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🌏 | US tightens export controls Advanced semiconductors, gas turbine engine technology, etc.


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US tightens export controls Advanced semiconductors, gas turbine engine technology, etc.

 
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"By recognizing the risks as well as the benefits and acting in concert with our international partners, we will ensure that our shared security goals are met," he said.
 

[WASHINGTON (Reuters)] – The United States announced on the XNUMXth that advanced semiconductors and gas deemed essential to national security… → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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National security

National security(Koka Anzensho,English: National security) Is that a group survivesindependentIt is to guarantee the safe state by taking some measures to prevent some threat from reaching something of value such as.It may also refer to a system or organization for that purpose.国際 関係InSecurityIs mainly focused on defense from other countries.

Overview

Security mainly refers to protecting some irreplaceable value such as survival, independence and property for a certain group/subject by some means so as not to be exposed to threats, but the concept is very diverse. Historically and traditionallyMilitaryIt was mainly against threats,Cold WarAfter thatWeapons of mass destructiondiffusion,PKO, And developmentallyEconomy,EnergyThe research area has expanded to include resources, etc.Environment issues,human rightsThere is also a claim that includes. The major security between nations today isMilitary powerBased on the elements of外交,Economy-EnvironmentIt includes a wide range of such things.

To give an example of the research target,Military strategy, Security system, cultural policy (Soft power), public relations and educational promotion policy (propaganda), regional policy,Economic policy-Financial Policy, Human international exchange,Geopolitics(Geopolitics),International relations,Energy security, Space policy,RMA,disarmament,Small firearmSecurity (DDR etc.), Weapons of Mass Destruction,地雷,environment,populationProblems, water resources, poverty problems, food problems, etc. In particular, it is important for domestic problems such as poverty and ethnic/tribal conflicts to lead to security problems.SecurityThat.

concept

There is no firm definition of security in modern times, and it has been pointed out by many experts.

Security comes from Securitas, which means spiritual peace in ancient Rome, and is described as Security in English, Sécurité in French, Sicherheit in German, Sicurezza in Italian, and Seguridad in Spanish. As a result of importation by Japan and other countries, the concept of security as Kanji notation was established. The concept of securitas in ancient RomeStore philosophyIt is one of the basic concepts of "Peace by Rome" in the Roman Empire, that is, as a result of its political and social significance.Pax RomanaIt came to be linked to the concept of (Pax Romana).

The traditional concept of security has been considered in terms of military peace and independence or relations between nations, but nowadays human security and other non-national and non-military This concept is derived, and that concept changes with the times, and its meaning may differ depending on the context, user, school, and values. Therefore, it is necessary to use it carefully in order to accurately grasp the concept of security.

In modern times, theoretically there is a strict distinction between security and defense. Whereas security is aimed at "guaranteeing a safe state by preventing the threat from reaching it", defense is "to counter the threat that has come and to eliminate it by some force". Is the purpose.

Below, we will explain the typical security concepts that are currently being discussed in international politics, including traditional security and new security concepts.

Traditional security

What is traditional security?territoryAnd politicalindependentExternal threatsMilitaryThis is the most basic concept of security, with the main purpose being to protect it by means of restraint by physical means.National defenseCorresponds to this. Even todayMilitary powerUsingCountryGuaranteeing the survival and independence of the people, the property of the people, and the security are considered to be one of the extremely important roles of the state. NowadaysNational Warnuclear weaponsWith the advent of戦 争Since it became a disproportionate item, if sufficient deterrence is put in place, a war between developed countries will be less likely to occur.

Human security

Human securityIs the order of the international communityA human-社会Recognizing it as an extension of the nation, focusing on human beings, its smallest constituent unit, rather than the nation, to prevent the use of forceSystemEstablish its basichuman rights,equality,DemocracyAiming at the development of平和It is a concept of security of the globalism school that creates the. AlsoAIDSIt is a concept that includes a wide variety of elements, as it may include things such as environmental issues and environmental issues.

Comprehensive security

Comprehensive securityIs the concept of security that targets not only military but also non-military means to the maximum, and at the same time, the target threats are not only foreign but also domestic and natural threats. Is. In 1980Prime Minister-Masayoshi OhiraIt was theorized in the report of the Policy Study Group of the Comprehensive Security Issues Study.

Collective security

Collective securityIn the Confederation of States, in principle, the use of unjustified one-sided military force is prohibited, and for nations that violate that principle, the constituent countries are united to include military means. It is a concept of security that imposes collective sanctions.League of NationsWas first adopted inUnited NationsMakes this collective security workInternational organizationHowever, it has not been realized yet,United Nations CharterThe system stipulated in XNUMX. is not in place.

Common security

戦 争Based on the recognition that evasion is a common interest, it is a concept of security that aims to avoid war in cooperation with the enemy.Cold War,EuropeIt is a concept born in Japan, denying the traditional competitive and confrontational security, and emphasizing interdependent cooperation with hostile forces.As a concrete example of this, 1975European Security Cooperation Council(CurrentEuropean Security Cooperation Organization) Is mentioned.

Cooperative security

A nation in an unstable region where enemies and allies are fluid joins the system, and each country's corporatistic diplomacyTradeIt is a concept of security that aims to control dangers and threats, deter war, and curb the spread of war even if it breaks out.Although the non-military aspect is emphasized, the regime requires the participation of all major countries in the region, including potential aptitude countries, and all major countries in the region, including potential aptitude countries. The willingness to participate in joint action and the absence of overt hostile nations within the regime are prerequisites for the regime to function.

As can be seen from the above, the concept of security is a comprehensive concept that requires attention because it changes with the times, worldviews, ideas, and policies.

Security history

Since ancient times, survival has been the most important issue for humankind, and for that reason politicians in history have put a lot of effort into ensuring the security of their country.

19st centuryIn the international community up to, in the international community where order is stabilized by the balance of power between opposing nations (alliance), the idea of ​​individual security that the security of one's own country is guaranteed only by the creation of military power and the strengthening of the alliance. Was dominant.Therefore, the research area of ​​security at that time was the foreign policy of the state andMilitary policyAnd so on.

However, under this individual security, there are conflicting nations.Arms raceWill unnecessarily increase tensions and distrust between conflicting nations and increase the risk of war.It also increases the likelihood that small-scale conflicts will lead to world wars.World War IIs the first world war to show the danger of individual security.

Therefore, after World War I, the League of Nations was established based on the idea of ​​collective security.Collective security is a security system in which all nations in the world participate in the system and prohibit the use of force in principle, and the constituent countries cooperate to sanction the nations that violate this, including military power. Is.However, the collective security system is considered to be contingent on the participation of all countries and the absence of overt hostile nations within the system.This eases international tensions and may lead to disarmament.

However, the League of Nations was flawed in its authority and regime and could not prevent the start of World War II.Based on this history, the United Nations, which was established, has further improved and strengthened the system for collective security.However, the United Nations could not function as smoothly as originally thought due to the US-Soviet conflict.Even after the Cold War, the United Nations also malfunctioned, andAmericaInUSSRBecause of the conflict with the Soviet UnionMilitary policySince the research was centered around, military theory was the main focus.

First silence of security research

From the late 1960s to the late 1970s, security research was silent. This silence periodUS-Soviet strain relief diplomacyThere is a strong reason for the impact of the fact that there was no particularly serious conflict. The increase in security research since the 1970s is strongly influenced by the fact that the effectiveness of US-Soviet diplomatic diplomacy is no longer shown.

Second silence of security research

1991 year 12 month,Soviet Union collapsesHowever, no researcher could foresee this.Also, there was no researcher who could explain it even after the collapse occurred.After that,International political scientist, Among them, those who study security were silent. There was even an opinion that the security research died due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. After the Cold War, the strengthening of international interdependence,International economySecurity is broad due to the development ofPoliticsof,EconomyProfits as well as military means外交,economic power,cultureWe came to point to protecting using such as.

PFP Agreement and Reassurance Security System

Soviet threat disappeared,Western EuropeMany of the 7400 tactical nuclear weapons owned by the company were no longer needed and most were discarded. This NATOAlthough changes in the nature of NATO were sought, NATO dismantling would rather continue as worsening regional conditions. January 1994, strong opposition to NATO expansionRussiaAs a compromise PFP agreementWas proposed. In September 1997, revision work on the guidelines of the Japan-US Defense Agreement was conducted,JapanNot only the mainland defense ofPeripheral situationIt is decided to correspond to (at that time).This security system is called a reassurance type security system.

The theory of international security system

From the perspective of the international community, the theory of an international system that maintains a stable world order is also a major issue in security. Here, typical models and theories are described.

Peace theory

The international order is an imbalance of power,International economyIt has been in a stable and unstable state for many years due to the influence of. Here, we will describe the theory that formulates international relations in which a stable international order is maintained.

Monopolar peace theory
It is a theory that the existence of a great power with overwhelming power makes the world peaceful. Much of this peace theoryPax AmericanaMeaning, but there are also world government thoughts.
Bipolar peace theory
The theory is that the existence of two countries (powers) with overwhelming power will make the world peaceful as a result of competing with each other.Much of this peace theory means the US-Soviet Cold War period.
Multipolar peace theory
The theory is to maintain peace in the world order through equilibrium and antagonism by multiple countries. That is,United NationsSuch asInternational organizationMeans peace theory centered on.
Democratic peace theory
DemocracyBased onPolitical systemIt is a theory that there is little possibility of appealing to the war between nations that adopt. mainlyBruce LassettAlthough democracies are not necessarily non-warlike, historical rules of thumb suggest that democracies tend to wage war with each other relatively rarely.Therefore, the system of nations around the worldDemocratizationBy doing so, it is the basis of the idea that world security can be ensured.It is different from other security theories in that peaceful relations can be maintained regardless of military balance if a highly advanced democratic system can be built with each other.The origin of that idea isCantIt is said to be in the peace thought ofInternationalismIt is also said. However, there is debate as to why the democratic system suppresses war in international relations.

Hegemony model

hegemonyA model (hegemony model) is just to overwhelm other countries in a region.National powerThere is a “Hegemonic State” that has the sovereignty, which is one of the models of the international order that leads the neighboring countries.

This hegemony model is further divided into two types.The "despot empire" that directly controls other countries by using military power treats neighboring countries as client states, and if there is a rebellion of the client states, it is suppressed by force.The "democratic empire" (also known as "liberal empire" or "imperial republic"), which indirectly guides foreign countries by using economic power, has common interests in a wide area with the cooperation of neighboring countries. We aim to stabilize the foreign countries in the sphere of influence by providing a security system and an international economic framework.

Power balance model

Balance of powerA model (balance of power model) is a model of a phenomenon in which when one power (nation, group of nations) becomes stronger, the other countries try to antagonize the power by coalescence or strengthening of military power. ..

This power balance model further includes a "bipolar power balance model" and a "multipolar power balance model".The bipolar balance model is one in which only two powers mainly try to balance the powers.Cold WarPeriodAmericaUSSRIt is believed that this is the case, but historically it is a rare case.The multipolar balance of power model is one in which multiple powers simultaneously expand and balance their powers.Historically, this is often the case,World War I,Second World WarIs believed to fit this model.

Great power cooperation model

It is a development model of the multipolar power balance model, and is a model in which some major powers compromise and cooperate with each other and process them to maintain order. 1815Vienna conferenceFor about a century from then until World War IEuropeIs basically considered to be a multipolar power balance model, but it is also said to be an era when there were coexistence models of large powers at the same time. But,AfricaColonyAgenda is divisionBerlin conferenceThen, the problem that could not be cooperated became apparent,Trilateral allianceMikuni Kyosho Of国際 関係When was established, it went back to the multipolar power balance model.

Collective security model

Collective securityA model is a state in which a nation enters a specific system, and in principle prohibits the use of force, and if a member violates this, other members cooperate with each other.Military-EconomyIt is an international security model in which sanctions are added by such means. This model is based on the reflection that the power balance model brought about World WarUnited NationsIt will be realized in the form of. However, even in regional unions, there are cases where collective security models are adopted,Americas Organization,African Union Organization,NATO,Warsaw PactAnd is called the Regional Collective Defense Treaty Organization.

Military side

Even today, for securityMilitaryIs a very fundamental entity. Because it is an essential issue of securityCountrySurvival, independence, territorial defense, etc. are still closely related to military power.

Military power

Military power(Military capability) is the physical destructive power, dominance, and coercive power that a nation uses to achieve its political purpose and national interests, and the broad military power is composed not only of the military but also of various national powers. To.The role of military force in security is to show the functions of coercion, resistance, and deterrence externally, and to make them aware of the expected damage to the attack and the strategic and tactical difficulties of the attack.

nuclear weapons

Weapons of mass destruction,In particularnuclear weaponsIs one of the themes that security pays particular attention to. hereNuclear strategyI will describe the theory of.

Types of nuclear deterrence

Cold WarDeveloped in the United States during the US-Soviet confrontationNuclear deterrenceThere are the following types.

Existential deterrence (existent deterrence)
nuclear weaponsIn the case of, it has the power to extinguish the nation with a few shots, so the idea that the restraint function (deterrence) works regardless of the way of thinking and policy of the national leader and the politician just by saying that the nucleus exists.
Strategic deterrence
The idea that even nuclear weapons can only be deterred if they function properly in the event of a crisis, rather than relying solely on their existence.
Punitive deterrence
The idea is that if the Soviet Union commits an act of aggression, it will add punishment and offensive retaliation to the Soviet cities and industrial areas to provide deterrence.
Rejective deterrence
The idea of ​​refusing to achieve the Soviet political and military objectives, or making them aware that the cost of achieving them is too high and to have deterrence.

Deterrence strategy model

A deterrent strategy against hostile (or potentially hostile) nations.

DeductionLegal deterrence strategy model
Until the 1970s, this idea was central to the deductive deterrence strategy.
InductionLegal deterrence strategy model
Since the 1970s, this idea has been central to the inductive deterrence strategy.

Criticism of deductive legal deterrence strategy model

Alexander GeorgeNuclear deterrence, regionConflictOf the three deterrents of crisis deterrence, other than nuclear deterrence, there are many variable factors (purpose, means, options, possibility of a vicious circle of situations), and he criticized that a simple profit and loss account could not explain the outbreak of war.Since then, the idea of ​​an inductive deterrence strategy model has become mainstream.For example oldJapanese army OfSouthward policyThe attack on Pearl Harbor cannot be explained by a simple theory of interest based on the deductive deterrence strategy model.

Mutual confirmation destruction

Sometimes security"How to attack the enemy" "How to damage the enemy"Paradoxically,"How to keep peace"Use the means to search for. The famous idea isnuclear weaponsof"Mutual confirmation destruction(Mutually assured destruction, MAD).

When the Soviet Union changed its nature from nuclear weapons as a deterrent to nuclear weapons as an attack in 1965 and attacked the United States, the United States launched a nuclear retaliation attack, occupying 25% of the Soviet population and 50% of its industrial power. The idea is to destroy it.However, when this idea came out, the Soviet Union set out to strengthen its destructive power against the United States, and expanded the army by investing 15% of the Soviet Union's GNP in armaments.During this time, between the United States and the Soviet UnionNuclear warThe idea that the "mutual corroboration destruction theory" was effective for a time became mainstream for the time being, but the nuclear deterrence by the mutual corroboration destruction theory resulted in excess.Military expansionBecause of its deterrenceArms controlAs SALTWas carried out, and disarmament progressed, especially between the United States and the Soviet Union.Based on this lesson, the idea of ​​a counter value strategy emerged as to whether a nuclear retaliation attack is really valuable. In 1971, the idea that nuclear strategies should be used selectively spread, and the idea of ​​"total retaliation" in "mutual assured destruction theory" receded. In 1974, the flexible target setting was announced, and on the premise that the accuracy of the weapon's hit was high (higher), the attack from the hostile country was given a stage of retaliation.

Disarmament and armament management

disarmamentWhat is (arms reduction, disarmament)?戦 争This refers to the process of reducing armaments in order to control the risk of.Arms control(Arms control) refers to the restraint measures imposed on arms control.In recent years, arms control is becoming the mainstream.

Non-military aspect

Security isCold WarLater, interest in non-military aspects increasedEconomy,resource,EnvironmentThe field of research was expanded to such fields.

Discussion on non-military aspects

However, as to how far the concept of security should be expanded, there remains a debate as to whether the concept of security can be applied to anything. For example, when studying environmental issues from the perspective of security, suppose that the "object to ensure security" is a nation, a specific region, or the entire earth, or if the whole earth is protected. Then, there is an argument that it may be an ordinary “environmental problem”.

Also, in national politics, securityPolitical conflictIn some cases, political methods are used to arouse a sense of crisis and help expand one's power by linking all events and matters to security.However, if everything is involved in security, it may give many people a sense of crisis and anxiety more than necessary.In addition, although peaceful solutions such as dialogue are originally included in security, if a foreign policy biased toward security is laid down, diplomacy will become rigid, leading to isolation as an uncompromising and uncooperative nation. there is a possibility.At the same time, in a nation that has collective security, it may lead to unnecessarily concessions to allies and damage national interests.It cannot be said that security originally aimed at "maintaining the safe state of the nation and people", but the situation that security "puts the nation in a dangerous state and invites people to anxiety" occurs. Will end up.

Economic security

The purpose of economic security is to maintain and improve the economy of the nation and the economic life of the people.EconomyIs the life of human beings living in the nation.Therefore, economic power is an extremely important national power, and it can be said that maintaining competitiveness in the international economy and achieving economic independence are directly related to the survival of the nation.

Defining security in the economyMilitaryDifficult because the safety and its nature in is fundamentally different.Market economyInherently has instability and is a protectionistTariffBy means such as settingMarketExcessive intervention in the domestic industry may reduce the competitiveness of the domestic industry.In addition, market monopoly is required to control the market, which is an act contrary to the principle of the market economy itself.Direct from abroadinvestment,輸入It is almost impossible to aim for self-sufficiency by cutting off such things because of the recent progress of economic interdependence.Therefore, when implementing economic security policies, it is extremely important to fully understand and implement such economic characteristics and market principles.

AmericaTrade Expansion ActArticle 232 stipulates that import restrictions can be imposed for security reasons.20183/23After that, it will be imported to the United StatesSteel-aluminumAdditional tariff measures were taken on the product[1].

Natural resource security

resource-Energy TheEconomyCarry out activities,capitalIs essential to grow the value ofNational powerIt is a prerequisite of. Historically, there are many territorial disputes over resource areas.strategyThe most important resources and energy are,Aluminum,ク ロ ム,cobalt,platinum,coal,oil,Natural gasEtc., these are recent科学Technology,IndustrialIt has become an important value due to the development of and the expansion of mass consumption society.

Threats to resource security include embargoes and price hikes by reducing supply. As a typical exampleOPEC OfCrude oil priceThere is a raise. AlsoNatural disasters,戦 争Due toSupplyThe threat of system shutdown is also possible. secondOil shock TheIran revolutionWas caused by the main factor.

As a means of resource security, natural resource self-sufficiency and domestic消费There are methods to prevent the occurrence of threats such as suppression of threats, and methods to try to minimize the damage caused by threats such as stockpiling in case of emergency and preparation for countermeasures in the event of a crisis.However, these are costly measures and must be considered carefully.

Environmental security

Of modern mass production/mass consumptionEconomyActivity and globalpopulationIncreasenatural environmentHave a great influence on. Environmental security is like thisnatural environmentIs to try to ensure that its impact on human survival is not seriously adversely affected. Not all environmental issues are subject to security, basically the survival of the people,CountryThe main issues are those that may indirectly or directly affect the profits of the company. Environmental security became active in the 1990s, and there was a lot of discussion, especially in the United States.However, environmental security debates in the United States have often been confused about what environmental security is aimed at and how it actually works.As a result, discussions on environmental security have been sluggish.Currently, discussions on environmental security are still ongoing from the perspectives of national activities, the role of the state, and corporate environmental responsibilities.However, concrete and clarified rules have not yet been established.

Thought culture security

thought-cultureSecurity is the principle of governanceculture-thought-Religious・NationalitythoughtTargetCulturalICountryIs to protect the essential elements of.electionThrough the publicPoliticsThe greater the relationship topublic opinion PoliticsHave a physical influence. At the same timeTransportation,communicationWill become faster and closer,thoughtAnd culture will come in. By doing so, you can utilize these to promotepublic opinionCan be indirectly guided from the outside. For example,MediaBy asserting the legitimacy of the country through, it is possible to form a positive impression on the international community. When advertising, disseminating overt false information reduces the credibility of the advertiser. Therefore, the information disseminated in advertising activities is not explicit advertising, but is casual and continuous.strategyIt becomes a popular publicity. However, in recent years, objectivity is required for advertising, and the difference from advertising is becoming vague. Joseph NyeCold WarAfter国際 関係Pointed out that there is "ambiguity in the type and degree of threats".

School/viewpoint

The content of security varies greatly depending on the viewpoint of the observer. Here we describe the major schools and views on security.

threat

A threat is used in security to refer to an enemy or potential enemy. There are various political, ideological, and economic threats, but a purely military threat is generally judged by "ability" and "will". That is, even if a country has a national will to invade itself, if there is no military force to execute it, or if its own military power is overwhelmed, The country is not a threat. Moreover, even if a certain country possesses a vast amount of military power, it is not a threat even if it has a very friendly relationship and there is no will of the state to invade.

There is also the word asymmetrical threat. This is not a traditional symmetric threat of state versus state, but a non-symmetric threat of state versus non-state. In other words, the symmetrical threat refers to the threat that occurs between state bodies, while the asymmetrical threat refers to the threat that occurs between state bodies and non-state bodies.

National interest

National interestIs value or profit for the nation. In a narrow sense, national survival and independence, in a broad sense, the economic prosperity of a nation and its position in the international community are the national interests.RealismIt is one of the important concepts of theory, and we think that every nation is acting in pursuit of this national interest. On the other handIdealism,LiberalismThen, the national interest, which is the interest of one country, is not emphasized. Because more international and common interests such as international public goodsInternational regimeThis is because the content of national interest changes depending on the subjectivity of policy makers.

Neo realism

Neo realismIs a theoretical system that assumes that the international structure affects the behavior of all nations.Waltz International politics by (KN Waltz)AnarchyAnd power distribution Theory of International Politics (1979)Gilpin (R. Gilpin) war only changes the international structure War and Change in World Politics (1981).

Is a neo-realistWalt (SM Walt) proposed the bandwagon theory. This is the idea that the alliance system not only counters threats, but is also formed when tuned to the threatening country, that is, it exhibits bandwagon (win horse) behavior. For example in the 1930sCentral Europe,BalkanSmall and medium sized countriesGermany(Hitler) One after another and cooperated. AlsoJapan-UK Alliance,Japan-Germany Ikoku UnionHe points out that the current Japan-US alliance is not based on the theory of balance of power, but is based on the bandwagon theory.

Liberalism

Functionalism

Liberal international politicians consider the "state" to be "necessary evil" for protecting individual freedoms and rights, and establish a forum for discussion between the "necessary evils" to form peacebuilding and international order. I aimed at (Detail is Functionalism (international relations) (See item)

Reflections on functionalism and the advocacy of neofunctionalism by liberal forces.In short, the idea is that diplomacy by the private sector (non-state actor), not the state (national body), stopping the runaway of the state, multinational corporations, and the non-state actors can even restrict the national sovereignty of the national body as they develop. Come out (details Neo-functionalism See item).

Geopolitics

GeopoliticsIn terms ofHeartland,RimlandAndLand powerSea powerObserve international relations very comprehensively and comprehensively from conflicts. The theory of sea power is "The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783" (1890),Mahan(Alfred Thayer Mahan) wrote,Sea power(oceanPower, maritime power). And the theory of land power isHalford McKinderIs a concept advocated by, and the power of the continental states that control Heartland,Nicholas SpikemanArgued that there was a conflict between Sea Power and Rimland.

Structural violence

Structural violenceIs a certain social system or order itselfpoverty,hungerHowever, there is an idea that this is indirectly violence when it brings about oppression. this isPeace studiesIn the field ofJohann Gartung(J.Galtung) advocated. Gartung defines that the condition of structural violence is called social injustice.

Chicago School

Schools that had a very strong influence on security research and international politics. The Chicago School World War I,Second World WarThe effects of both wars can be seen. 1900 Charles Merriam(CEMerriam) From his inauguration, a big trend of the Chicago School is born. Specifically, I did the following:

  1. politicsIntroduced adjacent science to and developed the analysis.FreudApplication of psychoanalysis, etc.
  2. Strong in analysispower,authorityI had. Thorough verificationPoliticsAnd made it possible to analyze security scientifically.
  3. United States ConstitutionI feel distrust of the gap between the American society andEconomyInterpreted the Constitution
  4. Emphasis was placed on policy science.propagandaAnalysis etc.

World Final War Theory

Kishi IshiharaWas published in 1940,World Final War Theory"so,Friedrich the Great"Endurance War" in the age ofFrench RevolutionAfterNapoleonIt is roughly divided into "decision battle"戦 争It has been divided into two, that is, holding and holding battle. But these ideas are not based on scientific theory,BuddhismUnderlying values. AlsoWorld War IPositioning the next world war as the final war of humankind,Toa Federation(That is,Greater East Asia mutual prosperity area) Became the world's winnerEmperorArgued in the book that he would become the world leader.

Soft power

Soft powerAndMilitary powerIt is an antonym of (hard power) and is a collective term for the ability to elicit certain actions and attitudes of the other party by indirectly giving influence or empathy to the other party, rather than forcing it. Military power aloneSecurity policyIt is believed that the above is incomplete, and the idea that such capabilities should be used comprehensively has been around for a long time, but in recent years, attention has been paid particularly to the trend of illegalization of war.

In particularmovies,classic,Entertainment,Food culture:,DramaOf overseas promotion and expansionPolitical thought,Religious,ideologyPenetration, science, etc.TechnologyPower and economic power are examples. recent years,JapanThen worldwideAnime,ComicThere are many opinions that these should be used as soft power against the background of the popularity of.

Air power

Air powerIs a collective term for the nation's aviation capabilities.Italian Doue (Giulio Douhet) wrote "Air Control Theory" in 1921, discussing the importance of air power. The importance of this was not immediately recognized due to the resistance of the Army and Navy at that time, but it is also regarded as important by the military of each country due to the emergence of nuclear weapons, the development of missile technology, and the sophistication of air force. It started to happen.

United Nations and security

United Nations TheSecond World WarIt was founded with the aim of stabilizing the order of the international community after the end.Collective securityThe system (see United Nations for details).

In the collective security system, the member countries do not use force in principle,外交If the problem is resolved through negotiations and the member states violate their force, the members of other systems will cooperate.Military powerIt is a system that stabilizes the international order by implementing sanctions including those.

United Nations Army

United Nations ArmyAndUnited Nations CharterOn the basis ofSecurity CouncilForce sanctions at the request of軍隊Is. However,Cold WarIt is an organization that does not exist until now because the US-Soviet conflict caused the UN to malfunction (see UN Army).

United Nations peacekeeping operations

United Nations peacekeeping operationsAnd (PKO, peace-keeping operation) is a conflict management activity developed as an alternative because the United Nations collective security system was dysfunctional during the Cold War due to the background of the US-Soviet conflict.Developed as an alternative, it has never been officially defined by the Charter of the United Nations or the United Nations (see United Nations Peacekeeping Operations for details).

Basically, peacekeeping operations are carried out from a neutral standpoint on the premise that the parties to the conflict have agreed to a ceasefire and have agreed to the activities.Specifically, we dispatched small-scale peacekeeping forces (PKF) and military observers.electionSupportSecurityPerforms functions such as maintenance and separation of force. It does not carry out duties such as armed sanctions, to the extent that it is not compulsory平和Support the state.

Gully concept

August 1992, 6,United Nations Secretary-GeneralGully (Butros Butros-Gari) Presented five types of peace functions in the Gari concept.

  1. Preventive diplomacy(Note: There are more than 50 definitions of preventive diplomacy, and there is no clear definition.)
  2. Creation of peace by peaceful means (ConflictPeacefully using peaceful means)
  3. Take compulsory measures and create peace (peace enforcement)
  4. Peacekeeping (such as ceasefire)
  5. Post-conflict peace construction, construction

Of the above five types of peace functions, the United Nations is involved (judging legitimacy and injustice) only in "taking compulsory measures and creating peace (peace coercion)."

This is a proposal that combines the ideas of Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations and Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, but has been criticized by many countries and experts.Much of the criticism was due to the emphasis on being more "aggressive" in the UN's disregard for the state sovereignty of the intervening party through peace enforcement.

Therefore, the Peace Enforcement Unit (Peace enforcement units) indicated by Gari's concept was pointed out by many people and its effectiveness was questioned.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euGari himself declared that he would not do it in the future because he failed to resolve conflicts in Japan.

Security issues

Security paradox

Security paradox, orSecurity dilemmaWhat is (security dilemma)Security policySays the planning dilemma.

When country A and country B are in conflict and country A establishes and strengthens clear security for country B, country B also strengthens security for country A. These become a vicious circle, and security for peace paradoxically causes arms expansion and military tension.

Creating a threat

Security policy often moves not only public opinion but also the public opinion of neighboring countries and the world, so security is often used as a tool for political disputes by political forces with a specific direction.

"Civilization clashIs the author ofSamuel P. HuntingtonOnceSoviet collapseLater, looking for a new threat, between Japan and the United StatesTradeTaking up friction, assuming Japan as an economic enemy,Economy戦 争He raised the need for economic security. This did not go as far as destroying the Japan-US relationship, but it caused a very serious conflict of opinion. In addition, in economic securitySpin-offCan not expect in the future, especiallyShintaro IshiharaThe book "Japan that can be said to be NO" isAmericaStimulated many of its security researchers. Shintaro Ishihara points outU.S. ForcesBut advanced in JapanMilitary technologyThe idea that all advanced technology should be made domestically has spread to the United States because of the security problem in that it depends on the. But to make it happenFree tradeDenied,ProtectionismIt has been found that this will lead to economic decline as a result of the need to strengthen economic security, and the debate on economic security is currently sluggish. Huntington then searched for new threats,Chinese threat theoryAnd thenReligiousHe raised the threat of conflict and conflict of civilizations.It's not that Huntington's theory is wrong, but that people doing security research tend to "find" and "fuel" threats.

Oppression of freedom

basichuman rights,Freedom of speechRepression,CrackdownAnd so onSecurityAnd security may be used.

Dainichi this empireWas in 1928Public Security ActWas revised. ThisJapan Communist PartyAnd party members and their supporters, as well as labor unions, farmers (farmers) unions,proletarianCultural movement, etc.Left wingParticipants were caught. This results inSpecial police, Gave birth to a small independence judiciary and accelerated the suppression of basic human rights and freedom of speech. According to the Security Act, the number of arrested people, including unexamined ones, was said to have exceeded hundreds of thousands. According to the government's announcement, the number of arrested persons including 7 inspectors, 5681 indictments and uninspected persons was unknown.

Exaggeration of threats

Crisis that does not exist or that is not yet a crisis is arbitrarily overestimated as a "crisis" or "threat."public opinionAttempts to induce and obtain a national budgetMilitary industry complexMay be done by.

911 terrorismLater in 2003The United States of America TheHomeland SecurityHowever, the Ministry of Homeland Security has only 4% of the budget allocated to them, and 4% of that budget will be exhausted by personnel and equipment costs. The remaining 96% of the budget has a fixed purpose, which is extremelyPoliticsIt depends on your intention. In the name of security, this leaves the Department of Homeland Security with the risk that certain political powers will use the budget for the interests of their political powers. Also with the Department of Homeland SecurityDepartment of DefenseIt has been pointed out that the purpose and work content of the. In addition, the Department of Homeland Security Homeland Security Council and the Department of DefenseNational Security CouncilIt is also pointed out that there is no contact network between the two meetings.

Japanese security

In the late Shogunate eraShogunate army,Shogunate NavyWas founded and will be responsible for security on its own.Meiji RestorationJapan modernized by 1871Japanese armyWas founded.However, since the law was not established at the beginning, it was decided to go to Yokohama.British-French Yokohama Garrison Army(British ArmyFrench army) Was allowed to be stationed.However, since the Meiji government was responsible for all the expenses of the stationed forces, there is a risk of infringement of national sovereignty.Sino-Japanese warWithdrawing before, Japan was responsible for security on its own.

Sino-Japanese war,Russo-Japanese WarTo winWorld War IToGerman EmpireAustria-Hungary EmpireJapan wonLeague of Nations OfPermanent memberIt also became.Second World WarInitially, the Japanese army became dominant,Southeast AsiaSurrendered and occupied the British and French troops that had been colonized.After that, by the Japanese armyAttack on Pearl HarborByPacific WarOutbreak.Japan isU.S. ForcesJapan was defeated by the overwhelming strength of.

With the defeat in the Pacific War,The Constitution of JapanAnd has abandoned its armed forces as an act of national power under the pacifism that was the spirit of the Constitution.Cold WarWhen we enter the period, the world資本主義Made up of countriesWestern countriesUSSRWas the leaderCommunismJapan was in the midst of forming a bipolar power map with the country.The United States of AmericaAs a member of the capitalist camp in the led post-war rule, he played a role as an ally of the United States.At that time, the Far East region around Japan had strong communist forces, and Japan was with the Soviet Union.ChugokuIt is recognized as an important security center for the United States and the United States of the capitalist camp as a country adjacent to the two major communist countries, such as the United States military bases established in various parts of JapanBridgeheadWas said. Under US military guidancePolice reserveWas formed, and since thenSecurity forces,SDFIt has come to today through the reorganization to. Against this backdrop, Japan's security strategy has basically been constructed under the US global strategy even after the independence was restored.

Whether or not to maintain self-defense is a major issue in the postwar constitutional debate and public opinion,1960ToUS-Japan Security TreatyBased on the above, the Japan-US alliance was concluded. Domestic public opinion was in the midst of postwar recovery and was in the process of reconstruction, and there was a mood that public security was averse to discussing security.60 years security,AlsoJapan-US Security TreatyAt the time of conclusion70 years securityAs Japan, despite the great opposition from public opinion after struggles, etc.Monopoly defenseHas continued to own the Self-Defense Forces under the philosophy of.Has been in power for a long time after the warLDPIs to maintain self-defense andRight of collective self-defenseI have insisted on contingency legislation and constitutional amendment over issues such as possession of the world war II, but the memory of World War II is still fresh.Japanese Socialist PartyIn response to opposition from other guardian forces, with deterrence by the military power of the U.S. military in an extremely restrained security systemFar EastHas maintained a security order in the region.Even after that, it can be said that the necessity of the minimum self-defense power was understood in the society while the public opinion was largely divided, but there was a restraining view on the military power due to the constitutional amendment etc. It can be said that it overturned public opinion.

However, after the collapse of the Cold War, it has been hidden behind the US-Soviet confrontationPeopleAnd regional conflicts due to religious valuesPKOThe search for peaceful ways to contribute, centered on the, has led to an increasing number of opportunities for the Self-Defense Forces to dispatch overseas.

today,north korea OfmissileUnder different circumstances such as repeated launches, Japan's security has caused much debate about the ideal defense, the Japan-US alliance, the scope of operation of the Self-Defense Forces, etc. While confirming the post-war history that has played the role of an ally of Japan, the Constitution sings, adhering to the current Constitution and the constitutional amendment theory that it should seek more active military contribution under the Japan-US alliance in the future.PacifismIt is divided into the constitutional theory that the ideal should be embodied, and the public opinion is divided into two.  

Specialties and related terms in the field of security

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "US steel tariff, applied to Japan Excludes Korea and EU”(May 2018, 3). April 2018, 7Browse.

References

  • National Defense Academy・Society for Security Studies, "New Edition, 4th Edition, Introduction to Security Studies" (Aki Shobo, 2009)
  • Maeda Tetsuo, Shigeaki Iijima, "Introduction to the Japanese Military Read by Q & A" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2014)
  • Hiroomi Kurisu"Introduction to Security" (Book Business Associates, 1997)
  • Kensuke Ebata"What is Security?" (Heibonsha Shinsho)
  • ,Kazuhiko Noguchi"International Relations Theory" (Keiso Shobo, 2006)
  • Naoko SajimaVolume "Modern Security Terminology Dictionary" (Shinzansha Publishing, 2004)
  • Hiroshi Nakanishi"What is International Politics?" (Chuokoronsha, 2003)
  • "Modern International Relations" (Koyo Shobo, 2001)
  • Gordon A. Craig/Alexander L. GeorgeWritten "Military Power and Modern Diplomacy: Conditions of Peace Learned from History and Theory" (Yuhikaku)

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