Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🌏 | The safety of the Zaporozhye nuclear power plant should be guaranteed by the United Nations = President of Ukraine


写真 

Ukrainian president says security of Zaporozhye nuclear power plant should be guaranteed by UN

 
If you write the contents roughly
A deliberate act of terrorism by some of the aggressor nations could have devastating consequences for the whole world."
 

LVIV, Ukraine (Reuters) - Ukrainian President Volodymyr Guterres said on Thursday that Ukrainian President Volodymyr Guterres ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

terrorism

terrorism(English: terrorism) IsPoliticsTo achieve the objectiveviolenceAnd by violenceIntimidationSays to use. "terrorismIs abbreviated[1].

Overview

"Complete Encyclopedia of JapanAccording to, terrorism is "to achieve a political purpose,assassination,kill,Destruction,Imprisonment,abductionBy harsh means such as free binding by, attacking hostile parties, as well as unrelated civilians and buildings, and the psychological intimidation that occurs there rather than the physical consequences of the attack.恐怖Through the heart, concessions and oppressions are planned. "[2].

Existence of political purpose
Political purposeIn that it has, terrorism is "justviolenceDifferent from "act"[2][3].
There are various "political purposes", for example.administrationseizure of orNational regimedisruption of civil society, destruction of civil society, establishment of political and diplomatic predominance,Retaliation, To workFunding,selfPropagandaand so on[4]..For that "political purpose"hijack,assassination,Indiscriminate murder,暴行,purge,abduction,Kidnapping,Blast,SuicideIn many cases, public places where many citizens come and go for psychological effects, and economic and political points are targeted for attacks.[3].
main body
TerrorismLeft wingandRight-wing party,Nationalism group,Religious groupAnd政府A wide variety of political organizations, including those involved, are working to achieve their goals.[5].
The subject of terrorism is from an individualGroup,政府,CountryEtc. are included[3].
The subject of terrorismterrorist(British: terrorist) Called[3]..Of the terrorists, in the case of a groupTerrorist group,組織In the case ofTerrorist organization,CountryIn the case ofState sponsor of terrorismIs called.Also, the nations that support terroristsTerrorism-supporting nationと 呼 ば れ る[6].

the term 

What is terrorismPoliticsTo achieve the objectiveviolence,IntimidationSay to use. The origin of "terrorism" isFrench Ofterrorism[7], 1793 to 1794French RevolutionAt the time ofFear politics(French: La Terreur) And FrenchTerror TheLatin OfterreōDerived from means "fear"[8].. The term "terrorism" came to be usedFrench RevolutionMade inSeptember massacreWas the trigger.Revolutionary kills 1 counter-revolutionaries in this slaughterFear politicsAnd appeared as a political term in it[9].. In the French RevolutionJacobin schoolTerrorist politics and the term "terrorist" came to be used after the loss of Jacobin power[10].. There is historical debate about the usage of this word, for exampleNelson Mandela,Choi Guevara,Mahatma Gandhi,Shanana GuthmanIt used to be called a "terrorist."[11].

Definition

The precise definition of the word "terrorism" is fraught with difficulties and there are over 100 numerous definitions.[12][13].

Oxford English Dictionary(OED) lists very classical usage first[14].

1.1789-1794French RevolutionOccasionally, the rule by the menacing commanded and performed by the French authorities (Fear politics) 2. (Derived usage) Attack policy intended for threatening or intimidating — Oxford English Dictionary

But this OED explanation feels insufficient to understand modern usage[14].. The modern usage of the term "terrorism" isPoliticalIs something[14].. The concept of terrorism is often used by state authorities and their supporters to outlaw political or other adversaries.[10], And the nation to the adversaryUse of forceIs also used to legalize[10][15].

There are cases where the governments of each country define their own, but violent acts by their own country or armed groups supported by their own country are excluded from "terrorism", and only those of other organizations are called "terrorism". , The definition is self-centered, cannot be universal, and its validity is questioned.For exampleNoam ChomskyAccording to the definition of terrorism in official American documents, "The United States installed a bomb on a truck outside the mosque in 1985 to assassinate a priest in Beirut, killing 1 people and 80 people. Injured "act (en: 1985 Beirut car bombings) And "America attacked Nicaragua in the 1980s and fell into a state of destruction", claiming that it was definitely terrorism.[16].

United Nations

United NationsNovember 2004,United Nations Secretary-GeneralIn his report, he showed terrorism as:

Intimidating residents, government orInternational organizationAny action intended to kill or cause serious physical harm to civilians or non-combatants for the purpose of forcing or restraining action. — [17]

Anti-terrorism treaties

In this treatyhijackFocusing on the relationship, the following are considered terrorist acts[18][19].

Definition by the United States Government

The FBI report also shows that there is no unified definition of terrorism.[20].

United States CodeVolume 18 Article 2331 18 USC § 2331Refers to acts of violence, acts that endanger human life, or mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping to affect the behavior of the government.[21].

The Federal Regulations Code, Part 28, Section 0.85 (28 CFR 0.85(l)), states that the FBI states that "in order to promote political or social purposes, there is no intimidation or coercion of governments or citizens, or any part thereof. "Unfair force or violence against people or assets"[22][23].

The US State DepartmentUnited States CodeVolume 22 Article 2656f 22 USC § 2656fBased onInternational terrorismI am preparing an annual report onOperativeAnd politically motivated unarmed goals by organized and non-national groups."[24].. Also, including the organizations that support terrorist activities, it is designated by the Secretary of State as Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) and is subject to monitoring and sanctions.[25][26][23].

Definition by the Japanese government

JapanesedecreeThe following are things related to terrorism.

  • National Police Agency Ordinance 39.[Law 2]

Type, classification

Including historical terms as a classification by background and motive,Extremely right-wing thoughtWhat is motivated byRight wing terrorism"CommunismTerrorism motivated by thought, etc.Red terror"CounterrevolutionTerrorism motivated by thoughtWhite terror"AnarchismTerrorism motivated byBlack terrorism"Religious"Terrorism against the background of purpose"Religious terrorism"povertyTerrorism caused by the predicament of Japan and the extreme disparity between rich and poor is "", and terrorism motivated by environmental protection is ""Environmental terrorism", Terrorism in which one nation threatens the governments, people, and citizens of other nations.State terrorism"(state terrorism) May be classified.In addition, terrorism threatened by the government of a certain country by slaughtering its own people, especially using classical terms, "Fear politicsIs classified as[† 2].

In addition, the classification based on the number of practitioners can be classified into "state terrorism", which is carried out against other countries on a national scale by mobilizing various national organizations, and "group terrorism" by a group of a certain size. Terrorism performed by one to several people has long been classified as "individual terrorism", and this is an orthodox classification method, but in recent years it has been "Lone wolf(Type) "MetaphorClassification by terms is also increasing.

In particular, "domestic terrorism" (domestic terrorism)domestic terrorism) ”Homegrown TerrorismSay.

As for the classification by the means of executing terrorism,bombTheMassesOr "bomb terrorism" that throws around a specific person and explodes,ExplosiveAreas indiscriminately or systematically installedBlast"Bombing terrorism" and execution offendersSuicideTo "Suicide bombing"nuclear weapons or Nuclear materialThreatening to use or actually using it "Nuclear terrorism"PathogenThreatening to use or use "Bioterrorism"server-PC-Computer network"Attack againstCyber ​​terrorismIn recent years, especially cyber terrorism has been carried out on a daily basis, and cyber terrorism has destroyed not only information infrastructure but also important social infrastructure such as oil pipelines for several months. It is powerful and has a great impact.

Cyber ​​attack,Important facilities OfDestruction,Important person Ofassassinationな どSabotageHiding in each country to doOperative,Intelligence agentEspecially terrorism bySleeper cell".Japanese govermentAs a countermeasure,Cabinet Information Research Office,National Police AgencySecurity bureau,Public Security Intelligence Agency,Ministry of DefenseInformation HeadquartersWe have established specialized institutions such as[37].

the 1960s~the 1980sAnd so onhijack,Important facilitiesOccupyhostageThere were a series of terrorist attacks, but as a solutionSpecial ForcesRush will be doneSuppressionThese measures have gone down since the number of successful cases has increased.[38].

History

Old timesSpartanIn κρυπτεια(CluptiaSee examples in.50AroundJewishThen.Roman EmpireAiming for independence fromEnthusiastic partyCommitted terrorism.SullabyPro Scriptio,Assassination of Julius CaesarSometimes called terrorism.

Since modern times, by the revolutionary side of the above-mentioned French RevolutionFear politicsOr by the royal sideWhite terror,World War ITriggeredSarajevo case,Russian RevolutionAtRed terror,anarchistbyBlack terrorismAre famous. Especially(English editionAt the end of the 19th century, which was influenced by the "bomb philosophy" ofAnarchistA series ofdynamiteIn violent behavior by the government, political powers, ideological groups, and religious powers that do not have the means to directly oppose the state's powers engage in the murderous acts of slaughter. Mainstreaming the political impact on the nation and making it accept political claims[39].

In the 20th century,StalinismbyLarge purge,NazismbyCrystal nightThe incident happened.

またSecond World WarLaterCold WarAnd various incidents due to the rise of the self-determination movement in the 1970sPalestinian problemAgainst the backgroundPFLP passenger plane simultaneous hijacking incidentAndNew LeftSystemGerman Red Army,Japanese Red Army,Red brigadeAs a result, there have been many international terrorist attacks involving areas other than conventional conflict areas. Since the 1980s, indiscriminate terrorist attacks targeting citizens have increased.[40].

After the Cold War, the liberalization of the sale of weapons began, and the firearms released by the armed forces became available to terrorists, increasing the number of international terrorist attacks. Especially since the early 1990sIslamic extremistsThe rise of is remarkable,2001On May 9Al QaedaBy the hands ofAmerican terrorist attacksHas been awakened. To prevent the expansion of subversive activities by terrorists,War on terrorismIs being carried out, but after thatHEATEtc.Islamic extremistsEmerging organizations have emerged, and large-scale attacks continue to be carried out enough to blame the leaders of one country for "action of war." Even at the end of the decade, the United States and its allies are seen as hostile due to the violation of Islamic cultureIslamic extremistsAnd the battle between the US victims of the sabotage and the quagmire of the US ally continues.

議論

Terrorism is generally regarded as an "accused act." At the same time, terrorism is "an awakening of fear". This is different from assassination in the narrow sense. It is not a direct attack targetMassesMeans of indiscriminately attacking symbolic persons for the purpose of manipulating/controlling are subject to strong moral and ethical criticism.

Therefore, in the form of utilizing the strong antimorality and antiethics of the word "terrorism", "it is terrorism" in response to "appeal and exercise of force of a person in a position different from himself".LabelThere is a methodology and tactics to blame by applying (label) (propaganda). Objects of this accusation often include political appeals and nonviolent direct actions.

However, certain actions do not become terrorism based on "terrorism" from conflicting interests. Calling the actions of interested parties terrorism is a rhetoric for justification.[41]However, it should be noted that it does not determine whether the action should be classified as terrorism. Often, the term “terrorism called by a conflict of interest” is merely a proof of the disagreement between a person called terrorism and a person called terrorism.

TerrorismviolenceIs a complex phenomenon involving. The core concept of terrorism can be regarded as "a violent act that is intended to appeal to society and emphasizes psychological impact rather than physical damage".[† 3].

Classical terrorism has been observed since ancient times, but it was definedFrench RevolutionMade inSeptember massacreIt was a trigger. SeptemberMassacreThen 1 counter-revolutionaries are killed by revolutionariesFear politicsWent[9].. Modern terrorism methods are becoming more complex, not only traditional revolutionary forces,TotalitarianismTerrorist activities have become possible for all social groups such asCold WarLaterForced diplomacyTerrorism has been established as a means of[42].

Behind the United States calling terrorism a "new war" is the issue of the international status of terrorists. Terrorism under new international law戦 争If it is not added to the form, the "combat style aimed at civilians by a flight trouser posing as a civilian" will be accepted. If terrorism can be recognized as a war, it means that a terrorist can be deprived of the qualification of a warring party (who has the right to a military trial as a prisoner of war).[43].

Case in the United States

In the United States

In April 1995, a federal government building in Oklahoma City, USA, was blown up (Oklahoma City Federal Government Building Bombing Case) Happened. The criminalUS ArmyHe was an Irish white youth with a military history. September 2001-October in the United StatesB. anthracis terrorist incidentHappened. A white American scientist was arrested as the criminal. In 2001American terrorist attacksHappens, the president of the timeGeorge W. BushIs "War on terrorism,"US Patriot ActWe started to implement thorough measures starting with the enforcement of. this isAfghanistan Conflict (2001-)Led to.

Start of worldwide Internet communication monitoring by NSA after XNUMX/XNUMX terrorist attacks

Actually before thatUS National Security Agency(NSA) outside the United StatesインターネットCommunication via was monitored as a matter of course,Watergate caseIn order to prevent the president from monitoring his own people again based on the lessons learned from the president's monitoring and misuse of the people's communications.United States ConstitutionAccording to the regulations, until the terrorist attacks, it was an agreement that only Internet communications (between US citizens) in the United States could not be monitored without the permission of the court. It has expanded the scope of "measures" to create a mechanism for violating the US Constitution (to put it plainly) by monitoring Internet communications in the United States in full view without court permission.[44].. However, to the outside, he cleverly replaced the expressions and explained the lies as if they were anonymous and collected only a small amount of information. Knew only a few people at the heart of the NSA, a few NSA technicians, and the U.S. president could have a strong surveillance system.[44].. After all, the NSA took advantage of the fact that most of the Internet network is via the United States, and created a mechanism to monitor the whole amount of communication contents, including foreigners seen from the United States and even Americans.[44].. Eventually, however, some people began to notice that the illegal mechanism existed and accused newspaper publishers of it, but it was erased by the pressure of the Bush administration and others.[44]..After all, apart from the accusation, a young NSA engineer who had also worked for a (cloak of invisibility) internet telecommunications company in Shibuya at the NSA's Japan branch.Edward SnowdenNoticed the existence of the illegal system independently and informed the reporter of another newspaper company of the information, and the existence of a surveillance system for worldwide Internet communication by the US NSA became globally visible. Became known to people all over the world and became a big problem globally[44].

Homegrown Terrorism

2009から2010The terrorist attacks targeting the United States, including the attemptedProsecutionIt has been revealed that about 4% of those who did this were Americans.Family collapse,poverty,DiscriminationYoung people who have a sense of alienation due to various problems that American society hasインターネットThrough the exchange sites aboveRadical thoughtCausing terrorism,Homegrown Terrorism(Locally raised terrorists) are a threat[45][46].

In October 2013Boston Marathon Bomb TerrorismHappened. The criminal was a brother in the United States and was not a member of the terrorist organization.

By the U.S. military

January 2020, Iran Revolutionary Guard CorpsGasem SoleimaniCommander, U.S. militaryKilled by air strike[47](= Killing a VIP).Regarding this, U.S. President Donald Trump posted on Twitter that if Iran counterattacks U.S. citizens and property, it will target not only military facilities but also cultural facilities. Suggested to do.The Iranian parliament unanimously passed a bill designating the U.S. military and its organizations and businesses as terrorists, which legally officially designated the U.S. military as a terrorist in Iran.[48]..According to the Iranian government, terrorism by the U.S. military is terrorism by the state (national terrorism). state terrorism)[49],US Department of DefenseAnd its commander, the US President (=Donald Trump) Was designated as a terrorist[49].

Recent situation and statistics

In recent years, in the world and international politics, the terrorism that the nation carries out against the nation, that is, the state terrorism, has become completely normal (for example).north koreaShows that he is ready to kill the civilians by shooting anti-aircraft guns at the civilians on the Korean island (Yeonpyeong Island bombardment case[† 4],nuclear weapons,missile,Submarine fired ballistic missileBy developing and equipping it, it is implied or stated that it is ready for a nuclear attack anytime and anywhere on the earth (Nuclear terrorism), And continues to threaten liberal countries.In the case of North Korea, the main purpose is to provide a large amount of food free of charge by threatening liberal countries, so we regard it as a kind of "diplomatic" and say, "Brink foreign policyIt is also called.The nation builds an organization that secretly attacks other countries on the Internet in its own country, and attacks servers and important facilities such as government organizations of other countries at any time (Cyber ​​terrorism), And by showing that it can be done at any time, it is becoming a norm to try to manipulate the governments of other countries directly or indirectly as desired.north korea,Chugoku,Russia,IsraelIt has become common practice for governments and their intelligence agencies to carry out cyber attacks against hostile nations, such as cyber organizations that have them in their organizations or use them as minions.

US Department of StateAccording to a report published by The State of Terrorism in the World (Partterns of Global Terrorizm), the number of victims of terrorism in the world is1998から2003It is said that there were about 1000-7000 people every year.[50].. On the other handWar on terrorismThe number of victims due toIraq warIn this case, 10 civilians were killed, according to a US scientist team.[50].

対 応

Bill ClintonEnds terrorism with a common transnational(I.e.In consciousness, the United States will continue to fight terrorism forever, unless it provides aid to economically distressed countries, 2002University of CaliforniaBerkeleyI pointed out when I gave a lecture at the school[51]..People in developed countries are the so-called "global economy" and "Technology・Boom and others are fooled around with the illusion of being in a global situation, but in reality most of the people in the world have not received such benefits.[51],Developing countryThen, due to economic collapse and deficiencies in the medical system,絶望Living in the mood, living costs of less than $1 a day for half of the world's population, and 2 million people within three yearsAIDS virusThe actual situation is that you are suffering from the fear of being infected with[51], This is a hotbed for terrorist organization[51]..Bill Clinton points out that a developing country reconstruction plan is needed as a countermeasure against terrorism.[51], And more specifically, the following are listed.

  • Against the poorest countriesDebt reliefContinuation of[51]
  • Financing for small businesses in difficult economic regionsLoanStrengthening the working mechanism[51]
  • Development of medical infrastructure in developing countries[51]

And, in the long run (although the governments of developed countries often get caught up in the imminent choice of action) in the long run, rather than spending money in the form of war (with terrorism) (in predicament) Clinton also pointed out that spending less money to support and assist the government that is trying to establish a regime is less expensive.[51].. For example, a war in Afghanistan costs a billion dollars a month. Money should not be used in such a stupid way, but if it is used to rebuild and support developing countries, it will produce far better results.[51].

Specializes in Latin American Area StudiesInternational Political EconomyPersons (among many types of terrorism) focus on the type used as one of the countermeasures when an inferior subject in terms of both status and power continues to be rejected by a superior subject. And that type of terrorism is just like a kidnapper trying to negotiate with a "hostage" as a bargaining resource (analogyThought, analyzed, and discussed countermeasures[52].. The democratic state-terrorism dialogue is rejected in status but essential and inconsistent for the release of "hostage". As a result, democracy is often constrained when the state takes proactive measures against terrorism.[52].. EspeciallyHawkKeeps the attitude of "not negotiating with terrorists", but this isToadIt's just that.Although it is possible to solve the problems in front of us, such as kidnapping, siege, and blasting, it does not lead to calming of activities.Even if the members are eliminated or arrested and imprisoned to destroy the organization, the citizens who resonate with the organization's assertion of ideas remain, which leads to the formation of a new group.

Takao Shimizu of the National Diet Library cites the following (legally in each country) as a measure against terrorism.

Terrorists are said to carefully investigate targets when they infiltrate hostile countries, so major countriesSecurity agencyIs trying to capture terrorist infiltration, terrorist preparation activities, target investigation activities, etc.The reality of the "war on terrorism" for the nation can be said to be a fierce information warfare whether the existence of a terrorist plan can be captured at an early stage or it can be slipped through.Security agencies in each country are said to have had some effect on the detection of terrorists, but not all plans can be thwarted.Also, many terrorists-ExplosiveHow to handleCombat trainingEtc., advancedMilitary trainingBecause I have received[54]By terrorists in many countriesUnconventional warfare,crimeAs a specialized unit to counterCounterterrorism unitIs organized.NormallyPolice organizationOrganized in, but in some countries the militarySpecial ForcesMay be on a counter-terrorism mission[55].

Opinions on measures are divided by expert and position. Some examples are:

  • Eliminate the cause of despair. Reach out to poverty-stricken areas. Establish a medical system for people in areas without medical care.
  • Instead of improving the political process (agreement process) and fighting war,DialogueEncourage. Make wealthy people in developed countries understand other people's troubles and circumstances.

The view that people in power in developed countries often show is that

  • "Don't benefit terrorists" (continue to prove its ineffectiveness as a game instrument)
  • "Specify, monitor, manage, and eliminate terrorists" (Specify terrorists (individuals, groups, organizations), monitor, manage, or eliminate actions)
  • "Control the spread of damage to a minimum" (manage and monitor physical power (armor), set a crisis management area, and eliminate the approach of terrorists)

According to Yasumi Doi, the US approach to terrorism is a punishment law.rhetoricIt is close to. That is, the purpose of the "war on terrorism" is to disrupt the terrorist organization network and take criminals to court.[56].

Japan

in JapanPolice authoritiesBy "Extreme left violence"as well asRight wing groupThe "terrorism, guerrilla" incident has been suppressed by the police and various illegal cases have been cracked down.[57].. In addition, the Ministry of Finance is implementing asset freeze measures based on the UN Security Council Resolution on Freezing of International Terrorism Funds.

Concerns / criticisms

Countermeasures against terrorism are a concern and criticism by the state.Public servant execution type terrorismIt has been criticized for being used to justify excessive violence and illegal activities (arguing that some incidental sacrifice is unavoidable for the eradication of terrorism).Specifically, there are misfires and misfires on the general public due to public affairs-execution-type terrorism.

またPalestinian problemInIsraeli armyAttack on northern IraqKurdish Autonomous Region OfKurdishToTurkeyAttack,Basque Countryas well as the ETAToSpainAttitude,Chechen RepublicTo the independentRussiaAttitude,Northern Ireland problemJustify excessive violence using counter-terrorism, or counter-terrorismCauseMay be considered as an example of system-side terrorism and public-execution-type terrorism[† 5].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Legal text

  1. ^ "Act on Punishment for Providing Funds, etc. for Criminal Activities for Intimidation of Public[27]"First article
    In this Act, "criminal acts for the purpose of intimidating the public" meansCriminal acts performed for the purpose of threatening the public, the national government, local governments, foreign governments, etc. (meaning foreign governments, local governments, or international organizations established by treaties or other international commitments)And that falls under any of the following items.
    1. Acts of killing a person, injuring a person by using a weapon or other methods that cause serious bodily harm to a person, or kidnapping a person, or taking a hostage.
      1. Crashing, overturning, or overturning an aircraft in flight, or causing danger to its flight
      2. Acts of sinking or overturning a ship underway, or causing danger to its navigation.
      3. Using violence or intimidation, or using other methods to make a person incapable of resistance, to seize an aircraft or vessel in flight, or to control its operation at will.
      4. Acts of detonating explosives, setting fire, or otherwise destroying aircraft or ships, or causing serious damage to them
    2. Acts of detonating explosives, setting fire, or otherwise causing serious harm to the following items by destroying them or causing serious damage to them:
      1. Trains, automobiles, and other vehicles used to transport people or goods for official or public use, or facilities used for their operation
      2. Roads, parks, stations and other facilities for public use
      3. Facilities for the supply of electricity or gas, water or sewerage facilities, or facilities for telecommunications that are for official or public use
      4. Facilities for producing, refining or otherwise processing, transporting, or storing substances that are petroleum, combustible natural gas, coal, or nuclear fuels or substances that are raw materials thereof
      5. Buildings (excluding those falling under a. to d.)
  2. ^ "National Police Agency Ordinance[28]Article 39
    The International Terrorism Countermeasures Section is in charge of the following affairs.
    1. Terrorism (Violent sabotage based on political or other principled claims that is intended to achieve its purpose by causing widespread fear or anxiety.) Related to the collection and arrangement of security information regarding security activities related to these activities.
  3. ^ "Self Defense Law[29]”Article 81-2 Paragraph 1
    The Prime Minister, at the following facilities or facilities and areas in Japan,Acts of compelling the nation or others, or killing a large number of people or destroying important facilities or other objects for the purpose of causing anxiety or fear to society based on political or other principlesIf there is a possibility that the above will be performed and there is a special need to prevent the damage, a dispatch of troops, etc. may be ordered to protect the facility or the facility and area.
    1. Self-Defense Forces facilities
    2. Facilities and areas under Article XNUMX of the Mutual Cooperation and Security Treaty between Japan and the United States of America and facilities and areas under Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX of the Agreement on the Status of the United States Armed Forces in Japan (Article XNUMX of the Agreement). Limited to those for which the SDF units, etc. are supposed to provide protection in the joint committee of Japan.)
  4. ^ "Act on the Protection of Specified Secrets[30]”Article 12 Paragraph 2
    1. Specified harmful activities (activities to acquire undisclosed information that may pose a threat to the security of Japan if leaked, nuclear weapons, military-use chemical or bacterial agents, or dissemination of these Activities for exporting or importing equipment or rockets or unmanned aerial vehicles capable of carrying these, or items that are deemed to be particularly likely to be used for the development, manufacture, use or storage of these, or other activities which is carried out for the benefit of a foreign country and seriously impairs or is likely to impair the security of Japan and its citizens.Terrorism (acting to kill a person or destroy important facilities or other objects for the purpose of forcing the nation or others to do so based on political or other principles, or to cause anxiety or fear in society. ..The same applies to item XNUMX of the same table. Matters concerning the relationship with () the family of the person to be evaluated (spouse (including those who have not reported marriage, but are in fact in a situation similar to their marriage relationship; the same applies hereinafter in this issue), parents, children , Siblings, and parents and children of spouses other than these. The same shall apply hereinafter in this item) and the names of people living together (excluding family members), date of birth, nationality (nationality previously held And including the address.)

注 釈

  1. ^ cf.Escort dispatch'
  2. ^ Although not including the expression "terrorism," terrorism is one of the oldest, classic terrorisms that is always mentioned in printed encyclopedic articles, and is arguably a type of terrorism.
  3. ^ Regarding this core concept, “Countermeasures against terrorism: Introduction to coping with ubiquitous crisis” by the Committee on Countering Terrorism(Edited by Naofumi Miyasaka, Aki Shobo, July 2006,ISBN 978-4-7505-0608-1 As described on page 19.
  4. ^ This is also aimed at threatening the Korean people by intentionally targeting and killing the general public.This is not a so-called "war" (military-to-military combat).Obviously it is terrorist.The doing side clearly did not aim to wage a "war", but intentionally threatened the Korean people by calculation, and coldly calculated that it could achieve the political purpose. I'm going at.
  5. ^ According to a survey by the Israeli human rights group "Betherem",2006The ratio of victims of Palestine and Israel is 660 to 23. According to Patrick O'Connor, it has been 2000 to 39 since 10.[Source required].. From such survey results, criticism is made that "Israel's use of force is excessive and inhumane"[Who?].

Source

  1. ^ "terrorism』- Koto bank
  2. ^ a b "Encyclopedia Nipponica" (Nipponica) [Terrorism]
  3. ^ a b c d Koto bank
  4. ^ "terrorism". Political and economic theory. April 2019, 8Browse.
  5. ^ "terrorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 3. April 2006, 8Browse.
  6. ^ "Terrorism-supporting nation』- Koto bank
  7. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary”. Etymonline.com (October 1979, 10). April 2009, 8Browse.
  8. ^ Kim Campbell (September 2001, 9). “When is'terrorist' a subjective term?”. Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0927/p16s2-wogi.html April 2010, 1Browse"New York Times columnist William Safire wrote that the word" terrorist "has its roots in the Latin terrere, which means" to frighten "." 
  9. ^ a b "What is terrorism], p. 50.
  10. ^ a b c Geoffrey Nunberg (October 2001, 10). “Head Games / It All Started with Robespierre / "Terrorism": The history of a very frightening word”. San Francisco Chronicle. http://articles.sfgate.com/2001-10-28/opinion/17622543_1_terrorism-robespierre-la-terreur April 2010, 1Browse"For the next 150 years the word" terrorism "led a double life – a justifiable political strategy to some an abomination to others" 
  11. ^ "Terrorist world], p. 11.
  12. ^ Record, Jeffrey (December 2003). “Bounding the Global War on Terrorism (PDF)". Strategic Studies Institute (SSI). April 2009, 11Browse. “The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense, or the US Government. This report is cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited . ”
  13. ^ Schmid, Alex, and Jongman, Albert. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data bases, Theories and Literature, Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland; New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1988.
  14. ^ a b c "Inside Terrorism". The New York Times. April 2014, 5Browse.. Hoffman, Bruce (1998). Inside Terrorism.Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11468-0 
  15. ^ Elysa Gardner (December 2008, 12). “Harold Pinter: Theater's singular voice falls silent”. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/theater/news/2008-12-25-pinter_N.htm April 2010, 1Browse"In 2004, he earned the prestigious Wilfred Owen prize for a series of poems approaching the war in Iraq. In his acceptance speech, Pinter described the war as" a bandit act, an act of blatant state terrorism, demonstrating absolute contempt for the concept of international law "." 
  16. ^ Yuzo Hatano "Concept of "Crisis" in International Politics: A Study on International Terrorism"Hakuoh University Ronshu" Vol. 16, No. 2, Hakuoh University, March 2002, pp. 3-1, ISSN 0913 – 7661.
  17. ^ "UN Reform”. United Nations (March 2005, 3). As of April 21, 2007original[Broken link]More archives.April 2008, 7Browse. “The second part of the report, entitled“ Freedom from Fear backs the definition of terrorism–an issue so divisive agreement on it has long eluded the world community–as any action “intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non- combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act ""
  18. ^ Self-Defense Force Counter Terrorism (PDF)
  19. ^ Conclusion of treaties related to terrorism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  20. ^ FBI (1998). “TERRORISM 1998-FBI (PDF)". April 2016, 8Browse.
  21. ^ Mieko Hirano, Keiji Tsuchiya, Kaori Nakagawa (2003). “US Patriot Act (Anti-terrorism Act) (below) (PDF)". Foreign legislation 215 (2003.2).National Diet Library. April 2016, 8Browse.
  22. ^ 28CFR 0.85 'Terrorism includes the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.' and Hearings on Domestic Security Measures Relating to Terrorism Before the Subcommitee on Civil and Consitutional Right of Committee on Judiciary, House of Representatives, 98th Congress, February 8 and 9.Jury. 1984.pp.16.
  23. ^ a b Mieko Ihi (2006). “Counterterrorism in the United States after the September 9 terrorist attacks (PDF)". Foreign legislation 228 (2006.5).National Diet Library. April 2016, 8Browse.
  24. ^ 22 US Code § 2656f(d) excerpt'the term “terrorist group” means any group practicing, or which has significant subgroups which practice, international terrorism'
  25. ^ US Department of State. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations". April 2016, 8Browse.
  26. ^ United States CodeVolume 8 Article 1182 8 USC § 1182
  27. ^ Act on Punishment for Providing Funds, etc. for Criminal Activities for Intimidation of Public - e-Gov Law Search
  28. ^ National Police Agency Ordinance Chapter XNUMX - e-Gov Law Search
  29. ^ Self Defense Force Act - e-Gov Law Search
  30. ^ Law on protection of specific secrets - e-Gov Law Search
  31. ^ "North Korea's “nuclear” and “abduction” can be resolved], p. 73.
  32. ^ Minutes of the 156th plenary session of the Diet
  33. ^ 168th National Assembly House Abductions Committee Resolution-Resolution against US "de-designation of terrorism-supporting state against North Korea"
  34. ^ “Abduction of terrorism, legally difficult foreign ministers, family meetings and visits”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2003, 3). http://www.asahi.com/special/abductees/TKY200303120250.html April 2010, 12Browse. 
  35. ^ "People who despise Japan], p. 39.
  36. ^ "From the window of Tokyo to the world], p. 59.
  37. ^ "Sleeper cell". Political and economic theory. https://seikeidenron.jp/vocabulary/%e3%82%b9%e3%83%aa%e3%83%bc%e3%83%91%e3%83%bc%e3%82%bb%e3%83%ab April 2019, 12Browse. 
  38. ^ Ryan, Mike, Visual Edition of the World's Special Forces-Tactics, History, Strategy, Weapons, Hara Shobo, 2004.ISBN-978 4562037278.
  39. ^ Rick Colesert (September 2004). “End of the century swayed by anarchist terrorism”. Le Monde Diplomatique. http://www.diplo.jp/articles04/0409-2.html April 2008, 5Browse. 
  40. ^ (PDF) "Definition of Terrorism-An Attempt to Criminalize Internationally"National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau, 2005.https://dl.ndl.go.jp/view/download/digidepo_999872_po_065702.pdf?contentNo=1. 
  41. ^ "Terrorist world], p. 32.
  42. ^ "Terrorism (Gaylow & Senna)], p. 10.
  43. ^ Hiroyuki Noguchi (May 2011, 5). “Hiroyuki Noguchi's Security Reader“ Terrorists Are Not POWs ””. Sankei Shimbun 
  44. ^ a b c d e NHK BS World Documentary"Inside the NSA National Security Agency"First time(Broadcast on July 2014, 7, rebroadcast on August 15, 8)Second time(Broadcast on July 2014, 7, rebroadcast on August 16, 8)Final episode(Broadcast on July 2014, 7, rebroadcast on August 17, 8).
  45. ^ “Special feature: 9 years since September 11 terrorism, the end of the battle cannot be seen”. Mainichi Newspapers Daily jp(July 2011, 9). http://mainichi.jp/select/world/america/archive/news/2011/09/06/20110906ddm010030010000c.html April 2011, 9Browse. [Broken link]
  46. ^ "Ten years have passed since the terrorist attacks on the United States, a new threat has emerged called "homegrown terrorism"". FNN News Network. Retrieved May 2011, 9.[Broken link]
  47. ^ BBC "Iran Revolutionary Guard Commander dies in US airstrike after arrival in Baghdad"
  48. ^ Iran designates US military as "terrorist"Turkish National BroadcastingApril 2020, 1
  49. ^ a b NHK BS1 catch! World top news. Broadcast at 2020 o'clock on January 1, 8.
  50. ^ a b "Parrot and 9.11" [Page number required]
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brad King (February 2002, 2). "Former President Clinton: Ending Terrorism Is "Common Human Consciousness"". WIRED (Wired.jp). http://wired.jp/2002/02/04/%E3%82%AF%E3%83%AA%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%83%B3%E5%89%8D%E5%A4%A7%E7%B5%B1%E9%A0%98%EF%BC%9A%E3%83%86%E3%83%AD%E3%83%AA%E3%82%BA%E3%83%A0%E3%82%92%E7%B5%82%E6%81%AF%E3%81%95%E3%81%9B%E3%82%8B%E3%81%AE/ April 2014, 8Browse. 
  52. ^ a b Yo Tomita "About "Hostage Model" on Terrorism"Yokkaichi University Ronshu" Vol. 18, No. 1, Yokkaichi University, September 2005, 9, pp. 1-147, two:10.24584 / jyu.18.1_147.
  53. ^ Takao Shimizu "Terrorism and its countermeasures-efforts by the international community (PDF) "Foreign Legislation" III Counter-Terrorism Countermeasures 1 Anti-Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism, No. 228, Research and Legislative Examination Bureau, National Diet Library, May 2006, pp. 5-5, ISSN 0433096X, NOT 40007365137.
  54. ^ "What is the 5th terrorism? : Hitachi Systems, Ltd.". April 2019, 8Browse.
  55. ^ Akito Nogami "Military Glossary"Shinkigensha, September 2019, 9, p.20, pp.184-214,ISBN 978-4-7753-1756-3 .
  56. ^ Yasumi Doi "The logic of terrorism in America"Constitutional Theory," Volume 10, Kansai Constitution Study Group, December 2003, 12, 20-39 (51), two:10.20691 / houseiken.10.0_39.
  57. ^ National Police Agency (October 2004, 1). “Summary of police white paper Fighting organized crime". Official Journal Material Version January 16, 1. Prime Minister's Office. April 2008, 4Browse.

References

Japanese literature

Book

paper

Non-Japanese literature

  • "What is'Terrorism'? Problems of Legal Definition" (2004) 27 University of New South Wales Law Journal 270.
  • Y. Alexander, and MF Seymour, eds. 1978. Terrorism: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
  • JB Bell, 1978. A time of terror. How democratic societies respond to revolutionary violence. New York: Basic Books.
  • D. Carlton, and C. Schaerf, eds. 1981. Contemporary terror: Studies in substate violence. London: Macmillan.
  • RS Cline and Y. Alexander. 1986. Terrorism as state-sponsored covert warfare. Fairfax, Va.: HERO Books.
  • JD Douglass and NC Livingstone. 1987. America the vulnerable: The threat of chemical and biological warfare. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
  • RB Farrell, 1986. Responding to terrorims: conventions and commentary. Charlottesvill, Va.: Mitchite.
  • RH Kupperman, 1983. Tecnological advances and consequent dangers: Grouwing threats to civilization. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • AB Krueger, 2007. What makes a terrorist. Princeton Univ. Press.
  • P. Leventhal and Y. Alexander, eds. 1987. Preventing nuclear terrorism. Lexington, Mass .: Lexington Books.
  • GM Levitt, 1988. Democracies against terror. New York: Praeger.
  • RB Lillich, ed. 1982. Transnational terrorism: conventions and community. Charlottesville, Va.: Mitchie.
  • NC Livingstone and TE Arnold, eds. 1986. Fighting back: Winning the war against terrorism. Lexington: Heath.
  • NC Livingtone and AE Terrell, eds. 1988. Beyond the Iran-Contra crisis. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
  • E. Marks and D. Van Opstal. 1986. Combating terrorism: A matter of leverage.Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • DC Martine and J. Walcott. 1988. Best laid plans: The inside story of America's war against terrorism. New York: Haper and Row.
  • O. Revell, 1988. Terrorism: A law enforcement perspective. Washington, DC: US ​​Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  • JP Terry, 1980. State terrorism: A juridical analysis. Journal of Palestine Studies 10:94-117.
  • JP Terry, 1982. The Iranian hostate crisis: International law and US policy. JAG Journal 32-31-79.
  • JP Terry, 1986. countering state sponsored terrosim: A law policy analysis. Naval Law Review 36:159-86.
  • JP Terry, 1986. An appraisal of lawful military response to state-sponsored terrorism. Naval War College Review 39:59-68.
  • RH Wilcox and PJ Garrity, eds. 1983. America's hidden vulnerabilities: Crisis management in a society of networks.Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Related item

外部 リンク

    Catastrophic


     

    Back to Top
    Fermer