2020 censusCalifornia,Texas,FloridaIt is the third place after[1].

The southern borderNew JerseyPennsylvania, The eastern borderConnecticut,MassachusettsandVermontTouch. West isCanadaBordering the border withNiagara FallsThere is.At the southeastern tip, it is also the largest city in the United StatesNew York CityThe southern part of the province is a metropolitan area in the suburbs. On the other hand,Great LakesIt is an old industrial city on the lakeBuffaloRochesterThere,State capitalHas a population of less than 10[2] OfAlbanyIs. Since 2021, the governor hasDemocratic Party OfKathy HochulIs working.

Languages ​​spoken at home (New York) 2010[3]
English
  
70.72%
Spanish
  
14.44%
Chinese
  
2.61%
Race Composition (New York) 2010
White
  
58.3%
Hispanic
  
17.6%
Black
  
15.9%
Asian
  
7.3%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
  
0.6%
Mixed
  
3.0%

History

Main article:New York State History

Until joining the Union

Early 17th century,LenapeTribe,IroquoisFor trading rawhide with NetherlandsThe trading base ofNew NetherlandIt was a colony. As a trading base,1614 CurrentAlbany CityIt was first that Fort Nassau was built near.1625 ToAmsterdam FortWas createdNew AmsterdamNext to the currentニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIt was the beginning of the city. secondBritish-Ran WarBetween1664 ToUnited KingdomOccupied the New Netherland,New york colonyBegan to rule as. Dutch regained once, but ended the Third British-Ran War1674 The Westminster Treaty made it officially British.

1685 Became a royal province in1688 Became part of the New England Autonomous Territory,1691 I returned to the New York colony.French indian warDuring the period (1755-1763), many were recruited by the British from the New York colonies.1765 , British settled in American colony to redeem debt of this warStamp methodTried to impose a new tax. Now in New York CityFederal HallWhere several colonial representatives have gathered to discuss the response.Stamp Law ConferenceOpened. Subsequent sabotage of the Stamp Law enforcement,1766 The stamp method was abolished. Since thenTownsend Laws,Tea ActBritain tried to implement a new policy, but all failed,1774 ToUnbearable lawsThe United States has accelerated the move toward independence.1775 May 10The British rule ended when the Governor, appointed by the British, left New York.

Union accession

During the American Revolutionary War1776 January,Long islandThe biggest battle in this war took place. In September British troops occupied New York City,1783 The occupation continued until the day of liberation in November. During this period, activities for independence continued in areas other than New York City.May 7Was founded in New York1777 The New York Constitution was enacted.1779 ToSullivan expeditionDoIroquoisDestroyed the village.1787 ToUnited States ConstitutionWas proposed, a lively discussion was held in New York to ratify it.Alexander HamiltonRagaThe FederalistAs a result of continuing to appeal the need for ratification in1788 May 7Ratified the United States Constitution in New York State became the eleventh United States state, and New York City became the federal capital (until 11). In 1790AlbanyBecame the capital of New York.

Subsequent historical events

1825 ToErie CanalIs completed,Hudson riverからLake ErieIt became possible to transport water up to.1853 ToNew York Central RailwayHas opened and competition with the canal has begun. With the development of these transportations, New York StateIndustrial revolutionProgressed and formed a large industrial zone. In the latter half of the 19th century, New York City emerged as the world's financial center,1929 ToWall Street crashWhat happenedWorld DepressionIt was so influential that it developed into.Second World WarThe subsequent boom followed by a global trade war that led to the loss of New York factories one after another,Last beltFormed a zone called.

2020 Coronavirus infection spread

2020 ,New coronavirusSpread to New York State,May 3In the morning, the number of infected people in the state exceeded 7000 and the death toll was 35.Andrew CuomoThe Governorウ イ ル スAnnounced that it will oblige all workers other than industries essential to daily life to wait at home to prevent the spread of infection[4].. Prohibited unnecessary gatherings of individuals and advised to refrain from using public transportation[5].. Also on March 3, the governorJacob Javits Convention CenterBased on the medical facility installed inAqueduct RacecourseAnnounced that medical facilities will be installed in large-scale facilities such as[6].

On April 4, the number of deaths in the state reached 8 people/day and reached the latest peak. On April 799, the governor announced that the death toll was reduced by 4 people per day from the previous day, the lowest in the past two weeks. He also acknowledged that he was escaping the peak of infection. The number of deaths in the state at this time was about 18 (more than 90 including suspicious people). However, the number of new hospitalizations was still around 2 people/day, indicating a cautious attitude toward early relaxation of restrictions on going out.[7].

Geography

The shape is almost equilateral, and at the southernmost pointpopulationA big city with 880 million peopleNew York CityAnd a big islandLong islandThere is.Five administrative districts that make up New York City (Boroughs of New York), Four of themHudson riverLocated on three islands at the mouth of the river. That is, in ManhattanManhattan, Staten IslandStaten Island District, On long islandBrooklynQueensIs. The other oneBronxIs. Each of these provinces is also a county in New York State.Long islandIn the east ofRhode IslandThere is a state border on the sea.

State capitalAlbanyFrom New York CityHudson riverAbout 300km[8]It is located in the north, in the 17th century. NetherlandsIt is an old port town built by. Near the western endpopulationThe second largest city in the state with about 30 peopleBuffalo cityThere is. Northeast of it,Lake OntarioFamous for precision industry on the shoreRochesterThere is a city.

New York metropolitan area (Metro North RailwayTo the north ofUpstateUpstate is 5 to 8 degrees colder in winter than the New York metropolitan area, and the amount of snowfall is a little higher. To the east is the Great Appalachian Gorge, to the northSt. Lawrence RiverSeparated byCanadaHas a border withLake ChamplainContinues from north to south for a long timeHudson riverFlows south to the Atlantic Ocean. To the north of Albany, Mount Mercy, the highest mountain in the state (5,343 feet above sea level, 1,629 meters above sea level)[9]) Adirondack State Park, a huge nature reserve that occupies about one-fifth of the state, including the Adirondack Mountains[10].. To the southwestAllegheny PlateauThe water flowing out of the Catskill Mountains, which is a part of it, is supplying water demand in the New York metropolitan area. The Allegheny River in the west is a tributary of the Ohio River,Susquehanna River TheChesapeake BayToDelaware RiverIs pouring into Delaware Bay.

New York State has an area of ​​54,556 square miles (141,300 km2) Is[11]Is a medium-sized state with 27th place in the United States, but the area isHokkaidoKyusyuIt extends to a maximum of 500km east-west and a maximum 450km north-south. Second city from New York City, the southernmost cityBuffaloIt takes about 6 to 7 hours to reach by car. It is a mountainous terrain, and there is not enough plain to see the horizon from the height of humans. However, it is not a so-called mountainous area, but small mountains and hills with a height of several hundred meters are scattered.

The New York State border (clockwise from northwest)Great LakesTwo of(I.e.(Niagara RiverConnected byLake ErieandLake Ontario),Canada OfOntarioandQuebec, ThreeNew EnglandState of (Vermont,MassachusettsandConnecticut) And the two Mid-Atlantics (Mid-Atlantic States) States (New JerseyPennsylvania).

reference:List of counties in New York

climate

New York State is generallyWet continental climateBut in New York CityKöppen climate classificationWarm and humid climateHit[12].. The weather in New York City is strongly influenced by two continental air masses. A warm, humid air mass from the southwest and a cold, dry air mass from the northwest.

Winters in the plateaus of the state are long and cold. Most of the winter, the temperature is -13 in the northern plateau.° F (--25 ℃) or less, and 5° F (-15°C) or less.

The summer climate is cool in the Adirondack Mountains, the Catskill Mountains and in the higher altitudes of the south. New York City and the Long Island region and the lower Hudson River area have relatively warm summers and periods of unpleasant high humidity. The rest of New York has a pleasant, warm summer with occasional short periods of sultry. Most of the states have summer daytime temperatures of 70° FStand ~ 80° FIt is a table (25 ℃ ~ 30 ℃).

Per personGreenhouse gasIn terms of emissions, New York is the 50th out of 46 states. This is mainlyPublic transportBecause of the high usage rate of.

Monthly average high and low temperatures in major cities of New York
cityOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctoberOctober
Albany-1/-111 / -97 / -414/221/826/1328/1627/142/1016/49 / -12 / -7
Binghamton-1/-9-1/-85 / -412/219/823/1226/1524/1420/1014/47 / -11 / -6
Buffalo-1/-81 / -76 / -312/219/924/1427/1726/1621/1215/68/12 / -4
Long island4 / -54 / -49 / -114/421/925/1628/1928/1824/1418/712/27 / -2
ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クCity3 / -35 / -210/216/722/1226/1729/2128/2024/1618/1012/56/0
Rochester-1/-81 / -86 / -412/220/825/1327/1626/1522/1116/58/12 / -5
Syracuse-1/-101 / -96 / -413/220/825/1328/1627/1522/1116/48/02 / -6
The temperature in the above table is displayed in °C.
Source:[1]

State park

New York State has many state parks and two large protected forests. Adirondack Park is about the size of Vermont and is the largest state park in the country. Founded in 1892, it is protected by the state constitution. The idea of ​​a park was introduced in the 1864 book People and Nature. Marsh cites a once vegetative area of ​​the Mediterranean, saying, "Human activity makes the surface of the Earth look like the surface of the Moon," and removing forests leads to desertification. Insisted.

Catskill State Park is protected by law enacted in 1855, proclaiming that the land is protected and should never be sold or rented. Area is 70 acres (2,800 km2Yes, there are Bobcats, minks, fishers, etc.Black bearIt is said that the number of living organisms is about 400. There are many state-operated campsites and multi-purpose roads with a total length of over 300 miles (480 km).

At Montauk Point State ParkGeorge WashingtonThe Montauk Lighthouse, famous for being ordered by the President, is located at East Hampton, Suffolk County, on the eastern edge of Long Island. There is also a campground in Hither Hills State Park on Long Island, which is popular for throwing.

Demographic

Population transition
Yearspopulation±%
1790340,120—    
1800589,051+ 73.2 %
1810959,049+ 62.8 %
18201,372,851+ 43.1 %
18301,918,608+ 39.8 %
18402,428,921+ 26.6 %
18503,097,394+ 27.5 %
18603,880,735+ 25.3 %
18704,382,759+ 12.9 %
18805,082,871+ 16.0 %
18905,997,853+ 18.0 %
19007,268,894+ 21.2 %
19109,113,614+ 25.4 %
192010,385,227+ 14.0 %
193012,588,066+ 21.2 %
194013,479,142+ 7.1 %
195014,830,192+ 10.0 %
196016,782,304+ 13.2 %
197018,236,967+ 8.7 %
198017,558,072−3.7%
199017,990,455+ 2.5 %
200018,976,457+ 5.5 %
201019,378,102+ 2.1 %
202020,201,249+ 4.2 %

United States Census BureauAccording to the report, New York has a population of 2020 as of April 4.California,Texas,andFloridaNext to the fourth most common in the United States[1].

New York State is an urban state where 92% of the population lives in cities, even though land is open[13] New York has a low population growth rate due to the high migration rate to other states. The population relocated from New York to Florida in 2000 and 2005 exceeded the population relocated from any other state to any other state.[14].. However, it is a state with many immigrants coming in from abroad, and the migrant population in 2008 was 420 million, the second highest number after California. Although Upstate New York has been a sizable destination for immigrants, many are settled here because it is economically vibrant and has a global citizenship culture.

New York StateCenter of gravity TheDeer ParkThere isOrange CountyHas become[15].. New York City and its eight suburbs have a total population of 8, accounting for 13,209,006% of the state's population.[16].

Race composition and country of origin

The top five ancestor groups in New York State are black (5%),Italian descent (14.4%),Irish descent (12.9%) andGerman descent (11.1%)[17].. According to 2004 estimates, 20.4% of the population were foreign-born.

The racial makeup of the state is as follows.

New York is second largest after Georgia in the southAfrican AmericanIt is the state of the United States, and Asian Americans are the second largest. Otherプ エ ル ト リ コsystem,DominicaSystem andJamaicaThe population of the system is the largest. New York CityHaremThe district has historically been the cultural center of sub-Saharan Africans.Bedford stybesantThe district is the largest concentration area in the country.

After all, Queens, New York City, has the largest Asian-American population in the state, and is one of the largest areas of ethnic diversity in the country. The next largest number of Asian Americans is Chinatown in Manhattan. Other Queens districtsAndean region(コロンビア,Ecuador,PeruandBoliviaIs the largest number in Japan.

According to the 2000 census, Italian-Americans were the most common on Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish-Americans. There are many Italians and Irishs from Albany and southeastern to central states. German Americans are the largest in Buffalo and western states. In the northern part of the stateFrench CanadianThere are many. New York is the state with the largest number of Italians in the country.

6.5% of New York's population is under the age of 5, 18% under the age of 24.7, and 65% over the age of 12.9. The composition ratio of women is 51.8%.

According to the 2000 census, 5% of the population over the age of 13.61 were homesSpanish2.04%Chinese(CantoneseBeijing Talk, Including 1.65%Italian, 1.23%RussianTalking to[18].

Religious

In 2001, the largest denominations in New York State were:Roman Catholic (More than 40% of the total state population[19])ProtestantIs 30%,Judaism8.4%,Islam3.5%,BuddhismIt was 1%, followed by non-denominations at 13%. Among ProtestantsMethodist403,362 people,Baptist203,297 people,United Episcopal ChurchWas 201,797.[20]

Indian tribe

Delaware,Mahican,,,,,,Wappinger,, etc.イ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribe is all overWigwamWas engaged in a mobile hunting and gathering life.

Since the earliest days of British settlement, the land has been a place of land dispute, and the Indians have been entrusted with the proxy war of the British, French and settlement governments. Furthermore, of the agricultural peopleIroquoisCame north from the east in the 16th century, forming a huge military alliance of five tribes, overwhelming the surrounding Indian tribes and white settlers. The Tuscarora are "Tuscalora WarAfter (1712-13),North carolinaIt went north from and joined the Iroquois Federation. Since the 17th century, the battle between settlers and Indians has become fierce, weakening the Erie and Wenloronon tribes, and being absorbed by other tribes and disappearing.

Currently certified by the US federal government in New York State,Reservation place Has (Reservation)イ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribes are the following nine tribes that make up the "Iroquois Federation." Six tribes, from the Tuscalora to the Kayuuga, have a federal system.Iroquois FederationKnown as.

The Iroquois has adhered to an autonomy treaty by not establishing a "tribal government," which is a puppet of the BIA (Indian Administration Bureau), which is a branch office of the US Department of the Interior, and has both the United States and Canada federal governments in New York State. The Indian tribes maintain an exceptionally neutral state of independence, which is beyond the direct control of the government. International treaties, beginning with the 1794 Treaty of Jay, ensure that they are free to pass outside the United States without a passport.

Under the federal agreement, the Mohawk Aquesasune Band occupies a "St. Regis Mohawk Reserve" that spans Ontario, Canada and New York, USA. "Across the St. Lawrence River that separates Canada and the United StatesThree Nations Crossing BridgeWas named "Three Nations Crossing" in 2000 to commemorate the Aquesasune Mohawks.

In 2009, the Mohawk protesters protested the Government of Canada's decision to arm border police officers on the Aquesasne Mohawk's Sentrygis Mohawk reserve from June 2009, 6. On the 1st, he sat down and occupied the border clearance facility on the Canadian side. On the other handCanada Border Services Agency (CBSA) closed the "crossroads of three nations", and the Mohawks, who were refused to come and go, suspected that the business of tribal casinos and shops was hindered and suffered a great economic loss. After more than a month of border closure, CBSA released the bridge on July 7th.

On August 1993, 8, the Seneca Tonawanda Band filed a suit in the United States District Court against New York State to return land to the tribes around the Grand Island of the Niagara River ("Grand River Land Dispute"). The suit was dismissed on June 25, 2002, the tribe immediately appealed, and the United States Court of Appeals decided to open the trial court on September 6, 21, but the Supreme Court heard on June 2004, 9. Refuses to. The six Iroquois tribes have also filed lawsuits against Canada for the return of Ontario's Douglas Creek land, and fierce protests are escalating each year.

Tribes without federal approval are considered "extinct" and are supposed to be nonexistent, with many tribes seeking autonomy and reservations and demanding federal recognition.Long islandHas two provinces, the Pushpachuk and the Shinnekok, that have been certified by the state government and have state reservations, but they have less authority than federal reservations and cannot have an "Indian Casino" by state regulation. I'm out.

In 2005, the Sinnecock tribe landed 14km of Southampton tribal land.2Filed a refund lawsuit. The tribe has been applying for federal recognition since 1978.

《Tribes/organizations officially recognized by the US Federal Government》

  • "Iroquois Federation"
    • ""
    • ""
    • "Mohawk'
    • ""
    • ""
    • "Seneca Tonawanda Band"
    • ""

<< Tribes / organizations requesting official certification from the US federal government >>

  • "Cherokee'
    • "CherokeeBlackfoot'
    • "Chickamauga Notwega Creek Band"
    • "Free Cherokee / Deer Conference"
    • "Northeast Cherokee"
    • "Nui Ketowa Cherokee"
    • "Ohatchee Cherokee"
  • "Stockbridge Muncie (Mahican)
    • "Conca Pot Band"
  • "AquessuneMohawk* Officially recognized by the Federal Government of Canada
  • "(Montauket)"
    • "Long Island Montaucket"
  • "West"

≪Tribes that are not officially accredited by the US federal government but are accredited by the state government≫

Indian and New York State Taxes

The position of the Iroquois Federation as a "sovereign state" beyond the direct authority of the federal and state governments guaranteed by the federal treaty often causes state tax-related conflicts with state governments who do not like this. I'm awake. Iroquois tribal sales are not taxable by the New York State Government. This is due to the 1838 Buffalo Creek Convention commitments.

On 1992 July 7, the New York State Government sells duty-free on reservations by Seneca under federal lawた ば こDecided to impose a state tax on gasoline and demanded the "unpaid portion" of $ 5000 million. The Seneca blockade the National Highway 438, which runs through the Kattaraugas reserve, for several days. It was a brawl with the state police force. They insist, "If the state does tax, return the land we robbed." The state withdrew this but did not apologize.

Inaugurated in 1995George PatakiThe governor, backed by the oil and convenience store industry, persisted in collecting state taxes from the Iroquois, and from the Indians, a notorious soldier as an anti-Indian slaughter in the 19th century,George Armstrong CusterIt is called "GEORGE "CUSTER" PATAKI".

In 1997 Governor Pataki resolved to ban the Iroquois from smoking, petrol and other tax-exempt sales at their reserves, and from April 4 hundreds of state police around each Iroquois reserve. I placed the official. Transportation of goods trucks to reservations was blocked by state police, forcing tobacco stores and gas stations along the national highways to be closed. More than 1 Indian and non-Indian employees were thus laid off.

On May 5, a tax negotiations meeting was held at the Onondaga Reservation Site, where state police attacked a demonstration of a tribe member who opposed it, at which time old people and children were reportedly beaten by police officers. .. The Iroquois protested by blocking the National Highways 18 and 11 within their reserves, and demonstrators, including non-Indians, marched to the state capital of Albany. At this point, criticisms and protests against the state government from inside and outside the country spread nationwide, and the state tax department refused to implement taxation. The state court ordered Governor Pataki to abandon the tax demand.

At the time of the demonstration, the Onondaga tribe posted on the information board next to State Highway 81 passing through their reserves, saying, ``By traitors, rapists and murderers by George Custer Pataki, New York State Police officer, and Onondaga Sheriff. "The country of Onondaga that guarantees control" was posted.

On August 2000, 8, Governor Pataki signed a bill banning the tax-free online tobacco sales of Iroquois. The Seneca people who started mail ordering cigarettes from 17 strongly opposed this as ``this decision will seriously damage the life of the Seneca people living in the reservation area'', adviser of the tribe of the state in Buffalo cityLawyer"It's hard to believe that Governor Pataki would break the promise he made with the Indians during the final tax protest in 1997," said Joseph Klangle.

The state of New York imposes the highest tax rate in the US at $1 a cigarette (at that time). On the other hand, there are over 1.11 Indian Internet sites selling cigarettes at far less than market prices. The bill, signed by Governor Pataki, is "United parcel serviceOrFederal ExpressIndian tobacco courier companies without state tax stamps are also subject to punishment, with up to one year's imprisonment for offenders as an "E-class offense" and up to four years for recidivism. And was fined up to $ 1 by the State Department of Health. In addition, the revision of the state tax law added a "class D crime" to the sentence, which resulted in imprisonment of up to seven years.

On September 2000, 9, the Federal Ministry of Justice responded to Governor Pataki's complaint over a dispute over the land around the Indian Reservation: "It was originally New York State that illegally robbed Indians of their territory. The state should bear the mistakes of the state. "

In June 2003, the state of New York re-decided that the Indian tribe in the state had collected millions of dollars in tax and banned Indian tobacco online shopping. The Seneca people declared this a thorough fight as an economic loss of 6 million dollars. "Isn't the convenience store chain business siphoning money from its hometown," said Ricky Armstrong Sr. of the Seneca tribe. "The Seneca Internet business makes hundreds of thousands of dollars in profits. Bring it, and it will be invested in this territory. Can Pataki say the same thing to the giant convenience store conglomerate that persuaded legislators to traverse our sovereignty and destroy it?"

On March 2006, 3, the state government announced that the state tax law had been put into effect, with a tax amount of $ 1 per box. Tobacco companies have temporarily suspended the delivery of tobacco to the Indian reservations in the state. Conflict with Governor PatakiElliott SpitzerThe Attorney General called for a postponement of the enforcement of state tax law, and a spokesman said he was nervous, saying that the Pataki administration was threatening and intimidating tobacco wholesalers and hindering official national policy. As the price continued to rise, the tribe screamed.

In May 2006, a reservation signboard made by the Onondaga tribe nine years ago said, ``The traitor, the rapist and the murderer were killed by a traitor, a rapist, and a non-Onondaga by someone like Elliot Spitzer, a New York State police officer, and the City Sheriff, Onondaga. It was rewritten as "Onondaga Nation, which is guaranteed to be ruled by." Attorney General SpitzerOren LionsHe held talks with the Iroquois representative and expressed his opposition to taxation. Spitzer became the governor on behalf of Pataki, who retired in 2007, and shelved tax bills, making matters worse. However, with Spitzer's fall in 2008, the dispute over the state tax has reignited and has continued to smolder.

On November 2008, 11, two counties in the state, Cayuga and Senega, said that the Cayuga tribes sold tobacco without tax stamps to tribal tobacco stores in Union Springs and Seneca Falls, respectively. The eaves were raided, seizing 25 cigarette boxes and closing these two stores. Lieutenant tribal counsel, Lee Allcott, told Judge Kenneth Fisher of the Supreme Court of the State that he would have to sued the county if he did not return the $2 worth of the confiscation.

On January 2009, 1, the New York Appeal Court dismissed tax evasion charges against the Cayuga tribe, alleging that these tobacco stores were on hold under federal jurisdiction, and after the ruling, the two stores resumed tax-free sales on January 24. did.John Badrman, a lawyer in Cayuga County, one of the prosecutors against the Cayuga, said, "I was disappointed when I heard they had reopened the store. They are unabashedly touching the law. So, if one group could violate the state's ruling, do you know what this means? "

Forced migration of Seneca who became a song

1794 acres (1km) of the Seneca tribe guaranteed by the federal government in the 40.47 Treaty of Candaigua2The reservation site in) was submerged by the "Kingsua Dam" (starting operation in 1960), which started construction in 1965 and blocked the Allegheny River. The 600 Seneca deprived of their homelands were forcibly relocated to Salamanca. The plea against the Seneca dam construction is "National Civil LibertiesWas boosted byJohn F. KennedyRejected by the president, a tribal heroHandsome lakeThe grave was also sunk to the bottom of the water.

The forced migration of the Seneca people in the 20th centuryJohnny CashByBitter Tears: American Indian Ballad(Composed byNarragansett OfPeter La Phage),AlsoCreeFolk singerBuffy St. MaryThe song was sung by "Now That the Buffalo's Gone" and "My Country'Tis of Thy People You're Dying."

Indian Casino

In New York, the three Iroquois tribesIndian CasinoIs operated. The Cinnecoques are expected to achieve federal certification in 2009 and are currently working on a plan to set up a tribal casino.

In January 2008, the US federal government disapproved the Mohawk casino plan in Catskill because it was far from a reserve. Currently, the Mohawk are looking forward to the Obama administration's approval to open a casino.

  • Seneca
    • "Seneca Allegany Casino"
    • "Seneca Gaming Entertainment"-operating in two locations
    • "Seneca Niagara Casino"
    • "Lakeside Gaming"
    • "Buffalo Mountain Stream Casino"
  • Mohawk
    • "Akwesa Sne Mohawk Casino"
    • "Mohawk Bingo Palace"
    • "Mohawk Monticello Racecourse & Casino Resort" --A major entertainment resort with a racetrack
    • "Mohawk Mountain Casino Resort"

Major cities and towns

List of New York cities, towns and counties:List of cities in New York,New York State Town List,New York State Village List,List of counties in New York,List of New York Census Designated Areas and New York State Administrative Division List.

The largest city in the state and the largest populated city in the United States is New York City, which is made up of five counties. New York City makes up more than 25% of the state's population. Buffalo is the second largest city in the state. The smallest cityOneida County (Oneida County)InsideVernon CountyLocated east of (Sherrill). Albany is the state capital and is on Long IslandHempstead TownIs the largest town with a population of over 70.

Economy

Main article:New York economy
New York quarter, reverse side, 2001.jpg
Presidential dollar coin reverse.png

New York's gross domestic product was $2007 trillion in 1, the third largest in the country after California and Texas. Even compared to the world's independent countriesTurkeyIt is the 16th place after. 2007 Gross National Product Gross National Product per capita was $46,364,Maryland6th in the world afterIrelandIt is the 8th place after. Agricultural products include dairy products, livestock such as cattle, vegetables, seedlings and apples. Manufacturing industries include print publishing, scientific equipment, electrical equipment, machinery, chemicals, and tourism.

A recent survey by the Budget Policy Priorities Institute found that 13 states, including some of the larger states in the country, were under budgeted for fiscal 2009. New York has a $ 43 billion deficit.[21] The state of New York exports a wide variety of products such as groceries, sundries, minerals, computer-related products, diamond products, and auto parts. The total export value in 2007 was $711 billion, and the export destination isCanada($ 150 billion),United Kingdom($ 60 billion),Switzerland($ 59 billion),Israel($ 49 billion),Hong KongThe order is ($ 34 billion). Imports include oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and wood.

Canada is an important trading partner for New York State. In 2007, 21% of exports were destined for Canada. Canadians spent $4 million when they visited New York State (8,700), and tourism revenue is also a big part of the economy.

New York City is also the national center of banking, finance and telecommunications and the largest in the world.Stock exchangeIsNew York Stock ExchangeThere is. Many large global companies are based in the city.

There is a large industrial cluster in the state, famous for printing and publishing, clothing, fur, railroad equipment and bus vehicles. Most of these factories are locked upstate. The Albany and Hudson River basins are important manufacturing centers for nanotechnology and microchips, and the Rochester region is an important base for manufacturing photographic equipment.

New York is also a major producer of agricultural products, with many products including dairy products, apples, cherries, cabbage, potatoes, onions, and maple syrup, making it one of the top five states in the country. It has the largest production of cabbage in Japan. A quarter of the state's area is agricultural land, with total output of $ 5 billion in 4. The southern shores of Lake Ontario are a good combination of soil and microclimate for orchards of apples, cherries, plums and pears. Apples are also cultivated in the Hudson River basin and around Lake Champlain.

New York is the third largest producer of grapes in the country and second only to California.WineIs producing. There are many vineyards on the south shore of Lake Erie and on the hills south of the Finger Lakes. In addition, Long Island's North Fork has built vineyards and winemaking and tourism facilities over the last three decades. 30 acres (3 km2) There are vineyards and 212 wine mills, producing 2004 million bottles of wine in 2. It has $ 60 billion in sales of New York grape and winemaking.

There is a medium-sized commercial sea fishing facility along the Atlantic coast of Long Island. Bivalves, lobsters, squid and flounder are caught. In these areas, economies are developing due to environmental protection that leads to an increase in marine life.

Major companies, etc.

Companies based in New York include: Many publishing companies are headquartered in New York City.

Transportation

Main article:Transportation in New York
New York State Thruway

New York is the state with the widest and oldest transportation system in the country. Construction difficulties due to the unique problems of topographical difficulties and urban congestion have always had to be overcome since the state was created. The state's population was initially followed by the Hudson RiverErie CanalIt expanded along the waterway. Railway lines todayNew York State ThruwayFollow the same path in general. The New York State Department of Transportation is often criticized for how to maintain roads in certain areas of the state and the fact that tolls collected on roads have already passed their original purpose. .. Until 2006, tolls were collected on the throughways in Buffalo. It was abolished during the governor's election in late 2006 (both candidates demanded its abolition).

The railway network is well developed in and around New York CityNew York City SubwayIn addition to mass transit by, four commuter railroads are responsible for commuting between the suburbs and the city.That is,Long Island Rail Road,Metro North Railway, Pathtrain andNew Jersey TransitFive of the railway lines. Many other cities operate public transport in and around the city. In Buffalo, Niagara Frontier Transportation Corporation is the Buffalo SubwayLight RailIn RochesterRochester subwayWas operated from 1927 to 1956, but was discontinued.

Part of the transportation system employs a joint integrated transportation system that allows easy transfer from one transportation system. As one of the most prominent examples, AirTrain JFK is directly operated by railroad passengers.John F. Kennedy International AirportYou can move to the terminal of.

In May 2009, the New York City Department of Transportation, led by traffic commissioner Janette Sadik-Khan,Times SquareCars were banned from entering the area. This was devised to reduce environmental pollution and pedestrian accidents and is expected to be enforced permanently.[22].

2007 The governor said he was considering issuing a driver's license to illegal immigrants. However, the governor himself later withdrew this proposal.

Politics and government

According to the current Constitution of New York adopted in 1938, even in New YorkFederalAnd other states of the same qualitySeparation of three powersPrinciple has been established. That is, it consists of the Governor and other individually elected executive officers.Executive branch, Consists of bicameral state legislaturesLegislative office, State Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Inferior CourtJudiciary.

From New York as of 2011CongressThe Senate has two senators with each state capacity, and the House of Representatives has 2 senators in proportion to the state population, with 29 presidential electors equal to the total.

The capital of New York is Albany. There are 62 counties as administrative divisions under the state. Other official administrative divisions are towns, cities, and villages. There are more than 4200 governments that choose one of these. Approximately 52% of the revenues collected by local governments are collected by New York City, the largest city government in the United States alone, but New York City's population is only 42% of the state's total population.[23].. New York has a significant imbalance with the federal government. The federal government in Washington pays $ 1 in taxes, of which 82 cents is allocated. In terms of the rate consumed per tax, it is ranked 42nd, which is close to the bottom.[24].. Many public services in New York State are provided by public interest corporations commonly referred to as "public corporations" or "development corporations." Oversee New York City's public transport system with a well-known public interest corporationMetropolitan Transportation AuthorityAnd manages transportation and port/airport infrastructure across the adjacent state of New Jersey.New York New Jersey Port AuthorityThere is.

The legal system of New York State is BritishCommon lawIs based on.

Death penalty

Death penaltyThe system was reintroduced under the Governor of Pataki in 1995, but in 2004 the New York Court of Appeals ruled that it was in violation of the New York State Constitution in a "citizen-la-barre case." The remaining condemned sentenced was sentenced to life imprisonment in a "citizen vs. John Taylor case" sentence, and the death row prison cell was dismantled in 2008 by Governor Patterson. No executions have been carried out in New York since 1963. The legislative office's move to revise the law also failed, and the death sentence was no longer issued.[25][26].

Politics

In recent decades, New York has generally been a national election.Democratic PartyI have supported the candidates.2008 presidential electionThen.Barack ObamaWon by 25%. This is 2004John KellyIt was a bigger difference than when. New York City is also a strong ground for the Democratic Party. Democrats are strong in cities like Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse in the state. However, the upstate countryside tends to be more conservative than the city,Republican PartySupport. Population suburbs such as Westchester County and Long Island have been shaken by supporting political parties for the past 20 years, but are more democratic.

New York City is an important base for raising political funds in the United States for both Democratic and Republican parties. When classified by postal code in places with many political contributions in the country, four of Manhattan are in the top five. Maximum isUpper East SideAnd2000 presidential electionThen,George W. Bush,Al GoreTogether raised the largest amount of money[27].

Education

(English editionAdministers primary, secondary and high school level education in the state, and the New York City Department of Education operates public schools in New York City.

University/Junior college

public

At college, the state's public university system is the State University of New York. City University of New York is a public university system in New York. The New York State University System consists of 64 community colleges, engineering colleges, undergraduate colleges and universities. The four main schools are Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook.

private

Many are well-known in private universities. The oldest Catholic educational institution in the northeastern United StatesFordham UniversityOr in New YorkColumbia UniversityCornell UniversityBy havingIvy leagueIt is the only state with multiple universities.West PointIeArmy AcademyOn the New York side of the Hudson RiverNewbergJust south of.

Art and culture

Museums

Major orchestras, opera companies, ballet companies

Sports team

Main article:New York City Sports

Other

Celebrities from the same state

State symbols, etc.

Japan's sister cities

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d QuickFacts. US Census Bureau. 2020.
  2. ^ However, the population of the metropolitan area is about 90, and that of the metropolitan area is about 119 million, the third largest in the state.
  3. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association.
  4. ^ "NY states require all workers to stay home, excluding essential industries”. CNN (July 2020, 3). 2020/3/23Browse.
  5. ^ "New York closes all non-essential offices Bans rally”. AFP (July 2020, 3). 2020/3/23Browse.
  6. ^ "Trump signs 220 trillion yen economic measure bill GM orders ventilator manufacturing”. AFP (July 2020, 3). 2020/3/27Browse.
  7. ^ "NY “Potentially over peak”…Minimum dead of 2 people in 540 weeks”. Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2020, 4). 2020/4/19Browse.
  8. ^ Tokyo~SendaiOr equivalent to the distance in eastern Aichi
  9. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States”. US Geological Survey (April 2005, 4). 2006/11/6Browse.
  10. ^ About the Adirondack Park, Adirondack Park Agency. Accessed July 1, 2009.
  11. ^ "Land and Water Area of ​​States (2000)”. Infoplease.com. 2010/3/21Browse.
  12. ^ "Climate of New York”. New York State Climate Office --Cornell University. 2008/4/10Browse.
  13. ^ New York Fact Sheet: NY agriculture income population food education employment farms top commodities exports counties financial indicators poverty organic farming farm income America USDA
  14. ^ "Domestic Migration Flows for States from the 2005 ACS (Microsoft Word) ”. 2007/10/19Browse.
  15. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000 (Text) ”. 2007/1/5Browse.
  16. ^ "DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000, Geographic Area: New York". US Census Bureau, Census 2000. 2007/1/5Browse.
  17. ^ Awesome America: New York.RetrieveAugust d 18, 2007.
  18. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center
  19. ^ Egon Mayer, Ph.D .; Barry A. Kosmin, Ph.D, Ariela Keysar, Ph.D. (2001). “American Religious Identification Survey (Key Findings)”. The City University of New York. 2007/1/5Browse.
  20. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports
  21. ^ 13 States Face Total Budget Shortfall of at Least $ 23 Billion in 2009; 11 Others Expect Budget Problems, 12/18/07, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
  22. ^ "New York celebrates new era as cars are banished from Times Square”. MailOnline. 2009/5/25Browse.
  23. ^ Office of the New York State Comptroller (November 2006). “2006 Annual Report on Local Governments” (. http://www.osc.state.ny.us/localgov/datanstat/annreport/06annreport.pdf 2006/11/14Browse. 
  24. ^ "Federal Spending in Each State Per Dollar of Federal Taxes FY2005”. Tax Foundation. 2008/4/12Browse.
  25. ^ Scott, Brendan (July 2008, 7). "GOV PULLS SWITCH ON DEATH CELL". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/07242008/news/regionalnews/gov_pulls_switch_on_death_cell_121295.htm 2009/4/9Browse. 
  26. ^ Powell, Michael (April 2005, 4). “In NY, Lawmakers Vote Not to Reinstate Capital Punishment”. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A47871-2005Apr12.html 2008/4/11Browse. 
  27. ^ Opensecrets.org (May 2005, 5). “2006 Election Overview: Top Zip codes”. http://www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/topzips.asp?cycle=2004 2006/7/19Browse. 

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