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🌏 | Russia uses energy as a weapon = German Chancellor


Russia uses energy as a weapon = German Chancellor

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"Energy policy is also a security policy," Scholz said. "Therefore, we need to accelerate the expansion of renewable energy use."

[Berlin XNUMXth Reuters] – German Chancellor Olaf Scholz on the XNUMXth, Russia uses energy as a political weapon ... → Continue reading


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Energy policy

Energy policy(Energy policy, UK: Energy policy) mainly refers to governmental organizations.EnergyThe policy decided to deal with various problems of energy development including production, distribution and consumption. Energy policy includes legal arrangements, international treaties, incentives for investment,Energy ConservationGuidelines, taxation, and other public policy instruments. Energy is a core element of the modern economy, and in addition to labor and capital, energy is needed for the economy to function in manufacturing, transportation, communications, agriculture and so on.

back ground

For the duration of energy policy,Global warmingTo address the issue of climate change andエ コ· The importance of energy-oriented policy implementation should be emphasized[1].

The survey is in the process of being completed, but the "human dimensions" of energy use [Annotation 1] However, it is becoming of great interest to businesses, utilities and policy makers.Social scienceThe use of to gain insights into energy consumption behavior will help policy makers make better decisions on a wide range of climate and energy matters. This is a more efficient use of energy,再生 可能 エネルギーCommercialization of, andCarbon emissionsEnables promotion of reduction[3].. To energyAccessIs also important for basic social needs such as lighting, heating, cooking and medicine. As a result, energy prices increase employment, economic productivity, business competitiveness, goods and services.costAlso has a direct impact on.

National energy policy

Means to implement energy policy

A country's energy policy consists of a series of tools such as the laws, treaties, and guidance recommendations of ministries. The energy policy of a sovereign state includes one or more of the following means.

  • National statement of policies for energy planning, generation, transmission and use
  • Legislation concerning commercial energy activities (trade, transportation, storage, etc.)
  • Efficiency standard,Emission standardLegislation of contents that affect energy use
  • Circular order for state-owned energy sector assets and organizations
  • mineralfuelInvestigation(Geological surveyActive participation in coordinating and promoting
  • Related to energy production and servicesFiscal policy(Taxes, exemptions, subsidies, etc.)
  • Energy securityAnd the following measures for multilateral policy
    • International energy treaties and alliances
    • General international trade agreement
    • Special relationships with energy-rich countries, including military presence and control

Often the main challenges of energy policy areSupply and demand imbalanceConsidered a risk (Category: Energy crisisreference). Current energy policy also addresses environmental issues (Climate changeAre also challenging.[4].. Several governments have announced detailed energy policies, but each government has implemented some form of energy policy, whether or not it has been declared.Economic model,(English edition)Is an advisory and analytical tool (economic modelPOLES(See).

Factors included in energy policy

Regardless of which of the above instruments were eventually used in policy, there are several factors that are naturally involved in national energy policy. The main elements underlying energy policy are:

  • Home countryEnergy self-sufficiency rateDegree of
  • Where future energy resources can be obtained
  • Future energy consumption (eg between sectors)
  • (English edition)Will accept and accept a minority population
  • FutureEnergy intensityTarget,GDPOf energy to
  • What is the reliability standard for distribution reliability?
  • Acceptable environmentExternalityAnd what to expect
  • What form of "portable energy" is expected (eg, vehicle fuel source)
  • Energy efficient hardware (for example,Hybrid carAnd the degree of promotion of household appliances)
  • To what extent can national policies move the functions of local governments such as prefectures and cities?
  • What are the specific mechanisms (eg, taxes, manufacturing standards, etc.) to implement the overall policy?
  • What will happen to the future of national security and foreign policy?[5]

America area


For details, (English edition)See.

Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world[When?]And is the largest in South America. At the same time, it is an important oil and gas producer in the region and the second largest in the world.Ethanol fuelIt is also a producing country. Government agencies responsible for energy policy include the Ministry of Mining and Energy (MME), the National Energy Policy Council (CNPE, an acronym for Portuguese), the National Petroleum and Natural Gas Biofuels Oversight Agency (ANP), the National Electricity Department (ANEEL). )[6] [7] [8].. Of state-owned enterprisesPetrobras(Petrobras) andBrazil power(Eletrobras) is the main actor in the Brazilian energy sector[9].


The detail is (English edition)See.

The United States of America

Currently, a major challenge in US energy policy revolves around the production of rapidly growing domestic and other North American energy resources. The movement of the United States toward energy independence and a decrease in dependence on oil and coal is partisan, because these challenges optimize the balance between opposing values, such as environmental protection and economic growth. To revolve around how toFossil fuelThere are also demands for rival organizational interests such as industry and new renewable energy businesses.

For more informationCategory: United States Energy PolicyPlease refer to.

European region

European Union

For details, (English edition)See.

European Union(EU) has been developing legislation, setting targets and conducting multilateral negotiations in the field of energy policy for many years.European Coal and Steel Community(ECSC), the concept of mandatory EU common energy policy implementation was adopted on 2005 October 10 in London.European CouncilIt has only been approved by. Then, on January 2007, 1, the first policy proposal “Energy for a Changing World” was announced.European CommissionPublished by. The most well-known energy policy goal in the EU is the 20/20/20 target mandated by all EU member states. EU plans to increase renewable energy share to 20% in final energy use, reduce greenhouse gases by 20% and improve energy efficiency by 20%[10].


For details, (English edition)See.

In September 2010, the German government adopted an ambitious target setting to transform its national energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions domestically by 9-2050% by 80 (compared to 95).[11].. This conversion is due to the energy wende (en: Energiewende) Known as. After that, the government decided to phase out all reactors by 2022.[12].. As of 2014, the country is making steady progress on this transition[13].

The power source composition in Germany as of 2021 is as follows (Germany AGBE published material).

  • Thermal power such as coal 27.8%
  • Wind power 20.1%
  • Natural gas 15.2%
  • Nuclear power 11.8%
  • Sunlight 8.4%

Biomass 7.7% Hydropower 3.3%

United Kingdom

For details, (English edition)See.

The UK energy policy isEnergy intensityHave succeeded in lowering (but still high in reality), reducing energy poverty, and maintaining the reliability of energy supply to date. Britain in the coming yearscarbon dioxideIt has an ambitious goal to reduce emissions, but it is unclear if there are sufficient programs to reach this goal (still a difficult and efficient way for France). Regarding energy self-sufficiency, the UK policy is thatBeihai OilfieldWe are not addressing this issue except admitting that it is now nonexistent (due to the decline in production). In terms of transport, Britain has historically had good policy records encouraging public transport to link cities, while encountering high-speed rail issues that could significantly reduce domestic and European short-haul flights. doing. This policy, however, does not significantly promote the use of hybrid vehicles or ethanol fuel, nor is it a viable short-term measure to mitigate rising transport fuel consumption. When it comes to renewable energy, the UKWind powerとTidal energyHas set the goal of. The 2007 Energy White Paper set a target that by 2020, 20% of UK energy must come from renewable sources.

Soviet Union and Russia

For details, (English edition)と Category: Russian energy policySee.

Soviet UnionWas the largest energy supplier in the world until the late 1980s. Russia, one of the world's major energy sources, is rich in natural energy resources, is one of the world's leading energy nations, and is a major supplier to the EU. The main document that defines Russia's energy policy is the energy strategy, which initially formulated the policy by 1, and was subsequently reviewed, revised and extended by 2020. On the other hand, RussiaKyoto ProtocolHas also signed and later ratified. Many scholars are concerned about Russia's use of energy exports as a tool for foreign policy to other countries[14] [15].

Asia region


For specific details in Japan,Category: Japanese energy policychecking ...


For details, (English edition)See.


For details, (English edition)See.

India's energy policy is characterized by four major driving forces.

  • The need for a safe and steady supply of electricity, gas, and oil due to the rapid economic growth.
  • The need for affordable, adequate power supplies and clean cooking fuels as household incomes increase.
  • limitedFossil fuelJapan's domestic reserves and the need to import most of the gas, crude oil, and essential oil production, and more recently coal.
  • Indoors, urban and local environmental impacts, necessitating the adoption of clean fuels and cleaning technologies.

In recent years, these issues have undergone a series of reforms and reorganizations, leading to a focus on energy conservation.

(English edition)(Bio fuelKind of)US-India Nuclear CooperationSee also


For details, (English edition)See.

Thailand's energy policy is characterized by 1) improving energy consumption efficiency, 2) increasing domestic energy production, 3) expanding the role of the private sector in the energy sector, and 4) increasing the role of market mechanisms in setting energy prices. And These policies have been consistent since the 1990s, despite various government changes. The pace and form of industrial liberalization and privatization are hotly controversial.


For details, (English edition)See.

Bangladesh's first National Energy Policy (NEP) was formulated by the Ministry of Electricity, Energy and Mineral Resources in 1996, and appropriate exploration of energy resources to meet the increasing energy demands of consumption sectors and consumer groups in different zones. , Ensuring production and distribution and rational use of energy on a sustainable basis. The policy was updated in 2004 due to the rapid changes in the world and domestic situation. The updated policy will ensure a sustainable and sustainable energy development program that minimizes environmental impact, encourage public and private participation in energy sector development and management, and ensure that it is nationwide by 2020. The additional goal was to electrify.

Oceania region


For details, (English edition)See.

Australia's energy policy isCoal power plantとHydropowerIt features a combination of places. Australian Government is the largest in the worlduraniumBeing a producer, he decided not to build a nuclear power plant.

Energy policy of local government

It is appropriate to talk about energy policy many times within the municipality. Influential independent organizations such as local governments and the energy industry will implement their policies. The policy instruments that these organizations can implement have less sovereignty, but can be as important as national instruments. In fact, there are certain activities essential to energy policy that are practically unmanageable at the national level. For example, monitoring energy conservation activities in construction work (on behalf of the national government).


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The International Human Dimensions Program on Global Environmental Change (abbreviated as IHDP) is translated as “Human aspect of global environment change international research plan” in a domestic document including the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.Humanities and social sciencesRefers to the approach from[2].


  1. ^ Eraldo Banovac, Marinko Stojkov, Drazan Kozak.Designing a global energy policy model, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Energy, Vol 170, Issue 1, February, 2017, pp. 2-11. https://doi.org/10.1680/jener.16.00005.
  2. ^ "International Collaborative Research Program in Global Environmental ScienceMinistry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, June 2013, 6, p. 13.
  3. ^ Robert C. Armstrong, Catherine Wolfram, Robert Gross, Nathan S. Lewis, and MV Ramana et al., "The Frontiers of Energy", Nature Energy, Vol 1, 11 January 2016.
  4. ^ Farah, Paolo Davide; Rossi, Piercarlo (December 2, 2011). "National Energy Policies and Energy Security in the Context of Climate Change and Global Environmental Risks: A Theoretical Framework for Reconciling Domestic and International Law Through a Multiscalar and Multilevel Approach". European Energy and Environmental Law Review. 2 (6): 232-244. SSRN [1].
  5. ^ Hamilton, Michael S. 2013. Energy Policy Analysis: A Conceptual Framework. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, Inc.
  6. ^ "Brazilian investment environment"Overseas Investment and Loan Information Foundation HP, updated October 2017." Retrieved October 10, 2018. See the names of Brazilian ministries.
  7. ^ IEA.World Energy Outlook 2006. ISBN-92 64-10989-7
  8. ^ "Project Closing Report. Natural Gas Center of Excellence Project. Narrative" (PDF). 20 March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27.
  9. ^ Silvestre, BS, Dalcol, PRT Geographical proximity and innovation: Evidences from the Campos Basin oil & gas industrial agglomeration? Brazil. Technovation (2009), doi:10.1016 / j.technovation.2009.01.003
  10. ^ Obrecht, Matevz; Denac, Matjaz (2013). "A sustainable energy policy for Slovenia: considering the potential of renewables and investment costs". Journal of renewable and sustainable energy. 5 (3): 032301. Doi:10.1063/1.4811283.
  11. ^ Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi); Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) (28 September 2010). Energy concept for an environmentally sound, reliable and affordable energy supply (PDF). Berlin, Germany: Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  12. ^ Bruninx, Kenneth; Madzharov, Darin; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William (2013). "Impact of the German nuclear phase-out on Europe's electricity generation? A comprehensive study"Energy Policy. 60: 251-261. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.026. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  13. ^ The Energy of the Future: Fourth "Energy Transition" Monitoring Report? Summary (PDF). Berlin, Germany: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). November 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-20.
  14. ^ Baran, Z. (2007). EU Energy Security: Time to End Russian Leverage. The Washington Quarterly, 30 (4), 131-144.
  15. ^ Robert Orttung and Indra Overland (2011)'A Limited Toolbox: Explaining the Constraints on Russia's Foreign Energy Policy', Journal of Eurasian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 74-85. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251718767


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    Security policy

    Security policy(AnzenBritish: national security policy) IsCountry Ofindependentと平和Mainly to maintainMilitaryProtects the nation from various threatsSecurity OfpolicySay


    Security policy is basically military policy,Military powerOperation ofForeign policyIs a comprehensive policy. mainlyForeign policyComposed byMilitary policyIs also partially included.

    Military allianceThis includes policies for military support.Military strategyThe basic policy is formulated under the following, and in normal times it is necessary to develop military power and maintain deterrence.Military training・Military exchange・weapondevelopment of·情报Collected, etc., during the war戦 争,ConflictIt is a policy for dealing with.

    Due to its character,Foreign policyIt has a deep relationship with, and may be summarized as a foreign policy. for that reasonPKO,Military advisory groupThe dispatch of the government has a security aspect as well as a diplomatic aspect.

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