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🌏 | Indian Prime Minister meets with Softbank G Chairman Son


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Meeting with Indian Prime Minister and Softbank G's grandson chairman

 
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Discussed investment in electric vehicles and batteries.
 

[New Delhi, XNUMXrd Reuters] – Indian Prime Minister Modi will be Chairman of SoftBank Group, Masayoshi Son, on the XNUMXrd. → Continue reading

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Electric car

Electric carWhat is (Denki Jidosha)?ElectricalAs an energy sourceelectric motorRun on (electric motor)AutomobileIs[1]..Abbreviations are generallyEV(Electric Vehicle) is used[Note 1].Fossil fuelBurnInternal combustion engineBecause it does not have an (internal combustion engine)[Note 2], When drivingcarbon dioxide(CO2) AndNitrogen oxideDoes not come outZero emission vehicleIs[2].

Overview

Electric vehicles powered by electric motors are in-vehiclePower InputBattery-powered electric vehicles that get power from (battery) and while drivingelectricityIs supplied from the outsideOverhead line current collectorIt can be roughly divided into electric vehicles.[Note 3].Light carBattery-powered electric vehicles have attracted attention as ordinary passenger cars.Large VehicleMust be equipped with a large number of batteries in order to make it an electric vehicle.Maximum loading capacityIts weight is an issue.Therefore, in a large carMotor assist hybrid car,Transit BusThen, the overhead line current collector type electric vehicle attracted attention.

Types

Battery-powered electric vehicles are powered by external power.Secondary batteryTo (battery)ChargingHowever, a secondary battery vehicle that supplies a battery to an electric motor is common. →#Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

In the past, the secondary battery had a large volume and mass per output and energy, was high in cost, and had an insufficient life.It also reduces battery life rapidlyChargingIt was also necessary to avoid the problem, and the long charging time compared to the operating time was also a disadvantage.for that reason,TransportationCouldn't be mainstream.However, the output and energy density are high, and there is little deterioration even with repeated charging and discharging.Lithium ion secondary batteryWith the development of, electric vehicles have attracted attention.In recent years, with the spread of electric vehicles, in each country.All solid state batteryDevelopment is becoming more active[3][4], Automakers and electronics makers are investing in research for practical use[5].

On the vehicle itselfPower generationAs an example of mounting the device,Solar cellEquipped withSolar car,Fuel cellTo installFuel cell carThere is.Power generation engine (Range extender) Is installed because the internal combustion engine and the secondary battery are used together.Plug-in hybrid carare categorized.

As an overhead line current collector type electric vehicle,Current collectorTheOverhead wire(Overhead line) To get powertrolley busHas been used for a long time.Heavy trucksmineuseHowl truckSome of them are equipped with a current collector, but in many cases, they are equipped with a battery so that they can run even in places where there is no overhead line.[6][7]..As a current collector, a trolley pole is generally used for a trolleybus, and a bow-shaped current collector is used for a large truck or a haul truck.

Also, a power line to replace the overhead line地下Buried inInductive currentCharged while driving byInductive charging) CanOnline electric carand so on.

特性

gasoline engine,diesel engineSuch asInternal combustion engineInitiation of a properly selected electric motor compared to the power source by (ICE)torqueIs large and the power conversion efficiency does not change much up to the high rpm range, so electric vehicles are almost alwaystransmissionDoes not need[Note 2]..Instead, electric vehicles require an inverter.Also, even when the vehicle is stoppedIdlingBecause you can start it yourself without the need forAuxiliary power unit for startingIs also unnecessary.Electric motors are compared to internal combustion enginesvibrationとnoiseIs lessquiet.

However, from the viewpoint of energy, it is inefficient compared to gasoline-powered vehicles because it requires a large amount of energy for production.In other words, even if the running efficiency as a product is superior, when including from materials to production, electric vehicles are like gasoline engines and diesel engines from the viewpoint of energy for the whole earth.Internal combustion engineThe disadvantage is great compared to.

sustainabilityAnd electric cars

20st centuryFrom the second halfGlobal warmingAcceleratesthe 2000sOnce entered, it became a problem that it could not be postponed.As a result, the promotion of the use of gasoline-free engines and electric vehicles has been strongly promoted, while before that.engineerThanks to the continuous improvement and development of battery technology by us, the technical barriers continue to fall.Also, as a policy再生 可能 エネルギーIn some countries, the ratio of use of electric vehicles is increasing, and due to the synergistic effect of these, the governments of each country are promoting the introduction of electric vehicles, and at the same time, legislation has been put in place to regulate the new sales of internal combustion vehicles.Public roadIt is increasing its presence as a realistic and everyday vehicle for daily driving.

Electric vehicles are especially concerned with global warming issuesKyoto Protocol OfCO2As one of the means to achieve emission reduction targets, or the country of origin is localizedFossil fuelIt has become possible to put effort into practical use at the national level as one of the means to reduce dependence on (power struggle).Even among people who value economics over the environment2008/(Heisei20 years) into the summerCrude oil priceWith the sharp rise ingasolineWhen the price goes up, (Installation costApart from) "Fuel efficiencyThere was growing interest in it as one of the "good cars" (although it's actually inefficient for the planet).Wind-power generationHighly dependent onDenmarkThen, by using the electric vehicle of each household as a storage battery, the disadvantages such as the unstable power generation amount peculiar to wind power generation and the inability to store the surplus power are used.Power gridIt has set out a policy to reduce the overall load.Since 2007, the Danish government has abolished the "new vehicle registration tax", which amounts to 105-180% of the vehicle price for internal combustion vehicles, only for storage battery electric vehicles, and as a result, the price difference between internal combustion vehicles and electric vehicles has almost disappeared.[8].

In other words, to put it simply, countries that rely on renewable energy have great merits in electrification.In any case, fossil fuels, which have continued to provide great benefits to the development of human industry in the 20th century, are ending their role in the automobile industry due to the global warming problem, and the electrification of automobiles continues throughout the world.

Changes that electric vehicles bring to the automotive industry

Already as of 2010, "Electric vehicles are expected to have a significant impact (transformation) on the automotive industry.[9][10]Was pointed out.As many governments around the world decide to spend huge amounts of money on the development of electric vehicles and their components so that their automobile industry can survive the mainstream era of electric vehicles. became.for exampleThe United States of AmericaThen,Barack ObamaThe administration has 24 billion for electric vehicles and batteriesDollarPromised to issue a federal subsidy[11].

People's Republic of ChinaAnnounced (in the early 2010s) that it will provide US $ 50 billion worth of money to launch the electric vehicle industry[12].

Since the latter half of the 2010s, especially in countries around the worldEuropeAwareness of the need for sustainability has increased, especially in countries.Laws to regulate and ban the sale of gasoline-powered vehicles and to promote the sale of electric vehicles (while deciding that electric vehicles are the most suitable of the various types of non-gasoline vehicles in Europe) It was introduced. Many laws have been passed in the mid-2030s, etc., in the form of setting such deadlines, and with the phenomenon that people's awareness and automobile manufacturers' awareness will further increase, such changes in the legal system and Maintenance is also accelerating.

In China, which experienced rapid economic growth in the 2000s and became a huge automobile sales market, as of 2019, 5% of new vehicle sales in China are electric vehicles (EVs), and the remaining 95% are gasoline-powered vehicles. Met.The Chinese government finally announced in October 2020 a policy that "in 10, 2035% of new car sales will be EVs and the remaining 50% will be HVs."

Entering the 2020s, in major sales markets such as Europe and China, automakers around the world are accelerating the improvement of electric vehicles and in the already fast-growing sales markets.shareI am competing to secure.

2020 year 8 month,GermanyBased inBMWThe company announced that it will further accelerate the electrification offensive and increase the ratio of electric models to 2030% of all sales by 50. [13].. July 2021, 2,United KingdomBased inJaguar land roverThe company has been a luxury car brand since 4, four years later.ジ ャ ガ ーAnnounced plans to turn all models of the vehicle into electric vehicles[14].

History

Early 1800s-1950s

Prehistory

Although humans did not ride it, the originator of the electric car wasHungary OfJedrik Agnosh OfinventionCan be traced back to.He1827/Toelectric motorDeveloped and next1828/Succeeded in moving it on a model vehicle[15][16].

1835, (en) ButRailroad tracksRun onElectric locomotiveWas produced. 1838,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euof(en) Is about 6 per hourkmI made an electric locomotive that runs at the speed of. 1840,EnglandThe method of using the railway line to supply electricityPatentHas been acquired, and in 1847The United States of AmericaBut a similar patent was obtained[17].

The beginning of the history of electric vehicles

the 1830s(The exact time is unknown between 1832 and 1839), Scottish inventor Robert Anderson is unchargeablePrimary batteryInvented the world's first electric vehicle equipped with[18].

The first electric vehicle sold was the first gasoline engine vehicle (1891/) Appeared in the UK 5 years ago.1899/100km for the first time earlier than a gasoline car/hAt first, it was seen as promising, such as breaking through, and in the early days of automobilesSteam engine・ I was fighting for supremacy of the power source with the internal combustion engine.HubEquipped with a motorIn-wheel motorCan be said to be the prototype ofFour-wheel drive vehicleAt that time, was enrolled in RohnerFerdinand PorscheBut,1900/Exhibited at the Paris Expo.

(Thomas Parker) Is a practical car equipped with a specially-designed large-capacity secondary battery manufactured by himself in 1884 in the United Kingdom.WolverhamptonManufactured in.

Inventor in AmericaThomas edisonHas been working to improve electric vehicles, especially to develop rechargeable batteries.However, in the United States, which has a vast land area, the short cruising range became an insurmountable bottleneck, and eventually he was studying internal combustion engines.Henry FordbyFord Model TThe success of the car market was completely dominated by internal combustion engine cars.In the UKmilkFor deliveryMilk floatAnd indoorforkliftElectric vehicles disappear from the market once, except for some[19].

the 1930s,General Motors (GM),Firestone,Standard Oil CaliforniaA company called National City Lines (NCL) was established by the collaboration of these three companies.This company used electric locomotives from all over the worldTramThe company bought the company, abolished the train and switched to the GM bus. The three companies will supply vehicles and fuel to NCL.MonopolyHe was found guilty of doing so, but NCL's monopoly on transportation services was not an issue (American tram scandal).

Japan alsoSecond World WarAfter that, there was a shortage of gasolineJapanese mainland air raidThere was surplus electricity due to the destruction of the factory by[16]Electric vehicles were sold by several companies during the period.this houseTokyo electric carDeveloped byTama electric car TheLead acid batteryIt could run 65km on a single charge and had a maximum speed of 35km / h.A vehicle restored by Nissan, which originated from Tokyo Electric Vehicle, still exists.[16]..However, the electric car made in Japan immediately after the end of the warKorean WarbyleadIt disappeared due to rising prices and improved availability of gasoline.

Oil shock 1970s

Developed countries are in the limelight againmotorizationHas advancedthe 1970s.

Oil shockHappened,oilFor resource dependenceEnergy securityThe above concerns andExhaust gasbyAir pollution(Pollution) Was proposed as a solution to the seriousness of the problem.In JapanMinistry of International Trade and IndustryAn electric vehicle research and development project (commonly known as "large professional") led by (at that time) was carried out.Honda Motor Co., Ltd.All domestic manufacturers have developed electric vehicles except.However, electric vehicles that mainly use lead storage batteries cannot secure the required performance, and with the political solution of securing oil and the improvement of exhaust gas purification performance of gasoline-powered vehicles, electric vehicles will disappear again.

Zero Emission Regulations Late 1980s-1990s

The next situation will changethe 1980sIn the second half, CARB (California Air Resources Board)Zero emissionIt is the time of the regulation concept.This is the United StatesCaliforniaIt was a regulatory concept that automobile manufacturers selling in Japan must sell a certain number of automobiles that do not emit any harmful substances.It was thought that electric vehicles could handle this.

the 1970sCompared to lead-acid batteriesNickel hydride batteryWith the progress of technology, actuallyToyotaRAV4 EV, Honda EV-PLUS,General Motors OfEV1Limited sale such asleaseWas started, and it seemed that the full-scale spread of electric vehicles would be near.However, although nickel-metal hydride batteries were superior in energy and output density to lead-acid batteries, electric vehicles still could not secure sufficient performance (cruising distance, charging time, durability, vehicle price, etc.).

the 1990sHigher performanceLithium ion batteryWas adoptedNissanIt was only. (1997Prairie JoyEV, 1998R'nessaEV / Altra EV for North America, 1999Hyper mini[20]) Hypermini is aluminumSpace frameWith an ultra-lightweight bodyLithium ion batteryAlthough it was an ambitious work to adopt, the vehicle price is expensive at 362 million yen andInfrastructureIt was not well maintained and did not spread.

Since then, automakers have been a drawback of electric vehicles.Energy densityIn order to solve the problem, we will also focus on the development of fuel cell vehicles equipped with fuel cells.2002/(Heisei14) fuel cell vehicleHonda FCXAndToyota/FCHV OfleaseHas started,Hydrogen stationThere are problems with usability and cost, such as undeveloped products, and it has not become widespread.

the 2000s

Significant progress has been made in battery performance, which has been a bottleneck for electric vehicles.

It has become commonplace to use it on mobile devices, etc.Lithium ion batteryBy adopting, electric vehicles with improved performance have been announced.Lithium-ion batteriesNickel hydride batteryIt is said to have higher energy and higher output density, and is expected to improve the performance of electric vehicles.As for the charging time, manufacturers and research institutes have developed a quick charging technology that enables 30% charging in less than 70 minutes.Battery life is long, unlike those used in mobile devices.The factor of long life is per massEnergy densityIs lower than that for mobile, and there is room in the design.See belowTeslaThe electric vehicle of Japan has announced that it has a battery life of 16 km.Used in JapanPrivate carIn the case of, the car is often scrapped before the mileage reaches 20 km, but it may be used for 30 km or more.Commercial vehicleFor such applications, it may be necessary to replace it on the way.

As a power source without using a secondary battery with a long charging timeInsulationImproved performanceCapacitorIn the test usingVehicle total weightIf is 1.5 t class, it is 100 km or more at a constant speed of 700 km / h.Cruising distanceWas reported to be already possible to achieve[21]..Capacitors that can be charged and discharged in a short timeRegenerative brakeIt is also attracting attention as an effective means of recovering electricity generated in Japan.Nissan dieselIs under development[22].

It also has much higher performance than traditional batteries.Lithium-air batteryDevelopment is also progressing[23][24].

In addition to improving battery performance, you can also improve electrical energy efficiency.InverterbyVariable voltage variable frequency controlsuch as,Power electronicsThe performance of electric vehicles is improving due to the development of electric vehicles.Keio UniversityDeveloped by Electric Vehicle LaboratoryElikaHas already achieved a maximum speed of 370km / h and acceleration of 4.1-0km / h in 100 seconds, demonstrating that high power performance can be obtained with a simple drive system compared to an internal combustion engine vehicle.

In the US,Tesla By (Tesla), a sports car type pure electric vehicle that has achieved 0-60mph (0-96km / h) acceleration of about 4 seconds, maximum speed of 130mph (208km / h) or more, and cruising range of 250mile (400km).RoadsterWas announced.Battery life is 10 miles (16 km) is said to be capable of power performance[25]..Furthermore, in March 2009, "Model SWas announced.This is a mass-produced vehicle, and as of April 2009, we have already received orders for more than 4 units, and hundreds of them are already running on the road, producing 1,200 units every week, and reservations are made until the fall of the same year. full[26]Was said.Very good fuel economy,Toyota PriusIt's about twice as much as, and even if you run 2km, the electricity bill is about 370 yen.[26]Was taken.

June 2009, 6 in Japan[27]ToMitsubishi MotorsByMitsubishi i-MiEVStarted production, followed by December 2010, 12[28]ToNissan MotorByNissan leafHas started production.

Conventional electric vehicles lack power and cruising range, so city commuter that runs short distances has been considered as a usage method, but the above-mentioned high-performance vehicles have been developed and the problem has been solved. ..

the 2010s

2017 in California, USAZEV regulationTightening regulations[29], Future ban on new sales of gasoline and diesel vehicles in France, the United Kingdom, etc. (Aiming for 2040-2050)[30]Etc., electric vehicles by automobile manufacturers, etc.Zero emission vehicleDevelopment and sales are urgent.

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Leading Electric Vehicles[31]Is an EV model for sports cars featuring sharp acceleration, etc.[32], Toyota claims to be advantageous for longer cruising rangeAll solid state batteryPractical use of[33], EachTokyo Motor ShowAnnounced at.

In China, in the medium-term industrial strategy "China Manufacturing 2015" announced in 2025, a policy to grow new energy vehicles centered on electric vehicles as a core benefit of national industrial competitiveness was announced, and new energy vehicles will be developed by 2025. It has stated that it will sell 100 million units and have a domestic market occupancy rate of 70% or more. The number of electric vehicles sold in the Chinese market in 2017 was about 58, accounting for more than 4% of all electric vehicles sold worldwide.[34].. In China as of 2021,SAIC Wuling MotorFrom low-priced cars for second cars sold byShanghai Nio AutomobileWe have a diverse lineup of luxury coupe, and there are new entrants from the IT industry.[35].

Toyota MotorAkio ToyodaThe president has expressed the opinion that it is difficult to produce electric vehicles in Japan unless it is considered together with energy policy.[36][37]..With a hybrid car at ToyotaFuel cell carIn addition to selling, we are developing electric trucks for commercial use.[38].. In October 2021, it announced that it would launch a brand of electric vehicles for the general public and launch seven models by 10.[39].

In October 2019, it announced that it would enter the electric vehicle business centered on battery technology.DysonIt is,All solid state batteryDecided to withdraw from the business except for research and development of[40].

Acceleration to decarbonization / EV shift 2020s

In 2021, Honda Motor Co., Ltd. will reorganize its lineup to focus on electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles.Formula 1Announced withdrawal from[41][42].

In rural areas of Japan, from around 2015gas stationThe loss of living infrastructure due to the frequent closure of business has become a serious problem (Gas station depopulated area or Service station depopulated areaproblem)[43]..It was also expected that the spread of electric vehicles would be the solution to this problem.[44].

But he also faced new problems.Nowadays, in automobiles, personal computers, mobiles, game consoles, and other industries.semiconductorThere is an increase in demand for semiconductors, and there are concerns about a global shortage of semiconductors.[45]..With the electrification of automobiles, semiconductor devices and parts for automobiles are needed more than ever.[46].. In the latter half of 2021, the sales volume of electric vehicles will approach 500 million units, and the supply of semiconductors has not caught up.[46].. While EV manufacturers were struggling, Tesla avoided this crisis and was able to achieve record high annual sales in 2021 because of the system for designing and producing semiconductors in-house. Contributed[47].

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

A secondary battery-powered electric vehicle has an electric plug connected to the vehicle body.Secondary batteryCharge to, with that electricityelectric motorA car that runs by turning.Generically for all secondary battery-powered vehiclesBEV(Bbattery Eelectric Vehicle), and many refer to automobiles. BEV carsSteam car,gasoline engineIt has been developed for a long time along with automobiles,Lithium ion batteryWill be put to practical usethe 2000sUntil then, the performance of batteries was low and it was not widespread.Compared to engine vehicles, electric vehicles have a simpler structure and do not emit exhaust gas, so they are accelerating in popularity around the world.There are about 3 to 10 parts for gasoline-powered vehicles, and about 1 for BEV vehicles, which is said to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the number of parts for gasoline-powered vehicles.[48][49]..However, the number of semiconductor parts is increasing due to electrification.In terms of vehicle price, it will be more expensive than a comparable gasoline engine vehicle.

Advantages (comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles)

Electric vehicles have extremely high acceleration performance, are quiet, and have no exhaust gas.Even if you compare the gasoline and electricity costs for the same mileage, it will be considerably cheaper.In addition, the maintenance cost is low because the number of parts is small.In addition, many passenger car manufacturers currently have a warranty for electric vehicle batteries up to a mileage of 10 km, which is comparable to gasoline engine vehicles in terms of durability.Some cars with a large battery capacity can run more than 600km on a single charge.

Air pollutionCause ofNitrogen oxideAndGlobal warmingCause ofcarbon dioxideDoes not discharge.

Electric motorIs the maximum from startuptorqueCan be obtained and friction loss occursト ラ ン ス ミ ッ シ ョ ンPower can be transmitted directly to the wheels without using such as, and as a technology that makes use of thisIn-wheel motorThere is a technology that minimizes power transmission loss by attaching a wheel to the motor shaft called (actually, there is an example of using a reduction gear in the in-wheel motor. It is called a direct drive in-wheel motor. , In-wheel motors that completely abolished the transmission mechanism are also being researched and developed in some parts.[50]).

  • When drivingcarbon dioxide(CO2) AndNitrogen oxide(I have notx) Etc.Air pollutionCause ofHazardous substanceEven if the amount emitted from the power plant is taken into consideration, the emission of harmful substances is less than that of the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV).
  • There is little noise and vibration when driving, and there is almost no sound when the vehicle is stopped.
  • Excluding the basic charge for charging using midnight electricity, electricity is about 1 yen for 1km driving, and 10-15% of the gasoline cost excluding gasoline tax (gasoline tax: 1 liter 53.8 yen), which is quite cheap.
  • Internal combustion engine,clutch,transmission,starter The number of parts is significantly smaller than that of an internal combustion engine vehicle, and the parts unit (parts unit (ASSY) Is easy to replace, so maintenance and costs in the event of a failure can be reduced.
  • Since the maximum torque can be exerted from the start, the acceleration performance is high.
  • Since it has a motor and a secondary battery, it converts kinetic energy into electric power again and stores it.Regenerative brakeCan be realized.
  • The motor is the driving forcebrakingElectronically controlled, high-performance to generate both forcesTraction controlとABSIs easy to realize.
  • The electric power stored in the electric vehicle has a battery capacity of 24kWh, which is equivalent to about two days in a general household, and can be used as an emergency power source in the event of a power outage.[51].
  • If you have a charged car in your detached garage or business parking lot,Storage batteryAs small assmart gridCan be used as.
  • It is possible to take a wide crumple zone that absorbs impact in the event of a collision.
  • The type in which the battery pack is stored under the floor has a low center of gravity and can reduce the risk of rollover.
  • The output of an internal combustion engine decreases as the altitude rises due to a decrease in atmospheric pressure and oxygen concentration, but it can maintain a constant output without being affected by fluctuations in altitude.[52].

Disadvantages (compared to internal combustion engine vehicles)

Do not load fuelSecondary batteryIt takes a long time to charge because it runs only.Those with a large battery capacityCruising distanceIs long, but it takes time to fully charge.

  • Current secondary batteries have energy per volume and weight.Fossil fuelBecause it is smaller than the above, the cruising range per the same volume and the same weight isInternal combustion engineShorter than a car.
  • It takes about 40 hours to charge 200% of the popular 100kwh battery with a 80V / 11V charger used at home.Charging standIt takes about 40 minutes even with a quick charge.
  • In the case of quick charging, the battery deteriorates quickly because it is charged with a large current.
  • Since it takes time to charge, the rotation rate of the charging stand is very poor, and manyCharging standIs required.In addition, if all vehicles are replaced with externally rechargeable electric vehicles, it will be necessary to add more power plants.
  • When the outside air becomes low or high, the charging speed decreases and the battery deteriorates.Battery consumption is also faster.
  • Especially in winter, fuel engine vehicles can be heated by the heat of the engine, but in the case of electric vehicles, the air conditioner consumes a large amount of electricity, so the battery drains very quickly.Also if you get stuck in a cold region[53][54], In the case of an internal combustion engine car, carry it with yougasolineIt is possible to heat it by replenishing it, but it is difficult to charge it in the case of an electric vehicle.
  • There is an invisible risk of electric shock accidents due to the internal high voltage circuit and burns due to high current during accident handling such as collisions and normal maintenance.
  • The vehicle price is higher than that of a conventional internal combustion engine.

Energy efficiency

An electric vehicle that takes into consideration the period from the power plant to the time of drivingEnergy efficiencyIn terms of energy efficiency, energy efficiency that is several times higher than that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) can be achieved, including power generation efficiency, transmission loss, charge / discharge efficiency, and power conversion efficiency.[55].Keio UniversityThe electric vehicle laboratory estimates that all electric vehicle power will be used.Thermal power generationEven if it is assumed that it is covered by the above, it is said that it is 3 to 4 times more efficient than a gasoline-powered vehicle in terms of overall efficiency.

Gasoline massEnergy density(Amount of energy per unit mass) is about 42MJ / kg,Lithium ion batteryThen, there is a difference of 100-200 times with 0.36-0.72Wh / kg (60M-120MJ / kg).However, the efficiency of gasoline-powered vehicles is about 20 to 30%, while that of electric vehicles is 80% or more.Assuming that there is a difference of 60 times, the difference in the amount of energy that can be extracted is reduced to 15 times (this idea is called Tank to Whell Efficiency).

In addition to the above, it is also necessary to take into consideration the mass of the entire system from the in-vehicle energy storage source to the extraction of tire drive energy.In a secondary battery-powered electric vehicle, the secondary battery converts chemical energy into electric energy, and the electric motor converts electric energy into kinetic energy.In an internal combustion engine vehicle, heat energy is generated by combustion and converted into kinetic energy.It is necessary to compare the system masses of both.Specifically, it is compared between internal combustion engines (fuel + tank + engine + auxiliary equipment (cooling system, etc.) + transmission + drive transmission device) vs. electric vehicles (batteries + inverters, motors, etc.), and systems other than electric vehicle batteries. The mass is lighter than the internal combustion engine vehicle.

battery

重金属-Rare metalOn the premise that a large amount of old-fashioned batteries (secondary battery type) that consume a large amount of chemical substances and chemical substances are installed.Life cycle assessment Some have pointed out problems from the perspective of (LCA), but they are being resolved by rapid development.Used for electrolyteslithiumThe land resources are abundant, and there is a technology to extract lithium, which is inexhaustible in seawater, so it is possible to prevent the price from rising and supply it at low cost.Lithium ion secondary batteryThe rare elements used in are used in positive electrode materials.cobaltIt currently accounts for 7% of the cost.but,nickel,manganese,Iron phosphatePositive electrode materials using such materials are being developed, and rare elements are not used at all.Lithium ion secondary batteryIs also possible.Nickel is a rare element but cheaper than cobalt, and manganese is called a rare metal because it is not a base metal, but strictly speaking it is not a rare element and cheap.Phosphorus and iron are not rare metals at all[56][57][58]..At least trying to adopt it for electric vehiclesLithium ion secondary batteryDoes not use cobalt.

If you touch the power system for maintenance or repair, there is a risk of electric shock.CapacitorThis is especially important for power sources that use.In the maintenance of vehicles that use internal combustion engine type liquid fuel, it is easy to identify the situation such as fuel leakage by the smell, but since the leakage from the storage battery is not immediately known, the mechanic is educated about ensuring safety and at the site. Attention is required.conventionallyElectric handler(Low pressure)Special educationWas required to complete, but from October 2019, 10, with an electric vehicleHybrid carSpecial education related to maintenance work such as electric vehicles is now required for maintenance[59].

nickel

Nickel has high performanceLithium ion secondary batteryIt is the most suitable material for the cathode and has high electrical conductivity.If nickel is used for batteries, it can be sold at a high energy density and a low price.High nickel lithium batteryHas a higher voltage than other materials, has about twice the energy density, and can extend the mileage of electric vehicles and reduce weight.[60]It also stores renewable energy, reduces the dependence on fossil fuels, and is one of the solutions to the global warming problem.Nickel is also recyclable and is an important substance in the negative electrode of secondary batteries.The major producers of nickel are Russia, Canada, Australia and Indonesia. Due to Russia's invasion of Ukraine from February 2022, 2, the price of nickel has doubled since before the invasion.

lithium

Lithium is lightweight and has a large storage capacityLithium ion secondary batteryIs used for.Lithium is a rare metal just because it is not a base metal according to the classification of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, but it is not a rare element.Onshore resources of lithium are present on all continents, but with too abundant reserves in a single mine, a handful of resource majors that can produce at the lowest cost are exceptionally competitive and control prices at will. Therefore, after securing their own profits, they will not be able to operate mines in lower groups with poor conditions.This is generally called uneven distribution.Lithium ion secondary batteryThe amount of lithium used in Japan is small, and it is unlikely that supply and demand will be tight.Lithium is inexhaustibly present in seawater and can be collected with current technology, but it is still under development.However, if the technology for collecting from seawater is secured, the price of land resources can be suppressed.

cobalt

Lithium ion secondary batteryThe rare metal in the above is cobalt, which is mainly used as a positive electrode material. As of 2009 (21), only cobalt was taken out by recycling lithium-ion secondary batteries, and lithium has no separation technology or economy, and is not recycled at all.It is said that 7% of the cost of lithium-ion secondary batteries is the cost of cobalt.Current,nickel,manganese,Iron phosphatePositive electrode materials such as are under development and do not use cobaltLithium ion secondary batteryIs being put to practical use.

rare earth

Lightweight, compact and high output motorneodymiumPermanent magnet synchronous motorTo make neodymium, which is a rare elementdysprosium such asrare earthIs used and is susceptible to soaring prices.Magnet manufacturers are focusing on establishing recycling technology.Motor manufacturers are focusing on the development of motors that do not use rare earths, and in 2008 (Heisei 20) Hitachi succeeded in developing a motor that does not use dysprosium.[61].

OrInduction motorBy adopting, it is not necessary to use rare elements.Induction motors have good high-speed range and low-load efficiency, so if control is advanced, the overall efficiency is not inferior to that of neodymium permanent magnet synchronous motors.In addition, induction motors have the advantage of requiring a single controller even if multiple motors are installed.[62][63].. actually,TeslaThe company's "Roadster" and "Model S" use induction motors.[64]..Especially in the early "Model S", an induction motor and a controller were installed between the rear wheels, and not only was there a normal trunk room above it, but also a two-seat jump seat for children was stored just behind it. In addition to being able to seat 2 people, there is also a trunk room inside the front bonnet.[65]..In other words, neo-gym permanent magnet synchronous motors are only required for hybrid vehicles or in-wheel motors that require less installation space, and in-vehicle induction motors are sufficient because pure electric vehicles have space to replace engines and transmissions. ..

Or as an electric motor that does not require rare earth magnetsSwitched reluctance motorDevelopment is also underway.Whereas a normal permanent magnet motor uses both the attractive and repulsive forces of an electromagnet to rotate, this motorStepping motorIt rotates only by the suction force of the rotor.

Hybrid motors of permanent magnet synchronous motors and switched reluctance motors are already widely used as power for hybrid vehicles.This hybrid motor also has the effect of reducing the amount of permanent magnets used.

Shipment volume of in-vehicle battery manufacturers in the world

In the global market, the new energy technology of the Ningde era, commonly known as CATL, is the world's largest shipment of in-vehicle batteries. Until the early 2010s, Panasonic was originally the number one in the world, but its ranking has fallen.In China, the government is focusing on growing the battery industry.

Global in-vehicle battery manufacturers by manufacturer
2019 Year-round Source: SNE Research[66]
RankingCitizenshipManufacturerGWh
1 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaNingde period new energy technology34GWh
2 bitRepublic of Korea flag South KoreaLG Chem31GWh
3 bitJapanese flag JapanPanasonic25GWh
4 bitFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaHia Di10GWh

The biggest drawbacks of electric vehicles are battery charging time and cruising range.The cruising range can be solved by increasing the battery capacity, but there is a problem that the battery is expensive, and if the capacity is increased, the vehicle weight becomes heavier and the charging time becomes longer.In recent years, the spread of electric vehicles has progressed, and the price of automobile batteries has fallen, so the battery capacity has been increased and the cruising range has been greatly improved. It is becoming.

Cruising distance

2020/As of June, the longest-range commercial electric vehicle has a battery capacity of 6kwh.Tesla Model S402 miles (647 km)[67]..However, this cruising range isUnited States Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) standard, an international standard currently adopted in Japan, Europe, etc.WLTPIt is different from the cruising range in.Generally the cruising range isbatteryThe larger the capacity, the longer the battery, but unlike the fuel tank, the battery does not become lighter even if it consumes electricity, so the larger the battery capacity, the heavier the vehicle body and the worse the energy efficiency (electricity cost = mileage per 1kwh).Also, the efficiency of the motor and the bodyDragThe cruising range varies greatly depending on the coefficient and weather conditions.Popular in JapanNissan LeafThe 40kwh type has a cruising range of 322km in WLTC mode.

As of 2022, about 40% of the price of electric vehicles is batteries, so increasing the capacity to extend the cruising range will increase the price and weight.[68].. As a light automatic class with a short mileage per trip, there are also models that have achieved a low price by limiting the cruising distance according to the actual usage situation.[68].

Charging equipment

The charging equipment for electric vehicles is a slow charging equipment that uses a 100V / 200V power supply for homes and businesses.[Note 4]And in the cityCharging standIt is roughly classified into public quick charging equipment installed in such places.Since the quick charging equipment supplies DC 400V or more and 100A or more and 40kw or more, it is a high-voltage supply for business use.Electricity charges for businesses are less than 6% for households,[69]The most expensive quick charging equipment costs about 1 million yen per unit, and is about the size of a household refrigerator.Since quick charging equipment is expensive, most of them are slow charging equipment for homes and businesses.

Quick charging facilities are called "charging stations, charging stations, charging spots" and provide paid charging services in parking lots of public facilities, service stations on highways, and locations facing major roads.

It takes time to charge with normal charging, but if you have a normal charging facility at home or office and charge several times a month, the electricity bill will be cheaper.However, in urban areas of Japan, there are many users of rental parking lots, and there are almost no charging facilities in the parking lots, so quick charging facilities in the city are indispensable.In addition, electric vehicles are of the same type.Internal combustion engineSince the cruising range is shorter than that of the car, when driving a long distance, quick charging is required many times on the way.

The charge system of charging stations in Japan varies depending on the stand, such as basic charge + hourly unit price, but it is the largest in Japan.e-Mobility PowerIn the case of (invested by Toyota, Nissan, Honda, Mitsubishi, TEPCO, Chubu Electric Power, etc.), the non-member's quick charge is 1 yen per minute, and the normal charge is 50 yen per minute.With a quick charge, it costs 1 yen for a maximum of 8 minutes.

However, if the existing refueling companies switch to some charging stations, the current electricity price is very low, so if the charge is about 20kWh, a profit of about 200 yen can be expected at most.Also, since the charging time is about 25 minutes, if the gasoline refueling time is 5 minutes, the turnover rate will be 1/5, and it will be difficult to switch from a gas station to a charging station.

In addition, since the cruising range of an electric vehicle is as short as about half that of a gasoline-powered vehicle of the same type, if charging is not possible at home or business, the number of charging times at the stand increases, and many charging stations are required.Therefore, tourist destinations in Japan and the United States,Park 24There is also a movement to improve the convenience of electric vehicles by installing quick charging equipment in parking lots such as parking lots and shopping centers.

The main difference between quick charge and normal charge
For e-Mobility PowerFast charge (50kw)Normal charge (200V 3kw)
Battery capacity 40kwh 80% chargeAbout 40 minutesAbout 11 time
Charging fee per minute50yen (tax exception)8yen (tax exception)
Charging fee under the above conditionsApproximately 2,000 yen (excluding tax)Approximately 5,280 yen (excluding tax)
 For charging at home
60A contract basic charge for the entire household

Electricity price per 1kwh

40kwh 80% charge electricity rate

Approximately 1,700 yen (tax included) per month

Approximately 30 yen (tax included)

Approximately 960 yen (tax included)

100V midnight electricity basic charge

Electricity price per 1kwh

40kwh 80% charge

Approximately 2,000 yen per month (excluding tax)

Approximately 10 yen (excluding tax)

Approximately 320 yen (excluding tax)

Battery lifeshortlong

(E-Mobility Power can be charged quickly for up to 1 minutes at a time)

  • With quick charging, you can charge up to 40% in about 80 minutes.[Note 5][Note 6] , It takes about 11 hours for normal charging.
  • When fully charging at the charging station, quick charging is cheaper than normal charging.
  • It is cheaper if you install a normal charging facility in the garage of a detached house or the parking lot of a business office and charge it at midnight.Midnight electricityCan be used.
  • If the use of late-night electricity progresses, it will help to level the power generation on the power supplier side.
  • Quick charging imposes a heavy chemical burden inside the battery, increasing the temperature and shortening its life.

Charging standard

Originally developed in Japan, "CHAdeMOThe standard was widespread all over the world, but recently, in Europe, the United States, and China, unique high-standard quick charging equipment has become widespread in order to support large-capacity batteries.In Japan, most of them are only the conventional CHAdeMO standard, and they do not support high output exceeding 200kw. The maximum output of CHAdeMO is 200kw (400A / 500V).In addition, a non-contact charging method that does not require a cord has been developed, but has not become widespread.

Problems with quietness

Electric vehicles have very little noise from the power source and drive train and are much quieter than internal combustion engine vehicles that are powered by an explosion.Quietness is also an advantage of electric vehicles, but on the other hand, due to careless approach of electric vehiclesPedestrianThere will be situations where (and the surrounding traffic in general) are at risk without being aware of the presence of the car.

The quietness of electric vehicles, including hybrid vehicles, stands out at low speeds when there is little running noise such as road noise and wind noise, so it is unlikely to lead to a serious accident, but the hearing function has declined.Senior citizens,Deaf personIn addition, it is often judged by soundVisually impairedIs vulnerable to danger.There are already cases of crimes that abuse quietness,Prius, ま た はAquaAbused each EV mode such asSnatchAn incident has occurred.

As a countermeasure, "notify pedestrians of the approach by sound"Vehicle approach notification deviceIs obligatory from the new model car in March 2018[70].

If the soundproofing measures inside the car are sparse, such as in low-priced cars, the motor noise during driving may be annoying.[35].

Battery replacement type car

It is a method that eliminates the long charging time of the vehicle by replacing it with a fully charged battery in a short time at the battery exchange.This method sells the battery replacement service itself, not the electricity itself, so it is easy to make a profit and has the advantage of saving the trouble of battery maintenance.[35].

RiceTesla MotorsIn 90 secondsTesla Model SWe are developing a system to replace the battery[71]..This is a gasoline car that takes about 3 minutes to refuel and hydrogen that takes 5 minutes to fill.Fuel cell vehicleFaster than.also,Renault-Nissan AllianceIs the United States, which maintains and operates charging stationsBetter PlaceIn collaboration with the company, it plans to launch an electric vehicle with a set of subsidies and tax incentives by the government and local governments in addition to the development of a battery exchange.At Better Place, power is replenished rather than charging the batteries in the vehicle.cartridgeIt envisions a way to replace the battery, and expects to solve the problem of charging time.Also successful in the pastMobile phoneFollowing the business model of, the main body of the electric vehicle will be provided to users free of charge, and the company has announced a policy of operating with fee income according to the use of batteries.

Kyoto City Transportation Bureauでthe 1970sThe electric bus introduced in Japan adopted a method of replacing the battery under the floor, and installed battery replacement, charging, and storage facilities at the bus office.

ChineseNio AutomobileThen, after designing it as a battery replaceable type, the batterySubscription methodBy doing so, the price of the battery is discounted from the vehicle price, and there are settings such as a paid option to exchange for a charged battery on a business trip when not in use.[35]..This makes it possible to charge a large number of devices at one location.Charging standIs said to be more efficient than installing in various places[35].

Modified electric car

gasoline engine,diesel engineFrom cars to enginesScarfAn electric vehicle with a motor and batteries installed, with the fuel tank removed. EV conversion, EV conversion, conversion EV,Convert EVAlso called.In a broad senseEngine swapAs an electric vehiclePublic roadWhen drivingWritten examination and structural change inspectionMust receive and pass the inspection[72].

Conversion of commercial vehicles to electric vehicles is rarely done.For modified electric vehicles, short-distance luggage delivery vans (delivery vans)hearseKyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.Genkai Nuclear Power StationBuses for visitorsKyushu Sanko BusRemodeled the route bus of No. into an electric car.In the direction of high hobbies,Japan EV Club Mazda RoadsterEV remodeling kit was announced, and the club Hiroshima branch announced the accident car from 2007 to 2008.Delorian DMC-12EV remodeled, in March of the following yearnumberThere is a case of acquisition.

Strong Points

  • Maintenance is easy because the structure is simpler than that of an engine car.
  • Remodeling is possible even for individuals and small business establishments.
  • You can also remove the clutch and gearbox from the MT car to make it an AT car.In addition, if the vehicle is an MT vehicle and is not equipped with an air conditioner or power steering, it can be easily modified and the cost is low.

Disadvantage

  • In the case of large vehicles, AT vehicles, air conditioners, and vehicles equipped with power steering, the structure is complicated and the modification cost is high.
  • The cruising range is basically shorter than that of an engine car.
  • There are few offices that can be remodeled.

Case study for commercial use

Examples of domestic introduction of electric vehicles include1970/(Showa45 years)Osaka ExpoProduction of vehicles responsible for transportation within the venueDaihatsuWas in charge.Since then, Daihatsu has three wheelsbike OfHelloAndCommercial vehicle OfHijetIn addition to commercial electric vehicles such as EVsMunicipalities,Special corporationForLagerTheRemodelWe have delivered a small number of EVs.

YamanashiHokutoThen, from the end of July, we conducted a model zone experiment for electric vehicles.In the experimentToyota body(Old Arako) "Coms",Zero sports"Zero EV Elekseed RS", Auto Eevee Japan "Girasole",Showa Aircraft Industry"E-VAN" etc. were adopted.

Japan PostGroup ofPostal businessCompany (currentlyJapan Post) Is2008/From the beginning of December, it has announced a policy to switch from 12 collection and delivery vehicles owned by the postal company to electric vehicles by conducting a demonstration experiment of environmentally friendly vehicles.[73].. However2011/The introduction plan failed due to the bankruptcy of Zero Sports, and thenNissan e-NV200And the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV van, which will be described later, has been introduced.

Sagawa ExpressThen, in April 2021, the People's Republic of ChinaGuangxi Automobile GroupAnnounced that it will introduce 2030 small commercial vans manufactured by 7,200.[74].

Mitsubishi MotorsIs a commercial vehicle in 1971Minica EVLimited sale, in 1991Lancer Ban EV, In 1993Libero EVAfter a limited sale,Mini cabDeveloped a van-based minicab MiEV,2010/in autumnprototypeCarYamato TransportSince 2011, we have conducted a demonstration experiment by lending to2017/Sold up to2013/A truck was also added from.

Other than thatHondaIs a circuit in Tochigi prefecture,Twin Ring MotegiThere are rental vehicles for exclusive use in the venue provided inside.

Car sharing experimentIn some cases, city commuter type electric vehicles are used as ultra-compact mobility.Toyota e-com,Nissan Hyper Miniand so on.

TrackIn, you can see an example of adoption in a light truck with a loading capacity of 1-3 tons. In 2010Mitsubishi Fuso CanterExhibited Canter E-CELL based on the IAANEXCO Central JapanAfter using monitors elsewhere, mass production started as eCanter in 2017.Hino MotorsWas in 2013DutroDeveloped a front-wheel drive vehicle with a lower floor and front-wheel drive based on the Yamato Transport Co., Ltd.Seino TransportationConducted a demonstration operation in Tokyo[75][76].. In 2022, we plan to release the improved "Dutro Z EV" based on these achievements.[77]..In addition, Yamato Transport introduced a German electric truck from 2019, following the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV and Mitsubishi Fuso e-Canter as collection and delivery vehicles.[78]However, the deployment was discontinued with 500 units for the first introduction, and it did not spread.[79].

Because the bus runs within a certain range and the operation schedule is fixed, it is easy to take the timing of charging.Transit BusYou can see an example of introduction to.

Another special purpose vehicle isTurret truck-forklift・ Motorized golf carts account for a considerable proportion.Most powered wheelchairs and elderly carts are electric.Tsukiji Market (Tokyo Central Wholesale Market) Etc. Transport products inside the buildingTurret truckSo, by adopting electric vehicles, we are careful not to pollute our products and the market.

Outside JapanSwitzerlandTourist destinationsZermattIn some places, the entry of internal combustion engine vehicles is prohibited and all vehicles in the village are basically electric vehicles.British milk delivery vehicle as a fully established special purpose vehicle (milk float).This was caused by a complaint that "engine cars are noisy in the early morning" and is driven by lead-acid batteries.

Motor sports

Motor sportsIn the world of electric cars, racing using electric cars is gradually expanding in the 2010s.[Note 2].

As a race where electric cars have been active for a long timePikes Peak International Hill ClimbThere is.In the race, which is held at an altitude of over 3,000 m, many electric vehicles are participating in the race by taking advantage of the electric vehicles that are not affected by the decrease in output due to the altitude, and as the number of participating vehicles increases.2012/From, a single "Electric Class" was set up. In 2015, the eO PP03 driven by Reese Millen won the first overall victory as an electric vehicle, defeating the gasoline-powered vehicles that are lined up, and in 2018.Roman DumasDriveVolkswagen・ ID R Pikes Peak has set a course record.

in Japan2010/From the NEC Electric Racing Association (JEVRA)[80]"All Japan Electric Vehicle Grand Prix" (commonly known as EV-GP) series is being held by[81].

2014/ToInternational Automobile Federation (FIA)Formula carAs a race series byFormula EWas launched.Initially, some people were slow and disrespectful,Volkswagen groupAfter the fraudulent exhaust gas was discovered in the diesel engine, EV shift was called out mainly by German car makers who wanted to dispel the image of being a diesel propulsion group, and hybrid cars F1 and LMP1 (24 Hours of Le Mans), It became a major category with a large number of manufacturers.

GRC (Global) from 2018 in the United StatesRally cross) Will launch a class with EV cars, mainly in EuropeWorld Rallycross ChampionshipBut we are planning to introduce EV class in 2020[82].. From 2021, it will be an off-road version of Formula EExtreme EIs launched.

Fuel cell vehicle (FCV)

What is a fuel cell vehicle?Fuel cellでPower generationThen,electric motor OfpowerA car that runs on.For fuel cellshydrogen,methanolAnd so on.FCV(Fuel Cell Vehicle) Is used.Alsogasoline engineでPower generationThen,electric motor OfpowerA car that runs onE-POWERAsNissan MotorManufactures and sells.howevergasolineThefuelTherefore, when drivingcarbon dioxideBecause it is dischargedZero emission vehicleNot included in.

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

High pressure filling the carhydrogenAnd in the airoxygenTheChemical reactionA car that runs by letting it generate electricity and driving an electric motor with that power.Only a small amount of water is discharged after the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen.Hydrogen filling time is about 3 minutes, cruising mileage isToyotaNew modelMIRAIIn the old standardjc08 modeHas achieved about 850km.Currently, Toyota in the world is manufacturing and selling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for practical use.HyundaiOnly two companies.Honda also manufactured and sold it,2021/FCV production discontinued in August[83]..The model released is a passenger carToyota MIRAI,Honda Clarity Fuel Cell,Hyundai Nexo.Commercial vehicle TheToyota FC Busand so on.

Challenges for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

Special technologyRare metalIs necessary and the vehicle price is high,Hydrogen stationShort business hours and few numbers[84], The high cost of producing and transporting hydrogen is hindering its widespread use.Hydrogen embrittlementMeasures against the above are also a cause of high maintenance costs.Moreover, the problem of hydrogen transportation is serious, and no technical prospects for economic transportation have been found yet.Therefore, mostHydrogen stationSo it ’s fossil fuel.LP gasIt has been pointed out that hydrogen is produced from the raw material and is not effective in reducing carbon dioxide.It also consumes a lot of power for filling,MIRAIIt requires about 1kwh of power consumption with only one filling operation.this isTesla model 3 Equivalent to the power consumed when traveling 200 km.This is because it is necessary to compress hydrogen called precool to 80 MPa and cool it to -40 ° C at the same time. [Research in 2015, Institute of Energy Science and Technology)].Hydrogen stationThere are many restrictions on the location, tank installation method, safety device, etc. to ensure safety, and the construction cost is currently about four times that of a gas station (the construction cost of a gas station is about 4 million yen). ,Hydrogen stationIs about 4 million yen)[85]..ExpensiveHydrogen stationHowever, its supply capacity is low, and the current situation is that it is limited to fill 1 to 2 units per hour. From 3, it will have a filling capacity of 2020 to 1 units per hour.Hydrogen stationWas also built, but the construction cost is over 5 million yen.On the trailerMobile hydrogen stationHowever, the transport capacity of hydrogen is almost all less than 20 kg, and it is not a drastic breakthrough.Also, the FCV itselfPower generation OfThermal efficiencyIs also in the first half of 30%[86],recent yearsgasoline engine OfThermal efficiencyWith the 40% generation coming out, it is difficult to find its superiority.

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle equipped with alcohol

In the carhydrogenInstead of fillingethanolWas supplied to the fuel tank of the car and installed.ReformingObtain hydrogen with a vessel.The hydrogen and oxygen in the air chemically react to generate electricity.electric motorFuel cell vehicle that drives.I hated the high pressure filling method of hydrogenNissan MotorDeveloped by, but has not been put into practical use due to its complicated structure.The power generation stack developed by NissanToyota OfFuture,Honda OfClarity Fuel CellHas been adopted byPolymer electrolyte fuel cellNot (PEFC)Solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC) is used[87].

Direct methanol fuel cell vehicle

methanol Aqueous solutionAnd in the airoxygenChemically reacts to generate electricity (Direct methanol fuel cell),electric motorCars traveling in[88]..With water after the reactioncarbon dioxideOccurs.It has not yet been put into practical use as an automobile.

Metal fuel cell (metal-air battery) automobile

Of new materials and structuresMetal air batteryA car that drives an electric motor using.End-userThe air battery is used by exchanging the entire battery pack like a primary battery, and the metal fuel and the positive electrode electrolyte are exchanged at the back-end regeneration site and reused as a fuel cell.Metal-air batteries have a high fuel density and a very large capacity, so they can travel over 1 km per replacement.Metallic lithium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, zinc, etc. are being considered as metal fuels.[89][90].

Precious metal-free liquid fuel cell vehicle

Precious metalDoes not includeFuel cellToLiquid fuelSupply,electric motorA car that runs on.

Solar cell car

On the car bodySolar cellAnd its powerSecondary batteryStore inelectric motorA car that runs on.In recent years, solar cellsEnergy conversion efficiencyHas been improved, and vehicles that can run only with the electric energy of solar cells are being developed.However, since it generates electricity from sunlight during the day with a solar cell built into the vehicle body, it cannot be charged at night, in bad weather, or in an indoor garage.Basically, it is supposed to be charged only from the solar cell, but it also has an external charging port to cope with insufficient charging.

Since solar cell vehicles can store electricity not only while parked but also while driving, if it becomes possible to drive by charging only from sunlight, of course, the electricity bill will be charged.Rechargeable battery-powered electric vehicleThe long charging time, which is the biggest drawback of, is eliminated.Also, if charging only with sunlight, when generating electricitycarbon dioxideWill not be issued.

Current solar cell vehicles take a long time to fully charge when charged only with sunlight, but it is possible to drive without charging with a plug if only commuting or shopping in the suburbs.

Currently the German emerging electric vehicle maker (Sono Motors) (Sion) and the new modelToyota PriusHas been developed for vehicles that can run only on solar cells.[91].. Psion is 1km by charging only with solar cells for one day (MunichThe Prius can travel 56.3km (daylight hours in Japan), enabling commuting and shopping in the suburbs.Psion accepts reservations and the price is 22,500Euro,EULimited2023/Will be sold to[92].. in JapanNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO) andsharp,Toyota,NissanHas cooperated in the development and achieved the conversion efficiency of solar cells of 34% or more, which is the highest level in the world, and the electric energy equivalent to the cruising range of 56.3km, but there are no plans for mass production.

The Dutch company (Lightyear) has also developed a prototype of a similar solar cell car called "(Lightyear One)", but it has not yet been run on public roads.

Optional solar cell built into the roofPlug-in hybrid car(Prius) Has already been released, but the solar cell alone can only run 1km on a daily charge, which is an auxiliary one.

Online electric car

Utilizing electromagnetic induction and resonance phenomenonNon-contact power supplyCar to do.Underground lines buried under parking lots and roadscoilAlternatively, it is a method of supplying electric power from an overhead wire installed on the road to the power receiving device of the vehicle in a non-contact manner while the vehicle is parked, stopped, or running.Since it can be charged while the vehicle is running or stopped, the capacity of the in-vehicle battery is small, and the vehicle cost can be reduced and the weight can be reduced.If power supply equipment becomes widespread on roads, long-distance driving will be possible.Drive on a fixed roadTransit BusIs valid for[93][94], It is expected to be adopted in cities with high driving frequency.

South KoreaSo, we are already testing a system using underground feeders.Seoul Grand Park2.2km ofCircular busFeeding lines are buried over a total of 3m at three locations on the line.If there is no problem with the test results, it is planned to be introduced to the route bus.[95]..In Japan, the placement interval of power supply devices on the road side and power supply technology are still in the research stage.

OrbitA car that charges while driving and runs off-track as a battery-powered EV is called a "2-mode electric vehicle."GermanyThen on the highwayLinear motorThere is a plan to charge the secondary battery by non-contact power supply while driving a car.Drive as a normal EV in the city after getting off the highway[96]..The idea is to completely separate the power supply location and the driving mode.

Other electric vehicles

trolley bus

Stretched over the roadOverhead wire(Overhead line) Is a bus that runs on electricity.trolley bus ThecityPart ofTransportationAlthough it has been widely used for a long time, many cities have recently changed to other means of transportation because they cannot run except where there is an overhead line.

In recent years, by changing the hybrid bus that uses both an electric motor and an engine to a trolley bus, a bus that can run a long distance using an engine has been developed, where power is supplied from the overhead wire where there is an overhead wire.Because it is cheaper than a bus that runs only on secondary batteries, even if it includes overhead line construction costs,Australia ,米 国 ,Europe This trolleybus is being reviewed in some parts of.also,Secondary batteryAnd provided an overhead wireMain lineThen, charge the secondary battery while driving with the power from the overhead line.No overhead lineBranch lineThen.Rechargeable battery-powered electric vehicleA two-mode electric vehicle that can run as a vehicle is also envisioned.

Advantages (compared to battery-powered electric vehicles)

  • The battery requires a small capacity (small size), which is advantageous in terms of weight and cost.
  • The vehicle cost is not much different from the hybrid type, and it costs millions to tens of millions of yen.
  • There is no limit on the cruising range for overhead line current collection
  • Since the storage battery is smaller than that of a battery-powered electric vehicle, the vehicle is lighter and energy consumption can be reduced.
  • Driving energy costs are tax-free and electricity is 10-15% of oil

Disadvantages (compared to battery-powered electric vehicles)

  • Basically you have to drive on a road with an overhead line.
  • Vulnerable to power outages.
  • Overhead line problem
    • Society needs to accept overhead lines on the road, and its impact on aesthetics and safety are questioned.
    • Due to the laying of overhead lines, an initial cost of 2-3 million yen per km is required even if it is underestimated.
    • There is no guarantee that the electric capacity corresponding to the traffic concentration can be secured with a normal overhead line.
    • Overhead line maintenance personnel required
    • New danger due to fusing and breaking

Intermittent power supply type electric vehicle

With this method, it is possible to reduce the charge / discharge frequency of the traveling battery to the utmost limit and dramatically extend its life.The system will be a conventional battery-powered electric vehicle (BEV) with the addition of a small-capacity capacitor 80 (C1) for about 1m.Taking advantage of the characteristics of the capacitor that can be charged and discharged rapidly, the capacitor covers the charge at the time of regenerative braking and the discharge at the time of the next start, and the power for the service power supply such as lighting and the shortage due to loss etc. is supplied from the battery. ..As a result, the number of times the battery is charged and discharged can be reduced to 1-2 / day, eliminating the need for battery replacement for more than 10 years.Although the amount of charge and discharge at one time is small, the capacitor can be used repeatedly in a short time, and the mileage increases due to the reuse of regenerative power.The above is effective for BEVs smaller than medium-sized vehicles or hybrid vehicles.

In addition, in order to further reduce the amount of batteries installed in a large electric vehicle or the like, there is also a method of intermittently using external power supply.Transit BusSo first,StopA feeder or 1-2 Charger Pole will be installed at the top of the sidewalk, and a contactor will be installed at the top of the side of the vehicle.When the vehicle approaches, the power supply rod (Contactor) attached to the top of the power supply pole (Charger Pole) rotates toward the roadway and contacts the power receiving plate (Contactor) to charge the capacitor 2 of the vehicle when the vehicle is stopped or started. ..When traveling, the vehicle starts with the discharge from the capacitor 1 charged by the brake, then discharges from the capacitor 2, and finally the battery discharges to the next stop.Drive between the stops one after another in the above pattern.Capacitor 1 is used for traffic jams and temporary stop / start of intersections.On uphill slopes, priority is given to power supply from the Charger Pole.Based on the above, depending on the power supply status, an electric vehicle system that enables the battery capacity of conventional battery vehicles to be reduced (1/10 or less) and the life to be extended (15 years or more).[97][98].

Advantages (comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles)

  • Weight, cost, environment (CO)2 , NOx, nuclear waste, etc.).
  • It is a pure electric vehicle that does not require an overhead wire (projection) on the roadway.
  • If the distance between stops is about 800m, such as city buses, courier services, and patrol cars, the battery capacity required to drive 300 stops can be 1/10 or less.This is because external power supply from the power receiving plate when the vehicle is stopped or started, internal power supply from the capacitor, and external power supply from the power receiving plate while the vehicle is running can be obtained.
  • Capacitor 1 is responsible for regeneration due to traffic jams, etc., so battery consumption and deterioration are less than with other methods.
  • The charger pole installed at the bus stop has a small capacity and is relatively inexpensive because of distributed power supply.
  • A Charger Pole on the uphill will double your climbing ability (or reduce battery consumption).
  • It can also be applied to vehicles without a roof, such as trucks.

Disadvantages (compared to internal combustion engine vehicles)

  • It is less effective for long-distance (non-stop) driving where regenerative braking is rarely used (good for short-distance / repeated driving such as in urban areas).
  • (If there is no backup battery) It is vulnerable to power outages.
  • There are few achievements in power supply poles (Charger Pole), power supply rods and power receiving plates (Contactors).
  • Installing a Charger Pole on all main roads requires a considerable amount of maintenance personnel.
  • If there is no commercial high voltage line (600-1.200V) nearby, a transmission line is required.

Classification by drivetrain arrangement

Electric vehicles can be classified into several types according to the arrangement of the drive system including the electric motor.Closest to a normal gasoline engine car, transship the engine part with a relatively simple modification,Propeller shaft,DifferentialFrom those that use the same as it is, place the motor near the drive tire and decelerate in some casesgearIt is connected to the drive wheel via the drive system, and the drive system is arranged differently from the most conventional automobiles.In-hub motorSome have.The figure on the right isRear wheel driveOnly the car is shown,Front wheel drive,Four-wheel driveIs also possible[99].

HONDA was the first to succeed in developing a rare earth-free motor.Later, Denso succeeded in developing a rare earth-free motor that can withstand heat resistance at a lower cost than HONDA's rare earth-free motor by making iron and nickel into a superlattice structure at the atomic level.[Source required]

List of electric vehicles on the market

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Vehicle" isVehicleIt is an English word that refers to the whole, and is a higher-level concept than automobiles.Electric vehicles are vehicles included in EVs, so it is not a mistake to call them, but they are not equivalent.Automobile is similar in concept to "Automobile" in English.
  2. ^ a b c In Europe and AmericaengineIs also called a motor.therefore,gasoline engine-diesel engine OfCar competition TheMotor sportsHas been called.Also the electric motor of the electric carAuto engineIs a kind of.
  3. ^ Japanese lawAttrolley busは無RailCalled a trainTrainIt is not included in the electric vehicle because it is treated as an electric vehicle and not as an automobile, but the mechanism is the electric vehicle itself.
  4. ^ Power loss is smaller with 100V power supply than with 200V.
  5. ^ Generally, near the upper limit of the capacity of the storage battery, the internal resistance becomes high, the temperature rises and the charging efficiency deteriorates, and it takes time. Therefore, a method is adopted in which charging is completed at about 80% instead of full charging.
  6. ^ A quick charger that can be charged in a few minutes has also been developed.On the charger sideCapacitorIt is possible to supply a large current in a short time by incorporating such as, but it is unclear whether heat generation on the in-vehicle storage battery side due to such quick charging will be a problem, and it is generally said that the charging time is about XNUMX minutes. ..

Source

  1. ^ "What is an electric vehicle?-Meaning / Explanation / Explanation / Definition: New word current affairs dictionary". 2009/9/30Browse.
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References

  • 800 horsepower ecology ISBN 9784789709323
  • Electric car wars ISBN 9784023304864
  • Fast-running / electric car racing ISBN 9784274022791
  • Electric Vehicle Dream / Chemistry 21 ISBN 9784621047095
  • All about electric cars ISBN 9784526037962
  • Electric car handbook ISBN 9784621048405
  • EV / Electric vehicle-Runs in various directions ISBN 9784381087836
  • Run!Electric Vehicles-Electric Vehicles vs Fuel Cell Vehicles ISBN 9784806712909
  • Near-future car EV strategy ISBN 9784380932557
  • Electric cars accelerate! -Evolved eco-cars pioneered by Japanese technology ISBN 9784774137926
  • Electric cars save Japan ISBN 9784863540354
  • Real image of electric vehicle-Latest EV / HEV / FCV technology and its future prospects ISBN 9784946428418
  • Japan Charging 3000km-Men's "Handmade Electric Car" Rare Road ISBN 9784907727024
  • The era of electric vehicles ISBN 9784643911312
  • New EV-High Performance Electric Vehicle ISBN 9784274031861
  • Electric vehicle era
  • Electric Vehicles-its Benefits and Potential ISBN 9784526012648
  • Takeshi KAWASHIMA and Ichiro FUJIOKA, .New public Transportation System with Bus Charged Intermittently at Every Bus Stop Using Green Energy (Model Experiment Using Golf Cart), Journal of Environment and Engineering, Vol.3, No.2, pp.374-384, 2008.10, Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  • Yasuro HASEO and Takeshi KAWASHIMA, Basic Research on a Novel Zero-Emission Public Transportation System (Design of Charge-Boosting System for an Electric Bus System Charged at Every Bus Stop), Journal of Environment and Engineering, Vol.5, No.1, pp.168-182, 2010.3, Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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